WorldWideScience

Sample records for essential oil constituents

  1. Variation in the essential oil constituents of Pteronia incana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Pteronia incana was collected and was investigated on a monthly basis using GCMS. The oil volume and its constituents vary greatly with different time of sampling and distillation. The oil contains a high percentage of myrcene a-pinene, b-pinene with sabinene, a-terpinene, 1.8 cineole and limonene.

  2. Isolation of nematicidal constituents from essential oil of Kaempferia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the nematicidal activities of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga rhizomes and its isolated constituents against Heterodera avenae. Methods: Essential oil of K. galanga rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis using ...

  3. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activities of Common Essential Oil Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökalp İşcan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and some of their oxygenated constituents are known to possess antimicrobial activity. In the last 30 years, there is a dramatic increase in the number of resistant microorganisms against available antimicrobials and a tendency towards natural products; consequently, scientists have been forced to discover new bioactive agents preferably from nature. As a result of this, so many antimicrobial screening works have been published on plant essential oils including miscellaneous screening methods and several microorganism strains. The aim of this study was to determine the MIC values of 65 monoterpenoids and 3 phenyl propanoids commonly found in essential oils, against 24 pathogenic bacteria and Candida strains, by using standard reference broth dilution methods (CLSI M7-A7 and M27-A2. According to broth microdilution test results, when compared with standard agents, monoterpene hydrocarbons generally showed weak antibacterial effects (>16 to 4 mg/mL where the oxygenated monoterpenes inhibited the microbial growth between the concentrations of 16 to 0,03 mg/mL. Generally, tested compounds demonstrated better inhibitory effects on Candida strains then the bacteria panel. The most effective microbial growth inhibitor constituents were determined as carvacrol, thymol, cumin alcohol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, lavandulol, estragol and thymoquinone.

  4. Assessment of estrogenic activity in some common essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, M-J R; Houghton, P J; Barlow, D J; Pocock, V J; Milligan, S R

    2002-11-01

    Estrogenic responses have not only been associated with endocrine function, but also with cognitive function. Several studies have indicated that estrogen replacement therapy has favourable effects on cognition, and may have potential in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, ligands for the estrogen receptor, that have a better efficacy and adverse-effect profile than drugs currently available, require investigation. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential estrogenic activity of a number of essential oil constituents. Initially, estrogenic activity was determined by a sensitive and specific bioassay using recombinant yeast cells expressing the human estrogen receptor. At high concentrations, estrogenic activity was detected for citral (geranial and neral), geraniol, nerol and trans-anethole, while eugenol showed anti-estrogenic activity. Molecular graphics studies were undertaken to identify the possible mechanisms for the interaction of geranial, neral, geraniol, nerol and eugenol with the ligand-binding domain of the estrogen alpha-receptor, using the computer program HyperChem. Citral, geraniol, nerol and eugenol were also able to displace [(3)H]17beta-estradiol from isolated alpha- and beta-human estrogen receptors, but none of these compounds showed estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity in the estrogen-responsive human cell line Ishikawa Var I at levels below their cytotoxic concentrations, and none showed activity in a yeast screen for androgenic and anti-androgenic activity. The potential in-vivo estrogenic effects of citral and geraniol were examined in ovariectomized mice, but neither compound showed any ability to stimulate the characteristic estrogenic responses of uterine hypertrophy or acute increase in uterine vascular permeability. These results show that very high concentrations of some commonly used essential oil constituents appear to have the potential to interact with estrogen receptors, although the

  5. Volatile constituents of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of the volatile compounds of essential oils of Eleocharis pauciflora (Light) Link and Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) J.A. Shultes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) led to the identification of 20 and 23 compounds, respectively. The presented essential oils were characterized by the abundance ...

  6. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Constituent composition and biological activity of Nepeta manchuriensis essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...

  8. Essential oil constituents of Piper cubeba L. fils. from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver; Quax, Wim J.; Ruslan, Komar; Elfami, [No Value

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of ripe berries (11.8% v/w) and leaves (0.9% v/w) of Piper cubeba L. fils. (Piperaceae) was investigated by GC and GUMS. Sabinene (9.1%), beta-elemene (9.4%), beta-caryophyllene (3.1%), epi-cubebol (4.3%), and cubebol (5.6%) were the main components of

  9. Menthol differs from other terpenic essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    The European Medicines Agency concluded that there is a risk of suppositories containing terpenic derivatives, which are used to treat coughs and colds, inducing neurological disorders, especially convulsions, in infants and small children. Terpenic derivatives are found in essential oils obtained from plants and include camphor, eucalyptol (syn. 1,8-cineol), thujone, and menthol. Chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these compounds are clearly different and explain the appearance of convulsions following camphor, thujone, and eucalyptus oil overdose/poisoning, whereas no convulsions have been reported in cases of menthol overdose/poisoning in accordance with the pharmacological properties of menthol. Thus, a general verdict on all terpenic derivatives without differentiation appears inappropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxue You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%, (S-cis-verbenol (14.93%, 4-terpineol (7.20%, (−-camphor (6.02%, and α-terpineol (4.20% were found to be major components. With a further isolation process, five constituents obtained from the essential oil were identified as eucalyptol, verbenol, 4-terpineol, camphor, and α-terpineol. In the progress of assay, it showed that L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated constituents. 4-Terpineol exhibited strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing the LD50 value of 8.62 μg/adult. Moreover, camphor and α-terpineol showed stronger fumigant activity (LC50=2.91 and 3.27 mg/L air, resp. against L. serricorne than crude essential oil and other constituents. In addition, the essential oil, eucalyptol, verbenol, and α-terpineol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil and isolated compounds have potential to provide more efficient and safer natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in food and Chinese medicinal materials preservation.

  11. Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lethal toxicity of the major constituent of the essential oils of Vernonia amygdalina and Xylopia aetiopica, and of selected blends of these against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was compared with those of the full blends of the essential oils. The compounds were assayed in amounts and ...

  12. Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Some of Their Constituents on the Turkestan Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Sudip; O'Connell, Mary; Holguin, Francisco O; Amatya, Anup; Bundy, Scott; Romero, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0.34 mg/nymph and a LC50 of 27.6 mg/liter air, respectively. Contact toxicity was also observed in assays with trans-Cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and p-Cymene. Methyl eugenol and geraniol had limited fumigant toxicity. The essential oils from red thyme, clove bud, and Java citronella exhibited toxicity against nymphs. Cockroaches avoided fresh dry residues of thymol and essential oils. Chemical analysis of the essential oils confirmed high contents of effective essential oil constituents. Our results demonstrated that essential oils and some of their constituents have potential as eco-friendly insecticides for the management of Turkestan cockroaches. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Constituents of the essential oil from the flowers of Chromolaena odorata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baruah, R.N.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The essential oil obtained after hydrodistn. of the flower tops of C. odorata (yield 0.11%) afforded a-pinene (18.8%), b-cubebene (13%), and b-caryophyllene (10.2%) as the major constituents. The oil exhibited the following phys. properties: nD30: 1.503; [a]D29: -13.55 Deg

  14. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THYMUS KOTSCHYANUS BOISS. & HOHEN. FROM IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHOSSEIN RUSTAIYAN

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil of Thymus kotschyarms Boiss<& Hohen. was examined by GC and GC/MS. Fifteen constituents representing 80.7% of the oil were characterized of which thymol (38.0%, carvacrol (14.2% and 1,8- cineole (13.2% were the main compounds which were identified.

  15. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Acorus calamus Rhizomes against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes, its insecticidal activity against the booklouse, (Liposcelis bostrychophila and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. calamus rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 32 components of the essential oil of A. calamus rhizomes was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were determined to be α-asarone (50.09%, (E-methylisoeugenol (14.01%, and methyleugenol (8.59%, followed by β-asarone (3.51%, α-cedrene (3.09% and camphor (2.42%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, (E-methylisoeugenol and α-asarone. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LD50 value of 100.21 µg/cm2 while three constituent compounds, α-asarone, methyleugenol, and (E-methylisoeugenol had LD50 values of 125.73 µg/cm2, 103.22 µg/cm2 and 55.32 µg/cm2, respectively. Methyleugenol and (E-methylisoeugenol possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila adults with LC50 values of 92.21 μg/L air and 143.43 μg/L air, respectively, while the crude essential oil showed an LC50 value of 392.13 μg/L air. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. calamus rhizomes and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural fumigants/insecticides for control of the booklice.

  16. Essential Oil Constituents of Tanacetum cilicicum: Antimicrobial and Phytotoxic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Ulukanli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Tanacetum cilicicum were hydrodistillated for 3 h using Clevenger. Essential oil (EO yield was 0.4% (v/w. According to the GC/MS analyses, EO of T. cilicicum consisted of monoterpenes [α-pinene (2.95 ± 0.19%, sabinene (2.32 ± 0.11%, and limonene (3.17 ± 0.25], oxygenated monoterpenes [eucalyptol (5.08 ± 0.32%, camphor (3.53 ± 0.27%, linalool (7.01 ± 0.32%, α-terpineol (3.13 ± 0.23%, and borneol (4.21 ± 0.17%], and sesquiterpenes [sesquisabinene hydrate (6.88 ± 0.41%, nerolidol (4.90 ± 0.33%, α-muurolol (4.57%  ± 0.35, spathulanol (2.98 ± 0.12%, juniper camphor (2.68 ± 0.19%, (--caryophyllene oxide (2.64 ± 0.19%, 8-hydroxylinalool (2.62 ± 0.15%, and Δ-cadinene (2.48 ± 0.16%]. In the antimicrobial assay, MIC/MBC values of the EO were the most significant on B. subtilis (0.39/0.78 µL/mL and B. cereus (0.78/1.56 µL/mL. The most prominent phytotoxic activities of the EO were observed on L. sativa, L. sativum, and P. oleracea. The results of the present study indicated that EO of T. cilicicum includes various medicinally and industrially crucial phytoconstituents that could be in use for industrial applications. The finding of this study is the first report on this species from the East Mediterranean region.

  17. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi Jones roots against booklice, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, and to isolate insecticidal constituents from the oil. Essential oil of V. jatamansi was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 27 components in the essential oil were identified. The major compounds were patchoulol (24.3%, α-bulnesene (13.8%, isovaleric acid (12.9%, α-guaiene (8.7%, and 3-methylvaleric acid (8.4%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, isovaleric acid, 3-methylvaleric acid, and patchoulol were isolated and identified as the active constituents. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 236.4 μg/cm2. Patchoulol (LC50 = 61.35 μg/cm2 exhibited stronger acute toxicity than 3-methylvaleric acid (LC50 = 210.69 μg/cm2 against the booklice. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 6.0 mg/L, while 3-methylvaleric acid and isovaleric acid had LC50 values of 5.53 mg/L and 5.67 mg/L against the booklice, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its constituent compounds have potential to develop into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  18. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    You, Chunxue; Guo, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhufeng; Du, Shushan; Wang, Chengfang; Deng, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%), (S)-cis-verbenol (14.93%), 4-terpineol (7.20%), (−)-camphor (6.02%), and α-terpineol (4.20%) were found to be major compo...

  19. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Zhi Liu; Zhi Wei Deng; Shu Shan Du; Cheng Fang Wang; Yu Xin Zhou; Kai Yang; Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%), nerolidol (8.08%), 1,4-cineole (7.85%), caryophyllene (7.63%) and γ-elemene (6.10%), followed by α-farnesene (4.40%) and...

  20. Chemical constituents and anticancer effects of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintans, Jullyana de S S; Soares, Bruno M; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Oliveira, Allan C A; da Silva, Thanany B; Menezes, Leociley R A; Sampaio, Marília F C; Prata, Ana Paula do N; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Xylopia laevigata, popularly known as "meiú" and "pindaíba", is a medicinal plant used in the folk medicine of the Brazilian Northeast for several purposes. The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of X. laevigata, collected from wild plants growing at three different sites of the remaining Atlantic forest in Sergipe State (Brazilian Northeast), were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The effect of the essential oil samples was assessed on tumor cells in culture, as well on tumor growth in vivo. All samples of the essential oil were dominated by sesquiterpene constituents. A total of 44 compounds were identified and quantified. Although some small differences were observed in the chemical composition, the presence of γ-muurolene (0.60-17.99%), δ-cadinene (1.15-13.45%), germacrene B (3.22-7.31%), α-copaene (3.33-5.98%), germacrene D (9.09-60.44%), bicyclogermacrene (7.00-14.63%), and (E)-caryophyllene (5.43-7.98%) were verified as major constituents in all samples of the essential oil. In the in vitro cytotoxic study, the essential oil displayed cytotoxicity to all tumor cell lines tested, with the different samples displaying a similar profile; however, they were not hemolytic or genotoxic. In the in vivo antitumor study, tumor growth inhibition rates were 37.3-42.5%. The treatment with the essential oil did not significantly affect body weight, macroscopy of the organs, or blood leukocyte counts. In conclusion, the essential oil from the leaves of X. laevigata is chemically characterized by the presence of γ-muurolene, δ-cadinene, germacrene B, α-copaene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, and (E)-caryophyllene as major constituents and possesses significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer potential. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Acaricidal activity of Derris floribunda essential oil and its main constituent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Claudia Fernandes Amaral; Aline de S.Ramos; Márcia Reis Pena; José Luiz Pinto Ferreira; Jean Michel S.Menezes; Geraldo J.N.Vasconcelos; Neliton Marques da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil obtained from roots of Derrisfloribunda (D.floribunda) (Miq.) Benth,and its main constituent nerolidol against the Mexican mite Tetranychus mexicanus (T.mexicanus) (McGregor).Methods:The essential oil from the roots of D.floribunda collected in the Amazon region (Brazil) was obtained by hydrodistillation.Its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS analysis.The acaricidal activities of this essential oil and nerolidol,were evaluated by recording the number of dead females (mortality) and eggs (fertility).Results:The essential oil showed sesquiterpenes as major volatile components.Nerolidol,the main component,represented 68.5% of the total composition of the essential oil.D.floribunda essential oil and nerolidol showed acaricidal activity,with LC50 of 9.61 μg/mL air and 9.2 μg/mL air,respectively,over a 72 h period.In addition,both the essential oil and nerolidol significantly reduced the fecundity of T.mexicanus.Contusions:Due to the economic importance of T.mexicanus and the lack of new pesticides,our data are very promising in the search for efficient and safer acaricidal products.Furthermore,this is the first report about the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil of the Amazon plant species D.floribunda.

  2. Analyses of the essential oil from Bunium persicum fruit and its antioxidant constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Adeli, Abrisham; Nickavar, Azar

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze and identify the antioxidant constituents of the essential oil of Bunium persicum (Apiaceae) fruit. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS. The essential oil was tested for antioxidant capacity in DPPH radical scavenging and linoleic acid/β-carotene assays. The TLC-bioautography method based on DPPH radical assay and GC analyses were carried out to characterize the major antioxidant compounds in the essential oil. GC analyses showed the presence of sixteen compounds with p-cymene (31.1%), cuminaldehyde (22.2%), and γ-terpinene (11.4%) as the main components in the essential oil. The oil exhibited good radical scavenging [IC50 (DPPH·) = 4.47 (3.96 - 5.05) mg/mL] and antilipid peroxidation [IC50 (β-carotene bleaching) = 0.22 (0.16 - 0.31) mg/mL] activities. The TLC tests resulted in identification of cuminaldehyde, p-cymene-7-ol, and cuminyl acetate as the main constituents of the active oil fraction.

  3. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of essential oil derived from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius. Essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 46 components of the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes were identified. The principal compounds in A. blepharocalyx essential oil were camphor (23.13%, sabinene (11.27%, α-pinene (9.81% and eucalyptol (8.86% followed by camphene (8.05%, sylvestrene (5.61% and α-phellandrene (5.00%. Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as camphor, sabinene, α-pinene and eucalyptol. The essential oil of A. blepharocalyx possessed strong contact toxicity against the cigarette beetle with LD50 value of 15.02 μg adult-1, and also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LC50 value of 3.83 mg L-1 air. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx shows potential in terms of contact and fumigant toxicities against stored product insects.

  4. Chemical constituents of Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) and larvicidal activity of essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luciana Gregorio da S.; Almeida, Macia Cleane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma Leda G.; Gomes, Clerton L.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do

    2012-01-01

    . Analysis of essential oil from fresh leaves of Capraria biflora allowed identification of fourteen essential oil constituents among which thirteen are sesquiterpene compounds, and α-humulene (43.0%) the major constituent. The essential oil was tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypyti showing good activity, with LC 50 73.39 μg/mL (2.27 g/mL). Chromatographic studies of extracts from roots and stems allowed the isolation of five compounds: naphthoquinone biflorin, sesquiterpene caprariolide B, the steroid β-sitosterol, the carbohydrate D-mannitol and iridoid myopochlorin first reported in the species C. biflora. The structures of compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data, IR, MS, NMR 13 C, NMR 1 H, NOE, HSQC and HMBC. (author)

  5. Constituents of essential oil from the dried fruits and stems of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Jyunichi; Kameda, Munekazu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2007-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oil from AKEBIAE FRUCTUS and AKEBIAE CAULIS, the dried fruits and stems of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE. (Lardizabalaceae), have been investigated by GC and GC/MS. As a result, the fruits oil was revealed the presence of 86 components, representing 98.4% of the total oil. The major compounds of the fruits oil were limonene, eugenol, octanal and p-cymene. The monoterpenoids and saturated short-chain aldehyde (C6 approximately C10) were main volatile fractions of the oil. Ninety components accounting for 90.5% of constituents of stems oil were identified, and the main compounds of the oil were hexanoic acid, palmitic acid, (2E, 4E)-decadienal and hexanol. The oil had high content of saturated fatty acids (C6 approximately C16), and unsaturated short-chain aldehyde (C6 approximately C10).

  6. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  7. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts Stachys riederi var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Meirong; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2018-05-17

    The essential oil of Stachys riederi var. japonica (Family: Lamiaceae) was extracted by hydrodistillation and determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 40 components were identified, representing 96.01% of the total oil composition. The major compounds in the essential oil were acetanisole (15.43%), anisole (9.43%), 1,8-cineole (8.07%), geraniol (7.89%), eugenol (4.54%), caryophyllene oxide (4.47%), caryophyllene (4.21%) and linalool (4.07%). Five active constituents (acetanisole, anisole, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and geraniol) were identified by bioactivity-directed fractionation. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against maize weevils ( Sitophilus zeamais ) and booklice ( Liposcelis bostrychophila ), with LC 50 values of 15.0 mg/L and 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol and anisole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the oil against booklice. 1,8-Cineole showed stronger toxicity, and anisole as well as eugenol exhibited the same level of fumigant toxicity as the essential oil against maize weevils. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults and L. bostrychophila , with LC 50 values of 21.8 µg/adult and 287.0 µg/cm², respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of S. riederi var. japonica and its isolates show potential as fumigants, and for their contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  8. Bioactivities and Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil Extracted from Artemisia anethoides Against Two Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Di; Wang, Jun-Long; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia anethoides and the bioactivities of essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The main components of the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (36.54%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (10.40%), terpinen-4-ol (8.58%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.20) and pinocarveol (5.08%). The essential oil of A. anethoides possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD 50 = 28.80 μg/adult and LC 50 = 13.05 mg/L air, respectively) and against L. serricorne (LD 50 = 24.03 μg/adult and LD 50 = 8.04 mg/L air, respectively). The crude oil showed repellent activity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne. Especially, the percentage repellency of essential oil was same level with DEET (positive control) against T. castaneum. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. anethoides had the potential to be developed as insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. serricorne.

  9. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of the essential oil from Ferula gummosa Boiss. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Saadattalab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Umbelliferae is a popular medicinal plant, which is known mostly for therapeutic uses of its oleo-gum-resin (Barijeh in Persian. In the present study, the essential oil of F. gummosa roots was investigated for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of the essential oil (extracted by hydrodistillation method were analyzed using GC-MS. Antioxidant and toxicity properties of the oil were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test, respectively. Results: Forty-two compounds, representing 87.7% of total oil, were identified by GC-MS analysis of the plant roots oil. The essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons (55.9%, mainly β-pinene (33.2%, β-phellandrene (8.0% and α-pinene (6.9%. In DPPH free radical-scavenging assay, the oil sample did not demonstrate any activity at the highest tested concentration (1.0 mg/mL. However, it was found very toxic in brine shrimp lethality test with LD50 value of 2.4 µg/mL. Conclusion: The results of this study introduced the F. gummosa roots oil as a source of monoterpene hydrocarbons, especially β-pinene. Considering the high yield of essential oil extraction (12.1% v/w, these compounds may be involved in anticonvulsant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of F. gummosa root. Moreover, considerable toxicity of the root oil highlights it as an appropriate candidate for further mechanistic toxicological studies.

  10. Essential oil constituents of the aerial parts and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides (Apiaceae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, N; Shamkhani, H; Ghelichpour, Z; Mohammadi, M A; Sonboli, A

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts at different growing stages and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides DC., from Iran were investigated. The oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty-five, 52, 40 and 36 components were identified in the essential oils of aerial parts (vegetative, flowering and fruit) and root representing of the 99.2, 99.0, 99.8 and 99.6% of the total oils, respectively. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant in vegetative stage was dominated by n-decanal (36.5%) and n-dodecanal (25.3%). n-Decanal (35.8%) and 2E-decenal (25.1%) were the main constituents of the plant oil in flowering stage whereas 2E-decenal (32.1%) and 2E-dodecenal (21.5%) were characterised as the main components of the plant oil in fruit stage. In the essential oil of root, the major identified components were 2-dodecenoic acid (29.8%) and 2E-Dodecenol (12.7%).

  11. Essential oil constituents and antimicrobial activity of Pycnocycla bashagardiana Mozaff. from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ardalan; Abdollahzadeh, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    Pycnocycla bashagardiana is a rare endemic and endangered species that has been used in folkloric medicine in Southern Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the essential oil constituents and antimicrobial activity of wild and cultivated p. bashagardiana. The aerial parts of wild and cultivated plants were collected from two provinces of Iran. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. The main components in wild plants were myristicin (39.12%), (E)-β-ocimene (21.97%), sabinene (15.0%) and cis-iso-miristicin (2.67%) and in cultivated plants, (E)-β-ocimene (55.40%), myristicin (18.27%), (Z)-β-ocimene (12.47%) and cis-iso-miristicin (2.94%) were the main constituents in essential oil. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. bashagardiana were studied against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans for the first time. The results showed that the oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all the tested pathogens.

  12. Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Laura Leon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3% and β-elemene (33.1% and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7% and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%. P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC50 values between 15 to 76 μg mL−1 against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC50 = 278 μM and caryophyllene (IC50 = 96 μM, were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC50 values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  13. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Li, Yin; Li, He; Deng, Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi; Du, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compoun...

  14. Chemical Constituents and Activity of Murraya microphylla Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition, contact and repellent activities of the essential oil from Murraya microphylla branches and leaves against Lasioderma serricorne adults were determined and six compounds from the essential oil were isolated as well. The essential oil of M microphylla obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis; 22 compounds were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil included β-caryophyllene (18.0%), α-pinene (13.8%), spathulenol (9.5%), α-humulene (6.0%), γ-elemene (5.1%) and zingiberene (4.6%), followed by α-cadinol (3.9%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.8%). Six of these compounds were isolated and fully identified as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide, spathulenol and α-cadinol. L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated compounds. α-Humulene exhibited the strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing an LD50 value of 13.1 µg adult(-1). However, spathulenol, the crude essential oil and α-cadinol showed stronger contact activity against L. serricorne than caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene. The essential oil, α-humulene and spathulenol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults at 2 h after exposure, relative to the positive control, DEET. The results demonstrate that the essential oil and isolated compounds exhibited important contact and repellent activities against L. serricorne. Thus, they could become potential natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored products.

  15. Daucus aristidis Coss. essential oil: Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity in pre-flowering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebarka Lamamra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Daucus aristidis Coss. (Apiaceae (D. aristidis (synonym Ammiopsis aristidis Batt. collected in pre-flowering stage in East of Algeria. Methods: The aerial parts of D. aristidis Coss were collected. Essential oil (in pre-flowering stage obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated for the first time by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method at various dilutions of the oil. Results: The main components of D. aristidis oil in pre-flowering stage were α-pinene (20.13%, cedrol (20.11% and E-asarone (18.53%. D. aristidis oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost all the strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452 which exhibited a resistance against the oil with all dilutions. Also, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of D. aristidis in pre-flowering stage. The studied essential oil possesses moderate antibacterial activity against almost all strains tested but no antifungal activity.

  16. Constituents of leaves and flowers essential oils of Helichrysum pallasii (Spreng.) Ledeb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Mignola, Enrico; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from leaves and flowers of Helichrysum pallasii were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 102 identified constituents, hexadecanoic acid (16.2%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (6.8%), tetradecanoic acid (2.6%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (4.2%) were the main constituent of the oil from leaves, while in the oil from flowers hexadecanoic acid (14.7%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (14.2%), (Z)-caryophyllene (3.6%), and delta-cadinene (3.1%) predominated. The oils were both characterized by sesquiterpenes (33.4% for leaves and 33.7% for flowers, respectively) and fatty acids and esters (30.3% in leaves and 35% in flowers, respectively). The in vitro activity of the essential oils of the plant against some microorganisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the broth dilution method was determined. The oils exhibited a weak activity as inhibitors of growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in vitro (minimum inhibitory concentration = 100 microg/mL).

  17. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  18. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  19. Pachira glabra Pasq. essential oil: chemical constituents, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Oladipupo A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A; Salvador, Atinuke F; Sanni, Adetayo A; Opoku, Andy R

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Pachira glabra Pasq., (PgEO) has been studied by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty three constituents representing 98.4% of total contents were identified from the essential oil. The major constituents of oil were limonene (23.2%), β-caryophyllene (14.5%), phtyol (8.5%) and β-bisabolene (6.3%). The antimicrobial activity of the PgEO was evaluated against a panel of ten bacteria and three fungal strain using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the PgEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms except Citrobacter youagae, Micrococcus spp. and Proteus spp. The activity zones of inhibition (ZI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged between 13.7 mm-24.0 mm and 0.3 mg/mL-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The insecticidal activity of PgEO was assayed against the adult Sitophilus zeamais. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) of the PgEO showed it to be toxic against adult S. zeamais at 32.2 and 53.7 mg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on the chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of essential oil of P. glabra growing in Nigeria.

  20. Effect Of GAMMA Radiation On Antimicrobial Activity And Chemical Constituents Of Marjoram (Majorana Hortensis Essential Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALAL, Y.G.M.; EL-GHANDOUR, I.A.; ABOU SEER, A.M.M.; DESOUKY, E.M.; ARAFA, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment was set up to study the response of marjoram plant grown on sandy soil and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and/or B. polymixa in combination with organic fertilizers. The extracted oil was irradiated with gamma irradiation at doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-Ms techniques after exposure to gamma radiation. The gamma irradiated essential oils of marjoram were tested for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas citri, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus flavus. Extracted oil was the best when soil was treated with faba bean straw and inoculated with B. polymixa + Bradyrhizobium sp. Similarly, the extracted oil from plant cultivated in soil treated with sheep manure in combination with B. polymixa recorded the highest value. Results also revealed that gamma irradiation doses increased the antimicrobial activity with different magnitudes. The essential oil extracted from herb exposed to 30 kGy was found to be the most active antimicrobial with slight increases in the main components.

  1. Chemical constituents and antioxidant and biological activities of the essential oil from leaves of Solanum spirale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawsa-ard, Sukanya; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee; Teerawutgulrag, Aphiwat; Pyne, Stephen G

    2012-07-01

    The essential oil of the leaves Solanium spirale Roxb. was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed for the first time using GC and GC-MS. Thirty-nine constituents were identified, constituting 73.36% of the total chromatographical oil components. (E)-Phytol (48.10%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.34%), beta-selinene (3.67%), alpha-selinene (2.74%), octadecanoic acid (2.12%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (2.00%) were the major components of this oil. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The oil exhibited week antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 41.89 mg/mL. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 43.0 microg/mL and 21.5 microg/mL, respectively. It also showed significant cytotoxicity against KB (oral cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NCI-H187 (small cell lung cancer) with the IC50 values of 26.42, 19.69, and 24.02 microg/mL, respectively.

  2. Butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities in essential oils of Salvia species and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelev, Sergey U; Okello, Edward J; Perry, Elaine K

    2004-04-01

    Extracts of Salvia (sage) species have been reported to have cholinergic activities relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A lack of information on the inhibition of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase, also considered to be a target in the treatment of the disease, prompted this in vitro investigation of the essential oils of S. fruticosa, S. lavandulaefolia, S. of ficinalis and S. of ficinalis var. purpurea for anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity. Dose-dependent inhibition of human cholinesterases by the extracts and constituents was determined using the method of Ellman. A time dependent increase in the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase by the oils of S. fruticosa and S. of ficinalis var. purpurea was evident. IC(50) values decreased from 0.15 +/- 0.007 and 0.14 +/- 0.007 mg/mL after 5 min to 0.035 +/- 0.016 and 0.06 +/- 0.018 mg/mL after 90 min incubation time respectively. The slow onset of inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was also shown by individual constituents, such as 3-carene and beta-pinene. Analyses of the chemical composition of the oils and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity of their constituents revealed that none of the compounds tested would account for the total activity of the oils and that synergy is likely. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Chemical constituents of the essential oil, antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Elettariopsis curtisii Baker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanida Chairgulprasert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Elettariopsis curtisii Baker, the culinary and medicinal herb, was investigated to elucidate its chemical constituents and determine antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The essential oil of E. curtisii was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes in a maximum yield of 0.63%. GC-MS data indicated the presence of six compounds, of which trans-2-decenal (78.03% was the principal constituent. The essential oils and also the hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the rhizomes and leaves were assessed for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In an evaluation of antioxidant activity, the crude dichloromethane extract of the leaves exhibited the highest scavenging effect on the DPPH radicalwith an EC50 of 0.28+0.01 mg/mL. The leaf dichloromethane extract also had the highest total phenol concentration, (73.4+2.80 mg GA/g of extract whereas the crude methanol extract from the rhizomes had the highest reducing power with an EC50 of 2.07+0.06 mg/mL. In terms of antibacterial activity, the essential oil (distilled from either the leaves or the rhizomesdisplayed the highest inhibitory activity, with the same MID value of 1 mg/disc against 5 strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  5. Terpenes, Phenylpropanoids, Sulfur and Other Essential Oil Constituents as Inhibitors of Cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcul, Franko; Blazevic, Ivica; Radan, Mila; Politeo, Olivera

    2018-03-29

    Essential oils constituents are a diverse family of low molecular weight organic compounds with comprehensive biological activity. According to their chemical structure these active compounds can be divided into four major groups: terpenes, terpenoids, phenylpropenes, and "others". In addition, they may contain diverse functional groups according to which they can be classified as hydrocarbons (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons); oxygenated compounds (monoterpene and sesquiterpene alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and other oxygenated compounds); and sulfur and/or nitrogen sulfur-containing compounds (thioesters, sulfides, isothiocyantes, nitriles, and others). Compounds that act as cholinesterase inhibitors still represent the only pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer´s disease. Numerous in vitro studies showed that some compounds, found in essential oils, have a promising cholinesterase inhibitory activity, such as α-pinene, δ-3-carene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol, thymohydroquinone, α- and β-asarone, anethole, etc. This review summarizes the most relevant research published to date on essential oil constituents and their acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potential as well as their structure related activity, synergistic and antagonistic effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Essential oils Constituents of the leaves of Amomum gagnepainii and Amomum repoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le T; Hung, Nguyen V; Chung, Mai V; Dai, Do N; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2018-02-01

    The chemical constituents identified in the essential oils hydrodistilled from the leaves of Amomum gagnepainii T.L.Wu, K.Larsen and Turland and Amomum repoense Pierre ex Gagnep (Zingiberaceae) of Vietnam origin are reported. The chemical analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds of A. gagnepainii were farnesyl acetate (18.5%), zerumbone (16.4%) and β-caryophyllene (10.5%). On the other hand, Amomum repoense comprised of monoterpenes dominated by β-pinene (33.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (9.6%), γ-terpinene (9.1%) and α-pinene (8.4%). This is the first report on the essential oils of A. gagnepainii and A. repoense grown in Vietnam or elsewhere.

  7. Chemical constituents variations of essential oils from rhizomes of four Zingiberaceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukari, M.A.; Mohd Sharif, N.W.; Yap, A.L.C.; Tang, S.W.; Rahmani, M.; Ee, G.C.L.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Yusof, U.K.

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted using the hydrodistillation method from four Zingiberaceae species; Zingiber officinale var.rubrum, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The major constituents of Zingiber officinale, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata were identified as E-citral (20.98%), zerumbone (40.70%), ethyl p -methoxycinnamate (58.47%) and camphor (57.97%), respectively. Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber amaricans were rich in sesquiterpenes whereas Boesenbergia pandurata and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum contained mostly monoterpenes. (author)

  8. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.

  9. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga." This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  10. Chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Carum copticum against two stored product beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIBI ZAHRA SAHAF; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHAMMAD HADI MESHKATALSADAT

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or antifeedant activity against insects. Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) is one of these plants that have medicinal effects on humans. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dry seeds of C. copticum was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (41.34%), α-terpinolene (17.46%) and ρ-cymene (11.76%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. In fumigant toxicity tests with the essential oil against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at 27 +-1℃ and 60%+-5% RH, it was observed that S. oryzae (LC50= 0.91 μL/L) were significantly susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50= 33.14 μL/L). The mortalities of the insect species reached 100% at concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L and 12-h exposure time. The findings indicate the strong insecticidal activity of C. copticum oil and its potential role as a fumigant for storedproduct insects.

  11. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. are aromatic plants belonging to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical components of D. kotschyi and D. moldavica from Iran. The aerial parts of D. kotschyi were collected from (Kamu Mountain Isfahan province and the aerial parts of D. moldavica were collected from Sari (Mazandaran province North of Iran, during 2014. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In total, 32 and 24 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts D. kotschyi and D. moldavica, respectively. The results obtained in our study indicated that the major components in the oil D. kotschyi were limonene (23.56 %, carvacrol (14.65 %, γ-terpinene (12.99 %, α -pinene (12.62 %, 2-methyl-1-octen-3-yne (9.73 %, camphene (4.66 %, myrcene (3.65 % and α -terpinene (3.12 %. The major constituents of the oil D. moldavica were geranyl acetate (36.62 %, geraniol (24.31 %, neral (16.25 % and geranial (11.21 %. D. kotschyi is one of the important sources of limonene and D. moldavica is one of the important sources of geranyl acetate.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Pinus species essential oils and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oils from Pinus nigra subsp. nigra, P. nigra var. calabrica, and P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis. This activity is relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), since cholinesterase drugs are currently the only drugs available to treat AD. P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis exhibited the most promising activity, with IC(50) values of 51.1 and 80.6 microg/mL against AChE and BChE, respectively. An interesting activity against AChE was also observed with P. nigra subsp. nigra essential oil, with an IC(50) value of 94.4 microg/mL. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS with the purpose of investigating their relationships with the observed activities. Among the identified constituents, terpinolene, beta-phellandrene, linalyl acetate, trans-caryophyllene, and terpinen-4-ol were tested. trans-Caryophyllene and terpinen-4-ol inhibited BChE with IC(50) values of 78.6 and 107.6 microg/mL, respectively. beta-Phellandrene was selective against AChE (IC(50) value of 120.2 microg/mL).

  13. Insecticidal Constituents of Essential Oil Derived from Zanthoxylum armatum against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Fan, Li; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our search for natural bioactive chemicals and investigations on their insecticidal activities from some medicinal plants growing in China, the essential oil derived from the twigs of Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against two stored-product insects, Lasioderma serricorne and Tribolium castaneum. A total of 32 constituents of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC-MS analysis, and it revealed (E)-anethole (20.5%), 1,8-cineole (14.0%), 2-tridecanone (12.5%), limonene (9.0%) and piperitone (8.0%) as major components, followed by β-phellandrene (6.3%), β-pinene (5.1%) and 4-terpineol (4.4%). From the essential oil, five compounds were isolated and identified as (E)-anethole, 1,8-cineole, 2-tridecanone, limonene and piperitone. The results of insecticidal bioassays showed that the essential oil of Z. armatum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity towards L. serricorne and T. castaneum with LC50 values of 13.83 and 4.28 mg/L air, respectively, and also possessed contact toxicity against two insect species with LD50 values of 18.74 and 32.16 μg/adult, respectively. Among the active compounds, piperitone performed the strongest fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne (LC50 = 1.21 mg/L air) and contact toxicity against T. castaneum (LD50 = 3.16 μg/adult). 1,8-Cineole, limonene and piperitone showed similar fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum with LC50 values of 5.47, 6.21 and 7.12 mg/L air, respectively. Meanwhile, L. serricorne was the most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LD50 = 5.74 μg/adult) in the progress of contact toxicity assay.

  14. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  15. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  16. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Curcuma wenyujin Rhizomes Active against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling rhizomes against the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil were identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (15.26%, camphor (10.12%, germacrone (6.86%, β-elemene (6.33%, curzerene (6.70%, and β-elemenone (5.23%. followed by curzerenone (4.52%, curdione (4.45% and linalool (4.43%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the two main active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as 1,8-cineole and camphor. The essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LD50 value of 208.85 µg/cm2. Camphor (LD50 = 207.26 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity than 1,8-cineole (LD50 = 1048.75 µg/cm2 against booklouse. The essential oil of C. wenyujin (LC50 = 2.76 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila, while the two constituents, camphor and 1,8-cineole had LC50 values of 1.03 mg/L air and 1.13 mg/L air, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes and its constituent compounds have potential for development as natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  17. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Hamad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data showed oleic acid (14.80%, α-copaene (11.15%, germacrene-D (9.16%, δ- cadinene (6.74%, τ -muurolol (6.34%, (+ spathulenol (5.72% and palmitic acid (5.49% as the major constituents. Organic acids were also extracted from dried pulp with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus to give the crude extract in 36.26% yield. Four organic acids: glycolic, maleic, malic and citric acids were determined by HPLC. Maleic acid (1.23% was the major acid and the others were citric (0.22%, malic (0.15% and glycolic acids (0.14%.

  18. The constituents of essential oil in leaves of Karaj accession of Trigonella foenum graecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasat, Mehrnaz; Jafari, Ali Ashraf; Bahmanzadegan, Atefeh; Hatami, Ahmad; Zareiyan, Faraneh

    2017-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Karaj accession of Trigonella foenum graecum leaves was detected by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) apparatuses for first time. Thirty-six compounds representing 95.3% of the total components were identified. The patterns of the main compounds were (2E)-Hexenal (26.61%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (10.14%) and (E)-b-Ionone (7.99%). Other notable constituents were Thymol (4.79%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-Pentadecanone (4.59%), Carvacrol (3.40%), (E)-Nerolidol (3.32%) and (2E,6Z)-Nonadienal (3.30%). (2E)-Hexenal was found as the most dominant component in this study.

  19. Determination of chemical constituents of leaf and stem essential oils of Artemisia monosperma from central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Merajuddin; Mousa, Ahmad A; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2012-08-01

    The leaf and stem essential oils of Artemisia monosperma from the desert region of central Saudi Arabia were analysed by gas chromatography-based techniques (GC-FID, GC-MS, Co-GC, LRI determination, database and literature search) using polar as well as non-polar columns, which resulted in the identification of 130 components, of which 81 were common to both oils. In the leaf oil 120 compounds were identified, while 91 were identified in the stem oil accounting for 98.4% and 99.7% of the oil composition, respectively. The major constituents of the leaf oil were beta-pinene (50.3%), a-terpinolene (10.0%), limonene (5.4%) and a-pinene (4.6%), while the major constituents of the stem oil were beta-pinene (36.7%), a-terpinolene (6.4%), limonene (4.8%), beta-maaliene (3.7%), shyobunone (3.2%) and a-pinene (3.1%). The two oils showed an important qualitative similarity. However, some specific constituents (39 in the leaf oil and 10 in the stem oil) allow differentiation of the two essential oils.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  1. Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi and its Main Essential Oil Constituent Pulegone: Biological Activities and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Mijat; Ragno, Rino

    2017-02-14

    Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, even if their chemical constituents are not always completely recognized. Observations on their use and efficacy significantly contribute to the disclosure of their therapeutic properties. Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi is an aromatic herb with a mint-oregano flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-ulcer and insecticidal properties. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, pulegone, the major chemical constituent of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  2. Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi and its Main Essential Oil Constituent Pulegone: Biological Activities and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijat Božović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, even if their chemical constituents are not always completely recognized. Observations on their use and efficacy significantly contribute to the disclosure of their therapeutic properties. Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi is an aromatic herb with a mint-oregano flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-ulcer and insecticidal properties. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, pulegone, the major chemical constituent of Calamintha nepeta (L. Savi essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested

  3. The anxiolytic effect of Juniperus virginiana L. essential oil and determination of its active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yao, Lei

    2018-05-15

    Essential oil from Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedarwood essential oil, CWO) has been used to relax mind and enhance comfort for medical purposes. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors in animal models. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect of CWO using two anxiety tests in mice, then determined the major active constituents, examined the change of neurotransmitters after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Analysis using GC/MS revealed that the CWO contained (-)-α-cedrene (28.11%), (+)-β-cedrene (7.81%), (-)-thujopsene (17.71%) and (+)-cedrol (24.58%). CWO at 400-800mg/kg increased the percentage of open arm entries and the percentage of the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM), suggesting that the oil has anxiolytic effect. However, it didn't show anxiolytic effect in the light-dark box (LDB) test. Tests of the cedrene did not show anxiolytic effect in either test, but rather induced anxiety-related behaviors and inhibited the locomotor activity in EPM and LDB. Cedrol produced significant anxiolytic effect in both EPM and LDB tests at 400-1600mg/kg and 800-1600mg/kg, respectively. A more significant increase in locomotor activity was observed in cedrol at 200-1600mg/kg administration than CWO. CWO increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration at 800mg/kg, whereas it didn't affect the dopamine (DA) concentration. Cedrol significantly reduced the DA level at 100-200mg/kg and elevated the 5-HT level at 1200-1600mg/kg. Moreover, it changed the ratio of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-HT and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid/DA at 1200-1600mg/kg. CWO and cedrol, in particular might act in an anxiolytic effect through the 5-HTnergic and DAnergic pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of essential oils and oleoresins extracted from eight pepper species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laira Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oils are the most important compounds produced during secondary metabolism in aromatic plants. Essential oils are volatile, have characteristic odor and are used as defensive agents by plants. In pepper, it is possible to say that essential oils are the “flavor fingerprint” of each species. In the present article, eight species of pepper were studied in order to extract their essential oils and oleoresins, test their antibacterial and antifungal activities and also to identify the compounds present in the most bioactive samples. Results demonstrated that two essential oils [Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. and Schinus terebinthifolius] and three oleoresins (Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper nigrum white and black recorded significant antimicrobial activity. These active essential oils and oleoresins are interesting for use in biotechnological processes employed in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Coté

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  7. Constituents of the essential oils of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Moi, La Dinh; Hung, N.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the root bark and wood of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees growing wild in Vietnam were investigated by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 30 compounds in the root bark oil, and about 20 components in the wood oil have been identified.

  8. Constituents of the essential oil in Solidago canadensis L. from Eurasia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Shelepova; Yulia Vinogradova; Boris Zaitchik; Alexander Ruzhitsky; Olga Grygorieva; Ján Brindza

    2018-01-01

    Hydro distilled essential oils in air-dry samples of aerial parts of Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae) from eight local invasive populations were investigated by GC-MS analysis. A comparative study on quantity and composition of the essential oils obtained from plants, growing in different ecological and climatic conditions, ontogenesis phase and different plant organs was carried out The major compounds detected in oil samples of S. canadensis were α-pinene (1.3 - 61.27%), limonene ...

  9. Volatile constituents of the essential oil of Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ky, P.T.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile rhizome oil of Curcuma trichosantha Gagnep. from Vietnam was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were found to be curdione (47.4%), curcumol (7.0%) and germacrone (6.1%). The structure elucidation of curdione was confirmed by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectrometry

  10. Essential Oils and Their Constituents Targeting the GABAergic System and Sodium Channels as Treatment of Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Jun Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and the constituents in them exhibit different pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive, anxiolytic-like, and anticonvulsant effects. They are widely applied as a complementary therapy for people with anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, pain, and cognitive deficit symptoms through inhalation, oral administration, and aromatherapy. Recent studies show that essential oils are emerging as a promising source for modulation of the GABAergic system and sodium ion channels. This review summarizes the recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties of essential oils and compounds from the oils and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Specifically, the review focuses on the essential oils and their constituents targeting the GABAergic system and sodium channels, and their antinociceptive, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties. Some constituents target transient receptor potential (TRP channels to exert analgesic effects. Some components could interact with multiple therapeutic target proteins, for example, inhibit the function of sodium channels and, at the same time, activate GABAA receptors. The review concentrates on perspective compounds that could be better candidates for new drug development in the control of pain and anxiety syndromes.

  11. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae is an aromatic and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine, phytopharmaceutical preparations, food preservatives, and as an aromatic ingredient. The effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO and its isolated constituents thymol and cavacrol (CVL were studied in the following experimental models: ear edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and chemotaxis in vitro. In the pleurisy model, TEO, CVL, and thymol significantly inhibited inflammatory edema. However, only TEO and CVL inhibited leukocyte migration. In the in vitro chemotaxis experiment, CVL inhibited leukocyte migration, whereas thymol exerted a potent chemoattractant effect. In the ear edema model, CVL (10 mg/ear, applied topically, reduced edema formation, exerting a topical anti-inflammatory effect. Thymol did not reduce edema formation but rather presented an irritative response, probably dependent on histamine and prostanoid release. Our data suggest that the antiinflammatory effects of TEO and CVL are attributable to the inhibition of inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration.

  12. Nerolidol, the main constituent of Piper aduncum essential oil, has anti-Leishmania braziliensis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceole, Ligia Fernanda; Cardoso, Maria DAS Graças; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a protozoan that causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is an infectious disease that affects more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatment is limited, has side-effects or is inefficient. In a search for alternative compounds of natural origin, we tested the microbicidal activity of Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) on this parasite. Our data showed that PaEO had an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. braziliensis promastigotes with an IC50/24 h=77·9 µg mL-1. The main constituent (nerolidol: 25·22%) presented a similar inhibitory effect (IC50/24 h = 74·3 µg mL-1). Ultrastructural observation of nerolidol-treated parasites by scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed cell shrinkage and morphological alterations in the mitochondrion, nuclear chromatin and flagellar pocket. Flow cytometry analysis showed a reduction in the cell size, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA degradation, which when associated with the morphological changes indicated that nerolidol induced incidental cell death in the L. braziliensis promastigotes. The results presented here indicate that nerolidol derivatives are promising compounds for further evaluation against Leishmania parasites.

  13. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil and Its Main Constituent Piperitenone Oxide: Biological Activities and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Mijat; Pirolli, Adele; Ragno, Rino

    2015-05-13

    Since herbal medicines play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, there is a growing need for their quality control and standardization. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (MS) is an aromatic herb with fruit and a spearmint flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and insecticidal properties, among others. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on MS that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, piperitenone oxide (PO), the major chemical constituent of the carvone pathway MS essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  14. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

  15. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ping Chen; Kai Yang; Chun Xue You; Ning Lei; Rui Qi Sun; Zhu Feng Geng; Ping Ma; Qian Cai; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%), linalool (22.92%), cineo...

  16. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%, spathulenol (10.65%, α-terpineol (10.09%, and linalool (7.56%, followed by 4-terpineol (3.92% and patchoulol (3.05%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD50 value of 414.48 µg/cm2. α-Terpinyl acetate (LD50 = 92.59 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD50 = 140.30 µg/cm2, 4-terpineol (LD50 = 211.35 µg/cm2, and linalool (LD50 = 393.16 µg/cm2. The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC50 = 6.67 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC50 values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  17. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Constituents from the Essential Oil of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Pascon, Renata C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Soares, Marisi G; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2016-08-12

    Backgroud: Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The present work deals with the chemical composition of the crude essential oil extracted from leaves of L. alba and evaluation of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Methods: Leaves of L. alba were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of crude essential oil were evaluated in vitro using MTT and broth microdilution assays, respectively. Results: Chemical analysis afforded the identification of 39 substances corresponding to 99.45% of the total oil composition. Concerning the main compounds, monoterpenes nerol/geraniol and citral correspond to approximately 50% of crude oil. The cytotoxic activity of obtained essential oil against several tumor cell lines showed IC 50 values ranging from 45 to 64 µg/mL for B16F10Nex2 (murine melanoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma). In the antimicrobial assay, was observed that all tested yeast strains, except C. albicans , were sensitive to crude essential oil. MIC values were two to four-folds lower than those determined to bacterial strains. Conclusion: Analysis of chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of L. alba suggested a new chemotype nerol/geraniol and citral. Based in biological evidences, a possible application for studied oil as an antifungal in medicine, as well as in agriculture, is described.

  18. Toxic effects of two essential oils and their constituents on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, L C; Plata-Rueda, A; Colares, H C; Campos, J M; Dos Santos, M H; Fernandes, F L; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2017-12-14

    The study identified insecticidal effects from the cinnamon and clove essential oils in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90), lethal time, and repellent effect on larvae, pupae, and adults of T. molitor after exposure to six concentrations of each essential oil and toxic compounds were evaluated. The chemical composition of the cinnamon oil was also determined and primary compounds were eugenol (10.19%), trans-3-caren-2-ol (9.92%), benzyl benzoate (9.68%), caryophyllene (9.05%), eugenyl acetate (7.47%), α-phellandrene (7.18%), and α-pinene (6.92%). In clove essential oil, the primary compounds were eugenol (26.64%), caryophyllene (23.73%), caryophyllene oxide (17.74%), 2-propenoic acid (11.84%), α-humulene (10.48%), γ-cadinene (4.85%), and humulene oxide (4.69%). Cinnamon and clove essential oils were toxic to T. molitor. In toxic chemical compounds, eugenol have stronger contact toxicity in larvae, pupae, and adult than caryophyllene oxide, followed by α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-humulene. In general, the two essential oils were toxic and repellent to adult T. molitor. Cinnamon and clove essential oils and their compounds caused higher mortality and repellency on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for integrated management programs of this insect.

  19. [Research progress of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of essential oil of Ligusticum chuanxiong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing-Chang; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Xiong, Liang; Sun, Chen; Peng, Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil is the low polar and volatile components distilled or extracted from Ligusticum chuanxiong, the dry root of perennial herb L. chuanxiong, which has proven to be one of the main biological active ingredients of L. chuanxiong. Studies suggested that essential oil of L. chuanxiong mainly contains phthalide, terpene alcohols and fatty acids compounds. Different regions or varied extraction technology had influences on the type and contents of compound in essential oil of L. chuanxiong and the total yield efficiency of essential oil, while the differences among the distribution of compounds leads to the variant pharmacological function of essential oil of L. chuanxiong. Researches confirmed that essential oil of L. chuanxiong has kinds of pharmacological activities such as sedation, analgesia, improve function of blood vessels, protected nerve cells and fever-reducing, all these benefits were verified by experiment studies in vivo and some of which were used as therapies in treating migraine, the underlining mechanisms include anti-inflammation, apoptosis pathway and studies found that essential oil of L. chuanxiong possessed very low acute and chronic toxicity at the same time, revealed its great value of development and utilization in clinical applications. Recent studies light some problems such as lack of quality standards and the research of relationship between efficacy and material. The key to apply the usage of essential oil of L. chuanxiong locate in its substantial basis research, the establishment of the quality standards and the joint research institute, more study should work on these fields. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Essential oil constituents from the aerial parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Moi, La Dinh; Cu, Lu'u Dam; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by steam distn. of the aerial parts of P. frutescens, a plant growing wild in Northwest Vietnam, was analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 50 compds. were detected, of which 25 components (95% of the oil) were identified. The main compds. were limonene

  1. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-12-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  2. An In Vitro Synergistic Interaction of Combinations of Thymus glabrescens Essential Oil and Its Main Constituents with Chloramphenicol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimir S. Ilić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Thymus glabrescens Willd. (Lamiaceae essential oil were examined, as well as the association between it and chloramphenicol. The antibacterial activities of geraniol and thymol, the main constituents of T. glabrescens oil, individually and in combination with chloramphenicol, were also determined. The interactions of the essential oil, geraniol, and thymol with chloramphenicol toward five selected strains were evaluated using the microdilution checkerboard assay in combination with chemometric methods. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant compound class in the oil, with geraniol (22.33% as the major compound. The essential oil exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains, but the activities were lower than those of the standard antibiotic and thymol. A combination of  T. glabrescens oil and chloramphenicol produced a strong synergistic interaction (FIC indices in the range 0.21–0.87 and a substantial reduction of the MIC value of chloramphenicol, thus minimizing its adverse side effects. The combinations geraniol-chloramphenicol and thymol-chloramphenicol produced synergistic interaction to a greater extent, compared with essential oil-chloramphenicol association, which may indicate that the activity of the thyme oil could be attributed to the presence of significant concentrations of geraniol and thymol.

  3. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Five Apiaceae Taxa and Some of Their Main Constituents Against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Bruno, Maurizio; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Apiaceae are aromatic herbs producing essential oils which are used on an industrial scale for various purposes. Notably, Apiaceae essential oils may replace synthetic insecticides keeping most of their efficacy and avoiding environmental pollution and human poisoning. In the present work, we explored the insecticidal potential of the essential oils from five Apiaceae taxa, namely Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. ternatum, and Trachyspemum ammi, as well as their major constituents (sabinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, myristicin, and thymol), against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. For the purpose, the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their composition was achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their acute toxicity on third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus was determined. The two most active essential oils were those from T. ammi fruits and E. spinosa roots, showing LC 50 below 20 μl/l and LD 90 below 50 μl/l. These oils were dominated by the monoterpene phenol thymol and the phenylpropanoid myristicin, respectively, which showed the strongest larvicidal activity (LC 50 of 15.1 and 16.3 μl/l, respectively) among the pure compounds tested. These results showed that Apiaceae may be useful as source of larvicidal compounds to be used for the development of cheap, effective and eco-friendly insecticidal formulations. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Chemical constituents of essential oils from aerial parts of Adenosma capitatum and Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Adenosma capitatum and Limnophila aromatica and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Forty six and thirty components were identified, representing 98.8% and 99.3% of the total oils respectively. Oil of A. capitatum rich in limonene (24.74%, fenchone (21.59% and 2-carene (17.64%. On the other hand, L. aromatica rich in Z-ocimene (39.21%, terpinolene (17.24% and camphor (12.89%.

  5. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM Securidaca longepedunculata Fers. GROWING IN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C.K. Sohounhloue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of roots bark of Securidacaca longepedunculata Fers. (Polygalaceae growing in Savalou, Biguinan and Gbegrou (Benin were analyzed using capillary GC and GC/MS. Seven compounds representing (99.5%; 99.1%; 99.3% respectively of the oils were identified. The major compound was found to be methyl salicylate respectively (98.0%; 98.6%; 98.7%. The antimicrobial activity of these oils was found to be high, and medium antiradical activity was observed.

  6. Investigation on phytochemical, antimicrobial activity and essential oil constituents of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in different regions of Nepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study chemical constituents of essential oil of the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi found in different regions of Nepal and also to investigate phytochemical as well as antimicrobial activity of the sample with high yield of essential oil. Methods: The essential oils of roots of plant from five different regions were extracted by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for their chemical constituents. The root samples were also subjected to hydro-alcoholic extraction and then fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water so as to perform phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity. Results: The essential oil yield of sample from Jumla was found to be the highest followed by a sample from Nepalgunj, Surkhet and Kathmandu whereas that of sample from Dharan was found to be the lowest. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of essential oil of five samples showed that “2-beta pinene” appeared dominated in three samples, namely, 6VJ Nepalgunj, 9VJA Jumla and 10VJ Surkhet. Similarly “alkohol aus neoclovenoxid” in 8VJ Dharan and “methoxy phenyloxime” in 13VJA Kathmandu was found to be present in the highest amount. Phytochemical screening of different fractions of sample 9VJA Jumla showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids, and carbohydrates etc. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of same fractions showed the n-butanol fraction potent against all pathogens and most affected one was Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the essential oil of Nardostachys jatamansi found in Nepal contains more than 80 compounds with their quality and quantity differing from place to place.

  7. Essential oil constituents, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Lavandula stricta Delile growing wild in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Ardalan; Aghaee, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    Lavandula stricta belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is considered as an endemic medicinal plant in southern Iran. Essential oil composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity from two different populations of L. stricta were studied for the first time. A GC and GC/MS analysis of essential oil isolated from the aerial part of L. stricta identified 31 constituents; the major constituents were α-pinene (58.34-63.52%), linalool (8.85-9.36%), 3-methyl butyl 2-methyl butanoate (7.45-7.70%), sabinene (2.84-3.56%), limonene (2.87-3.21%) and myrcene (2.25%). The total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract and essential oil were determined with the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay, respectively. Total phenols varied from 61.05 to 64.45 mg GAE/g dry weight, and IC50 values in the radical scavenging assay ranged from 334.11 to 395.23 μg/mL in methanolic extracts and 420-475 μg/mL in essential oil.

  8. Inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice by a combination of essential oils' constituents and physical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Ramírez, Nayeli; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A combination of different hurdles, such as mild heat (54 ℃ for 10 min) or pulsed electric field (25 pulses; 25 kV/cm; 3.35 kJ/cm per pulse) treatments and essential oils constituents (carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene), to reduce spoiling bacteria and yeasts in apple juice was evaluated. For this purpose, the heat and pulsed electric field resistances of five strains of Leuconostoc spp. and five Saccharomyces spp. strains were assayed, achieving different inactivation levels for each treatment and strain. For instance, Leuconostoc fallax 74, the most heat-resistant strain, was the second-most sensitive strain to pulsed electric field. The most resistant strains were exposed to combined processes of heat or pulsed electric field and 0.2 µl/ml essential oils constituents. The combination of heat and essential oils constituents proved to be synergistic against both microorganisms in apple juice. The most effective was the combination of mild heat and carvacrol, which caused the inactivation of 99% of L. fallax 74 and 99.99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1172 cells. Therefore, this study shows the great potential of carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene in combined treatments with mild heat to achieve a higher degree of inactivation of spoiling microorganisms in apple juice, and thus, to extend its shelf life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Chemical constituents and evaluation of cytotoxic and antifungal activity of Lantana camara essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia B. P. Medeiros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of aerial parts of Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, from Simões, Piaui, Northeast of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. In total, 68 compounds were identified. The most representative compounds of the oil were mono and sesquiterpenes. The main compounds found in the oil of the leaves in different months were β-caryophyllene (10.5%, in June of 2009, sabinene (7.98%, in September of 2008, limonene (7.68%, in September of 2008, spathulenol (11.64%, in September of 2008. The oil from stems of L. camara was characterized by a largest amount of sesquiterpenoids, with spatulenol (15.9% and caryophyllene oxide (17.1% in June of 2009, as main components. β-Gurjunene (32.7%, in September of 2008 was the most prominent compound in the stems oils, which was absent or at very low relative abundance in leaves. L. camara essential oils from leaves were cytotoxic to V79 mammalian cells and also to Artemia salina, showing 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values from 0.23 µg/mL. The in vitro data obtained in this study suggested that EO may also be effective treating yeast infection in patients infected with fluconazole and terbinafine resistant isolates, but its toxicity must be monitored carefully.

  10. Chemical constituents and evaluation of cytotoxic and antifungal activity of Lantana camara essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia B. P. Medeiros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of aerial parts of Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, from Simões, Piaui, Northeast of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. In total, 68 compounds were identified. The most representative compounds of the oil were mono and sesquiterpenes. The main compounds found in the oil of the leaves in different months were β-caryophyllene (10.5%, in June of 2009, sabinene (7.98%, in September of 2008, limonene (7.68%, in September of 2008, spathulenol (11.64%, in September of 2008. The oil from stems of L. camara was characterized by a largest amount of sesquiterpenoids, with spatulenol (15.9% and caryophyllene oxide (17.1% in June of 2009, as main components. β-Gurjunene (32.7%, in September of 2008 was the most prominent compound in the stems oils, which was absent or at very low relative abundance in leaves. L. camara essential oils from leaves were cytotoxic to V79 mammalian cells and also to Artemia salina, showing 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values from 0.23 µg/mL. The in vitro data obtained in this study suggested that EO may also be effective treating yeast infection in patients infected with fluconazole and terbinafine resistant isolates, but its toxicity must be monitored carefully.

  11. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora Leaves against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora leaves was found to possess strong fumigant and contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults with LC50/LD50 values of 2.5 mg/L air and 21.25 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be D-camphor (40.54%, linalool (22.92%, cineole (11.26%, and 3,7,11-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-6,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (4.50%. Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of D-camphor and linalool. D-camphor and linalool showed strong fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 2.36 and 18.04 mg/L air, resp. and contact toxicity (LD50 = 13.44 and 12.74 μg/adult, resp. against L. serricorne. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. camphora and its active compounds had the potential to be developed as natural fumigants and insecticides for control of L. serricorne.

  12. Volatile constituents of the essential oils of two Polygonum species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Van, le H.; Moi, La Dinh; Cu, Lu'u Dam; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Polygonum species grown in many places in Vietnam, esp. on the rice-field. It is used in the traditional medicine. After Pham Hoang Ho until now in Vietnam, 40 Polygonum species have been found. From the polygonum genus (Family Polygonaceae) the essential oils of 2 species are reported: Polygonum

  13. Constituents of the essential oil in Solidago canadensis L. from Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shelepova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydro distilled essential oils in air-dry samples of aerial parts of Solidago canadensis L., (Asteraceae from eight local invasive populations were investigated by GC-MS analysis. A comparative study on quantity and composition of the essential oils obtained from plants, growing in different ecological and climatic conditions, ontogenesis phase and different plant organs was carried out The major compounds detected in oil samples of S. canadensis were α-pinene (1.3 - 61.27%, limonene (0.5 - 22.5%, bornyl acetat (3.4 - 29.8% and germacrene D (1.8 - 39.2%. Samples from inflorescences contained the maximal percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons, while the leaves' samples showed the maximal cumulative percentage of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Data obtained from our studies confirm the availability of alien invasive species Solidago canadensis for medicine and many other purposes. The variability of the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils in different geographical locations will allow futher selection of form containing the maximum amount of active substances.

  14. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  15. Bioactivity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. against two stored insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Su, Yang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul. is a perennial herb commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. In this work, we took Dendranthema indicum as a target plant and two stored insects which include Tribolium castaneum and Stegobium paniceum adults as target insects. Essential oil obtained from Dendranthema indicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 components representing 92.44% of the oil were identified and the main compounds were found to be chamazulene (15.93%), β-caryophyllene (13.78%), germacrene D (9.11%), and b-cis-farnesene (6.59%). With a further isolation, three constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as chamazulene, β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol. Significantly, in the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil and chamazulene exhibited stronger insecticidal and repellent activities against Stegobium paniceum than Tribolium castaneum. The results indicate that additional to its traditional use as Chinese medicinal herb, the essential oil of Dendranthema indicum aerial parts and isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  16. Citrus Essential Oil of Nigeria Part IV: Volatile Constituents of Leaf Oils of Mandarins (Citrus Reticulata Blanco From Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A. Kasali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oils obtained from the leaves of six Citrus reticulata Blanco (mandarin cultivars grown in Nigeria were examined by GC and GC/MS, the result of their chemical composition were further submitted to cluster analysis. Fifty seven constituents were characterized accounting for 88.2 - 96.7% of the total oils. Sabinene, g -terpinene, P-cymene, d -3-carene and (E- b -ocimene were observed in great variability in all the oils. Other constituents include linalool, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol and cis-sabinenehydrate. In addition, limonene, terpinolene, b -pinene, and a -pinene were also detected in appreciable concentrations. b -sinensal and a -sinensal were isolated by preparative GC and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  17. Antimalarial, Anticancer, Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts of Cyperus kyllingia Endl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorachai Khamsan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents of the essential oil from Cyperus kyllingia Endl. were analyzed by a GC, GC-MS. Twenty-three compounds were identified, accounting for 93.75% of the total oil that consisted mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (53.52%, particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.97%, and carboxylic acid (1.26%. The most representative compounds were a -cadinol (19.32 %, caryophyllene oxide (12.17%, a -muurolol (11.58 %, a -humulene (9.85%, and a -atlantone (6.07%. The oil showed significant activities against Plasmodium falcipalum (K1, multi drug resistant strain and NCI-H187 (Small Cell Lung Cancer with the IC 50 values of 7.52 and 7.72 µg/mL, respectively. The oilexhibited highly active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and moderately active against Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27553, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans.

  18. Inhibition and inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium biofilms from polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces by essential oils and phenolic constituent carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Kamlesh A; Oladunjoye, Ademola; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, M Wes; Silva, Juan L; Mikel, Benjy; Bailey, R Hartford

    2013-02-01

    Persistence of Salmonella biofilms within food processing environments is an important source of Salmonella contamination in the food chain. In this study, essential oils of thyme and oregano and their antimicrobial phenolic constituent carvacrol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and inactivate preformed Salmonella biofilms. A crystal violet staining assay and CFU measurements were utilized to quantify biofilm cell mass, with evaluating factors such as strain variation, essential oil type, their concentrations, exposure time, as well as biofilm formation surface. Of the three Salmonella strains, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 23564 and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 19585 produced stronger biofilms than Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028. Biofilm formation by different Salmonella strains was 1.5- to 2-fold higher at 22°C than at 30 or 37°C. The presence of nonbiocidal concentrations of thyme oil, oregano oil, and phenolic carvacrol at 0.006 to 0.012% suppressed Salmonella spp. biofilm formation 2- to 4-fold, but could not completely eliminate biofilm formation. There was high correlation in terms of biofilm inactivation, as determined by the crystal violet-stained optical density (at a 562-nm wavelength) readings and the viable CFU counts. Reduction of biofilm cell mass was dependent on antimicrobial concentration. A minimum concentration of 0.05 to 0.1% of these antimicrobial agents was needed to reduce a 7-log CFU biofilm mass to a nondetectable level on both polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces within 1 h of exposure time.

  19. Study on the Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activity of Kelussia odoratissima and Teucrium polium Essential Oils against Some Food Borne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansour Mashreghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research the essential oils (EOs of Kelussia odoratissima and Teucrium polium were extracted by hydrodistillation. Extracted essential oils constituents were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC and GC/mass spectrometry and the essential oils constituents identified according to retention time and mass spectrum. Then minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes، Escherichia coli O157H7, Salmonella enterica, and Pseudomonas aureogenosa were determined by microdilution technique using ELISA reader. The results showed that there are differences between the essential oils constituents as the main constituents in Kelussia odoratissima were (Z-ligustilide, (Z-3-butylidene-phthalide, limonene+-phellandren B. The main constituents of Teucrium polium essential oils were β-caryophylene, Germacrene D, γ-cadinene, (Z- nerolidol, camphor, β-pinene, α- camphene, linalool, α-humulene. The MIC of Kelussia odoratissima EO was between 0.31 mg/ml (for S. aureus to 2.5 mg/ml (for Salmonella enterica but MIC of the Teucrium polium EO was between 0.16 mg/ml (for S. aureus and 1.25 mg/ml (for Salmonella enterica. In conclusion, indigenous medicinal plants could be used for effective control of food borne pathogens as a complementary method that has less unfavorable effect on organoleptic attitudes of each products

  20. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D G; Sousa, S D G; Silva, R E R; Silva-Alves, K S; Ferreira-da-Silva, F W; Kerntopf, M R; Menezes, I R A; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Barbosa, R

    2015-08-01

    Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs) in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM) for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade) significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  1. Essential oil of Lippia alba and its main constituent citral block the excitability of rat sciatic nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba is empirically used for infusions, teas, macerates, and hydroalcoholic extracts because of its antispasmodic, analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic effects. Citral is a mixture of trans-geranial and cis-neral and is the main constituent of L. alba essential oil and possesses analgesic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative effects. The present study evaluated the effects of the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa and citral on compound action potentials (CAPs in Wistar rat sciatic nerves. Both drugs inhibited CAP in a concentration-dependent manner. The calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of peak-to-peak amplitude were 53.2 µg/mL and 35.00 µg/mL (or 230 µM for EOLa and citral, respectively. Peak-to-peak amplitude of the CAP was significantly reduced by 30 µg/mL EOLa and 10 µg/mL citral. EOLa and citral (at 60 and 30 µg/mL, values close to their respective IC50 for CAP blockade significantly increased chronaxy and rheobase. The conduction velocity of the first and second CAP components was statistically reduced to ∼86% of control with 10 µg/mL EOLa and ∼90% of control with 3 µg/mL citral. This study showed that EOLa inhibited nerve excitability and this effect can be explained by the presence of citral in its composition. Both EOLa and citral showed inhibitory actions at lower concentrations compared with other essential oils and constituents with local anesthetic activity. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that EOLa and citral are promising agents in the development of new drugs with local anesthetic activity.

  2. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de M. Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many essential oils (EOs of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%, (E-caryophyllene (15.5%, and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%. The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9% and alpha-(E-bergamotene (13.0%. The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2% and nonacosane (5.8%. The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7% and palmitic acid (16.2%. The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1. The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

  3. Evaluation of Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Pogostemon cablin Leaves and Its Constituents Against Blattella germanica (Blattodae: Blattelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Chen, Han; Liu, Qi Zhi; Jiang, Shi Yao; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of P. cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), α-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male B. germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 μg per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 μg per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50 = 339.90 μg per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of P. cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool...

  6. Chemical constituents of Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) and larvicidal activity of essential oil; Constituintes quimicos de Capraria biflora (Scrophulariaceae) e atividade larvicida de seu oleo essencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Gregorio da S.; Almeida, Macia Cleane S.; Monte, Francisco Jose Q.; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Lemos, Telma Leda G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Gomes, Clerton L.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do, [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica

    2012-07-01

    . Analysis of essential oil from fresh leaves of Capraria biflora allowed identification of fourteen essential oil constituents among which thirteen are sesquiterpene compounds, and {alpha}-humulene (43.0%) the major constituent. The essential oil was tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypyti showing good activity, with LC{sub 50} 73.39 {mu}g/mL (2.27 g/mL). Chromatographic studies of extracts from roots and stems allowed the isolation of five compounds: naphthoquinone biflorin, sesquiterpene caprariolide B, the steroid {beta}-sitosterol, the carbohydrate D-mannitol and iridoid myopochlorin first reported in the species C. biflora. The structures of compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data, IR, MS, NMR{sup 13}C, NMR{sup 1}H, NOE, HSQC and HMBC. (author)

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Allium tuberosum Leaves and Its Selected Major Constituents Against Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jizhe; Liu, Xinchao; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate acute toxicity of the essential oil of leaves of Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (Asparagales: Alliaceae) and its major constituents against Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl methyl trisulfide (36.24%), diallyl disulfide (27.26%), diallyl trisulfide (18.68%), and dimethyl trisulfide (9.23%). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves exhibited acute toxicity against Ap. lucorum with an LD50 value of 20.03 μg per adult. Among the main compounds, diallyl trisulfide (LD50 = 10.13 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than allyl methyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.10 μg per adult) and dimethyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.65 μg per adult). The LD50 value of diallyl disulfide against Ap. lucorum was 28.10 μg per adult. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. tuberosum and its major constituents may have a potential to be developed as botanical insecticides against Ap. lucorum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Essential Oil Content and Constituents of Black Zira (Bunium persicum [Boiss.] B. Fedtsch.) from Iran During Field Cultivation (Domestication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azizi, Majid; Davareenejad, Gholamhossain; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Bunium persisum fruit oils from wild type MM, first (CY1) and second year (CY2) cultivars; (fourth and fifth year plants) were analyzed by GC and GUMS. The essential oil content of the WT (9.1% v/w) was higher than the oil content of the CY1 (6.2% v/w) and CY2 (5.1% v/w). No significant differences

  9. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities.

  10. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  12. Synergistic combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and essential oils or their constituents and their use in preservation of fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Laglaoui, Amin; Mackey, Bernard M; Pagán, Rafael

    2013-01-15

    This work addresses the inactivation achieved with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e by combined processes of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and essential oils (EOs) or their chemical constituents (CCs). HHP treatments (175-400 MPa for 20 min) were combined with 200 μL/L of each EO (Citrus sinensis L., Citrus lemon L., Citrus reticulata L., Thymus algeriensis L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Juniperus phoenicea L., and Cyperus longus L.) or each CC ((+)-limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, camphor, and (+)-pulegone) in buffer of pH 4.0 or 7.0. The tested combinations achieved different degrees of inactivation, the most effective being (+)-limonene, carvacrol, C. reticulata L. EO, T. algeriensis L. EO and C. sinensis L. EO which were capable of inactivating about 4-5 log(10) cycles of the initial cell populations in combination with HHP, and therefore showed outstanding synergistic effects. (+)-Limonene was also capable of inactivating 5 log(10) cycles of the initial E. coli O157:H7 population in combination with HHP (300 MPa for 20 min) in orange and apple juices, and a direct relationship was established between the inactivation degree caused by the combined process with (+)-limonene and the occurrence of sublethal injury after the HHP treatment. This work shows the potential of EOs and CCs in the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in combined treatments with HHP, and proposes their possible use in liquid food such as fruit juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative investigation of Umbellularia californica and Laurus nobilis leaf essential oils and identification of constituents active against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Avonto, Cristina; Wang, Mei; Parcher, Jon F; Ali, Abbas; Demirci, Betul; Raman, Vijayasankar; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-12-18

    Umbellularia californica (California bay laurel) and Laurus nobilis (Mediterranean bay laurel) leaves may be mistaken or used as a substitute on the market due to their morphological similarity. In this study, a comparison of anatomical and chemical features and biological activity of both plants is presented. L. nobilis essential oil biting deterrent and larvicidal activity were negligible. On the other hand, U. californica leaf oil showed biting deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti . The identified active repellents was thymol, along with (-)-umbellulone, 1,8-cineole, and (-)-α-terpineol. U. californica essential oil also demonstrated good larvicidal activity against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae with a LD50 value of 52.6 ppm. Thymol (LD50 = 17.6 ppm), p-cymene, (-)-umbellulone, and methyleugenol were the primary larvicidal in this oil. Umbellulone was found as the principal compound (37%) of U. californica essential oil, but was not present in L. nobilis essential oil. Umbellulone mosquito activity is here reported for the first time.

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  15. Repellency of the Origanum onites L. Essential Oil and Constituents to the Lone Star Tick and Yellow Fever Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oregano, Origanum onites L., essential oil (EO) was tested in laboratory behavioral bioassays for repellent activity against Amblyomma americanum (L.) and Aedes aegypti (L.). The O. onites EO was characterized using GC-FID and GC-MS. Carvacrol (75.70 %), linalool (9.0 %), p-cymene (4.33 %) and t...

  16. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  17. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  18. Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

  19. Biting Deterrence, Repellency, and Larvicidal Activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) Essential Oil and Its Major Individual Constituents Against Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    anthraquinones, tannins , ßavonoids, cyanogenic glycosides, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, saponins, sterols, furanocou- marins, and essential oils...and stored in sealed amber vial at 4C. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis Conditions. The gas chromatographyÐmass spectrom- etry(GCÐMS...Mass spectra were recorded at 70 with mass range of m/z 35Ð450. GCAnalyses.TheGC analysis was carried out using an Agilent 6890N GC system (SEM Ltd

  20. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  1. Quali-quantitative characterization of the volatile constituents in Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil exploiting advanced chromatographic approaches and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Giuffrida, Daniele; Rotondo, Archimede; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Pantò, Sebastiano; Donato, Paola; Rodrigues-das-Dores, Rosana Goncalves; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-11-17

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae, Varronia curassavica Jacq. synonym) is a medicinal plant, native from Brazil, especially the leaves are used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to extend the characterization of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from this plant, by using GC-FID, GC-MS, and chiral GC. Moreover, to further clarify the composition of the volatile fraction, preparative multidimensional-GC (prep-MDGC) was used to collect unknown compounds, followed by NMR characterization. Specifically, the chemical characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from Cordia verbenacea cultivated in the Minas Gerais area (central area of Brazil) was investigated for the first time. The principal components from a quantitative point of view were α-pinene (25.32%; 24.48g/100g) and α-santalene (17.90%; 17.30g/100g), belonging to the terpenes family. Chiral-GC data are reported for the enantiomeric distribution of 7 different components. Last, to obtain the complete characterization of the essential oil constituents, prep-MDGC analysis was used to attain the isolation of two compounds, not present in the principal MS databases, which were unambiguously identified by NMR investigation as (E)-α-santalal and (E)-α-bergamotenal, reported for the first time in Cordia verbenacea essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from Leptospermum petersonii against Three Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, A. flavus, and A. niger. Essential oils extracted from Leptospermum petersonii at air concentrations of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL and 28 × 10−3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three Aspergillus species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10−3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of L. petersonii essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of A. flavus and A. niger, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10−3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in L. petersonii essential oil. The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10−3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in L. petersonii oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  3. Effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizers inoculation on growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghayeh mohammadpour vashvaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is perennial aromatic shrub belonging to the mint family which has anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, carminative, anti-cough, sputum and antioxidant properties. In order to study the effects of drought stress and bio-fertilizer on plant growth, essential oil yield and constituents of thyme plant, an experiment was conducted in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with two replications, at the Research Farm of Zabol University, during growing season of 2012 and 2013. Main plots consisted of irrigation with 30, 50, 70 and 90% field capacity and subplots including plant inoculation with nitroxin, bio-phosphorus and mycorrhiza. Plant traits such as plant height, fresh and dry weight of herb per plant, essential oil percentage, yield and constituents of Thyme were measured. Effects of drought stress, bio-fertilizer and their interactions on all studied traits were significant at the 1% probability level. The highest plant height (35.09 cm, fresh and dry weight of herb per plant (103.52 and 43,27 g.plant-1, respectively and essential oil yield (0.350 ml.plant-1 belong to treatment of irrigation with 90% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. The maximum essential oil percentage with 0.413% was obtained by irrigation with 70% field capacity and nitroxin bio-fertilizer. Fresh weight of herb per plant was the most crucial component in determining essential oil yield in Thyme. Plants irrigated with 70% filed capacity gave the highest relative percentage of thymol, which reached 71.32, 50.68 and 47.71% in nitroxin, biophosphorus and mycorrhiza biofertilizer, respectively. This effect was accompanied with decrease in -cymene content. Inoculation with nitroxin bio-fertilizer as compared to other fertilizers could further amend drought stress and improved the plant growth, essential oil percentage and yield and phenolic compound thymol of Thyme. Thus, it appears that in order to achieve sustainable agriculture

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of Lavender angustifolia Essential Oil and Its Active Constituents on the Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunqi; Chen, Ran; Wang, Yun; Qing, Chen; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is the most widely cultivated Lavandula species. The extraction of its flower and leaves has been used as herbal medicine. In this study, the in vitro antitumor activities were tested on human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Flow cytometry technology was applied to study apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. The PC-3 cell line was used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in the TUNEL (terminal deocynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to detect cell proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA. Lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate showed stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 cells than on DU145 cells. The apoptotic cell populations observed in PC-3 cells treated with lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate were 74.76%, 67.11%, and 56.14%, respectively. The PC-3 cells were mainly arrested in the G2/M phase. In the xenograft model with PC-3 cell transplantation, essential oil and linalool significantly suppressed tumor growth. The immunosignals of Ki67 and PCNA in the essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate treatment groups were significantly lower than that of the control group in xenograft tumor sections. The TUNEL assay indicated that each of the 3 phytochemicals significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group. This study provides novel insight and evidence on the antiproliferative effect of L angustifolia essential oil and its major constituents on human prostate cancer. The antitumor effect was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in xenograft tumors. PMID:27151584

  5. Sequential Elution of Essential Oil Constituents during Steam Distillation of Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and Influence on Oil Yield and Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeliazkova, Ekaterina; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Kačániova, Miroslava; Astatkie, Tess; Tekwani, Babu L

    2018-06-07

    The profile and bioactivity of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oil, a complex natural product extracted from cones via steam distillation, depends on genetic and environmental factors, and may also depend on extraction process. We hypothesized that compound mixtures eluted sequentially and captured at different timeframes during the steam distillation process of whole hop cones would have differential chemical and bioactivity profiles. The essential oil was collected sequentially at 8 distillation time (DT) intervals: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60-120, 120-180, and 180-240 min. The control was a 4-h non-interrupted distillation. Nonlinear regression models described the DT and essential oil compounds relationship. Fractions yielded 0.035 to 0.313% essential oil, while control yielded 1.47%. The oil eluted during the first hour was 83.2%, 9.6% during the second hour, and only 7.2% during the second half of the distillation. Essential oil (EO) fractions had different chemical profile. Monoterpenes were eluted early, while sequiterpenes were eluted late. Myrcene and linalool were the highest in 0-2 min fraction, β-caryophyllene, β-copaene, β-farnesene, and α-humulene were highest in fractions from middle of distillation, whereas α- bergamotene, γ-muurolene, β- and α-selinene, γ- and δ-cadinene, caryophyllene oxide, humulne epoxide II, τ-cadinol, and 6-pentadecen-2-one were highest in 120-180 or 180-240 min fractions. The Gram-negative Escherichia coli was strongly inhibited by essential oil fractions from 2-5 min and 10-30 min, followed by oil fraction from 0-2 min. The strongest inhibition activity against Gram-negative Yersinia enterocolitica, and Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus subs. aureus was observed with the control essential oil. This is the first study to describe significant activity of hops essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protozoan that causes African

  6. Vasodilator Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and Its Main Constituent Citral in Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Zapata-Sudo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB, a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%, limonene (4.7% and α-pinene (3.4%. Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50 of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05. In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  7. Vasodilator activity of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and its main constituent citral in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sharlene Lopes; Marques, André Mesquita; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-03-07

    The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB), a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%), limonene (4.7%) and α-pinene (3.4%). Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50) of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05). In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  8. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis essential oils and their major constituents: estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maddalena; Mondin, Andrea; Chen, Zheng; Miranda, Fabricio Mendes; do Nascimento, Baraquizio Braga; Schirato, Giulia; Pastore, Paolo; Froldi, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) from the Brazilian species Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis were examined for their chemical constituents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The composition of EOs was determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Candida parapsilosis (fungus). The main components of C. zehntneri, P. emarginatus and S. brasiliensis were identified as estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Among the EOs, P. emarginatus showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 7.36 mg/mL and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3748 μmol/g determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. All EOs showed low activities against the bacterial strains tested, whereas the C. zehntneri oil and its main constituent estragole exhibited an appreciable antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  9. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minu; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment).

  10. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud., grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC, 80% FC and 60% FC], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA. Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC, irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP, respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW spray treatment (80% FC+ DW. Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment.

  11. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644

  12. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Syed Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world. Teucrium stocksianum is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on Teucrium stocksianum shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from Teucrium stocksianum bioss. Method Essential oil (EO from the aerial parts of Teucrium stocksianum were extracted by hydrodistillation process. The qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil was determined with Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometer. Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced writhing method. Percent inhibition of writhes of the test concentration was determined by comparing it with that of control. Tween-80 emulsion 2.5% (5 ml/kg b.w was used as a control while Diclofenic sodium 50 mg/kg (b.w was used as a standard drug. Results The chromatogram of the essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum shows differences both qualitatively and quantatively from essential oil composition reported in other countries. Hydrodistillation of Teucrium stocksianum yielded 0.4% (v/w, pale yellowish oil on dry basis. A total of 26 chemicals were identified by GC-MS accounting for 90.28% of the oil. The major components of essential oil were δ-cadinene (12.92%, α-pinene (10.3%, myrcene (8.64%, β-caryophyllene (8.23%, germacrene D (5.18% and limonene (2.36%. Essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum has shown outstanding antinociceptive activity. It has been observed that increase in percent writhe inhibition (PWI occurred from 20-80 mg/kg (b.w and maximum writhe inhibition has been noted at a concentration of 80 mg/kg (b.w, but PWI decreased at 160 mg/kg, which

  13. Studies on essential oils. Part 15: GC/MS analysis of chemical constituents of leaf oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) from North India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, G.; Pandey, S.K.; Leclercq, P.A.; Sperkova, J.

    1999-01-01

    The oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Lippia alba growing in plain regions of North India, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-nine components were identified accounting for approximately 98% of the total oil. Myrcene (26.4%) was found as a major component followed by geranial

  14. Comparison of chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of three essential oils from three different brands' clove samples collected from Gulf region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze three essential oils isolated from three different brands' clove samples collected from Gulf region and tested their antimicrobial activities. Methods: The essential oils were isolated from powder clove samples by water distillation method and analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activities of the three isolated essential oils were calculated on the diameter inhibition zone by disc diffusion method against three bacterial strains with amoxicillin standard. Results: Twenty-eight, twenty-two and twenty-six chemical ingredients with high percentage were characterized based on gas chromatography retention time from clove essential oils collected from Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirate and Jordan. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained from Saudi Arab against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonus aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest was from Jordan and the order of antimicrobial activity was Saudi Arabia>United Arab Emirate>Jordan. Conclusions: All three essential oils from Gulf region are containing very portent chemical ingredients and it could be used as medicine or antibiotics for different aliments.

  15. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius was extracted using the hydrodistillation method. The oil yield obtained was 0.65%. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil showed that the major constituents of the essential oil were sabinene, ...

  16. Comparative Chemical Analysis of the Essential Oil Constituents in the Bark, Heartwood and Fruits of Cryptocarya massoy (Oken Kosterm. (Lauraceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Leach

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the bark, heartwood and fruits of Cryptocarya massoy (Lauraceae afforded pale yellow-coloured oils in 0.7, 1.2 and 1.0 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical evaluation of these distillates using GC/MS revealed the major components in the bark and the heartwood oils to be the C-10 (5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one and C-12 (5,6-dihydro-6-heptyl-2H-pyran-2-one massoia lactones, while the major fruit oil constituent was benzyl benzoate (68.3 %. The heartwood also contained trace amounts of the C-14 (5,6-dihydro-6-nonyl-2H-pyran-2-one massoia lactone (1.4 % and the saturated C-10 derivative d-decalactone (2.5 %.

  17. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water distilled essential oils from the air dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-seven and 3...

  18. Emergence of hyper-resistant Escherichia coli MG1655 derivative strains after applying sub-inhibitory doses of individual constituents of essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eChueca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of food preservation by using essential oils (EOs and their individual constituents (ICs is attracting enormous interest worldwide. Until now, researchers considered that treatments with such antimicrobial compounds did not induce bacterial resistance via a phenotypic (i.e. transient response. Nevertheless, the emergence of genotypic (i.e. stable resistance after treatment with these compounds had not been previously tested. Our results confirm that growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ICs carvacrol, citral, and (+-limonene oxide do not increase resistance to further treatments with either the same IC (direct resistance or with other preservation treatments (cross-resistance such as heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF. Bacterial mutation frequency was likewise lower when those IC’s were applied; however, after 10 days of re-culturing cells in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ICs, we were able to isolate several derivative strains (i.e. mutants displaying an increased minimum inhibitory concentration to those ICs. Furthermore, when compared to the wild type (WT strain, they also displayed direct resistance and cross-resistance. Derivative strains selected with carvacrol and citral also displayed morphological changes involving filamentation along with cell counts at late-stationary growth phase that were lower than the WT strain. In addition, co-cultures of each derivative strain with the WT strain resulted in a predominance of the original strain in absence of ICs, indicating that mutants would not out-compete WT cells under optimal growth conditions. Nevertheless, growth in the presence of ICs facilitated the selection of these resistant mutants. Thus, as a result, subsequent food preservation treatments of these bacterial cultures might be less effective than expected for WT cultures. In conclusion, this study recommends that treatment with ICs at sub

  19. Emergence of Hyper-Resistant Escherichia coli MG1655 Derivative Strains after Applying Sub-Inhibitory Doses of Individual Constituents of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Berdejo, Daniel; Gomes-Neto, Nelson J; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of food preservation by using essential oils (EOs) and their individual constituents (ICs) is attracting enormous interest worldwide. Until now, researchers considered that treatments with such antimicrobial compounds did not induce bacterial resistance via a phenotypic (i.e., transient) response. Nevertheless, the emergence of genotypic (i.e., stable) resistance after treatment with these compounds had not been previously tested. Our results confirm that growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ICs carvacrol, citral, and (+)-limonene oxide do not increase resistance to further treatments with either the same IC (direct resistance) or with other preservation treatments (cross-resistance) such as heat or pulsed electric fields (PEF). Bacterial mutation frequency was likewise lower when those IC's were applied; however, after 10 days of re-culturing cells in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ICs, we were able to isolate several derivative strains (i.e., mutants) displaying an increased minimum inhibitory concentration to those ICs. Furthermore, when compared to the wild type (WT) strain, they also displayed direct resistance and cross-resistance. Derivative strains selected with carvacrol and citral also displayed morphological changes involving filamentation along with cell counts at late-stationary growth phase that were lower than the WT strain. In addition, co-cultures of each derivative strain with the WT strain resulted in a predominance of the original strain in absence of ICs, indicating that mutants would not out-compete WT cells under optimal growth conditions. Nevertheless, growth in the presence of ICs facilitated the selection of these resistant mutants. Thus, as a result, subsequent food preservation treatments of these bacterial cultures might be less effective than expected for WT cultures. In conclusion, this study recommends that treatment with ICs at sub

  20. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Composition of the essential oil constituents from leaves and stems of Korean Coriandrum sativum and their immunotoxicity activity on the Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Naik, Poornanand Madhava; Nagella, Praveen

    2012-02-01

    The leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of C. sativum leaves and stems. Thirty-nine components representing 99.62% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are cyclododecanol (23.11%), tetradecanal (17.86%), 2-dodecenal (9.93%), 1-decanol (7.24%), 13-tetradecenal (6.85%), 1-dodecanol (6.54%), dodecanal (5.16%), 1-undecanol (2.28%), and decanal (2.33%). Thirty-eight components representing 98.46% of the total oil were identified from the stems of the coriander. The major components are phytol (61.86%), 15-methyltricyclo[6.5.2(13,14),0(7,15)]-pentadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13-heptene (7.01%), dodecanal (3.18%), and 1-dodecanol (2.47%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC₅₀ value of 26.93 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 37.69 ppm and the stem oil has toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC₅₀ value of 29.39 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 39.95 ppm. Also, the above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils.

  2. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  3. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the essential oils of normal ...

  4. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Igor A; Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Bizzo, Humberto R; Corte-Real, Suzana; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Rosa, Maria S S; Vermelho, Alane B

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania ama...

  5. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), commonly known as "jambolão" in Brazil is widely used in folk medicine against leishmaniasis, inflammation, chronic diarrhea, and ulcers. It is one of the most commonly used plants for the treatment of diabetes worldwide. In previous studies, Syzygium cumini was shown to possess antihyperlipidemic and anti-allergic properties, and to exhibit good performance as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and Trypanosoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of S. cumini essential oil (ScEO) and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. To evaluate the anti-proliferative effect on Leishmania, effects on promastigote and axenic amastigote forms were assessed using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. The intramacrophagic amastigotes were exposed to ScEO and α-pinene to determine the survival index. To gain insight into the mechanism of action involved in the effect on the samples, we evaluated the modulation of macrophage activation state by observing structural (phagocytic and lysosomal activities) and cellular (nitric oxide increase) changes. To assess the safety profile of ScEO and α-pinene, murine macrophages and human red blood cells were treated with ScEO and α-pinene and the selectivity index was calculated for each treatment. α-Pinene was effective against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 19.7µg/mL. α-Pinene was more active (IC50 values of 16.1 and 15.6µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively) than ScEO (IC50 values of 43.9 and 38.1µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively). Our results showed that the anti-Leishmania effects were mediated by immunomodulatory activity, as evidenced by the observed increases in both phagocytic and lysosomal activity

  6. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Djihane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%. The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%, α-Curcumene (11.41%, Geranyl acetate (10.05%, Limonene (6.07%, Nerol (5.04%, Neryl acetate (4.91% and α-Pinene (3.78%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Ascochyta rabiei. H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml−1. A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml−1 and 12.65 μg ml−1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml−1 to 50.6 μg ml−1 and a fungicide minimum

  7. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djihane, Bouzid; Wafa, Nouioua; Elkhamssa, Soltani; Pedro, De Haro Juan; Maria, Angeles Esteban; Mohamed Mihoub, Zerroug

    2017-07-01

    The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w) and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%). The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%), α-Curcumene (11.41%), Geranyl acetate (10.05%), Limonene (6.07%), Nerol (5.04%), Neryl acetate (4.91%) and α-Pinene (3.78%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum , Aspergillus niger , Alternaria alternata , Ascochyta rabiei . H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml -1 . A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml -1 and 12.65 μg ml -1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml -1 to 50.6 μg ml -1 and a fungicide minimum concentration of 50

  8. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Protium unifoliolatum (BURSERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    ZOGHBI, Maria das G. B.; CUNHA, Emidio V. L. da; WOLTER FILHO, Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The major constituents of the leaf essential oil of P. unifoliolatumare trans-caryophyllene (37.45%), limonene (24.23%) and α-humulene (9.94%). O óleo essencial obtido das folhas frescas de P. unifoliolatumapresentou como constituintes principais trans-cariofileno (37,45%), limoneno (24,23%) e α-humuleno (9,94%).

  9. Essential Oils for Alternative Teak Rust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Raymundo Argüelles Osorio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of lemon grass, citronella grass, Mexican-tea and noni essential oils on urediniospore germination of Olivea neotectonae , the agent responsible for rust in Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.; to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of these essential oils on teak seedlings; and to evaluate the use of essential oils to control rust in teak plants when preventively and curatively applied. We found that the noni and lemon grass essential oils inhibited 100% of urediniospore germination. On the other hand, the essential oils from noni and lemon grass caused phytotoxicity when applied to seedlings at concentrations of 2000 and 1500 μL L-1, respectively. The major constituents found in lemon grass essential oil were Geranial and Neral, while Octanoic Acid was found in noni oil. Lower values in the area below the rust progress curve were observed with the preventive application of lemon grass and noni essential oils.

  10. Antioxidant attributes of four lamiaceae essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.I.; Anwar, A.; Iqbal, T.; Bhatti, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oils of four Lamiaceae plants i.e. Pogostemon cablin, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, and Salvia officinalis native to Pakistan. The essential oil contents from the aerial parts of P. cablin, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and S. officinalis were found to be 1.98, 0.58, 0.25 and 0.46%, respectively. The principal chemical constituent established in P. cablin L. angustifolia, M. officinalis, and S. officinalis essential oils, were patchouli alcohol, linalool, citronellal, and 1,8-cineol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching beta-carotene in linoleic acid system. The essential oils possessed appreciable antioxidant and radical scavenging activities revealing potential for therapeutic applications. (author)

  11. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins.

  12. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  13. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  14. Essential oils of Curcuma longa L. from Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, R.K.; Misra, B.P.; Sarma, T.C.; Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The essential oils of Curcuma tonga L. (Zingiberaceae) were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. The oils were analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS. The rhizome oils contained more than 40 constituents, of which the major ones were ot-turmerone (30-32%), ar-turmerone

  15. Essential oils of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Sperkova, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and rhizomes of cultivated Curcuma aromatiea Salisb. were investigated by GC and GC/MS. About 50 compounds have been identified in these oils, accounting for more than 85% of the contents. The major constituents of the leaf oil were

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A.

  17. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The essential oil of B. frondosa was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with HP-5MS column. The active constituents were purified from the oil by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Contact (impregnated filter paper method) ...

  19. Insecticidal activity of essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XC Liu, J Cheng, NN Zhao, ZL Liu ... Methods: Steam distillation of C. cassis twigs was carried out using a Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils. ... Conclusion: The findings suggest that the essential oil of C. cassis and its constituent compound, trans-cinnamaldehyde, possess potentials for development ...

  20. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  1. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  2. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  4. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  5. Essential oils in broiler nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung-woo

    2002-01-01

    Dietary antibiotics at low, subtherapeutic levels have been shown to improve growth performance in farm animals. However, there is a trend to look for alternatives to dietary antibiotics, due to occurrence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The present thesis explored the essential oils as the

  6. Constituents of the leaf oil of Vietnamese Clausena excavata Burm.f

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Thin, N.N.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed analvsis of the essential oil of Clausena excavata Burm.f. has been carried out by capillary dc and GC/MS. The oil contains more than 50 components, of which 40 have been identified. The main constituents found were beta-caryophyllene (25.3%), germacrene B (11.8%) !Uld beta-phellandrene

  7. In vitro scolicidal effect of Satureja khuzistanica (Jamzad) essential oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Moazeni; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Ali Akbar Hoseini; Amir Mootabi Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the scolicidal effect of the Satureja khuzistanica (S. khuzistanica) essential oil from aerial parts of this herbal plant. Methods: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were exposed to various concentrations of the oil (3, 5 and 10 mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: A total of 19 compounds representing 97.6% of the total oil, were identified. Carvacrol (94.9%) was found to be the major essential oil constituent. Scolicidal activity of S. khuzistanica essential oil at concentration of 3 mg/mL was 28.58, 32.71, 37.20 and 42.02%, respectively. This essential oil at concentration of 5 mg/mL killed 51.33, 66.68, 81.12, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. One hundred scolicidal effect was observed with S. khuzistanica essential oil at the concentration of 10 mg/mL after 10 min (comparing with 7.19% for control group). Conclusions: The essential oil of S. khuzistanica is rich in carvacrol and may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

  8. Repelling mosquitoes with essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquitoes carry diseases than can lead to serious illness and death. According to the World Health Organization, mosquitoes infect over 300 million people a year with Malaria and Dengue Fever, two life threatening diseases vectored by mosquitoes. Although insecticides are the most effective way to control mosquitoes, they are not always environmentally friendly. Therefore, alternative tactics should be considered. In this study, we looked at the repellency of various essential oils on female Aedes aegypti through a series of laboratory assays.

  9. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical Constituents, Antimicrobials and Antioxidants of Thyme and Cinnamon Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Nasr, E.H.; Ali, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 10 or 20 kGy on the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted from irradiated thyme and cinnamon, and study the effect of these essential oils on the oxidative stability of soybean oil. In addition, this study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of extracted essential oils from irradiated thyme and cinnamon as Antimicrobial agents.The results showed that the major components for essential oils of thyme were 77.03% thymol and 15.34 % eugenol acetate whereas the major components for essential oils of cinnamon were 66.14% cinnamaldehyde and 11.18% cinnamyl cinnamate. The study revealed that the essential oils extracted from irradiated cinnamon at 20 kGy showed the best antioxidant activities while gamma irradiation reduced the antioxidant activities of thyme essential oils. Essential oils extracted from irradiated and non-irradiated thyme and cinnamon were tested for the antibacterial activities against eight strains of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas citri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and also tested for their antifungal activities against four strains of Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation and gamma irradiation at dose 20 kGy had the high effect.

  10. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimould activity of oregano, thyme, rosemary and clove essential oils and some of their main constituents: eugenol, carvacrol and thymol against Aspergillus niger. This antifungal activity was assessed using broth dilution, disc diffusion and micro atmosphere methods. In both agar diffusion ...

  11. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... was helium with 1.2 ml/min flow rate for volatile constituents. Split ratio was 20:1. .... essential oil against E. coli, S. aureus and Candida albicans. However, it is difficult ... Relationships between flood frequency, vegetation and ...

  12. Glandular Trichomes and Essential Oil of Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and types of glandular trichomes and essential oil chemistry of Thymus quinquecostatus were studied. The glandular trichomes are distributed on the surface of stem, leaf, rachis, calyx and corolla, except petiole, pistil and stamen. Three morphologically distinct types of glandular trichomes are described. Peltate trichomes, consisting of a basal cell, a stalk cell and a 12-celled head, are distributed on the stem, leaf, corolla and outer side of calyx. Capitate trichomes, consisting of a unicellular base, a 1–2-celled stalk and a unicellular head, are distributed more diffusely than peltate ones, existing on stem, leaf, rachis and calyx. Digitiform trichomes are just distributed on the outer side of corolla, consisting of 1 basal cell, 3 stalk cells and 1 head cell. All three types of glandular trichomes can secrete essential oil, and in small capitate trichomes of rachis, all peltate trichomes and digitiform trichomes, essential oil is stored in a large subcuticular space, released by cuticle rupture, whereas, in other capitate trichomes, essential oil crosses the thin cuticle. The essential oil of T. quinquecostatus is yellow, and its content is highest in the growth period. 68 constituents were identified in the essential oils. The main constituent is linalool.

  13. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  14. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (--menthone, (+-isomenthone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol and (+-pulegone were detected by multidimensional gas chromatography in the case of M. pulegium oil.

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Amorpha canescens Pursh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Anna; Adamczewska, Anna; Banaszczak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Amorpha canescens Pursh were analysed by GC, GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 100 compounds were identified. Germacrene D (43.6%) and germacrene D-4-ol (8.3%) were the main constituents in the fruit oil. The oil from inflorescences contained mainly β-elemol (29.4%) and germacrene D (14.6%), whereas the leaf oil contained germacrene D (30.3%), germacrene D-4-ol (10.9%) and β-elemol (10.1%).

  16. Volatile Constituents of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Root Oil from Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashankar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil extracted from Valeriana hardwickii Wall. roots growing wild in Talle Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Thirty-one compounds representing 89.6% of the total oil were identified. The oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpenes from which oxygenated sesquiterpenes (25.7%. Methyl linoleate (21.1% and Valeracetate (11.6% were the major constituents present in the oil. Whereas, Bornyl acetate (11.2% and α-Terpinyl acetate (4.7% were the only oxygenated monoterpenes identified in the investigated sample. Essential oil and its constituents of V. hardwickii may be used as the substitute of highly traded Indian Valerian (V. jatamansi and European V. officinalis.

  17. Combined Toxicity of Three Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Doll, Kenneth M; Bowman, Michael J

    2017-11-07

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty-one essential oils were initially screened for their toxicity against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae and three out of the seven most toxic essential oils (Manuka, oregano, and clove bud essential oils) were examined for their chemical composition and combined toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with oregano essential oil and antagonistically with clove bud essential oil. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 21 components in Manuka essential oil and three components each in oregano and clove bud essential oils. Eugenol (84.9%) and eugenol acetate (9.6%) were the principal constituents in clove bud essential oil while carvacrol (75.8%) and m-isopropyltoluene (15.5%) were the major constituents in oregano essential oil. The major constituents in Manuka essential oil were calamenene (20%) and 3-dodecyl-furandione (11.4%). Manuka essential oil interacted synergistically with eugenol acetate and antagonistically with eugenol, suggesting that eugenol was a major contributor to the antagonistic interaction between Manuka and clove bud essential oils. In addition, Manuka interacted synergistically with carvacrol suggesting its contribution to the synergistic interaction between Manuka and oregano essential oils. These findings provide novel insights that can be used to develop new and safer alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. VOLATILE LEAF OIL CONSTITUENTS OF OCIMUM AMERICANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum americanum L. growing in Western Kenya were analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 36 compounds, representing a total of 88.51% of the total oil, were identified. The oil was classified as terpinen-4-ol-type according to the terpinen-4-ol content (43.21%). To the best ...

  19. Composition of the Essential Oil of Aristolochia Manshurientsis Kom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuhong; Xin, Guang; Zhao, Lichun; Xiao, Zhigang; Xue, Bai

    2018-03-01

    This study demonstrated the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Aristolochia manshurientsis Kom and improved the essential oil efficiency by the enzyme-assisted extraction followed by hydrodistillation. The essential oils of Aristolochia manshurientsis Kom acquired by hydrodistillation after the solvent extraction with and without the assistance of cellulase have been investigated by gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The predominant constituents of both types of essential oils are camphene, 1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo [2.2.1] hept-2-yl acetate, 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl) naphthalene, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, and (-)-Spathulenol. The enzyme-assisted extraction not only increased extracting efficiency of the essential oil from 4.93% to 9.36%, but also facilitated the extraction of additional eight compounds such as 2-methano(-6,6-dimethyl) bicycle [3.1.1] hept-2-ene, (+)--terpineol and 1-propyl-3-(propen-1-yl) adamantane, which were not identified from the non-enzyme extraction sample.

  20. Poetry and its Essential Constituents According to Feijoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo OLAY VALDÉS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout his essays, Feijoo makes numerous references to his own definition of poetry. He argues that the essential constituents of poetry must be «enthusiasm» (intensity and «versification» (rhythm. Feijoo considers that non-fiction should be regarded as another relevant constitutive of poetry, because non-fiction facilitates the teaching ability and usefulness of poetry. On account of his defense of non-fiction as a way to emphasize the docere, Feijoo came to prefer Lucan’s Pharsalia above Virgil’s Aeneid. Finally, Feijoo also maintained that naturalness was the last requisite of poetry, so he criticized the excesses of Baroque and he defended the literary models and the classical composition strategies that Neoclassicism would soon recover.

  1. Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bílková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Zuzana Bílková, Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, thesis author: PharmDr. Jan Martin, PhD., Hradec Králové, 2013, 72 pages. The thesis called "Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil" is interested in biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, specifically antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, nematicidal and repellency activit...

  2. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  3. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  4. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Novy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae, is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47% as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%, myristic acid (4.71%, linalool (4.65%, and anethole (4.09%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  5. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307

  6. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physiological, psychological and spiritual. Our body uses the aromatic molecules (essential oils) in two ways: (1) through our olfactory system which is connected to the brain where our most primal feelings, urges and emotions reside, and (2) by absorp- tion of the low molecular weight compounds of essential oils through ...

  7. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  8. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Xin-Chao; Dong, Hui-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essenti...

  9. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  10. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  11. Combined toxicity of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty one essential oils were ini...

  12. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  13. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  14. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  15. The use of stable isotopes to trace oil sands constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.J.; Nero, V.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biological effects of oil sands mining operations on aquatic ecosystems. The study focused on the Athabasca oil sand deposit, the largest of 4 deposits in northern Alberta. In particular, the study examined the cycling of oil sand constituents in Benthic invertebrates collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd.. The invertebrates were similar in size, but different in the quantity of process-affected water or mature fine tailings containing residual bitumen. Dragonflies and damselflies in particular, showed trends of depletion for the carbon 13 isotope and enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope in pits where levels of process affected water was high. The depletion of carbon 13 isotope suggests that oil sand constituents assimilate into the benthic food chain. The greatest carbon 13 depletion, which was approximately 27 per cent, was found to be in test pits with high turbidity. This implies that oil sands constituents degrade microbially instead of by photosynthetic production. All benthic invertebrate group demonstrated an incremental enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope from the control pit to the pit with greatest levels of mature fine tailings

  16. Compositional Analysis of Lavandula pinnata Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentieri, Maria Pia; De Lucia, Barbara; Cristiano, Giuseppe; Avatoa Pinarosa

    2016-03-01

    The genus Lavandula includes about thirty species plus a number of intraspecific taxa and hybrids, which are distributed in the Mediterranean area. The traditional use of lavender both as perfume or medicinal plant is known since antiquity. Nowadays several species are extensively cultivated for the extraction of their essential oils (EOs) which are used in manufactured products like cosmetics and perfumes or in phytotherapy. Lavandula pinnata L. f. (syn L. pinnata Lundmark) is a rare species native to the Canary Islands used in folk medicine as relaxant and also a valuable remedy against bites. To the best of our knowledge, EOs from L. pinnata have been very little studied. The present paper reports on the quali- and quantitative compositional profile of the EOs distilled (by a Spring type apparatus) from the aerial parts (flowers and leaves) of this species cultivated in soilless conditions. Chemical analyses by means of GC and GC-MS techniques have indicated that oxygenated monoterpenes are the main constituents of both the flowers (68.30%) and the leaves (83.65%). Carvacrol is the main compound which characterizes the EOs of this species. In addition, discrete amounts of spathulenol (12.22%) and caryophyllene oxide (14.62%) have been detected in flowers EOs, while leaves EOs contained small amounts of carvacrol methyl ether (2.52%).

  17. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily V.R. da S. Feijó

    Full Text Available Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different irradiances on growth, frequency of trichomes, essential oil yield and composition of V. curassavica. The irradiance affected plant growth, but no significant alteration on leaf biomass was detected. The increase in essential oil content under higher irradiance reflected on essential oil yield, and is associated with higher frequency of glandular, globular trichomes. The essential oil composition, rich in caryophyllene derivatives was affected by irradiance, but α-humulene, the constituent of pharmaceutical interest, remained unchanged.

  18. Composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum chasmolycicum growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalchat, J C; Ozcan, M M

    2006-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Helichrysum chasmolycicum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the 57 identified constituents, representing 66.55% of the oil, the main constituents of the oil were beta-caryophyllene (27.6%), beta-selinene (8.9%), alpha-selinene (8.4%), caryophyllene oxide (7.3%), and carvacrol (2.4%). The essential oil was almost totally characterized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as beta-caryophyllene and alpha- and beta-selinene.

  19. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands.

  20. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Essential oils should be subjected to both qualitative and quan- ... Several methods are employed in modern perfumery. A perfume is a ... Three types of hydro- ..... Applied Research, Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on.

  1. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Alpinia Essential Oils and Their Major Components against Rhodnius nasutus, a Vector of Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris de A. de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Alpinia are widely used by the population and have many described biological activities, including activity against insects. In this paper, we describe the bioactivity of the essential oil of two species of Alpinia genus, A. zerumbet and A. vittata, against Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of Chagas disease. The essential oils of these two species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituent of A. zerumbet essential oil (OLALPZER was terpinen-4-ol, which represented 19.7% of the total components identified. In the essential oil of A. vittata (OLALPVIT the monoterpene β-pinene (35.3% was the main constituent. The essential oils and their main constituents were topically applied on R. nasutus fifth-instar nymphs. In the first 10 min of application, OLALPVIT and OLALPZER at 125 μg/mL provoked 73.3% and 83.3% of mortality, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol at 25 μg/mL and β-pinene at 44 μg/mL provoked 100% of mortality. The monitoring of resistant insects showed that both essential oils exhibited antifeedant activity. These results suggest the potential use of A. zerumbet and A. vittata essential oils and their major constituents to control R. nasutus population.

  3. Growth regulators and essential oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Cláudia L; Vieira, Ivo J. C; Freitas, Silvério P

    2010-01-01

    The aroma and fragrance industry is a billion-dollar world market which grows annually. Essential oils comprise the majority of compounds used by these industries. These sets of metabolites are formed mainly by monoterpenes, which are products of the plants' secondary metabolism. Biosynthesized from mevalonate and methylerythitol phosphate, the essential oil production depends not only on genetic factors and the developmental stage of plants, but also on environmental factors which could resu...

  4. Mining the essential oils of the Anthemideae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    herbal forms of medicine and relaxation (such as aromatherapy), and .... (Flower bud, aerial part, cell suspension) α-farnesene 0-91, 3-OH .... (Leaf, stem); camphor 32, pulegone 15, 1,8-cineole 13. n.s. ..... Volatile oil-containing drugs and essential oils have ...... Achillea asplenifolia Vent. through multiple shoot regeneration.

  5. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... essential oils from organs of Annona senegalensis ..... rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils, J. Essent. Oil Res. 10 : 618-27. Bouquet A ... antibacterial activity of plant volatile oil, J. Appl. Microbiol. 88: 308-. 316.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A.; Ibrahim, Abeer Y.; Hendawy, Saber F.; Omer, Elsayed A.; Hammouda, Faiza M.; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H.; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragol...

  7. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... disinfectant for hatching egg obtained from broiler breeder flock. Oregano essential ... contamination rate, hatchability of fertile egg, body weight at 21 and 42 days, body weight gain and total feed ... successful healthy hatchlings. Several ...... Insecticidal properties of essential plant oils against the mosquito.

  8. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  9. A new source of elemol rich essential oil and existence of multicellular oil glands in leaves of the Dioscorea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Joy I; Odukoya, Olukemi; Yadav, Ritesh K; Chanotiya, C S; Ogbonnia, Steve; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-01-01

    Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent's diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α -terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α -farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  10. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago Bernardii Tomk. and M. Pimen"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ferulago Bernardii from Iran was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Sixty constituents were found representing 87.9% of the oil. The main constituents of the essential oil were 2,4,5-trimethyl-benzaldehyde (21.2%, α-pinene (17.0%,spathulenol (5.0%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.4% and caryophyllene oxide (3.2%. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ferulago Bernardii by the broth dilution method in comparison with Gentamycin and Fluconazole as standard showed weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil did not show any activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. The bacteriostatic activity of essential oils for some specimen Millefolium Koch. genus Achillea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Smoilovskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacologic effect of herbal drugs is associated with the availability in its composition the complex of biologically active substances, particularly, the essential oils, which are capable to suppress the multiplication of many microorganisms, fungi, viruses. Aim. To determine the bacteriostatic activity of essential oils of Millefolium subvulgare and Millefolium setaceum have been studied physic – chemical characters, identification and quantitative content of constituents of the essential oils obtained has been carried out by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. Methods and results. It has been identified in the composition of the essential oil from Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit 63 substances, 57 substances for Achillea submillefolium Klok. et Krytzka, azulene derivatives were predominant. The subsequent bacteriostatic studies for essential oils revealed their pronounced bacteriostatic activity for Staphylococcus aureus, mixt- flore1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli. Conclusion. The essential oil from Millefolium subvulgare demonstrated the more intensive activity associated with the predominance of azulene derivatives.

  12. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Nikšić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC of essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. Aim of this study to investigate the quality, antimicrobial andantioxidant activity of wild species Mentha longifolia essential oil from Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The chemical profi le of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 6bacterial strains. RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH.Results: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. longifoliae folium were oxygenated monoterpenes,piperitone oxide (63.58% and 1,8-cineole (12.03%. Essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity.The most important antibacterial activity essential oil was expressed on Gram negative strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerginosa and Salmonella enterica. subsp.enterica serotype ABONY. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a RSC. Investigated essential oil was able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPHH form (IC50=10.5 μg/ml and this activity was dose –dependent.Conclusion: The study revealed signifi cant antimicrobial activity of the investigated essential oil. The examined oil exhibited high RSC, which was found to be in correlation to the content of mainly monoterpeneketones and aldehydes. These results indicate that essential oils could serve as safe antioxidant and antiseptic supplements in pharmaceuticals.

  13. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Al-Mazroa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  14. Essential oil of some seasonal flowering plants grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Al-Mazroa; L.H. Al-Wahaibi; A.A. Mousa; H.Z. Al-Khathlan

    2015-01-01

    The constituents of the essential oils of Rumex vesicarius, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera arabica, Savignya parviflora, Horwoodia dicksoniae, Sisymbrium irio, Plantago amplexicaulis, Plantago boissieri, Arnebia linearifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella hamosa, Lotus halophilus, Reseda muricata, Cenchrus ciliaris is reported. These oils were analyzed by GC/MS and most of them are being studied for the first time.

  15. Comparative Study of Three Achillea Essential Oils from Eastern Part of Turkey and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents found in Achillea oil were as follows: A. filipendulina Lam.: 43.8% santolina alcohol, 14.5% 1,8-cineole and 12.5% cis-chrysanthenyl acet...

  16. Composition of the essential oil of Eryngium foetidum L. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Vu, Ngoc Lo; Nguyen, Van Toanh

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of E. foetidum L. of Vietnamese origin was analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Nineteen components were identified, of which the major ones were (E)-2-dodecenal (45.5%) and 2-dodecenoic acid (15.5%). The other constituents of this oil are also mainly

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Morocho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling (Lamiaceae from Ecuador. Thirty-four compounds accounting to 93.4% of the total oil were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were δ-3-carene (19.9%, β-pinene (17.0%, (E-β-caryophyllene (9.7% and (E-E-α-farnesene (9.4%. The essential oil of L.radula possessed strong antifungal activity against Trichophytonrubrum (ATCC® 28188 and Trichophytonmentagrophytes (ATCC® 28185.

  18. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  19. Essential Oils of Satureja Species: Insecticidal Effect on Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Chorianopoulos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of the wild growing plants of Greek S. spinosa L., S. parnassica subsp. parnassica Heldr.& Sart ex Boiss., S. thymbra and S. montana were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal activities of the essential oils were assayed against Culex pipiens biotype molestus. The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major constituents of the oils, but their concentration varied greatly among the oils examined. The bioassay results indicated that the oils possess significant larvicidal activities and represent an inexpensive source of natural substances mixture that exhibit potentials for use to control the mosquito larvae.

  20. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  1. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Organically Cultivated Fennel Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Saleh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  2. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Omer, Elsayed A; Hammouda, Faiza M; Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia H; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-02-01

    Essential oils of the fruits of three organically grown cultivars of Egyptian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum, Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce and Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare) were examined for their chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils revealed the presence of 18 major monoterpenoids in all three cultivars but their percentage in each oil were greatly different. trans-Anethole, estragole, fenchone and limonene were highly abundant in all of the examined oils. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and metal chelating assays. Essential oils from the azoricum and dulce cultivars were more effective antioxidants than that from the vulgare cultivar. Antimicrobial activities of each oil were measured against two species of fungi, two species of Gram negative and two species of Gram positive bacteria. All three cultivars showed similar antimicrobial activity.

  3. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, ... south and southeastern Asia and extends to .... essential oil, accounting for 97.3 % of the total oil .... cost. CONCLUSION. The essential oil of G. parviflora aerial parts.

  4. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for rural poverty ... The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is ... based on local resources and the first prototype has been manufactured and tested.

  5. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%, aromadendrene (12.773%, α-pinene (6.752%, globulol (5.997%, ledene (5.665%, P-cymen (5.251%, and β-pinene (5.006% were the major constituents.  In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%, O-cymen (13.522%, β-pinene (11.082%, aromadendrene (7.444%, α-phellandrene (7.006%, globulol (5.419%, and 9-octadecenamide (5.414% were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%, α-pinene (13.379%, limonene (5.443%, and globulol (3.054%. Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  6. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis, in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi, R.; Dehak, K.; Hadj Mahammed, M.; Didi Ouldelhadj, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of the aerial part of the plant Deverra scoparia Coss. &Dur. The extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation. The composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). 22 constituents were identified, representing 84.63% of the essential oil. The major compounds are: α-bornyl acetate (31.99%) andα-pinene (12.05%). The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil wasmore effective than the two references tested,ascorbic acidand Trolox (author)

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli wher...

  12. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  13. The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

  14. Moldicidal properties of seven essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

    2006-01-01

    When wood and wood products are exposed to moisture during storage, construction or while in-service, mold growth can occur in 24 to 48 hours. Mold growth could be suppressed or prevented if wood was treated with an effective mold inhibitor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mold inhibiting properties of natural plant extracts such as essential oils....

  15. The essential oil of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Teris A.; Joulain, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae) are the source of patchouli essential oil, which is - with an annual production of about 1300 tonnes - an important and unique commodity in the fragrance industry. All the literature pertaining to patchouli was critically reviewed with

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia FEKIH; Hocine ALLALI; Abdeslem Nacer AREZKI AIT; Salima MERGHACHE; Djamila MAGHNIA; Jean COSTA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster) growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 9...

  17. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Artemisia arborescens L. Growing Wild in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Figuérédo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil extracted from dried aerial part of Artemisia arborescens L. collected from Bejaïa (Algeria, was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were chamazulene (30.2%, β-thujone (27.8%, β-eudesmol (8.1% and catalponol (5.5%.

  18. [Analysis of the chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shong, E; Lui, R

    1997-10-01

    The chemical constituents of volatile oils of Metasequoia glyptostroboides leave were analyzed by GC-MS-DS. 27 constituents were identified, alpha-pinene (70.65%) and caryophyllene (10.38%) of them are main components.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Three Lamiaceae Essential Oils Against Common Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial essential oils’ samples from the aerial plant parts of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis were investigated. Analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS confirmed 52 oil components. The major constituent of the H. officinalis oil was cis-pinocamphone (34.4%, followed by transpinocamphone (23.3%, and β-pinene (11.3%. Analysis of R. officinalis oil revealed 1.8-cineol as a major constituent (43.8%, as well as transpinocamphone (12.5%, α-pinene (11.5% and β-pinene (8.2%. The most dominant constituent of S. officinalis oil was cis-thujone (32.7%, in addition to camphor (17.2%, 1.8-cineol (10.1%, α-pinene (8.6%, transthujone (7.7% and camphene (7.3%. The essential oil antimicrobial activity assay was performed by the use of microdilution method against oral Candida spp. and bacteria, the major causative agents of a number of human oral disorders; all of them were susceptible to tested concentrations of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis essential oils, although the oil of S. officinalis exhibited the lowest antimicrobial potential. The results obtained in this study encourage use of investigated essential oils from Lamiaceae family in development of safe natural agents for prevention and/ or alternative therapy of human oral diseases. However, a special care during development of an effective natural preparation is required.

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Launaea lanifera Pau grown in Algerian arid steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Benmeddour

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antibacterial activity of L. lanifera. The studied essential oil does not possess significant activity against the tested microorganisms.

  1. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy I. Odimegwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent’s diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  2. Analysis of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghassemi-Dehkordi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. (Compositae  is an endemic plant in Iran that has been recommended by Iranian traditional and folk medicine practitioners for gastrointestinal complaints. The plant is rich in essential oil and in the present investigation, the volatile composition of the species has been determined. Methods: The light yellow essential oil from the aerial parts of the plant was prepared according to the method which was recommended in British Pharmacopoeia by using hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the oil was investigated by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Results: Thirty-seven compounds were identified; among them β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and epimanoyl oxide were dominant. Sesquiterpenoids were the most dominant compounds in the essential oil while monoterpenoides, fatty acids and diterpenoides were found to be less. These outcomes are a little bit different from what has been reported before. Conclusion: The differences between the results of the present study with previous works could be due to the diversity of variety, polymorphism, stage of plant growth and environmental factors.

  3. Composition and biological activity of essential oils against Metopolophium dirhodum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) cereal crop pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopa, Carolina Sánchez; Descamps, Lilian R

    2012-11-01

    Natural pesticides based on plant essential oils may represent alternative crop protectants. This study analysed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of essential oils from Schinus areira L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Tagetes terniflora Kunth against winged and wingless adults of Metopolophium dirhodum (Walk.). The major component of S. areira was α-phellandrene, that of R. officinalis was 1,8-cineole and that of T. terniflora was cis-ocimene. Rosemary essential oil was more effective than the others in immersion method tests. In contact toxicity, the rosemary oil was the most toxic to wingless adults and the S. areira leaf oil was the most toxic to winged adults. All the EOs produced some degrees of repellency in adults and effects on the reproduction and demographic parameters. These results showed that the essential oils from S. areira, R. officinalis and T. terniflora could be used as an alternative in the management of M. dirhodum. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Anredera cordifolia grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucéia Fátima; de Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis (Basellaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 19 compounds were identified, accounting for 91.6% of the total oil; hydrocarbons were the main constituents (67.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. At 1.25 microg/mL and 0.625 microg/mL, the oil significantly promoted the germination of S. arvensis. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oil showed a weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  5. Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6% are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%, menthone (1.5-11.0%, menthyl acetate (0.5-5.3%, isomenthone (2.1-3.9%, limonene (1.2-3.3% and neomenthol (1.9-2.5%. Carvone (51.3-65.1%, limonene (15.1-25.2%, -pinene (1.3-3.2% and 1,8-cineole (≤0.1-3.6% are the major constituents in 5 cultivars of M. spicata, while in one cultivar (Ganga of M. spicata the major constituents are piperitenone oxide (76.7%, α-terpineol (4.9% and limonene (4.7%. Linalool (59.7%, linalyl acetate (18.4%, nerol (2.0%, trans-p-menth-1-en-2-ol (1.8%, a-terpineol (1.5% and limonene (1.1% are the major constituents of M. citrata.

  6. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of the Subterranean Parts of Valeriana alliariifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Husnu Can Baser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean parts of Valeriana alliariifolia Adams were subjected to hydrodistillation and traceamount of essential oil was obtained. The chemical composition of the oil was identified by using capillary GasChromatography (GC and GC/MS simultaneously. In total 68 constituents were identified, representing 87.6 %of the total oil. The essential oil was dominated by isovaleric acid (28.6%, which is followed by -guaiane(7.2%, -humulene (4.7%, hexadecanoic acid (4.3%, valeric acid (3.7% and humulene epoxide-II (3.6% asthe major components.

  7. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

    2003-04-01

    The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  9. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  11. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Farfugium japonicum flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Oh, Tae-Heon; Kim, Byeong Jin; Kim, Sang-Suk; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrodistilled essential oil from Farfugium japonicum were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and included 1-undecene (22.43%), 1-nonene (19.83%), beta-caryophyllene (12.26%), alpha-copaene (3.70%), gamma-curcumene (2.86%), germacrene D (2.69%), and 1-decene (2.08%). The effects of the essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the F. japonicum essential oil is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of the F. japonicum essential oil were accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. In order to determine whether F. japonicum essential oil can safely be applied to human skin, the cytotoxic effects of F. japonicum essential oil were determined by colorimetric MTT assays in human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte HaCaT cells. F. japonicum essential oil exhibited low cytotoxicity at 100 mug/mL. Based on these results, we suggest that F. japonicum essential oil may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate for topical application.

  12. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  13. Potential of the Essential Oil from Pimenta Pseudocaryophyllus as an Antimicrobial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Érika Yoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of the essential oil of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus in inhibiting the growth of the main bacteria responsible for bad perspiration odor (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus hauseri, Micrococcus yunnanensis and Corynebacterium xerosis. The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HR-GC and four constituents were identified, eugenol being the major component (88.6 %. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbidimetric method, using the microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the essential oil ranged from 500 to 1,000 μg mL-1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations confirmed the physical damage and morphological alteration of the test bacteria treated with the essential oil, reference drugs and eugenol. The findings of the study demonstrated that this essential oil can be used in the formulation of personal care products.

  14. Chemical composition of essential oil of mentha longifolia l. subsp. longifolia growing wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okut, N.; Yagmur, M.; Yildirim, B.

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., is very important to some culinary usage and antimicrobial activity. The essential oil of Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia growing in the Bahcesaray area (Van Province, Turkey) was studied. This study designed for determine of essential oil constituent Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia that collected from wild area. Mint leaves sample essential oils obtained by hydro distillation and essential oil components were determined using GC-MS. The main component of wild grown Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia was Menthone (19.31%). Second one and others were Pulegone (12.42%), Piperitone (11.05%), Dihydrocarvon (8.32%), Limonene (6.1%), 3-Terpinolenone (5.66%), 1,8-Cineole (4.37%), Germacrene D (3.38%) and Caryopyllene (3.19%), respectively. (author)

  15. GC-MS analysis of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud essential oil from Java and Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, B.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U.; Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The largest clove production contributors in Indonesia are mostly coming from Java and Manado. Different flavor among clove origins is caused by chemical constituents in clove oil. Unfortunately, scientific research and publications about flavor in clove from Indonesia's origin are still limited. The objective of this research is to determine significant differences of constituents in terms of flavor in clove oil originated from Java and Manado. The essential oils were isolated from cut clove bud samples by steam distillation method. The chemical constituents of clove bud oil were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents were then identified by comparing the results of the chromatogram and reference retention time using Wiley mass spectra library (Wiley W9N11). Thirty-six and thirty-four chemical constituents were identified based on GC-MS from clove oil collected from Java and Manado, respectively. Major classes of compounds are sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoid, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and esters. Different compositions in major constituents were found between both origins. Clove Java contained eugenol (55.60 %), eugenyl acetate (20.54 %), caryophyllene (14.84 %), and α-humulene (2.75 %). While, in clove Manado, the composition were eugenol (74.64 %), caryophyllene (12.79 %), eugenyl acetate (8.70 %), and α-humulene (1.53 %). Moreover, minor constituents β-elemene (0.04 %), α-cadinene (0.05 %) and ledol (0.06 %) were existed only in clove Java, while clove Manado had some unique minor constituents which were not found in clove Java, i.e. β-gurjunene (0.04 %), γ-cadinene %), and humulene oxide (0.05 %). In conclusion, both clove oils from Java and Manado contained same major chemical constituents but different in their composition. In addition, some minor constituents existed only in specific origin.

  16. Essential oils in aerial parts of Myrcia tomentosa: composition and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyola A. S. Sá

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Species in the Myrtaceae family are used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases and hemorrhagic conditions and are known for their essential oil contents. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils of the leaves, stem bark and flowers of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., as well as to assess the chemical variability in the constituents of the essential oils of the leaf. Soil and foliar analyses were also performed to determine the mineral compositions. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to examine the interrelationships between the obtained data. The most abundant component in the essential oils of the flowers was (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate, whereas hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant essential oil component in the stem bark. The leaf essential oils showed seasonal variation in their chemical composition, with bicyclogermacrene and (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate as the major chemical components. Forty-four constituents were identified, and only nine compounds were found in all of the samples. Sesquiterpenes were mainly produced in the flowers and leaves. The PCA showed a positive correlation between the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and the foliar nutrients Cu and P. Significant statistical correlations were verified between the climatic data, foliar nutrients and essential oil compositions.

  17. Essential oils in aerial parts of Myrcia tomentosa: composition and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyola A. S. Sá

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Species in the Myrtaceae family are used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases and hemorrhagic conditions and are known for their essential oil contents. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils of the leaves, stem bark and flowers of Myrcia tomentosa (Aubl. DC., as well as to assess the chemical variability in the constituents of the essential oils of the leaf. Soil and foliar analyses were also performed to determine the mineral compositions. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to examine the interrelationships between the obtained data. The most abundant component in the essential oils of the flowers was (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate, whereas hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant essential oil component in the stem bark. The leaf essential oils showed seasonal variation in their chemical composition, with bicyclogermacrene and (2E,6E-methyl farnesoate as the major chemical components. Forty-four constituents were identified, and only nine compounds were found in all of the samples. Sesquiterpenes were mainly produced in the flowers and leaves. The PCA showed a positive correlation between the oxygenated sesquiterpenes and the foliar nutrients Cu and P. Significant statistical correlations were verified between the climatic data, foliar nutrients and essential oil compositions.

  18. Essential oil composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in the mid hills of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM S. VERMA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil content in the inflorescence of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in the mid hills of Uttarakhand was found to be 2.8 % based on the fresh weight. The oil was analysed by capillary GC and GC–MS. Thirty seven constituents, representing 97.81 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were linalyl acetate (47.56 %, linalool (28.06 %, lavandulyl acetate (4.34 % and α-terpineol (3.75 %. The quality of lavender oil produced in India was found to be comparable to that produced in Hungary, France, China, Bulgaria, Russia and the USA.

  19. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  20. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  1. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  2. Diversity in chemical composition and yield of essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae is an herb that is extensively cultivated in some countries. Areal parts, especially leaves of sweet basil are widely used to enhance the flavour of foods such as salads, pasta, tomato products, vegetables, pizza, meat, soups, marine foods, confectioneries and other products. Essential oil yield and chemical components of two Iranian landraces of sweet basil including “Purple” and “Green” grown south-central of Iran (Isfahan province were investigated. The hydro-distillated oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The oil yields were obtained from the aerial of Purple with 0.56 ml/100 g dry matter and the aerial of Green with 0.48 ml/100 g dry matter. Results indicated significant differences (p < 0.01 among the aerial for the main constituents in the essential oil from two Iranian landraces of sweet basil. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial of Purple landrace were methyl chavicol or estragol (63.32% and linalool (7.96%. The main compositions of the essential oil from the aerial of Green landrace were methyl chavicol (31.82%, geranial (24.60% and neral (22.65%. Genarlly, a comparison of our results with the previous reports suggests differences in the essential oil compositions and oil yield of the plant material could be attributed to genetic diversity in two Iranian landraces of sweet basil.

  3. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

    2008-01-01

    The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination.

  4. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  5. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  6. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  7. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Skimmia laureola leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkatullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-16

    The composition of the essential oil from leaves of Skimmia laureola was determined by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight components were identified, accounting for 93.9% of the total oil. The oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes (93.5%), of which monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes represent 11.0% and 82.5%, respectively. Sesquiterpenes constitute only 0.3% of the total oil. Linalyl acetate is the main component (50.5%), with linalool (13.1%), geranyl acetate (8.5%) and cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (6.2%) as other principal constituents. The essential oil showed a significant antispasmodic activity, in a dose range of 0.03-10 mg/mL. The essential oil also possesses antibacterial and antifungal activities against some pathogenic strains. The phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities were also assessed.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  9. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Gao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (PCR essential oil obtained using an improved Clevenger type apparatus were studied. Among the five different PCRs examined the highest yield of essential oil was found in Chachi 2004 (harvested and stored in 2004 and the lowest in Chachi 2008 (harvested and stored in 2008. Fifty three different volatile compounds were determined, including terpenic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters. D-limonene, one of terpenes, was the major constituent in PCR. The antioxidant capacity of PCR essential oil varied considerably with the duration of storage time, and the oil from Chachi 1994 has the strongest ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the essential oil possessed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, except Streptococcus faecalis, while had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Porto, Carla; Stueker, Caroline Z.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Silva, Ubiratan F. da

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves (sample A) and flowers (sample B) of Aeolanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng were obtained by hydro distillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and chiral phase gas chromatography (CPGC). Six compounds have been identified from the essential oils, representing ca 94.3 and 93% of the oils corresponding to samples A and B, respectively. The major constituents of samples A and B essential oils were respectively, linalool (34.2%/34.9%), (-)-massoialactone (25.9%/17.0%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (25.4%/29.1%). The enantiomeric distribution of the monoterpene linalool was established by analysis on heptakis-(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-beta-cyclodextrin capillary column. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves and isolated compounds was also evaluated. (author)

  11. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Water-distilled essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Myrtus communis L., collected ... volatile oils, tannins, sugars, flavonoids and organic acids such as .... in the chemical composition of myrtle oil.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... essential oil of Pinus caribaea from Nigeria. O. Oluwadayo ... Key words: Pinus caribbea, Pinaceae, essential oil, β-phellandrene, β-caryophyllene, antibacterial. .... cones of Pinus. Pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and P. nigra.

  13. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromatherapy with the use of essential oils has been studied in cancer patients to help with symptom relief. Read about how aromatherapy massage or inhalation of essential oils have reduced symptoms in cancer patients in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. Molecular composition and antibacterial effect of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... research methods (extraction and detection). The essential oil was ... Due to the immiscibility of the essential oil to the water and thus the culture .... causes a leakage of intracellular components including bacteria enzyme ...

  15. Variation in the chemical composition of essential oils from Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Methods: The essential oils were obtained from fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia afra using ... Keywords: Artemia salina, Artemisia afra, Essential oils, hydrodistillation, ..... by Kayode and Afolayan [11] that the dried seed .... foodborne fungi.

  16. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  17. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Haiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC–MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%, estragole (29.5%, and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%. 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8% and estragole (20.8%. At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml−1 and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  18. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Volatile constituents of the peel and leaf oils of Citrus limon L. Burm. f. from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Mardarowicz, M.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The peel and leaf oils ofCitrus limon L. from Benin were analyzed by capillary GC on two columns of different polarity, and by GCIMS. In these oils 42 and 27 components were identified, representing over 99.7% ofthe oils. The main constituents of the lemon peel oil were limonene (70.4%), y-terpinene

  20. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  1. Aromatherapy: Using Essential Oils as a Supportive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Debra; Jones, Tisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils can be a great adjunct to cancer care, aiding in the management of side effects, such as insomnia and nausea. Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about the quality and safety of essential oils when using them for clinical purposes. Using lesser quality essential oils and not understanding safety guidelines can negatively affect clinical outcomes. This article provides an overview of how nurses can help patients with cancer safely use essential oils as a supportive therapy.

  2. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. collected at two different altitudes in Syrian coastline were analyzed by gas chromatography. Plant's development stage and the ecological factors had impact on the qualitative composition of S. officinalis essential oil. Although, the major components of the essential oils extracted ...

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... The essential oil of M communis leaves, growing wild in Iran contains ... The antibacterial properties of the essential oils of myrtle leaves and extracts .... of nutrients, temperature, humidity, soil type, day length, climate, .... composition and antimicrobial effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtus.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Salvia tomentosa Mill. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREY MARCHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oil from Salvia tomentosa Mill. natively grown in Bulgaria were investigated. GC-MS analysis identified 60 compounds which represented 98% of the oil constituents. The prevalent constituents were monoterpenes with eight dominant compounds being identified: borneol (10.3%, β-pinene (9%, camphor (7.9%, α-pinene (6%, camphene (4%, 1.8-cineole (3.8%, α-limonene (3.5% and β-caryophyllene (3%. The essential oil showed considerable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.28±0.06 µg/mL, comparable with that of galanthamine. Study of antioxidant activity strongly suggested that the hydrogen atom transfer reaction was preferable over the electron transfer (ORAC=175.0±0.40 µM Trolox equivalents/g oil and FRAP=1.45±0.21 mM Trolox equivalents/g oil. The essential oil showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Candida albicans and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas it was almost inactive against the investigated Gram-negative strains. The results suggested that the essential oil of Bulgarian S. tomentosa could be considered as a prospective active ingredient for prevention of oxidative stress-related and neurodegenerative disorders in aromatherapy. Because of the high antioxidant capacity, the oil could be considered as natural supplement or antioxidant in cosmetics and food products.

  6. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F., E-mail: valdirveiga@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 {mu}g/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  7. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F.; Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR 13 C and 1 H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 μg/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  8. Chemical composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L. essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Porte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, for international trade. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed through a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield was 2.3 % on dry basis. Forty-seven constituents were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra, corresponding to 94.90 % of the compounds present. The major constituents of the oil were α-thujone (40.90 %, camphor (26.12 %, α-pinene (5.85 % and β-thujone (5.62 %. The essential oil studied was similar to those found in several European countries and can be a valuable product for the small farmers from the Petrópolis region in Rio de Janeiro State.

  9. Composition of the essential fruit oil of Vitex agnus-castus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaving, J.H; Bos, R.

    Vitex agnus-castus, the chaste tree, is used against disorders of the female sexual organs and as an anaphrodisiac. Active constituents are not known. In this study the essential oil of the fruits was investigated by GC and GC-MS.

  10. Essential oil of Croton flavens L. (Welensali), a medicinal plant from Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Bos, R; van Meeteren, HE; Baarslag, JJJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Pras, N; do Rego Kuster, G; Petronia, RRL

    2000-01-01

    The volatile constituents from aerial and underground parts of Croton flavens L., a medicinal plant from Curacao, were investigated by GC and GC/MS (EI) analysis. The various plant parts yielded 0.27-0.50%, (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. There were only small differences in the

  11. Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10%

  12. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  14. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  15. [Study on the chemical components, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Song, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qiong-Yu

    2012-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents, antimicrobial activity and antitumor activity of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae. The essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae was extracted by steam distillation. The components of the essential oil were separated and identified by GC-MS. 72 components were identified and accounted for 98.15% of the all peak area. The essential oil exhibited strong antitumor activity against K-562 human tumor cell lines with IC50 of 1.76 microg/mL. It also exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against three bacteria. The essential oil of Zanthoxylum avicennae contains various active constituents. This result provides scientific reference for the pharmacological further research of Zanthoxylum avicennae.

  16. Studies on the antidandruff activity of the essential oil of coleus amboinicus and eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvakumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of the essential oil of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as potential antidandruff agent. Methods: Fresh leaves of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules were collected from the Horticultural Research Station, Yercaud, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected leaves were washed thoroughly and shade dried for 7-10 days. The essential oils from both the dried plant leaves were obtained by hydro distillation procedure. The chemical compositions of hydro distilled essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The pure essential oils and the essential oils diluted with coconut oil of the two plants were used to check antidandruff activity against the dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur by agar well diffusion assay. Results: The average yield of essential oil from Coleus amboinicus (0.89% and Eucalyptus globules (0.77%. The results of GC-MS revealed that the presence of eight compounds from Coleus amboinicus essential oil and five constituents from Eucalyptus globules representing 90.45% and 96.32% of the total oil respectively. The major component was identified as Thymol (phenolic rich compocnd (41.3% in Coleus amboinicus and in Eucalyptus globules the major constituents was 1-8, Cineol (91.61%. In the antidandruff activity the broad range of inhibitory zone was observed in Eucalyptus globules (37mm oil compare to Coleus amboinicus (31mm. Ketaconazole based shampoo used as a standard. Conclusion: This study would direct to the establishment of a natural compound from Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as an antidandruff agent which can be used for the production of potential antifungal drug and novel pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical leads.

  17. Composition and Enantiomeric Analysis of the Essential Oil of the Fruits and the Leaves of Pistacia vera from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsokou; Katerina Georgopoulou; Eleni Melliou; Prokopios Magiatis; Eugenia Tsitsa

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils of the fruits and the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fresh unripe pistachio fruits were richer in essential oil (0.5 %, w/w) than the leaves (0.1 %, w/w). Twenty one compounds were identified in the essential oil of the fruits and the major components were (+)-α-pinene (54.6 %) and terpinolene (31.2 %). The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the essential oil of the fruits was determined using chiral GC/MS and it was fo...

  18. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furletti, V F; Teixeira, I P; Obando-Pereda, G; Mardegan, R C; Sartoratto, A; Figueira, G M; Duarte, R M T; Rehder, V L G; Duarte, M C T; Höfling, J F

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration-MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F(8-10) fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F(8-10) fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  19. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oil upon Oral Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Furletti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of extracts and essential oils from Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Santolina chamaecyparissus was evaluated against Candida spp. isolates from the oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease. The most active oil was fractionated and tested against C. albicans biofilm formation. The oils were obtained by water-distillation and the extracts were prepared with macerated dried plant material. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration—MIC was determined by the microdilution method. Chemical characterization of oil constituents was performed using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. C. sativum activity oil upon cell and biofilm morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The best activities against planktonic Candida spp. were observed for the essential oil and the grouped F8–10 fractions from C. sativum. The crude oil also affected the biofilm formation in C. albicans causing a decrease in the biofilm growth. Chemical analysis of the F8–10 fractions detected as major active compounds, 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and cyclodecane. Standards of these compounds tested grouped provided a stronger activity than the oil suggesting a synergistic action from the major oil constituents. The activity of C. sativum oil demonstrates its potential for a new natural antifungal formulation.

  20. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  1. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of six pinus taxa native to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-05-21

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%-20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%-12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%-26.31%), α-guaiene (1.23%-8.19%), and germacrene D (1.26%-9.93%). Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential by three assays (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and tested for their total phenolic content. The results showed that all essential oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant activities and these strongly suggest that these pine needles may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and medical purposes.

  3. Chemical composition and biological activities of leaf and fruit essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Gulden; Kara, Nazan; Bagci, Eyup; Gur, Seher

    2017-10-26

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaves and fruit of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Mersin, Turkey was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The biological activities (antibacterial and antifungal) were examined using the agar well diffusion method. The main leaf oil constituents were p-cymene (42.1%), eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (14.1%), α-pinene (12.7%) and α-terpinol (10.7%). The main constituents of the fruit oil were eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (34.5%), p-cymene (30.0%), α-terpinol (15.1%) and α-pinene (9.0%). Our results showed that both types of oils are rich in terms of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. The leaf and fruit essential oils of E. camaldulensis significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp.) bacteria (poils also showed fungicidal activity against Candida tropicalis and C. globrata. Leaf essential oils showed more activity than fruit essential oils, probably due to the higher p-cymene concentration in leaves.

  4. Bioactivity of essential oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and its main compounds against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), β-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 μg/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 μg/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 μg/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects.

  5. Phytochemical characterization of essential oil from Ocimum selloi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIA A.S. MORAES

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth, a native plant of Brazil, has medicinal uses as anti-diarrheic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory product. The yield of essential oils of the inflorescences, containing flowers and seeds, was 0.6%, and the yield of leaves, collected in two different seasons, was 0.25% (June 2000 and 0.20% (January 2001, respectively. The essential oils of the inflorescences and leaves presented as major constituents trans-anethol (41.34%, 45.42%, 58.59% and methyl chavicol (27.10%, 24.14%, 29.96%.Ocimum selloi Benth, planta nativa do Brasil de uso medicinal, tem sido utilizada como antidiarréico, antiespasmódico e antiinflamatório. O rendimento dos óleos essenciais das inflorescências, contendo flores e sementes, foi de 0,6% e das folhas, coletadas em duas épocas do ano, foi de 0,25% (junho/00 e 0,20% (janeiro/01, respectivamente. Os óleos essenciais das inflorescências e folhas apresentaram como constituintes majoritários o trans-anethol (41,34%, 45,42%, 58,59% e methyl chavicol (27,10%, 24,14%, 29,96%.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pandini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS; (b to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%, β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%, and α-curcumene (16.17%. With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  8. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandini, J A; Pinto, F G S; Scur, M C; Santana, C B; Costa, W F; Temponi, L G

    2018-02-01

    The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); (b) to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c) to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%), β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%), and α-curcumene (16.17%). With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.

  9. Comparison of antispasmodic effects of Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Kasiri, F

    2015-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran. In Iranian traditional medicine, D. kotschyi has been used as antispasmodic and analgesic but so far there is no pharmacological report about its antispasmodic activity. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activity of the essential oil of D. kotschyi and two of its constituents namely limonene and α-terpineol. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of D. kotschyi using hydrodistillation method. The main components found in the essential oil were α-pinene (10%), neral (11%), geraniol (10%), α-citral (12%), limonene (9%) and α-terpineol (1.1%). For antispasmodic studies, a portion of rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effect of the D. kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The essential oil, in a concentration dependent manner inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=51 ± 8.7 nl/ml), ACh (IC50=19 ± 2.7 nl/ml) and EFS (IC50=15 ± 0.5 nl/ml). Limonene and α-terpineol showed same pattern of inhibitory effect on ileum contraction. Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent. However, limonene was more potent than the essential oil while the α-terpineol was less potent than either limonene or the essential oil. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil has inhibitory effect on ileum contractions. Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity.

  10. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil isolated from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds. Biological activity showed that the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The nitric oxide (NO) inhibition rate reached 67.46% when the concentration of the essential oil was 200 μg mL -1 . Further analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa might be exerted through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK (JNK and ERK1/2) signaling pathways to decrease NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) production. Thus, the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa is a good source of a natural product with a beneficial effect against inflammation, and it may be applied as a food supplement and/or functional ingredient.

  12. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  13. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  14. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. Design: O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay, respectively. Results: The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC–MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%, γ-terpinene (8.4%, p-cymene (6.1%, linalool (1.4%, and caryophyllene (1.3%. O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus

  15. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Fitsiou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Papavassilopoulou, Eleni; Vamvakias, Manolis; Pappa, Aglaia; Oreopoulou, Antigoni; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany) is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC-MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%), γ-terpinene (8.4%), p-cymene (6.1%), linalool (1.4%), and caryophyllene (1.3%). O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus essential oil was 0.045±0.0042% (v/v) and was mainly

  16. Isolation of nematicidal constituents from essential oil of Kaempferia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contamination, human health effects and ... Cambodia, Malaysia and India, but is also widely cultivated throughout Southeast Asia [12]. In. China, sand ginger is well known for its popular use in the food spice and medicinal ..... medicinal herb (spice) is safe for human ... the authors named in this article and all liabilities.

  17. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  18. Preliminary screening of plant essential oils against larvae of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary screenings of 22 plant essential oils were tested for mortality of the mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Percent (%) mortality of the mosquito larvae were obtained for each essential oil. At different exposure periods, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h among the 22 plant oils tested, eight ...

  19. Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the most effective compound of C. ambrosioides essential oil for the induction ... shrub, and its whole plant is rich in essential oils ... μl/well at 37 oC in a 5 % CO2 atmosphere for 20 ..... Olive-oil consumption and health:.

  20. Composition of the Essential Oil From Roots and Rhizomes of Valeriana phu L. Growing Wild in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Kurucu, Semra; Kuiper, Johanna M.; Kruizinga, Wim H.; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The volatile constituents isolated from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana phu L. were investigated by GC and GUMS (EI) analysis. The roots and rhizomes yielded 0.64% (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. From the oil 70 compounds Could he identified with a valerenal isomer (11.3%), valerianol

  1. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Cantrell

    Full Text Available Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae, commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (--podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (--podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  2. Supercritical Extraction Process of Allspice Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasvet Y. Andrade-Avila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allspice essential oil was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 in a static process at three different temperatures (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K and four levels of pressure (100, 200, 300, and 360 bar. The amount of oil extracted was measured at intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h; the most extraction yield reached was of 68.47% at 318.15 K, 360 bar, and 6 h of contact time. In this supercritical extraction process, the distribution coefficient (KD, the mean effective diffusion coefficient (Def, the energy of activation (Ea, the thermodynamic properties (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0, and the apparent solubility (S expressed as mass fraction (w/w were evaluated for the first time. At the equilibrium the experimental apparent solubility data were successfully correlated with the modified Chrastil equation.

  3. Essential oil of Machilus bombycina King from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oil of Mac hilus bombycina Kingwas produced by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, collected from Northeast India. The oil was analyzed by GC/MS and 40 components were identified, which constituted 93.7% of the oiL The major components of the oil were decanal (12.5%), ll-dodecenal

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis Peel Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, A.; Hanif, M.A.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used extensively to prevent and treat human diseases. In the past decades, worldwide demand for citrus essential oils has greatly increased. Citrus essential oils containing 85-99 percent volatile and 1-15 percent non-volatile components. Essential oils from Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis peels were extracted through steam distillation and characterized by GC-MS. C. pseudolimon has thirty six and C. grandis has thirty three total components; limonene 47.07 percent and 71.48 percent was the major component in both oils respectively. Antioxidant activity was checked by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test. Both oils have modest activity. The antimicrobial potential was assessed against different bacterial and fungus strains. C. pseudolimon oil possessed strong activity against all tested strains while C. grandis has moderate activity. The antitumor activity was evaluated by potato disc assay, C. pseudolimon showed 81.25 inhibition. Hence the essential oils could have a great potential in pharmaceutical industry. (author)

  5. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  6. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  7. Volatile constituents of ginger oil prepared according to Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation ...

  8. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Atalantia guillauminii against Three Species Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Lei, Ning; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Ma, Ping; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm(2) respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects.

  9. Microwave-assisted extraction of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  10. Essential Oil of Amomum maximum Roxb. and Its Bioactivities against Two Stored-Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be β-pinene (23.39%), β-caryophyllene (16.43%), α-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 μg/adult and LC(50) = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD(50) = 67.46 μg/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  11. Toxicity of essential oil compounds against Exorista sorbillans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum species are potential candidates for management of Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae), a serious pest of silkworm. Considering that the pure compounds in essential oil may exhibit efficacy against the parasitoid, contact and topical toxicity of 22 essential ...

  12. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  13. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  14. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gharachorloo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.

  15. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    The paper presents economic value of the design and manufacturing of essential oil production plant ... system with the required precision for standard quality of oil at affordable cost. Thus, the ..... still, steam injection and distribution systems,.

  16. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using. Steam Distillation ... The return on investment (ROI) was 125%, internal rate of return ... oils, over dependency on petrodollar and ... The steam may be obtained from external boiler or.

  17. Biological evaluation of 32 different essential oils against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Among the various components of cinnamon oil, benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde ..... cinnamaldehyde have antimicrobial properties against .... Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. ... Needle. Sweet basil.

  18. Comparative evaluation of essential oils from Lippia javanica L leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Oil was extracted from the fresh and dried leaves of Lippia javanica by HD and SFME methods ... Keywords: Artemia salina, Lippia javanica, Essential oil, Hydrodistillation, ...... in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude.

  19. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial ... was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ..... autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion.

  20. Isolation by different processes and in vitro bioactivities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Tran Truc; Lan, Lao Xuan; Thu, Huynh; Tam, Nguyen Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) was solvent-free microwave extracted and analysed by GC/MS. 36 compounds were identified, and the main constituents of the oil included 1,8-cineole (16.87%), camphor (24.12%), α-pinene (11.04%), β-pinene (5,51%) etc,… The results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil exhibited free radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 = 472.46 µg/ml. Rosemary oil has also been proven effective against all of examined pathogens except P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 8 µl/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and 4 µl/ml for the other four studied strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli). These results will open new venues for rosemary oil medical use.

  1. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Cotinus coggygria from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV NOVAKOVIC

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from leaves with young branches of Cotinus coggygria Scop. from two localities in Serbia (Deliblatska pescara and Zemun, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC–MS. Thirty-one component were identified from both oils and among them monoterpenic hydrocarbons were the dominant class (87.4 and 93.1 %. The dominant constituent in both essential oils was limonene (47.0 and 39.2 %. Both oils were also tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. In comparison to streptomycin, both oils showed slightly higher activity (against most Gram-positive bacteria in the disc diffusion method and slightly lower activity when the microdilution method was employed. They also exhibited antifungal potential higher than that of the commercial fungicide bifonazole.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of flowerhead and root essential oils of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing wild in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Bel Hadj Salah-Fatnassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from various Santolina species have not been investigated enough in the previous studies dealing with the biological activities of medicinal plants. In Tunisia, Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae is the only Santolina species recorded and is used as vermifuge and emmenagogue. The chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils from the flowerheads and roots of spontaneous S. chamaecyparissus growing in Tunisia and the chemical composition which leads to the Tunisian chemotype are investigated here for the first time. Essential oils isolated by hydro distillation from flowerheads and roots of S. chamaecyparissus were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Two methods served for antimicrobial assays of the essential oils: diffusion in a solid medium and micro-well dilution assay. Antifungal tests were carried out by the agar incorporation method. Sixty-seven constituents were identified from the essential oil of the flowerhead. The major constituents were: 1,8-cineole and β-eudesmol. Two non identified compounds were present at the highest concentration in root oil. Flowerhead oil was characterized by high contents in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes oxygenated compounds. The flowerhead essential oil demonstrated potent of antibacterial properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC, with MIC of 0.625 μg/ml. These findings demonstrate that the flowerhead essential oils of S. chamaecyparissus have excellent antibacterial properties and for this reason they could contribute to decrease the problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics.

  4. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil of Six Pinus Taxa Native to China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Zhihong; Li, Zhouqi

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from needles of six China endemic Pinus taxa (P. tabulaeformis, P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis, P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, P. tabulaeformis var. umbraculifera, P. henryi and P. massoniana) were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 72 components were separated and identified by GC/MS from the six taxa. The major constituents of the essential oils were: α-pinene (6.78%–20.55%), bornyl acetale (3.32%–12.71%), β-caryophellene (18.26%–26.31%), α-...

  6. [GC-MS analysis of essential oil from Curcuma aromatica rhizome of different growth periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Ming-ming; Huang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Hua-gang; Lai, Mao-xiang; Wei, Meng-han

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the essential oil from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica of different growth periods, and to provide the scientific reference for reasonable cultivation and quality control of this plant. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC-MS. The relative contents were determined with area normalization method. The main volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica were basically the same. Among these volatile constituents, curdione was the major. The relative content of curdione was 16.35% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county, and 15.81% in the rhizome of one-year-old plant in Mingyang farm, Nanning city. The relative content of eucalyptol in the 2-year-old cultivated rhizome in Hengxian county was 15.40%, and 14.59% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county. beta-Elemene, beta-caryophyllene,eugenol and germacrone were also the main constituents in the rhizome essential oil. Volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica are similar to each other,but the relative content of each component is different. This result can provide the scientific foundation for the cultivation of Curcuma aromatica.

  7. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Three Thymus Taxa from Turkey with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zehra Küçükbay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from aerial parts of Thymus migricus Klokov & Des.-Shost, Thymus fallax Fisch. & Mey. and Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak var. pubescens resulted in the identification of 26, 35 and 53 constituents, respectively. The major components in the essential oil of T. migricus were found to be α-terpineol (30.6%, thymol (20.7% and α-terpinyl acetate (14.9% while in the essentiol oil of T. fallaxcis-carveol (29.6% and α-terpineol (10.8%. Carvacrol was a dominant compound with a percentage 66.1% of the essential oil of T. pubescens var. pubescens. The data obtained indicate that the essential oils of Thymus species generally exhibit some bacteriostatic activity. The antioxidant activity of the tested essential oils were found to be slightly lower than butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA.

  8. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Essential oil extraction with concentrating solar thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Veynandt, François

    2015-01-01

    Material complementari del cas estudi "Essential oil extraction with concentrating solar thermal energy”, part component del llibre "Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers" Peer Reviewed

  10. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil from Lippia dulcis Trev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görnemann, T; Nayal, R; Pertz, H H; Melzig, M F

    2008-04-17

    To investigate the essential oil of Lippia dulcis Trev. (Verbenaceae) that is traditionally used in the treatment of cough, colds, bronchitis, asthma, and colic in Middle America for antispasmodic activity. We used a porcine bronchial bioassay to study contractile responses to carbachol and histamine in the absence or presence of the essential oil. The essential oil showed anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities at 100 microg/ml. The anti-histaminergic and anti-cholinergic activities of the essential oil of Lippia dulcis support the rational use of the plant or plant extracts to treat bronchospasm.

  11. Chemical characterisation and allelopathic potential of essential oils from leaves and rhizomes of white ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEssential oils have the potential to be used as bioherbicides, and possess the advantage of their biodegradability, high structural diversity and reduced natural resistance to weeds. The essential oils of the leaves and rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium, an exotic invasive plant adapted to different regions of Brazil, were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterised chemically by Gas-Liquid Chromatography and Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Allelopathic activity was determined using methodologies that evaluate the effects of volatility and direct contact on seed germination and seedling vigour in the lettuce. The major constituents of the essential oil from the leaves were β-pinene (46.9%, α-pinene (19.2% and β-caryophyllene (13.2% and from the rhizomes, β-pinene (41.5%, 1.8-cineole (23.6% and α-pinene (13.1%. When analysing the volatile effects of the essential oils, it was seen that their concentration did not affect seedling first germination count or total germination. The essential oil from the rhizomes was more effective than the essential oil from the leaves in reducing seedling response for SGI, dry weight, and length of the roots and shoots. When evaluating the effect of direct contact with the essential oils, it was seen that both oils reduced the response of all the variables under evaluation, and that in addition, the oil from the rhizomes caused greater reductions than that from the leaves, again for all variables. These results can be attributed to the higher levels of monoterpenes present in the essential oil from the rhizomes, mainly the presence of 1.8-cineole.

  12. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Veres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed, collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%, while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis

  13. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium L. and L. ochridanum Micevski (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Višnja B; Petrović, Silvana D; Milenković, Marina T; Drobac, Milica M; Couladis, Maria A; Niketić, Marjan S

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium and L. ochridanum were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by steam distillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. All essential oils were distinguished by high contents of monoterpenes, and α-pinene was the most abundant compound in the essential oils of L. latifolium underground parts and fruits (contents of 44.4 and 44.0%, resp.). The fruit essential oil was also rich in sabinene (26.8%). Regarding the L. ochridanum essential oils, the main constituents were limonene in the fruit oil (57.7%) and sabinene in the herb oil (25.9%). The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils as well as that of L. ochridanum underground parts, whose composition was reported previously, was tested by the broth-microdilution method against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two Candida albicans strains. Except the L. latifolium underground-parts essential oil, the other investigated oils showed a high antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, or Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 13.0-73.0 μg/ml), comparable to or even higher than that of thymol, which was used as reference compound. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Helal, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was irradiated at doses of 0,5, 10 and 15 kGy. The irradiated as well as non-irradiated oil were tested for their antibacterial activity against one strain of food poisoning bacteria (Bacillus cereus), one strain of the indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli), two strains of human pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), one strain of food spoilage bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and one strain of plant pathogenic bacteria(Pseudomonas citri). In addition, the studied oils were tested for their antifungal activities against five strains of plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma viride and Alternaria alternata) to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of the tested oil. The obtained results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation. While, Trichoderma viride appeared to be the most resistant fungus with non-irradiated and irradiated ginger essential oil treatments. The ginger essential oil irradiated at dose of 10 kGy appeared to be the best one for inhibition the growth of most tested bacteria and fungi under investigation. Also, changes in chemical constituents of ginger essential oil as affected by gamma radiation were investigated by Gas Chromatography

  15. Chemical composition and spasmolytic activity of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L. Spreng. (Poaceae essential oil from Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of genus Cymbopogon are well known for their use in traditional medicine and for their high content of essential oils that are widely used as flavoring agents, fragrances, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Essential oils isolated from the dried stems and inflorescence of cultivated Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L. Spreng. (Poaceae collected from Khartoum state (Sudan in two periods were studied. The results of chemical analysis of C. schoenanthus revealed that this plant is rich in essential oil which is a valuable source of the commercially important monoterpene, piperitone (47.7-71.5%. Other abundant constituents of the oils were intermedeol (6.1-17.3%, δ-2-carene (4.5-10.0% and elemol (2.7-9.0%. The essential oil from the inflorescence was tested for spasmolytic activity using three different experimental models: against spontaneous contractions, contractions induced with acetylcholine and contractions induced with potassium chloride. The oil exhibited strong, significant and dose-dependent spasmolytic activity, indicating the possibility for further investigations of this essential oil for its medicinal purposes or application in food industry. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no.173021 and Grant no. III41018

  16. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Monica; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Dinis, Augusto M; Canhoto, Jorge M; Salgueiro, Lígia R

    2009-08-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula pedunculata (Miller) Cav., harvested in North and Central Portugal, were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The minimal-inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal-lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oils and of their major constituents were used to evaluate the antifungal activity against different strains of fungi involved in candidosis, dematophytosis, and aspergillosis. The oils were characterized by a high percentage of oxygenated monoterpenes, the main compounds being 1,8-cineole (2.4-55.5%), fenchone (1.3-59.7%), and camphor (3.6-48.0%). Statistical analysis differentiated the essential oils into two main types, one characterized by the predominance of fenchone and the other one by the predominance of 1,8-cineole. Within the 1,8-cineole chemotype, two subgroups were well-defined taking into account the percentages of camphor. A significant antifungal activity of the oils was found against dermatophyte strains. The essential oil with the highest content of camphor was the most active with MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32-0.64 microl/ml.

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  19. Essential Oil from the Resin of Protium heptaphyllum: Chemical Composition, Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antimutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Cazelli, Didley Sâmia Paiva; Pinto, Fernanda Endringer; Mazuco, Renata Alves; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Lenz, Dominik; Scherer, Rodrigo; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March is popularly used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllum essential oil, its cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), antimicrobial activity, and its antimutagenicity in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil collected in three 3 years was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, caspase-3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis and inflammatory events. The antimutagenic activity at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg was determined using a micronucleus test in murine bone marrow. The essential oil showed a predominance of monoterpene compounds, being the terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene, present in the essential oil extracted in the 3 years. The essential oil showed a protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity, and the cytotoxicity index polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes ratio in animals treated with oil at all doses (1.34 ± 0.33; 1.15 ± 0.1; 1.11 ± 0.13) did not differ from the negative control animal (1.31 ± 0.33), but from the cyclophosphamide group (0.61 ± 0.12). Cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 40.0 μg/mL, and antimicrobial activity were not observed for the essential oil (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.5 mg/mL). The essential oil did not change the levels of caspase-3 in the TNF-α level. The essential oil showed antimutagenic activity due to its chemical composition. Terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene are the main constituents of the essential oil of P. heptaphyllum collected within 3-yearsThe essential oil of P. heptaphyllum did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC >0.5 mg/mL) against E. coli, S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicansThe essential oil

  20. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  1. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oil of Nepeta hormozganica Jamzad from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonboli, A; Saadat, M H; Arman, M; Kanani, M R

    2017-12-01

    The composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of the aerial flowering parts of Nepeta hormozganica Jamzad have been studied. Analysis of the oil was conducted by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty-two components were characterized accounting for 99.4% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes (87.5%) were found to be the predominant group of compounds, of which 18-cineole (65.0%) and 4aα-7α-7aβ-nepetalactone (13.0%) were the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its main constituents showed that all of the tested microorganisms were highly inhibited by the essential oil with inhibition zones ranged from 12 to 24 mm. The most sensitive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with the lowest MIC values of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively. Considering sensitivity screening it is conceivable that the activity of the oil from N. hormozganica could be attributed mainly to the synergistic property of 18-cineole and nepetalactone.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke and Siparuna guianensis Aublet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to chemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke (pepper and Siparuna guianensis Aublet (negramina. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger modified apparatus, and the identification and quantification of constituents, through GC/MS and GC-FID analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using β-carotene/linoleic acid system and the DPPH radical sequestering method. In chromatographic analysis, the majority constituents found in the essential oil of C. dinisii were bicyclic monoterpenes, α-pinene (35.41%, β-pinene (17.81%, sabinene (12.01% and sesquiterpene bicyclogermacrene (7.59%. In the essential oil of the fresh leaves of Siparuna guianensis Aublet, acyclic monoterpene, β-myrcene (13.14%, and sesquiterpenes, germacrene-D (8.68% and bicyclogermacrene (16.71% were identified. The antioxidant activity was low by the β-carotene/linoleic acid test and was not evidenced by the DPPH test, for both oils evaluated.

  3. Composition of the essential oils of three Uzbek Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirjonovna; Sharopov, Farukh; Satyal, Prabodh; Azimova, Shahnoz Sadykovna; Wink, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria immaculata Nevski ex Juz., Scutellaria ramosissima M. Pop. and Scutellaria schachristanica Juz. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Uzbekistan was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oils from S. immaculata were acetophenone (30.39%), eugenol (20.61%), thymol (10.04%) and linalool (6.92%), whereas constituents of the essential oils fromS. schachristanica were acetophenone (34.74%), linalool (26.98%) and eugenol (20.67%). The S. ramosissima oil is dominated by germacrene D (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (11.09%), linalool (9.63%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.34%). The essential oils of Scutellaria species exhibited weaker antioxidant effects in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. In FRAP assay, only eugenol exhibited a substantial reducing power IC 50  = 2476.92 ± 15.8 (mM Fe(II)/g).

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, Antonio C; Souza, Mariana C; Henriques, Maria G M O; Ramos, Mônica F S

    2013-07-01

    Despite the many biological activities reported for essential oils, their anti-inflammatory ability is relatively underexplored considering the wide variation in plant sources and in their volatile composition. Oils from Syzygium cumini Skells (SC) and Psidium guajava L. (PG) (Myrtaceae) have been described as having diverse pharmacological activities. The current study seeks to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils from the leaves of SC and PG, as well as some of their terpene-enriched fractions (+V = more volatile and -V = less volatile) obtained by vacuum distillation. Both the pharmacological responses and chemical compositions were correlated. The relative contents of the oils and their fractions were evaluated by gas chromatography. Individual constituents in the oils were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Anti-inflammatory activity was accessed in the lipopolysaccharide-induced pleurisy model, by measuring the inhibition of total leukocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil migration in the mice pleural lavage, after oil treatment with the oils at 100 mg/kg. Eosinophil migration was inhibited by SC (67%), SC (+V) (63%), PG (76%), PG (+V) (67%) and PG (-V) (74%). This efficacy was correlated with the presence of β-pinene and β-caryophyllene in the oils, a result that was reinforced by evaluating both these pure components (38 and 50% inhibition, respectively). Synergistic effects associated with the presence of α-pinene were speculated. Essential oils from SC and PG may be useful to treat inflammatory diseases by mechanisms that include the inhibition of eosinophil migration.

  5. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  6. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  7. Degradation of Zearalenone by Essential Oils under In vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczak, Adam; Juś, Krzysztof; Marchwińska, Katarzyna; Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Goliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds, extracted from plants, which have a strong odor. These compounds are known for their antibacterial and antifungal properties. However, data concerning degradation of mycotoxins by these metabolites are very limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of essential oils (cedarwood, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, white grapefruit, pink grapefruit, lemon, eucalyptus, palmarosa, mint, thymic, and rosemary) on zearalenone (ZEA) reduction under various in vitro conditions, including the influence of temperature, pH, incubation time and mycotoxin and essential oil concentrations. The degree of ZEA reduction was determined by HPLC method. It was found that the kind of essential oil influences the effectiveness of toxin level reduction, the highest being observed for lemon, grapefruit, eucalyptus and palmarosa oils, while lavender, thymic and rosemary oils did not degrade the toxin. In addition, the decrease in ZEA content was temperature, pH as well as toxin and essential oil concentration dependent. Generally, higher reduction was observed at higher temperature in a wide range of pH, with clear evidence that the degradation rate increased gradually with time. In some combinations (e.g., palmarosa oil at pH 6 and 4 or 20°C) a toxin degradation rate higher than 99% was observed. It was concluded that some of the tested essential oils may be effective in detoxification of ZEA. We suggested that essential oils should be recognized as an interesting and effective means of ZEA decontamination and/or detoxification. PMID:27563298

  8. Essential Oil Composition of Cirsium arvense L. Produced in Different Climate and Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Amiri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the quantitative and qualitative effects of climate and soil properties on essential oil content and composition of Cirsium arvense L. (Asteraceae, which is an important medicinal plant. Root, stem, and leaf tissues were collected from plants found in four regions (Shahrekord, Farsan, Chelgerd and Ardal of the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main constituents of essential oils from the various populations were nonadecane, β-citronellol, camphor, heneicosane and phytol. The highest levels of nonadecane (40.1-42% and camphor (18.1-18.4% were obtained from roots collected from the Chelgerd region, the most levels of β-citronellol (24.9-25.01% were obtained from leaves from the Chelgerd region, and the most levels of heneicosane (14.4-15.6% and phytol (11.8-12.58% were obtained from stems from the Shahrekord region. The most amount of essential oil (0.34-0.33% was obtained from roots growing in clay soil in the Chelgerd region. Both climate and soil properties had significant effects on the essential oil of C. arvense. The highestt essential oil contents were obtained from plants growing in clay soil, which seemed to have a greater capacity to hold water and nutrients, both of which promote plant growth and essential oil production.

  9. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Amantea, Diana; Russo, Rossella; Berliocchi, Laura; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2010-09-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its exocytotic and carrier-mediated release of discrete amino acids endowed with neurotransmitter function in the mammalian hippocampus supporting the deduction that BEO is able to interfere with normal and pathological synaptic plasticity. The observed neuroprotection in the course of experimental brain ischemia and pain does support this view. In conclusion, the data yielded so far contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this phytocomplex on nerve tissue under normal and pathological experimental conditions and provide a rational basis for the practical use of BEO in complementary medicine. The opening of a wide venue for future research and translation into clinical settings is also envisaged. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. GC-MS analysis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Anticancer activity of essential oil of Pinus roxburghii from Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Wajaht A. Shah; Mahpara Qadir; Javid A. Banday

    2014-01-01

    This work was carried out to evaluate chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil. The oil was extracted by hydro-distillation which was analysed through GC-MS. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method and antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH assay while as anticancer activity was evaluated through MTT method. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the major constituents present in the oil. This...

  11. Influence of essential oils on the growth of aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Foltinová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was focused on the determination of the inhibitory effect of selected essential oils on growth of ten isolates of Aspergillus flavus and their potential ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro by TLC method. The isolates were obtained from moldy bread of domestic origin. We followed the impact of five essential oils at 100% concentration - lemon, eucalyptus, oregano, sage and thyme. The effect of the essential oils we tested the gaseous diffusion method. We isolates grown on CYA (Czapek yeast extract agar, in the dark at 25 ±1 °C, 14 days. The diameter of colonies grown we continuously measured on the 3rd, 7th, 11th, and 14th day of cultivation. The results of the paper suggest that oregano and thyme essential oil had 100% inhibited the growth of all tested isolates of Aspergillus flavus. Lemon, eucalyptus and sage essential oil had not significant inhibitory effects on tested isolates Aspergillus flavus, but affected the growth of colonies throughout the cultivation. In addition to the inhibitory effect we witnessed the stimulative effect of lemon, eucalyptus and sage essential oil to some isolates. Together with the antifungal effect of essential oils, we monitored the ability of Aspergillus flavus isolates to produce mycotoxins - aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA in the presence of essential oils. Production mycotoxins we have seen in the last (14th day of cultivation. Lemon and eucalyptus essential oil did not affect the production of mycotoxins. In the case of sage essential oil we were recorded cyclopiazonic acid production in three of the ten isolates from the all three repetitions, while neither isolate did not produced aflatoxin B1. The production of secondary metabolites was detected in all control samples. From the results we can say that oregano and thyme essential oil could be used as a natural preservative useful in the food industry.

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC 50 value   =   488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC 50  value =   321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  14. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis L'Her.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Canhoto, Jorge; Vale-Silva, Luís; Silva, Maria João; Pinto, Eugénia; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2011-05-01

    In the present work we report for what we believe to be the first time the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis from Portugal. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC/MS. The MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi. The influence of subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide and FUN-1 staining of Candida albicans cells by flow cytometry following short treatments with the essential oil. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygen-containing monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole being the main constituent. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present at lower concentrations. According to the determined MIC and MLC values, the dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans were the most sensitive fungi (MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32 to 0.64 µl ml⁻¹), followed by Candida species (at 0.64-2.5 µl ml⁻¹). For most of these strains, MICs were equivalent to MLCs, indicating a fungicidal effect of the essential oil. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in Candida albicans at concentrations well below the respective MICs (as low as MIC/16). Flow cytometry results suggested a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. Our results show that L. viridis essential oils may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases, particularly dermatophytosis and candidosis, although clinical trials are required to evaluate the practical relevance of our in vitro research.

  15. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, Mr; Abedi, D; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N

    2012-12-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes). The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  16. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  17. Volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of Catimbium latilabre (Ridl.) Holtt. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of C. latilabre from Vietnam were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. More than 55 components were present in the seed oil, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (25.8%), camphor (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%),

  18. Effect of natural and artificial drying of leaf biomassof Psidium guajava on the content and chemical composition of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is native to Central and South America. It is widely distributed and well adapted to Brazil, a producer of essential oils rich in terpenes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. grown in Rio Verde (GO. The two treatments consisted of drying fresh leaves either naturally in the shade or artificially at 40°C. Chemical composition was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas coupled with mass spectrometer chromatography (GC/MS and gas chromatography using a flame ionizer (GC-FID, respectively. The method of drying changed the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves. Drying in the shade reduced the content and altered the constituents of the essential oil, whereas drying in an oven at 40°C, despite having reduced the amounts of the constituents, exhibited the highest essential oil content and increased the concentration of certain major constituents as compared to that in the natural shade drying method. The major components found in the essential oil of leaves regardless of the drying processes were trans-caryophyllene, ?-humulene, aromadendrene, ?-selinene, and selin-11-en-4?-ol. According to reports in the literature, these compounds possess fungicidal, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, among others beneficial actions.

  19. chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-distilled essential oil from Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae) growing in Kenya was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Twenty two compounds which constitute 99.29 % of the total oil were identified. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes, which ...

  20. easonal variation in the essential oil composition of origanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. subsp. sinaicum Greuter and Burdet obtained by hydrodistillation during four seasons was analyzed by GC-MS. The composition of the oil showed qualitative and quantitative variation. Carvacrol was the major component (64.71%, 36.50%) in summer and spring oils, respectively.

  1. Extraction of siphonochilus aethiopicus essential oil by steam distillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malaka, MS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available was to optimize the process parameters of steam distillation for the extraction of oil from African ginger rhizomes. This technology is the oldest and well known for extracting essential oils due to its economic viability and the higher final oil purity...

  2. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

  3. Essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Sperkova, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils of Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiberaceae, were isolated from its rhizomes and leaves by hydrodistillation. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC/MS revealed that the rhizome oil contained terpinen-4-ol (50.5%), (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)buta-1,3-diene 09.1%),

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  5. Preisocalamendiol, Shyobunol and Related Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes from Bolivian Schinus molle Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Alexis; Mathieu, Michel; Levasseur, Virginie; Ovando, Jesús Flores; Escamilla, Ruben; Marceau, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Five batches of Bolivian Schinus molle essential oils were obtained from pilot and industrial-scale hydrodiffusions. They were analyzed by gas chromatography to find 80 known compounds and two unknown molecules. In particular, preisocalamendiol (5.6-11.0 %) was found to be an important constituent of these oils, along with shyobunol (0.6-3.2 %) and several other related oxygenated sesquiterpenes. These compounds, usually found in Acorus calamus, had not been reported altogether in S. molle essential oils previously. These findings, in light of the GABAA positive modulating effect of shyobunone and preisocalamendiol, along with some traditional uses of S. molle, suggest that further investigation of the tranquilizing properties of these Bolivian oils would be of interest.

  6. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status. Methods Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. Results In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride - induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride - induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Khaled; Sakouhi, Fawzi; Herchi, Wahid; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-01-19

    In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain α-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata (arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and α-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  8. Essential Oil Compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad * , Khong Heng Yen, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been largely employed for human need due to their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important. Essential oils or some of their components are used in perfumes and make-up products, sanitary products, dentistry, agriculture, as food preservers and additives, and as natural remedies. The essential oil compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae family have been investigated for many years. In the recent years, studies on the essential oils of the species have been progressing and many of them have reported interesting pharmacological activities. In this article, we summarized and updated the chemical compositions and biological activities of Malaysian Lauraceae. Throughout our literature review, only four genera which are Lindera, Beilschmiedia, Litsea, and Cinnamomum have been studied for their essential oil compositions in Malaysia. They were found to contain mainly safrole, eugenol, linalool, camphor, benzyl benzoate or cinnamaldehyde as major components. There were significant priorities to find out the details of the chemical compositions of the essential oils from Malaysian Lauraceae. Therefore, more clinical studies on the toxicity of the essential oil of the species are also crucial to ensure their safety and to assess their eligibility to be used as the sources of modern medicines.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata L | Osho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensitivity of Bacillus Subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oils of both the aerial and root parts were determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to the essential oil from both the aerial and root part of the plant. C. torulopsis, C. stellatoidea and ...

  11. Essential Oil Composition of Two Grammosciadium DC Species, G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turk J Bot 2012; 36: 637-643. 7. Buchbauer G. The detailed analysis of essential oils leads to the understanding of their properties. Perfumer. & Flavourist 2000; 25: 64-67. 8. Tzakou O, Pitarokili D, Chinou IB, Harvala C. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Salvia ringens. Planta Med 2001; 67: 81-83.

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of the essential oil of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Camphene, borneol ...

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BURSERA MORELENSIS RAMÍREZ ESSENTIAL OIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Canales-Martinez; C R, Rivera-Yañez; J, Salas-Oropeza; H R, Lopez; M, Jimenez-Estrada; R, Rosas-Lopez; D A, Duran; C, Flores; L B, Hernandez; M A, Rodriguez-Monroy

    2017-01-01

    Bursera morelensis , known as "Aceitillo", is an endemic tree of Mexico. Infusions made from the bark of this species have been used for the treatment of skin infections and for their wound healing properties. In this work, we present the results of a phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of the essential oil of B. morelensis . The essential oil was obtained by a steam distillation method and analyzed using GC-MS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. GC-MS of the essential oil demonstrated the presence of 28 compounds. The principal compound of the essential oil was a-Phellandrene (32.69%). The essential oil had antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative strains. The most sensitive strains were S. pneumoniae , V. cholerae (cc) and E. coli (MIC 0.125 mg/mL, MBC 0.25 mg/mL). The essential oil was bactericidal for V. cholera (cc). The essential oil inhibited all the filamentous fungi. F. monilifome (IC 50 = 2.27 mg/mL) was the most sensitive fungal strain. This work provides evidence that confirms the antimicrobial activity of the B. morelensis essential oil and this is a scientific support about of traditional uses of this species.

  15. Economic Analysis of Production of Essential Oil using Steam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the profitability analysis and measure of return on investment carried out based on the various assumptions and projections made, it was quite obvious that the production of essential oil using steam distillation technology is highly profitable which should be attractive to potential investors. Keywords: Essential oil ...

  16. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  17. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in .... h to steam distillation using a Clevenger apparatus to produce the essential oil in a .... The amount of crude methanol extract was 189 mg/g dry.

  18. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as natural antioxidant agents. So in this study, the effect of thyme, coriander and rosemary essential oils were evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase activity in apples (Malus domestica Mill. cv Golden delicious), (M. domestica Mill.

  19. Comparative Chemical And Analgesic Properties Of Essential Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The Chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used ...

  20. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Pulicaria inuloides and Ocimum forskolei essential oils. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of P. inuloides and O. forskolei was performed using a Clevenger apparatus. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

  1. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  2. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  3. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nuñez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21º C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use

  4. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of G. parviflora aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/nematicide for control of nematodes and grain storage insects. Keywords: Glycosmis parviflora, Essential oil, Meloidogyne incognita, Sitophilus zeamais, Triboliumcastaneum, Contact ...

  5. Composition of the Essential Oil of Clausena Suffruticosa Leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the essential oil content of Clausena suffruticosa leaf for its in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Methods: The essential oil of Clausena suffruticosa leaf was extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and was analyzed by GC-MS using electron impact ...

  6. Chemical composition and toxic activity of essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, essential oil of Caryopteris incana aerial parts was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified by GC and GC/MS. Estragole ...

  7. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the insecticidal properties of essential oil from Mosla soochowensis aerial parts against two insect pests, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum. Methods: Hydro-distillation of M. soochowensis was used to extract the essential oil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was ...

  8. Evaluation of the lethality of Porophyllum ruderale essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of flowers and leaves of Porophylum ruderale (Asteraceae) was investigated for its molluscicidal and larvicidal activities, and its toxicities to brine shrimps. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis showed a total volatile content of 99.98% in the P.

  9. Chemical Composition of Zanthoxylum avicennae Essential Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC. (Rutaceae) leaves and stems against the larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse. Methods: Essential oil of Z. avicennae leaves and stems were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography ...

  10. Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil derived from Illicium fargesii Finet et Gagnep fruits against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Essential oil of I. fargesii fruits was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by GC (Gas Chromatography) ...

  11. In Vitro antifungal activity of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri

    2018-04-01

    The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.

  12. Essential oil composition and bioactivity of Thuja orientalis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus from aerial parts of Thuja orientalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry technique. Toxicity of the essential oils using anti-feedant and ...

  13. The essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmayekiso

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... hydro-distillation during summer and winter months. Both essential oils were analyzed by gas .... Hydro-distillation of leaves and branches of S. hippifolium yielded an essential oil which was light blue in .... to the out-membrane structure of Gram-negative bacteria. (Delamare et al., 2005; Page et al., 1997).

  14. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  15. Transfer of terpenes from essential oils into cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, J.; Løkke, M.M.; Larsen, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the transfer of volatile terpenes from caraway seed and oregano plant essential oils into cow's milk through respiratory and gastrointestinal exposure. Essential oils have potential applications as feed additives because of their antimicrobial...... properties, but very little work exists on the transfer of their volatile compounds into milk. Lactating Danish Holstein cows with duodenum cannula were used. Gastrointestinal exposure was facilitated by infusing the essential oils, mixed with deodorized sesame oil, into the duodenum cannula. Two levels were...

  16. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  17. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakusić, Branislava; Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Marcetić, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development.

  19. Composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Senecio selloi Spreng DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N.S. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial parts of Senecio selloi Spreng. DC. was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. Nineteen compounds were identified, representing 99.9% of the total. The main compounds were found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (71.3%, most of them with a bisabolane skeleton (59.4%. The major constituent was α-zingiberene (54%, followed by monoterpene α-isolimonene (16%. The essential oil was also tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacterial species, three yeasts, and an algae. From the strains assayed, only Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed susceptibility (MIC and MBC = 4400 µg/mL to the essential oil.

  20. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Cymbopogon citratus L. and Cymbopogon nardus L. essential oils from Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Koba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus L. and Cymbopogon nardus L.(Poaceae from Togo were steam-distilled, analyzed for percentage composition and investigated in vitro for their potential cytotoxic activity on human epidermic cell line HaCat. The percentage composition showed that the main constituents of essential oils samples were respectively geranial (45.2%, neral(32.4% and myrcène (10.2% for C. citratus essential oil and citronellal (35.5%, geraniol (27.9% and citronellol (10.7% for that of C. nardus. The in vitro cytotoxicity bioassays on human epidermic cell line HaCaT revealed that the toxicityof the essential oil from C. citratus (IC50: 150 μL.mL-1 was higher than that of the essential oil from C. nardus (IC50: 450 μL.mL-1. Pure commercial neral, geranial, and citronellal standards showed respectively the following IC50 values: 100, 250 and 300 μL.mL-1. Conversely, pure citronellol standard appeared almost non-toxic (IC50>1000 μL.mL-1, proving the major role played in synergyby neral and geranial in the overall toxicity showed by the citratus oil sample tested in this work.

  1. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Cymbopogon citratus L. and Cymbopogon nardus L. essential oils from Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Koba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus L. and Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae from Togo were steam-distilled, analyzed for percentage composition and investigated in vitro for their potential cytotoxic activity on human epidermic cell line HaCat. The percentage composition showed that the main constituents of essential oils samples were respectively geranial (45.2%, neral (32.4% and myrc¨ne (10.2% for C. citratus essential oil and citronellal (35.5%, geraniol (27.9% and citronellol (10.7% for that of C. nardus. The in vitro cytotoxicity bioassays on human epidermic cell line HaCaT revealed that the toxicity of the essential oil from C. citratus (IC50: 150 µL.mL-1 was higher than that of the essential oil from C. nardus (IC50: 450 µL.mL-1. Pure commercial neral, geranial, and citronellal standards showed respectively the following IC50 values: 100, 250 and 300 µL.mL-1. Conversely, pure citronellol standard appeared almost non-toxic (IC50>1000 µL.mL-1, proving the major role played in synergy by neral and geranial in the overall toxicity showed by the citratus oil sample tested in this work.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Tzasna; Canales, Margarita; Teran, Barbara; Avila, Olivia; Duran, Angel; Garcia, Ana Maria; Hernandez, Hector; Angeles-Lopez, Omar; Fernandez-Araiza, Mario; Avila, Guillermo

    2007-04-20

    In traditional Mexican medicine Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes is used to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological disorders in Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 13 bacteria and five fungal strains. The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were the strains more sensitive to the essential oil effect (MIC=62 microg/mL) and Vibrio cholerae for the hexane extract (MIC=125 microg/mL). Rhyzoctonia solani was the strain more sensitive to the essential oil effect (IC(50)=180 microg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes for the hexane extract (IC(50)=230 microg/mL). The essential oil was examined by GC and GC-MS. A total 11 constituents representing 96.28% of the essential oil were identified: 4-methyl,4-ethenyl-3-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-(1-methyl methanol)cyclohexane (37.34%), beta-eudesmol (19.21%), spathulenol (11.25%) and cadina 4(5), 10(14) diene (7.93%) were found to be the major components. The present study tends to confirm the use in the folk medicine of Cordia curassavica in gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological diseases.

  3. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  5. Fumigant and repellent activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia dubia and its main compounds against two stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2018-05-01

    The major chemical constituents of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia dubia wall. ex Bess. (Family: Asteraceae) were found as terpinolene (19.02%), limonene (17.40%), 2,5-etheno[4.2.2]propella-3,7,9-triene (11.29%), isoelemicin (11.05%) and p-cymene-8-ol (5.93%). Terpinolene and limonene were separated as main components from the essential oil. The essential oil showed fumigant toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila with LC 50 values of 49.54 and 0.74 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil and isolated compounds of A. dubia showed repellency activities against both insects. Terpinolene and limonene showed the fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum. Terpinolene showed obvious fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. dubia had potential to be developed into natural insecticides for controlling stored product pests.

  6. Analysis of essential oils of leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridahanim Mohd Jaafar; Che Puteh Osman; Nor Hadiani Ismail; Khalijah Awang

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior, an aromatic plant that are widely used in traditional medicine and as a flavour in local dishes were extracted. The essential oils were extracted using the hydro distillation method and analysed by GC-MS. The percentage yield of volatile constituents of the leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes were 0.0735%, 0.0029%, 0.0334% and 0.0021%, respectively. The leaf essential oil contained β- pinene (19.7%), caryophyllene (15.36%) and (E)-β-farnesene (27.90%) as major compounds whereas the stem essential oil were largely dominated by 1,1-dodecanediol diacetate (34.26%) and (E)-5-dodecane (26.99%). The essential oils of the flowers and rhizomes contained the major compounds 1, 1- dodecanediol diacetate (24.38% and 40.37% respectively) and cyclododecane (47.28% and 34.45% respectively). (author)

  7. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils from roots of Pinus growing in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia FEKIH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of essential oils of three roots of genus Pinus (P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster growing in Algeria for the first time. The essential oils used in the present study were isolated by hydrodistillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus according the European Pharmacopoeia, and identified by GC and GC-MS. 14, 12, 11 constituents were identified, representing an average of 98.8 %, 91.3 % and 83.6 % of the total oil of roots of P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster respectively. The chemical profile reveals the dominance of monoterpenes compounds, although some quantitative variance was noticed. The main constituents of the oil root of P. halepensis were α-Pinene (87.4 % and trans-p-Caryophyllene (3.5 %. The oil of P. pinea was dominated by Limonene (66.3 %, Trans-p-Caryophyllene (9.6 %, Myrcene (3.2 % and Osmorhizol (3.2 %. The oil of P. pinaster was rich by α-Pinene (22 %, β-Pinene (27.1 % and Trans-p-Caryophyllene (21.4 %. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from roots of P. halepensis, P. pinea and P. pinaster were tested against a panel of bacteria and one yeast strain using the agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods. The diameters of zones of inhibition exhibited by the essential oils were between 7 and 25 mm. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 28.4 μg/mL of P. halepensis and P. pinaster against S. aureus and C. albicans respectively.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil of Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae from Macedonian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of needle essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation from wild Pinus peuce Griseb. (Pinaceae, growing on three different locations in R. Macedonia were investigated in period 2008/2009. Carried out GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred and three constituents were identified belonging to the six different classes of components: monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and other non-terpene components, representing 88.61/94.04% of the entire oil. The most abundant constituents were α-pinene (12.89/27.34%, β-pinene (6.16/13.13%, limonene + β-phellandrene (2.09/6.64% and bornyl acetate (2.92/11.67% as well as trans-(E-caryophyllene (4.63/7.13% and germacrene D (8.75/20.14%. Antimicrobial screening of Pinus peuce needle essential oil was made by hole-plate diffusion and broth dilution method against 13 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria against tested Pinus peuce essential oils were Streptococcus pneumonia encompassing Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Acinetobacter spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the oils ranged from 7.5- 62.5 µl/ml.

  10. Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oil and treatment of fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2017-05-01

    A. sieberi essential oil has been used for treatment of hardly curable infectious ulcers in Middle East Medicine and has been famous due to its wormicide effects. In this review, we evaluated the potency of A. sieberi essential oil in treatment of fungal infections. We searched in PubMed Central, Science direct, Wiley, Springer, SID, and accessible books, reports, thesis. There is a lot of mixed information on chemical compositions of A. sieberi essential oil, but most articles reported α, β-thujones as the main components of essential oils. In vitro studies confirmed the antifungal activity of A. sieberi essential oil against saprophytes fungi, dermatophytes, Malassezia sp. and Candida sp. and these results were confirmed in six clinical studies. The clinical studies confirmed the superiority of A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion in improvement of clinical signs of fungal superficial diseases, and mycological laboratory examinations of dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor diseases than clotrimazole (1%) topical treatment. The recurrence rate of superficial fungal infections with dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor was statistically lower in A. sieberi essential oil (5%) lotion than clotrimazole. There are no adverse effects due to the application of A. sieberi essential oil in clinical studies. Despite, the efficacy of A. sieberi essential oil against Candida sp., there is no clinical study about their related infections. Investigation about the effects of A. sieberi essential oil on fungal virulence factors in order to identifying the exact mechanism of antifungal activity and clinical trials on Candida related diseases are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8‑cineole, against certain respiratory infection‑causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry. A micro‑well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 µg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 µg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 µg/mouse) and grandisol (135 µg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (Pessential oil or grandisol 135 µg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly inhibit the growth of different

  12. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, CHANG; HU, DONG-HUI; FENG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 μg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 μg/mouse) and grandisol (135 μg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (Pessential oil or grandisol 135 μg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly inhibit the growth of different bacterial

  13. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Constituents of the seed and fruit peel oils of Alpinia breviligulata Gagnep. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The chem. compn. of the seed and fruit peel oils of A. breviligulata was examd. by GC and GC/MS. More than 20 and 30 constituent were found to be present in the seed and fruit peel oils resp. The main compds., accounting for 79.9 and 41.4% of the resp. oils, were (E,E)-farnesol (65.0%), geranyl

  15. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sadeghi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the harmful effects of chemical foods preservatives on human body, it is crucial to find out safe antimicrobials among essential oils and herbs. This study aimed to address the effects of different essential oils on various bacterial species through a systematic review. A wide range of published papers in national and international data bases have been searched for the relevant articles. For this reason, the keywords used in searching were: "essential oils in food", "antimicrobial effect" and "vegetable oils". Among 462 retrieved articles, 76 papers were selected for further reviewing based on their title and abstracts. Based on results, the antimicrobial effects of different essential oils on pathogenic and spoilage organisms were compared. Moreover, the most effective as well as the least effective essential oils on microbial growth were identified. It was concluded that essential oils are more effective on gram positive bacteria rather than gram negatives. Besides, it was evident that some essential oils negatively affected the useful organisms such as lactobacilli.

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  18. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Different Morphological Parts of Pinus cembra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Anna; Kalinowska, Aleksandra; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Mellor, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood, and cones of Pinus cembra were analyzed by GC-FID, GC/MS, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles were α-pinene (36.3%), limonene (22.7%) and β-phellandrene (12.0%). The needle oil was dominated by α-pinene (48.4%), whereas in the oil from bark and in the oil from twigs without needles there were limonene (36.2% and 33.6%, resp.) and β-phellandrene (18.8% and 17.1%, resp.). The main constituents of the wood oil as well as cone oil were α-pinene (35.2% and 39.0%, resp.) and β-pinene (10.4% and 18.9%, resp.). The wood oil and the cone oil contained large amounts of oxygenated diterpenes in comparison with needle, twig, and bark oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. In vitro biological evaluation of eight different essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi, with emphasis on Cinnamomum verum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Camila Maria O; Santos, Thalita Gilda; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha Sales; Soares, Maurilio José

    2014-08-22

    Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against trypanosomatid protozoa. Thus, we analyzed the biological activity of different EOs on Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The following EOs were evaluated on T. cruzi epimastigote forms: Cinnamomum verum, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon nardus, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Eugenia uniflora, Myrocarpus frondosus, and Rosmarinus officinalis. Inhibitory activity against T. cruzi (IC50/24 h) and cytotoxicity against Vero cells (CC50/24 h) were evaluated by the MTT assay. The EO of C. verum was selected for further evaluation against trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, as well as on parasite metacyclogenesis. Constituents of C. verum EO were identified by GC-MS. One-way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad version 5.01. Cinnamomum verum EO was the most effective against T. cruzi epimastigotes (IC50/24 h = 24.13 μg/ml), followed by Myrocarpus frondosus (IC50/24 h = 60.87 μg/ml) and Eugenia uniflora (IC50/24 h = 70 μg/ml). The EOs of C. citriodora, E. globulus, and R. officinalis showed no activity at concentrations up to 300 μg/ml. Incubation of T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with C. verum EO resulted in IC50/24 h values of 5.05 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, trypomastigotes are more susceptible than epimastigotes, with selectivity index (SI) about 4.7-fold higher (9.78 and 2.05, respectively). Analysis of C. verum EO by GC-MS showed mainly (E)-cinnamaldehyde (81.52%) and eugenol (16.68%). C. verum essential oil is effective against T. cruzi (epimastigotes, trypomastigotes and amastigotes) and interferes with the parasite differentiation process in vitro. Thus, it represents a strong candidate for further studies to improve its activity on pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  20. Thermal neutron activation analysis of essential and trace elements and organic constituents in Trikatu. An Ayurvedic formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, R.P.; Kumar, A.; Garg, A.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Trikatu, an Ayurvedic formulation of three dried powder spices, ginger, black pepper and pipali in equal proportion is widely used to promote digestion, assimilation and bioavailibility of food. It works synergistically, and hence, is more effective than an equal amount of any of its three ingredients taken separately. Five different brands and its three constituents were analyzed for 31 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using 5-minute and 6-hour thermal neutron irradiation followed by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Heavy toxic metals Cd, Ni and Pb determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were found below permissible limits. Most elements in different brands vary in a narrow range. Ginger is particularly enriched in Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn whereas black pepper is enriched in Cr, Se, P and Zn. Cu/Zn shows linear relationship (r = 0.92) with Cu whereas Fe and Mn exhibit inverse correlation (r = -0.89) in different brands. Hydro distillation of pipali yielded an essential oil whereby 10 organic constituents were identified by GC-MS. Also barbituric and tannic acids were isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of pipali. (author)

  1. Composition of essential oils isolated from the needles of Pinus uncinata and P. uliginosa grown in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonikowski, Radosław; Celiński, Konrad; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The compositions of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) and peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) needle essential oils were investigated. Enantiomeric compositions of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons were also examined. Respectively, fifty-three and seventy-six components of the essential oils were identified using GC-MS and retention indexes. The main group of essential oil components of mountain pine needles were monoterpenes, and bornyl acetate constituted approximately 30% (46.3 g/100 g) of the oil. In peat-bog pine essential oil, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes exhibited a similar content (ca. 40%). Bornyl acetate and α-pinene were the main constituents of both essential oils. In the essential oil of P. uncinata needles, limonene, camphene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were also noticeable, while in the essential oil of P. uliginosa needles, Δ-car-3-ene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, δ-cadinene, germacrene D 4-ol and α-cadinol were present in notable quantities. In both essential oils, borneol propionate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate were detected. Their presence was confirmed by synthesis and analysis of the standards; retention indexes on a non-polar column are published herein.

  2. Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Smyrnium olusatrum L. Essential Oil, Growing Wild in Cephalonia, Greece. Chemical Analysis and Structure Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimia Tsasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EOs from the leaves and the flowers of Smyrnium olusatrum L. , growing wild in the island of Cephalonia (Greece, were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Fifty nine constituents, which accounted for 90.3% (fl and 97.1% (lvs of the oils, were identified. Furanodiene, g ermacrone and furanoeremophil-1-one were the major constituents in both essential oils; they were also isolated from the flowers essential oil and identified using spectroscopic methods, ie. 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS . In addition b -myrcene ( 11.7% and b -phellandrene (5.2% were main constituents in the essential oil of the leaves. The essential oils and the pure isolates were evaluated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verucosum var. cyclopium by using the microdilution method and proved to possess significant antifungal effect. Among them, (+ furanoeremophil-1-one was particularly active with MIC values in the range of 0.0008-0.125 mg/mL and MFC values of 0.025-0.050 mg/mL and proved more effective than the commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole used as positive controls.

  3. Cytotoxicity screening of essential oils in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the cytotoxicity activity of the essential oils of Tagetes erecta L., Asteraceae (TE-OE, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst. Codd, Lamiaceae (TR-OE, Bidens sulphurea (Cav. Sch. Bip., Asteraceae (BS-OE, and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae (FV-OE, traditionally used in folk medicine, against the tumor cell lines murine melanoma (B16F10, human colon carcinoma (HT29, human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7, human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2, and human glioblastoma (MO59J, U343, and U251. Normal hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells were included as control. The cells were treated with essential oil concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 400 µg/ml for 24 h. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the XTT assay; results were expressed as IC50, and the selectivity index was calculated. The results were compared with those achieved for classic chemotherapeutic agents. TE-OE was the most promising among the evaluated oils: it afforded the lowest IC50 values for B16F10 cells (7.47 ± 1.08 µg/ml and HT29 cells (6.93 ± 0.77 µg/ml, as well as selectivity indices of 2.61 and 2.81, respectively. The major BS-EO, FV-EO and TE-EO chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as being (E-caryophyllene (10.5%, germacrene D (35.0% and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (43.0% (BS-EO; limonene (21.3% and (E-anethole (70.2% (FV-EO; limonene (10.4%, dihydrotagetone (11.8%, α-terpinolene (18.1% and (E-ocimenone (13.0% (TE-EO; and fenchone (6.1%, dronabinol (11.0%, aromadendrene oxide (14.7% and (E,E–farnesol (15.0% (TR-EO. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (43.0%, (E-anethole (70.2% and α-terpinolene (18.1%, respectively. These results suggest that TE-OE may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells.

  4. Multielemental neutron activation analysis of essential elements in pragya peya - a herbal drink and its constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar; Garg, A.N.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Pragya peya-a mixture of 12 herbs often recommended as a drink after boiling in water or milk has been analysed for 15 elements (Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, V, and Zn) by short (5 min) and long (7 h) term irradiation in Apsara reactor followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Several constituent herbs have been found enriched in one or more essential nutrients. The elemental contents have been attributed to the overall nutritive and therapeutic importance. (author)

  5. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  6. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  7. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  8. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.

  9. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molkary Andrea López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral, geraniol (7% and trans-β-caryophyllene (7% for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%, limonene (33% and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8% for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

  10. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  11. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  12. Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Chengting; Lin, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, essential oils are recognized as safe substances and can be used as antibacterial additives. Salvia sclarea is one of the most important aromatic plants cultivated world-wide as a source of essential oils. In addition to being flavoring foods, Salvia sclarea essential oil can also act as antimicrobials and preservatives against food spoilage. Understanding more about the antibacterial performance and possible mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil will be helpful for its application in the future. But so far few related researches have been reported. In our study, Salvia sclarea oil showed obvious antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of seven pathogens were 0.05 and 0.1 % respectively. In addition, Salvia sclarea oil also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and meats. After treated with Salvia sclarea oil, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images can clearly see the damage of cell membrane; the intracellular ATP concentrations of E. coli and S. aureus reduced 98.27 and 69.61 % respectively, compared to the control groups; the nuclear DNA content of E. coli and S. aureus was significantly reduced to 48.32 and 50.77 % respectively. In addition, there was massive leakage of cellular material when E. coli and S. aureus were exposed to Salvia sclarea oil. Salvia sclarea essential oil damaged the cell membrane and changed the cell membrane permeability, leading to the release of some cytoplasm such as macromolecular substances, ATP and DNA. In general, the antimicrobial action of Salvia sclarea essential oil is not only attributable to a unique pathway, but also involves a series of events both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Therefore, more experiments need to be done to fully understand the antimicrobial mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

  13. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing drug resistance in microorganisms and concerns for side effects of chemical preservatives, especially in the food industry, have led to extensive studies on novel potential agents with natural origin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the Melissa officinalis essential oil. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch in 2012-2013. The essential oil was extracted from different parts of the plant (leaves, stem and flower by hydrodistillation. The essential oil was phytochemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial properties were examined by disc diffusion and microtiter plates. Antioxidant activity was examined by diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. Findings: E-Citral in leaves, 2-Cyclohexen-1-one, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl in stem, and Trans-Carveol in flower were the major components identified in the Melissa officinalis. Among different parts essential oil, the highest and the lowest antibacterial activity were related to leaves and stem, respectively. The largest diameter of the inhibition growth zone for Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was related to the leaves essential oil. The highest antioxidant activity was related to the leaves essential oil in DPPH assay. Conclusion: With regards to the results, the Melissa officinalis essential oil can be used as a natural preservative for increasing the shelf life of foods.

  14. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  15. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Zataria multiflora essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; HeidaryTabar, R; Mahdizadeh, E

    2017-06-01

    Dermtophytes are a group of pathogenic fungi and the major cause of dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Fighting dermatophytes by natural essential oils is one important issue in new researches. In this investigation, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of three samples of Z. multiflora essential oils against dermatophytes along with analysis of chemical compositions of the essential oils and their anti-elastase activities on elastase production in dermatophytes. Carvacrol (1.5-34.4%), thymol (25.8-41.2%), carvacrol methyl ether (1.9-28.3%) and p-cymene (2.3-8.3%) were the main components of Z. multiflora essential oils. Z. multiflora essential oils (100ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth of dermatophytes (6±1.7-47.0±1.4%) and had the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.03-0.25μl/ml against dermatophytes. Essential oils inhibited elastase produced in dermatophytes and pure porcine elastase. Z. multiflora essential oils can be used as natural anti-dermatophyte agent for fighting dermatophytes in further preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal activity of phenolic-rich Lavandula multifida L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, M; Vale-Silva, L; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Vaz, S; Canhoto, J; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluates the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of a new chemotype of Lavandula multifida from Portugal. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi responsible for candidosis, meningitis, dermatophytosis, and aspergillosis. The influence of the oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide (PI) and FUN-1 staining of C. albicans cells by flow cytometry. The essential oil was characterized by high contents of monoterpenes, with carvacrol and cis-β-ocimene being the main constituents. The oil was more effective against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC and MLC values of 0.16 μL/mL and 0.32 μL/mL, respectively. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in C. albicans at concentrations below the respective MIC (0.08 μL/mL), with cis-β-ocimene being the main compound responsible for this inhibition (0.02 μL/mL). The flow cytometry results suggest a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. L. multifida essential oil may be useful in complementary therapy to treat disseminated candidosis, since the inhibition of filamentation alone appears to be sufficient to treat this type of infection.

  17. Antioxidant and biocidal activities of Carum nigrum (seed) essential oil, oleoresin, and their selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Marimuthu, Palanisamy; de Heluani, Carola S; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2006-01-11

    In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and oleoresin of the seed from Carum nigrum obtained by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction using acetone, respectively, have been studied by GC and GC-MS techniques. The major component was dillapiole (29.9%) followed by germacrene B (21.4%), beta-caryophyllene (7.8%), beta-selinene (7.1%), and nothoapiole (5.8%) along with many other components in minor amounts. Seventeen components were identified in the oleoresin (Table 2) with dillapiole as a major component (30.7%). It also contains thymol (19.1%), nothoapiole (15.2.3%), and gamma-elemene (8.0%). The antioxidant activity of both the essential oil and oleoresin was evaluated in mustard oil by monitoring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid, and total carbonyl and p-anisidine values of the oil substrate. The results showed that both the essential oil and oleoresin were able to reduce the oxidation rate of the mustard oil in the accelerated condition at 60 degrees C in comparison with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.02%. In addition, individual antioxidant assays such as linoleic acid assay, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and chelating effects have been used. The C. nigrum seed essential oil exhibited complete inhibition against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2000 and 3000 ppm, respectively, by agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was determined against a panel of foodborne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium purpurogenum, Penicillium madriti, Acrophialophora fusispora, Penicillium viridicatum, and Aspergillus flavus. The fruit essential oil showed 100% mycelial zone inhibition against P. purpurogenum and A. fusispora at 3000 ppm in the poison food method. Hence, both oil and oleoresin could be used as an additive in food and pharmaceutical preparations after screening.

  18. Changes in the essential oil composition of leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus exposed to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, Alismataceae, were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation (0.00, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 10.00, and 20.00 kGy and the chemical composition of their essential oils was investigated. The extractive process of the essential oil was more favored when the leaves were irradiated. The essential oil components were identified by correlation between GC-FID data and retention parameters obtained from the Kováts method. Moreover, GC-MS analyses of the essential oils were correlated with fragmentation profiles in the NIST standard mass fragmentation data bank. The essential oil of E. macrophyllus contains biologically active constituents of different chemical classes. Acyclic monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes showed increase in concentration when the leaves were exposed to γ-radiation. On the other hand, the component concentrations of some chemical classes were lightly decreased, i.e., for bicyclic monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, carboxylic esters, and carotenoid derivatives.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil From Salvia mirzayanii Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Pakshir, Keyvan; Karami, Forough; Sabahi, Zahra

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of many pathogens to available drugs is a global challenge and is leading to growing interest in natural alternative products. In this study, chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil from Salvia mirzayanii were investigated. The chemical constituents of essential oil from S mirzayanii were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution. The main identified compounds were 1,8-cineole (41.2 ± 1.3%), linalool acetate (11.0 ± 0.5%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.0 ± 0.4%) (mL of essential oil/g of plant material). The MIC 95 were 0.03 to 0.5 µL/mL and 16 to 128 µL/mL for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results indicated that Salvia mirzayanii essential oil significantly inhibited the growth of standard and clinically isolated tested yeasts by MIC 50 0.03 to 1 µL/mL. Potent antibacterial and antifungal activities of Salvia mirzayanii essential oil may be considered in future study, particularly against antibiotic-resistant cases.

  20. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Pelargonium odoratissimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene A. Andrade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pelargonium odoratissimum (L. L'Hér., Geraniaceae, was determined and the antimicrobial activities against the Aspergillus flavus CML 1816, Aspergillus carbonarius CML1815 and Aspergillus parasiticus CMLA 817 fungi, as well the Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25 992 bacteria were evaluated. The essential oil was isolated by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and its constituents were identified and quantified by GC/MS and GC-FID analyses. In vitro bioanalytical testing was performed using a completely randomized design. The concentrations of essential oil employed ranged from 0.1 to 2 μL.mL-1 (in dimethyl sulfoxide for the fungus species and from 1 to 500 μL.mL-1 for the bacteria. The diameters of the inhibition zones formed for bacteria and the mean diameters of mycelial growth in perpendicular directions for fungi were measured, followed by calculation of the percentage of inhibition. The essential oil from the leaves of P. odoratissimum furnished methyleugenol (96.80%, a phenylpropanoid. This essential oil inhibited the growth of fungi (100% inhibition and exhibited a small effect on the bacteria at the concentrations tested.

  1. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Furlan, Marcos R.

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  2. Preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussa, Fabio V.; Duarte, Celina L.; Andrade, Luana S.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiosussa@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furlan, Marcos R., E-mail: furlanagro@gmail.com [Universidade de Taubate, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias

    2013-07-01

    Melissa officinalis L., Lemon balm, (Lamiaceae) is an herb used as medicine, condiment and in the cosmetic and perfumery industry due to its essential oil. In this study a preliminary assessment of trace elements effects on essential oil production was performed in order to verify an improvement in its quality. The Melissa officinalis samples were harvested from three different soil sites localized in Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Elemental concentration for the elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in Melissa officinalis leaves and surrounding soil. The essential oil was extracted from its leaves by hydrodistillation process in Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Certified reference materials NIST SRM-1515 Apple Leaves, NIST SRM-1547 Peach Leaves and NIST SRM-1573a Tomato Leaves were analyzed for quality control. Our results showed Geranial and Neral were identified as the major compounds in the essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis L. for all collected sites. However, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the site collected. The preliminary results showed that the production of essential oil by Melissa officinalis must be positively correlated with the concentrations of Rb, Zn and negatively correlated with Sc, Mn, La, K, Fe, and Cr. (author)

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  4. Toxicity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methyl salicylate dominated essential oils of Laportea aestuans (Gaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyat K. Oloyede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The colourless essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation from the whole plant of Laportea aestuans (Gaud were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The major constituents in the oil were methyl salicylate (54.50%, fenchol (10.59%, 1, 2-cyclohexanedione dioxime (9.40%, 1, 4-octadiene (8.86% and linalool (3.26%. The toxicity results obtained from brine shrimp lethality test gave LC50 value of 367.1805 μg/ml indicating that the oil is toxic. The oils showed appreciable antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolon, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium nonatum at 200 mg/ml when compared to standards; gentamicin for bacteria and tioconazole for fungi. The oil was however very active against the fungi R. stolon and A. niger at 25–200 mg/ml. While the in vitro antioxidant activities of the oils determined by scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical method showed that the oils have promising antioxidant activity as a free radical scavenger. At 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, the % inhibition of the essential oil (84.46% and 86.87%, respectively was discovered to be higher than the % inhibition of α-tocopherol (15.4% and 12.4%.

  5. Insecticidal effects of Ocimum sanctum var. cubensis essential oil on the diseases vector Chrysomya putoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelsy Chil-Núñez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: The blowfly Chrysomya putoria is widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region and, besides transmitting pathogens; they could cause secondary myiasis. Botanical insecticides provide an alternative to synthetic pesticides because the excessive use of synthetic insecticides resulted in a progressive resistance of the pests to these chemicals, diminishing their effectiveness and generating consequences with negative environmental impact. The essential oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum (basil has showed insecticidal activity against some insects but has no reported studies on the activity of this plant against flies. Aims: To evaluate the insecticidal effects of Ocimum sanctum var. cubensis Gomes essential oil on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya putoria. Methods: The colonies of Chrysomya putoria were established and maintained at the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Forense (FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The basil essential oil was tested in six concentrations (4.13, 8.25, 20.63, 41.25, 61.87 and 80,25 mg/mL. Mortality and changes in life cycle were recorded daily. Results: β-caryophyllene, β-selinene and eugenol, were the main constituents of the basil essential oil. The experiments demonstrated that in all concentrations tested, this essential oil shortening the duration of all post embryonic stages having a direct impact in the viability of this fly estimating the LC50 in 7.47 mg/mL of concentration. In addition, the essential oil caused morphological alterations in abdomen, wings and ptilinum at lower concentrations. Conclusions: This essential oil emerge as a good option for the control of the disease vector blowfly Chrysomya putoria.

  6. Chemical composition and anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoulous, Samia; Ferhout, Hicham; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Valentin, Alexis; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Couderc, François; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-06-01

    The essential oil from Cedrelopsis grevei leaves, an aromatic and medicinal plant from Madagascar, is widely used in folk medicine. Essential oil was characterized by GC-MS and quantified by GC-FID. Sixty-four components were identified. The major constituents were: (E)-β-farnesene (27.61%), δ-cadinene (14.48%), α-copaene (7.65%) and β-elemene (6.96%). The essential oil contained a complex mixture consisting mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (83.42%) and generally sesquiterpenes (98.91%). The essential oil was tested cytotoxic (on human breast cancer cells MCF-7), antimalarial (Plasmodium falciparum), antiinflammatory and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH assays) activities. C. grevei essential oil was active against MCF-7 cell lines (IC50=21.5 mg/L), against P. falciparum, (IC50=17.5mg/L) and antiinflammatory (IC50=21.33 mg/L). The essential oil exhibited poor antioxidant activity against DPPH (IC50>1000 mg/L) and ABTS (IC50=110 mg/L) assays. A bibliographical review was carried out of all essential oils identified and tested with respect to antiplasmodial, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. The aim was to establish correlations between the identified compounds and their biological activities (antiplasmodial, anticancer and antiinflammatory). According to the obtained correlations, 1,4-cadinadiene (R(2)=0.61) presented a higher relationship with antimalarial activity. However, only (Z)-β-farnesene (R(2)=0.73) showed a significant correlation for anticancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  8. Multidisciplinary Approach to Determine the Optimal Time and Period for Extracting the Essential Oil from Mentha suaveolens Ehrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Garzoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO, the main essential oils’ chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs’ antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July.

  9. In vitro Protoscolicidal Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Essential Oil and Its Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Mahmoudvand, Hormoz; Oliaee, Razieh Tavakoli; Kareshk, Amir Tavakoli; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the scolicidal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil against the protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its toxicity in the mice model. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses were used to identify the constituents of essential oil. Protoscoleces were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil (6.25-100 µL/mL) in each test tube for 5-30 min. The viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Forty-eight male NMRI mice were also used to determine the toxicity of C. zeylanicum essential oil (0.5-4 mL/kg). The main components were found to be cinnamaldehyde (91.8%), ρ metoxicinamate (1.57%), and α pinene (1.25%). Findings indicate that C. zeylanicum essential oil with the concentrations of 100 and 50 µL/mL killed 100% of protoscoleces after 5 min of exposure. Also, the lower concentrations of C. zeylanicum essential oil motivated a late protoscolicidal effect. The LD 50 value of intraperitoneal injection of C. zeylanicum essential oil was 2.07 mL/kg body weight after 48 h, and the maximum nonfatal dose was 1.52 mL/kg body weight. The results also showed that there was no significant toxicity following oral administration of C. zeylanicum essential oil for 2 weeks. The results exhibited the favorable scolicidal activity of C. zeylanicum , which could be applied as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. We evaluated the efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil against hydatid cyst protoscolecesThe viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining)Forty-eight male NMRI mice were also used to determine the toxicity of C. zeylanicum essential oilC. zeylanicum with potent scolicidal activity could be applied as a natural scolicidal agent in surgery. Abbreviations used: GC/MS: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis; CE: Cystic echinococcosis; LD50: Lethal dose 50%; I.p: Intraperitoneally.

  10. Repellant and insecticidal activities of shyobunone and isoshyobunone derived from the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ping; Yang, Kai; Zheng, Li-Shi; You, Chun-Xue; Cai, Qian; Wang, Cheng-Fang

    2015-01-01

    It was found that the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes showed insecticidal activity. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil from A. calamus rhizomes, evaluate insecticidal and repellant activity against Lasioderma serricorne (LS) and Tribolium castaneum (TC), and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. Essential oil from A. calamus was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal and repellant activity of the essential oil and isolated compounds was tested using a variety of methods. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be isoshyobunone (15.56%), β-asarone (10.03%), bicyclo[6.1.0]non-1-ene (9.67%), shyobunone (9.60%) and methylisoeugenol (6.69%). Among them, the two active constituents were isolated and identified as shyobunone and isoshyobunone. The essential oil showed contact toxicity against LS and TC with LD50 values of 14.40 and 32.55 μg/adult, respectively. The isolated compounds, shyobunone and isoshyobunone also exhibited strong contact toxicity against LS adults with LD50 values of 20.24 and 24.19 μg/adult, respectively, while the LD50 value of isoshyobunone was 61.90 μg/adult for TC adults. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone were strongly repellent (98%, 90% and 94%, respectively, at 78.63 nL/cm(2), after 2 h treatment) against TC. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone possessed insecticidal and repellant activity against LS and TC.

  11. Polar constituents isolated from Green River oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The mass spectrometric, ir absorption, and NMR data were interpreted for 22 compounds obtained from a polar fraction of Green River shale. The major constituents analyzed are believed to be of the following compositional types: C/sub n/H/sub 2n/O (cyclohexanols and chain isoprenoid ketones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-10/O (tetralones and indanones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-7/N (tetrahydroquinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-11/N(quinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-1/NO (alkoxypyrrolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-5/NO/sub 2/ (maleimides), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-8/ (tetralins), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-12/ (naphthalenes) and C/sub n/H/sub 2n-14/ (benzylbenzenes). This work expands the present information about nitrogen, oxygen and aromatic constituents indigenous to Green River shale.

  12. Composition of Prangos pabularia essential oil, indentification of an unknown compound from the oil and its insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil of air dried fruits of Prangos pabularia Lindl (Apiaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical profile was identified using GC-FID and GC-MS. Bicyclogermacrene (21%), (Z)-'-ocimene (19%), '-humulene (8%), '-pinene (8%) and spathulenol (6%) were the main constituents o...

  13. Essential oil composition of different fractions of Piper guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mme ESTHER

    Essential oil fractions from dried seed powder of Piper guineense were analyzed by gas .... high frequency in an ultrasonic cell disruptor (Microson™). This process was to .... present on the control (Nc) and treated (Nt) areas of the discs was.

  14. Inhibitory effect of essential oil on aflatoxin activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... Key words: Aflatoxins, essential oils, antioxidant, oxidative stress. INTRODUCTION .... of ROS mutagenesis in human cancer. It is of interest that the ..... black pepper, cumin and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress ...

  15. Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on essential oils of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... chromatograph (GC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis consisted of eugenol (56.07%), 1, 8 cineole ... Key words: Essential oils, aromatic plants, phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity. INTRODUCTION ... microbial agents in phytopathology, medical microbiology,.

  16. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3 ...

  17. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... accounting for 61% of the essential oil. The major component was ... recently been increased because of great economic costs of deterioration and ..... Identification of isoflavones in Acca sellowiana and two Psidium species ...

  18. Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoechst33258 staining and DNA ladder indicate that the essential oil induced apoptosis. SOD vitality ... Whole plant of C. ambrosioides was collected from Chengdu in ..... The role of free radicals in toxicity and disease. Journal of basic and ...

  19. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ... Conclusion: Essential oil from the exudates of D. aromatica contains ..... industries.

  20. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    distillation technology for essential oil production is proposed for small scale industrial entrepreneur. ... economic transition like Japan china, India,. Korea is a case in .... foreign currency. ... cost of investment and the quality have a direct.

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil Derived from Illicium henryi Diels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2015; 14 (1): 111-116 ... Purpose: To determine larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from .... males were fed with 10 % glucose solution ... mortality using Abbott's formula [19].

  2. Effects of oregano essential oil and attapulgite on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must .... Natural zeolites have been investigated extensively over the last decade, because of the good ...... human colon to essential oils.

  3. Optimization of Steam Distillation of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors considered were mass of solute/solvent ratio (A), extraction time. (B) and steam rate (C). ..... fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products. ... liquid extraction of antioxidants from apple pomace by response.

  4. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. ... promoting effects and also displayed potent antibacterial effects against cecal E. coli.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and ..... of environmental conditions, geographic origins, .... Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan;. 2009. 914 p.

  6. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Methyl cinnamate-Linalool Chemovariant of Ocimum basilicum L. from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation of Ocimum basilicum L. harvested at four different growth stages during spring-summer and rain-autumn cropping seasons , were characterized using GC and GC-MS. The e ssential oil yield was found to vary from 0.28–0.32% and 0.40–0.52% during spring-summer and rain-autumn cropping season, respectively with its maximal at full bloom stage. Altogether , forty constituents, comprising 94.9–98.3% were identified represented by ( E -methyl cinnamate (36.6 – 66.4%, linalool (11.2 – 43.8%, and (Z -methyl cinnamate (5.4-7.6% as main constituents. Results showed that growth stages strongly influenced the chemical composition of the essential oil in two cropping seasons, particularly concerning to the content of ( E -methyl cinnamate and linalool. Seed setting stage was optimized for harvesting ( E -methyl cinnamate rich oil (66.4% in rain-winter cropping season. The antimicrobial potential of the essential oil was tested againist eight pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains. Antimicrobial assay showed that the essential oil possessed good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli , and antifungal activity against Candida kefyr and Candida albicans. Ocimum basilicum , essential oil, ( E - methyl cinnamate, linalool, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity

  7. Optimization of processing parameters for extraction of essential oil from Foeniculum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: It is necessary to specify the best conditions of essential oils production to get more major compound(s and higher yield oil. The fennel oil is useful in pharmaceutical industry as flavor. The main component of fennel oil is anethole (55-75%. The objective of this work was to identify the effect of  particle size, pH of water, method of distillation and using ultrasound on extraction of fennel essential oil (and its major constituent, anethole. Methods: We used a statistical method called D-optimal Design that appointed pH, particle size and method for each assay. Fennel seeds were purchased, then milled and passed from different meshes. In the first series, the seeds powder was distilled directly. In the second series the seeds were placed in an ultrasonic apparatus for 30 min. The essential oils were subsequently isolated by two methods, hydro distillation and steam distillation, in different sizes (25, 30, 40, 50 and pH (5.5, 5.8, 7, 7.4, 8.5. Fifty g of dry seeds were used in each distillation (for 3 h. Analytical gas chromatography (GC was used to determine the essential oil composition. Results: In the steam distillation, the volume of essential oils and the concentration of anethole, whatever the plant became smaller, was less. However, in the water distillation, it was more and by comparing the two steps, without and with ultrasound, it increased 20% after the ultrasound. Conclusion: optimum conditions according to the statistical results were steam distillation, mesh size 50 and using ultrasounic device.

  8. Adulticidal activity of essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, V K; Pandey, A C; Dash, A P

    2010-03-01

    Development of insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, high operational cost and environmental pollution have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control vector-borne diseases. In the present study we have investigated the insecticidal activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara against mosquito vectors. Essential oil was isolated from the leaves of L. camara using hydro-distillation method. Bioassay test was carried out by WHO method for determination of adulticidal activity against mosquitoes. Different compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. LD(50) values of the oil were 0.06, 0.05, 0.05, 0.05 and 0.06 mg/cm(2) while LD(90) values were 0.10, 0.10, 0.09, 0.09 and 0.10 mg/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. culicifacies, An. fluvialitis and An. stephensi respectively. KDT(50) of the oil were 20, 18, 15, 12, and 14 min and KDT(90) values were 35, 28 25, 18, 23 min against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis and An. stephensi, respectively on 0.208 mg/cm(2) impregnated paper. Studies on persistence of essential oil of L. camara on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 45 peaks. Caryophyllene (16.37%), eucalyptol (10.75%), alpha-humelene (8.22%) and germacrene (7.41%) were present in major amounts and contributed 42.75 per cent of the total constituents. Essential oil from the leaves of L. camara possesses adulticidal activity against different mosquito species that could be utilized for development of oil-based insecticide as supplementary to synthetic insecticides.

  9. Acaricidal activity of pine essential oils and their main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, F; Cioni, P L; Flamini, G; Morelli, I; Perrucci, S; Franceschi, A; Macchioni, G; Ceccarini, L

    2002-07-31

    Some essential oils obtained from the branches of four Pinus species (P. pinea L., P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster Soil in Ait., and P. nigra Arnold) have been evaluated for their acaricidal activity by aerial diffusion against the stored food mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (L.). All the essential oils showed a good efficacy, but P. pinea oil and its two constituents 1,8-cineole and limonene were the most effective compounds, showing 100% acaricidal activity at 8 microL; 1,8-cineole showed the same activity at 6 microL.

  10. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  11. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ting-Yu; Tung, Judia Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC-MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were alpha-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), beta-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity assay, crude essential oil and its dominant compound (citral) presented the significant NO production inhibitory activity, IC(50) of crude essential oil and citral were 18.68 and 13.18microg/mL, respectively. Moreover, based on the results obtained from the protein expression assay, the expression of IKK, iNOS, and nuclear NF-kappaB was decreased and IkappaBalpha was increased in dose-dependent manners, it proved that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral was blocked via the NF-kappaB pathway, but it could not efficiently suppress the activity on COX-2. In addition, citral exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of croton oil-induced mice ear edema, when the dosage was 0.1 and 0.3mg per ear, the inflammation would reduce to 22% and 83%, respectively. The results presented that the fruit essential oil of C. insularimontanum and/or citral may have a great potential to develop the anti-inflammatory medicine in the future.

  12. Acaricidal Effect of Foam Soap Containing Essential Oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal effect of foam soap containing essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves was tested on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in western highland of Cameroon. Five doses of essential oil (0.00; 0.04; 0.06; 0.08; 0.10 μl/g) with four replications for each dose were tested in vitro. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in Petri dish ...

  13. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  14. Antibacterial and antidermatophyte activities of some essential Oils from spices

    OpenAIRE

    El Kady, I. A. [اسماعيل عبد الرزاق القاضي; El-Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed; Eman Mostafa M.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of ten essential oil from different spices against the growth of various isolates of bacteria representing Gram-positive (seven isolates) and Gram-negative (four isolates) were studied. Eight antibacterial agents were included for comparative purposes. Results show that essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl (Syn. C. zylanicum Blume) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamum White and Maton) were highly active against both Gram-negative an...

  15. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele L; Cardoso, Sheila K; Lara, Célio R; Vieira, Thallyta M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Figueiredo, Lourdes S; Martins, Ernane R; Moreira, Davyson L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2013-01-01

    Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%). The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%). This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24 h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48 h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC₅₀ obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48 h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity.

  16. Antioxidant and chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blend of selected spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical properties of essential oil extracted from blends of selected Nigerian spices as well as its antioxidant protective potentials against free radical in vitro. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from selected spices blend consisting of Monodora myristica, Myristica fragrans, Tetrapleura tetraptera, and Aframomum sceptrum using a Clevenger type apparatus. Oil obtained was subjected to phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis as well as analyzed for antioxidant activity which covers for 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging activities and reducing property. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed over 50 compoundfs with α-phellandrene being the most predominant compound (27.32%, which was followed by (--β-bourbonene (15.78% and 5-(1-methylethyl-α-phellandrene (11.80%. Phytochemical analysis showed high flavonoid content and a lower phenolic content. The oil showed a dose like dependent effect on the1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging activities, these activities increased with increasing concentration. The same was also observed for the reducing power properties of the oil. Conclusions: The antioxidant activities exhibited by the essential oil in vitro signify its protective potential against free radicals. The chemical constituents, α-phellandrene in particular and the studied phytochemicals may be responsible for these effects. However, in vivo study is needed to further authenticate this potency.

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Hyptis suaveolens (L. poit leaves essential oil against Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pessoa Moreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from Hyptis suaveolens (L. leaves using a Gas Chromatograph -Mass Spectrometer and assess its inhibitory effect on some potentially pathogenic Aspergilli (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger. Eucaliptol (47.64 % was the most abundant component in the oil, followed for gama-ellemene (8.15 %, beta-pynene (6.55 %, (+3-carene (5.16 %, trans-beta-cariophyllene (4.69 % and germacrene (4.86 %. The essential oil revealed an interesting anti-Aspergillus property characterized by a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration of 40 and 80 µL/mL, respectively. The oil at 80 and 40 µL/mL strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of A. fumigatus and A. parasiticus along 14 days. In addition, at 10 and 20 µL/mL the oil was able to cause morphological changes in A. flavus as decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure suggesting fungal wall degeneration. These findings showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus property of H. suaveolens leaves essential oil supporting its possible rational use as alternative source of new antifungal compounds to be applied in the aspergillosis treatment.

  18. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE L. OLIVEIRA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%. The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%. This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC50 obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity.

  19. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of 60Co-gamma radio-sterilization on Boswellia carterii essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Badr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Gamma-irradiation is used vastly for both decontamination and sterilization of natural products; but these high-energy rays can affect heat-sensitive essential oils. Methods: The oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia carterii (Burseraceae was sterilized by γ-irradiation at dose 30 KGy. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of non-irradiated Boswellia (NIB and irradiated Boswellia (IB were analyzed by GC/MS and the changes were compared. The structure of octyl acetate as the major component and marker of B. carterii was confirmed by MS/MS. Results: Twenty-five compounds comprising 99.55% of NIB oil and nineteen compounds comprising 98.61% of IB oil were identified. Major constituents which were common for both oils were octyl acetate (52.67 % in NIB, 76.51 % in IB, 1-octanol (6.37 % in NIB, 5.19 % in IB, duva-4, 8, 13-triene-1,3α diol (5.52 % in NIB, 3.94 % in IB, verticiol (13.63 % in NIB and verticillane type diterpene (5.4 % in IB they made up 78.19% and 91.04% of NIB and IB, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma irradiation was an efficient method for sterilization of Boswellia carterii oleo-gum resin, but it resulted in change in the essential oil composition particularly octyl acetate changed from 52.67% to 76.51%.