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Sample records for essential hypertension treated

  1. Urinary calcium excretion in treated and untreated essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereda, C; Orte, L; Sabater, J; Navarro-Antolin, J; Villafruela, J J; Ortuño, J

    1996-07-01

    A high prevalence of hypercalciuria has been reported in patients with essential hypertension. Nevertheless, the clinical and therapeutic implications of this finding have scarcely been studied. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypercalciuria in an unselected population with essential hypertension and to analyze the relationship between the urinary calcium and the clinical and therapeutic status of these patients. This article presents a prospective study of 112 patients with essential hypertension and 49 healthy normotensive control subjects. Urinary excretion rates of calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, urinary calcium/creatinine index, the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium and uric acid, the creatinine clearance and serum values of creatinine, urea, uric acid, electrolytes, total proteins, parathormone (intact molecule), plasma renin activity, aldosterone, glucose, and insulin (fasting and after an oral glucose load) were performed in every patient and control subject. Untreated hypertensive patients had a higher prevalence of hypercalciuria (35% had a urinary calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.20 versus 20% of treated hypertensives and 2% of control subjects; P < 0.001). Patients on thiazide or beta-blocker monotherapy had lower urinary excretion rates of calcium and urate than patients on calcium-antagonist monotherapy or untreated patients. Urinary calcium, sodium, and urate correlated positively both in treated and untreated essential hypertension patients. Patients with the higher urinary calcium levels also had higher excretion rates of sodium and urate, higher creatinine clearance rates, and lower serum creatinine and serum uric acid levels. It was concluded that hypercalciuria is a frequent finding of untreated essential hypertension. The association of high urinary calcium levels with high urinary urate excretion rates in the same patient may predispose to development of lithiasis in patients with essential hypertension

  2. Labetalol in essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, A.; Orme, M.; Serlin, M. J.; Maciver, M.

    1982-01-01

    1 Labetalol is an effective agent in essential hypertension as documented in open studies and controlled studies in which its efficacy has been compared with both placebo and a variety of other anti-hypertensive drugs. 2 Labetalol given by mouth lowers blood pressure rapidly. There is no evidence of tolerance to its anti-hypertensive action. 3 Adverse effects include excessive hypotension, but only when the drug is given in large doses. Epigastric discomfort and scalp tingling have been documented especially after intravenous administration. 4 From a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic point of view, labetalol can be given once daily, but postural hypotension after large (> 1 g) single doses may limit the usefulness of once daily regimes. Twice daily administration appears an acceptable compromise. PMID:6124264

  3. Inflammation markers in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Dimitrios; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Charalampos; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a common health disorder with uncertain etiology and unclear pathophysiology. There is evidence that various systems interact in uncertain ways and mechanisms to cause hypertension. It is also well known that inflammation is a key feature in the initiation, progression and clinical implication of several cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has become evident that the immune system and inflammatory response are also essential in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Many inflammation markers such as CRP, cytokines, and adhesion molecules have been found elevated in hypertensive patients supporting the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Also, in normotensive individuals, these markers have been associated with the risk of developing hypertension, whereas in hypertensive patients they have been associated with target organ damage as well as with the risk for future cardiovascular events. Thus, understanding the role of inflammation in hypertension provides new insights for novel therapeutic approaches, targeting inflammation for the treatment of hypertension and its complications.

  4. Psychological Factors in Essential Hypertension

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    Barbaros Özdemir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is one of the most emphasized psychosomatic disorders. Age, sexuality, excessive salt and alcohol consumption, lower activity level, fatigue, personality traits, emotional factors and stress are some of the risk factors for essential hypertension. The presence of emotional factors in the etiology of the essential hypertension and the emergence of psychiatric symptoms in the course of the illness has driven considerable attention from mental health workers on the disease for a long time. Some of the personality traits that make a person vulnerable to hypertension are being over controlled, being submissive, and hardworking. Hypertension is accepted to be a reaction against suppressed emotions and an adaptive and defense mechanism of the body. Among persons who are prone to hypertension, sympathetic nerve system is affected as a response to emotional stress and hypertension appears as a result of vasoconstriction and other autonomous responses. All at once, it was also shown that vasoconstrictor response continues much longer in hypertensive individuals than in normotensive patients. Autonomic response to stress almost always displays itself as hypertension in individuals who are prone to hypertension. Moreover, normotensive children of hypertensive parents also have elevation in blood pressures as a response to emotional stress almost without exception. The increase in sympathetic stimulus, re-modulation of bar receptors by structural and functional changes are the main features of the most commonly valid hypothesis in essential hypertension, currently. According to this hypothesis: as a result of emotional stress, inhibition over vasomotor center decreases and output of stimulus increases; epigenetic changes in endothelial structure of carotid sinus and/or aortic arch and/or vasomotor centers occurs; and finally stress increases sympathetic stimulus output. This situation leads to neurohormonal excitation; increases in

  5. Insulin resistance in Nigerians with essential hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Essential hypertension accounts for as many as 95% of cases of hypertension2. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are interrelated metabolic disorders that strongly predispose an individual to macrovascular and microvascular complications. In recent years insulin resistance has been shown ...

  6. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  7. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension What Is Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI- ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  8. Fructose-induced hyperuricemia in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, E; Baggio, B; Favaro, S; Antonello, A; Camerin, E; Todesco, S; Borsatti, A

    1977-11-01

    A rapid intravenous fructose load was given to nine normouricemic essential hypertensive and eight control subjects. The following increase in plasma uric acid concentration was significantly higher in hypertensives than in controls. There was no significant difference in urinary excretion of urate between the two groups. Since the increase in uric acid concentration brought about by fructose is most probably due to an increased metabolism of preformed purine nucleotides, it is suggested that essential hypertensive patients have a higher than normal "pool" of purine nucleotides.

  9. ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSIVE NEPHROPATHY

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    Boban Milojković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a major risk factor that predisposes to cardiovascular disorders and is responsible for most of the morbidity and mortality in patients. Hypertension is closely associated with the kidney, because kidney disease can be both the cause and consequence of increased blood pressure. Elevation of blood pressure is a strong independent risk factor for hypertensive nephropathy and development of ESRD. The pathogenesis of ischemic hypertensive nephropathy (IHN is multifactoral, and in addition to blood pressure other factors contribute to the development of this renal pathology and its progression to end-stage renal disease. These include obesity, smoking, male gender and other still unknown risk factors. The aim of this paper was to analyse the association between essential arterial hypertension and renal hypertensive disease and prevalence of other atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with developed hypertensive renal disease. In this prospective cross sectional study 283 patients of both genders with diagnosed essential hypertension and hypertensive renal disease were analysed. The anamnestic data related to age, duration of hypertension, history of smoking, presence of hypertensive retinopathy, hypertrophy of the left chamber and data about previous renal diseases were collected through conversation and medical documentation. The clinical examination comprise determination of blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, serum urea and creatinine, urine, albumin and protein concentration. The total number of 283 patients (185 males and 98 females with HN was analyzed. The analysis revealed significantly higher proportion of males aged over 60 years with IHN. The mean age of examined hypertensive patients with IHN is 62.6±8.8 years with duration of hypertension 19.8±5.9 years. All examined patients had hypertensive retinopathy and

  10. Fundus Autofluorescence in Chronic Essential Hypertension

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    Alireza Ramezani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate fundus autofluorescence (FAF changes in patients with chronic essential hypertension (HTN. Methods: In this case-control study, 35 eyes of 35 patients with chronic essential HTN (lasting >5 years and 31 eyes of 31 volunteers without history of HTN were included. FAF pictures were taken from right eyes of all cases with the Heidelberg retina angiography and then were assessed by two masked retinal specialists. Results: In total, FAF images including 35 images of hypertensive patients and 31 pictures of volunteers, three apparently abnormal patterns were detected. A ring of hyper-autofluorescence in the central macula (doughnut-shaped was observed in 9 (25.7% eyes of the hypertensive group but only in 2 (6.5% eyes of the control group. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.036 between two groups. Hypo- and/or hyper-autofluorescence patches outside the fovea were the other sign found more in the hypertensive group (22.9% than in the control group (6.5%; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.089. The third feature was hypo-autofluorescence around the disk noticed in 11 (31.4% eyes of hypertensive patients compared to 8 (25.8% eyes of the controls (P = 0.615. Conclusion: A ring of hyper-autofluorescence in the central macula forming a doughnut-shaped feature may be a FAF sign in patients with chronic essential HTN.

  11. Misconceptions and facts about treating hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argulian, Edgar; Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is a powerful risk factor strongly linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Because of its high prevalence, health care providers at many levels are involved in treating hypertension. Distinct progress has been made in improving the rates of hypertension awareness and treatment over years, but the overall control of hypertension remains inadequate. Several recent guidelines from different sources have been put forward in an attempt to bridge the gap between existing evidence and clinical practice. Despite this effort, several misconceptions about treating hypertensive cardiovascular disease continue to persist among clinicians. This review highlights some of the misconceptions regarding antihypertensive therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gravitation in pathogeny of essential hypertension.

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    Dorogovtsev, V N

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this research is the study of changes of a systemic hemodynamics under passive orthostatic test for a healthy persons and an ill with Essential Hypertension (EH) and analysis of a possible role of the gravitational factor in a Pathogeny of this disease. For an ill with EH reduction of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output were reliably lower in an orthostatic position. Increasing of a Total peripheral vascular resistance was twice less for ill. Considerable differences in reaction of cardiovascular system to gravitational influence for an ill with Essential Hypertension are stipulated by changes in central regulation of circulation and in the structure of a vascular wall. It allows to assume influence of gravitation at early stages of a Pathogeny of the given disease. The detection of hyper reactivity of a cardiovascular system to influence of gravitation can indicate the first stage of the disease.

  13. Influence of West African Ethnicity and Gender on Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Essential Hypertensives Treated with Hydrochlorothiazide and Hydrochlorothiazide-lisinopril Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamoyegun, Micheal; Kolawole, Babatope; Ajayi, Adesuyi A L

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) given alone and in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on beta-cell function in a negroid population to further explore possible ethnic differences in the effect of antihypertensive drugs on homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A total of 80 newly diagnosed Nigerian essential hypertensive patients were assigned to receive either HCT 25 mg daily or both HCT and lisinopril (Lis; 25/10 mg daily) in an open-label study for 12 weeks. The treatment groups were well matched in clinical and demographic baseline features. Changes in HOMA-IR from baseline to end of study (week 12), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum potassium, serum insulin, and blood pressure over the same period were also evaluated. After 12 weeks, mean delta HOMA-IR (and %) was higher in the HCT monotherapy group; although, this change did not reach statistical significance in both groups -0.1 ± 7.1, P = 0.538 (HCT) and 0.6 ± 4.2 P = 0.913 (HCT + Lis); an insignificant increase was observed in FPG and serum insulin in both groups, whereas serum potassium decreased in similar fashion. Blood pressure reduction was similar in both groups. Analysis of HOMA-IR change according to gender in response to HCT mono- or combination therapy with Lis showed no significant difference. HCT monotherapy in hypertensive indigenous Nigerians, was not associated with worse metabolic effects when compared with combination therapy using Lis, an ACEI after 12 weeks. Low-dose thiazide diuretic as first-line antihypertensive medication may be safe in the short-term, further larger and long-term studies are needed to corroborate this finding.

  14. Plasma renin activity to plasma aldosterone concentration ratio correlates with night-time and pulse pressures in essential hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/AT1 blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannella, Francesco; Giulietti, Federico; Balietti, Paolo; Borioni, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Francesca E; Ricci, Maddalena; Cocci, Guido; Landi, Laura; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2017-11-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and AT1 blockers (ARB) are commonly used antihypertensive drugs, but several factors may affect their effectiveness. We evaluated the associations between ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) parameters and plasma renin activity (PRA)-to-plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) ratio (RAR) to test renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in essential hypertensive patients treated with ACE-I or ARB for at least 12 months. We evaluated 194 consecutive patients referred to our Hypertension Centre. ABPM, PRA and PAC tests were performed without any changes in drug therapy. RAR, PRA and PAC tertiles were considered for the analyses. Mean age: 57.4 ± 12.0 years; male prevalence: 63.9%. No differences between RAR tertiles regarding the use of ACE-I or ARB (P = 0.385), as well as the other antihypertensive drug classes, were found. A reduction of all ABPM values considered (24-h BP, daytime BP and night-time BP and 24-h pulse pressure (PP), daytime PP and night-time PP) and a better BP control were observed at increasing RAR tertiles, with an odds ratio = 0.12 to be not controlled during night-time period for patients in the third tertile compared with patients in the first tertile (P < 0.001). This association remained significant even after adjusting for 24-h BP control. All the associations were also confirmed for PRA tertiles, but not for PAC tertiles. Higher RAR values indicate effective renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition and lower night-time and pulse pressures in real-life clinical practice. It could be a useful biomarker in the management of essential hypertensive patients treated with ACE-I or ARB.

  15. Low blood selenium: A probable factor in essential hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible association between selenium and essential hypertension was investigated in this study. Blood selenium (BSe) and plasma glutathione peroxidase (plGSH-Px) activity were measured as biochemical markers of selenium status of 103 hypertensive patients (44 males and 59 females) and 88 apparently healthy ...

  16. Burden of obesity in essential hypertension: Pattern and prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consecutive patients diagnosed with essential hypertension were recruited from two university teaching hospitals in the SouthWest of Nigeria. Demographic data such as age, gender, weight and height were obtained from patients at recruitment. Patients with congestive heart failure, secondary hypertension, chronic kidney ...

  17. Serum Uric Acid Levels among Nigerians with Essential Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ongoing debate on the role of serum uric acid as an independent risk factor for hypertension and renal disease. This study determined the serum uric acid levels of Nigerians with essential hypertension and also evaluated the association between serum uric acid levels and blood pressure of these patients.

  18. 86Rubidium uptake in mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E

    1988-01-01

    parents. 86Rubidium uptake was significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive subjects, especially in the borderline hypertensive offspring of hypertensive patients. Our results indicate that the sodium-potassium pump is activated in mononuclear leucocytes from borderline hypertensives......, and especially in those borderline hypertensives with at least one hypertensive parent. The latter group was also the group at greatest risk of developing essential hypertension....

  19. [Circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels in treated hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun-Eid, C; Ortega-Hernández, A; Abad, M; García-Donaire, J A; Barbero, A; Reinares, L; Martell-Claros, N; Gómez-Garre, D

    2015-01-01

    Most optimally treated hypertensive patients still have an around 50% increased risk of any cardiovascular event, suggesting the possible existence of unidentified risk factors. In the last years there has been evidence of the essential role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and function, increasing the interest in their involvement in cardiovascular disease. In this study, the circulating levels of EPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are investigated in treated hypertensive patients with adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Blood samples were collected from treated hypertensive patients with controlled BP. Plasma levels of EPCs CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. A group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors was included as controls. A total of 108 hypertensive patients were included (61±12 years, 47.2% men) of which 82.4% showed BP<140/90 mmHg, 91.7% and 81.5% controlled diabetes (HbA1c <7%) and cLDL (<130 or 100 mg/dL), respectively, and 85.2% were non-smokers. Around 45% of them were obese. Although patients had cardiovascular parameters within normal ranges, they showed significantly lower levels of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ compared with healthy control group, although plasma VEGF concentration was higher in patients than in controls. Despite an optimal treatment, hypertensive patients show a decreased number of circulating EPCs that could be, at least in part, responsible for their residual cardiovascular risk, suggesting that these cells could be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Risk Score for Essential Hypertension and Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive complication of pregnancy characterized by novel onset of hypertension after 20 weeks gestation, accompanied by proteinuria. Epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic susceptibility exists for preeclampsia; however, whether preeclampsia is the result of underlying genetic risk for essential hypertension has yet to be investigated. Based on the hypertensive state that is characteristic of preeclampsia, we aimed to determine if established genetic risk scores (GRSs) for hypertension and blood pressure are associated with preeclampsia. Subjects consisted of 162 preeclamptic cases and 108 normotensive pregnant controls, all of Iowa residence. Subjects' DNA was extracted from buccal swab samples and genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Missing genotypes were imputed using MaCH and Minimac software. GRSs were calculated for hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using established genetic risk loci for each outcome. Regression analyses were performed to determine the association between GRS and risk of preeclampsia. These analyses were replicated in an independent US population of 516 cases and 1,097 controls of European ancestry. GRSs for hypertension, SBP, DBP, and MAP were not significantly associated with risk for preeclampsia (P > 0.189). The results of the replication analysis also yielded nonsignificant associations. GRSs for hypertension and blood pressure are not associated with preeclampsia, suggesting that an underlying predisposition to essential hypertension is not on the causal pathway of preeclampsia. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTIONS IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSIVES- A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY

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    Arunkumar C

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Arterial hypertension and blood pressure level are associated with cognitive impairment. Susceptible people, especially cerebral ischaemia are having more severe cognitive impairment. Elevated blood pressure for long term contributes to cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study is to determine the cognitive dysfunctions in essential hypertensives. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted among 300 subjects who were diagnosed as essential hypertensives were chosen by simple random sampling from the inpatient and outpatient facility of Department of Medicine, Father Muller’s Medical College. The socio-demographic data of hypertensives was collected on a semi-structured proforma. Patients were assessed for cognitive dysfunctions using the Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination (SMMSE and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS. Data was analysed using SPSS 18 software. RESULTS Mean age group of patients was 51.67 years, majority of the patients were males and were urban domicile. Majority of patients had primary level of education. Majority of patients had positive relation between cognitive deficiency and their hypertensive status was measured using Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination (SMMSE and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS. CONCLUSION The study showed that there are significant cognitive deficits in hypertensives. SMMSE (Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination and BCRS (Brief Cognitive Rating Scales were used to measure Cognitive deficits, which were very closely related to hypertension.

  2. Treating the Diabetic Hypertensive: Consensus and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and diabetes commonly coexist. Both are major modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There has been a substantial shift in the recommendations of several expert committees on the management of hypertension in diabetics. It was once unanimously agreed by almost all major guidelines that the threshold for initiating diabetic patients with antihypertensive therapy is when blood pressure is >130/80 mmHg. The blood pressure target for treatment was also unanimously agreed to be <130/80 mmHg. These recommendations were, however, based on expert opinions and not on findings from major randomised controlled trials. Since then, there have been several randomised controlled trials looking at blood pressure-lowering in the diabetic population. These include the ADVANCE and ACCORD, and a subanalysis of the INVEST trials. Together with the earlier UKPDS and HOT trials, one would expect there to be more agreement in the most recent recommendations, but in fact the opposite is the case. There are now two different systolic targets (<130 mmHg and <140 mmHg and three different diastolic targets (<90 mmHg, 85 mmHg, and <80 mmHg. The reason for this involves the choice of trials included in the recommendation, and the interpretation of results from these trials by various guideline committees. The recommendation for diabetic hypertensives will be more consistent if future trials begin by asking a relevant research question that has not yet been answered: does treating diabetics with different thresholds of blood pressure levels impact on clinical outcomes? The trial must not only determine a primary research question, but it must also be adequately powered to answer it. Only when this question is answered should the next questions be asked. Does it matter how blood pressure is lowered? And are some drugs better than others? In the meantime, guideline committees should try to narrow the gap in recommendations, particularly if the

  3. Broadly altered gene expression in blood leukocytes in essential hypertension is absent during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, H; Gaillard, CAJM; van der Meijden, BB; Dijstelbloem, HM; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; van Leenen, D; Holstege, FCP; Joles, JA; Bluyssen, HAR; Koomans, HA; Braam, B

    We assessed whether large-scale expression profiling of leukocytes of patients with essential hypertension reflects characteristics of systemic disease and whether such changes are responsive to antihypertensive therapy. Total RNA from leukocytes were obtained from untreated (n=6) and treated (n=6)

  4. Electrolyte monitoring in the management of essential hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is in conformity with the observation that high levels of potassium are associated with reduced blood pressure .The study, therefore, suggests that whilst potassium monitoring may be necessary in hypertensive management, therapeutic altering of plasma sodium and calcium levels as a means of managing essential ...

  5. Essential Hypertension: The General Practitioner's Approach in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential Hypertension: The General Practitioner's Approach in an Urban Community. ... Various reasons have been adduced for this difference ranging from climatic factors the hot arid climate compelling blacks to conserve sodium for survival, to dietary – blacks consuming less potassium which theoretically makes them ...

  6. Development and trends in the drug treatment of essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: A brief survey is given of the development of the drug therapy of essential hypertension over five decades, followed by a discussion on newer antihypertensive drugs and principles. DRUGS THAT MODULATE THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: Virtually all levels and elements of the sympathetic nervous

  7. Effect of propranolol on noradrenaline kinetics in patients with essential hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Esler, M; Jackman, G; Leonard, P; Skews, H; Bobik, A; G. Jennings

    1981-01-01

    1 The rates of noradrenaline spillover to, and removal from, plasma were measured in ten patients with essential hypertension treated with propranolol, to ascertain if long-term administration of this drug reduces sympathetic nervous system tone. 2 The plasma clearance of noradrenaline fell with propranolol, leading to a small rise in the mean plasma noradrenaline concentration. Sympathetic nervous activity in treated patients cannot be reliably gauged from plasma noradrenaline values because...

  8. Renal tissue oxygenation in essential hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijm, Menno; Hofmann, Lucie; Vogt, Bruno; Muller, Marie-Eve; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Stuber, Matthias; Burnier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system) or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.

  9. Renal Tissue Oxygenation in Essential Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Pruijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI, detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD. In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.

  10. Dependence of morphological changes of the carotid arteries on essential hypertension and accompanying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2002-03-01

    to evaluate morphological changes (intima-media thickness, IMT) of the carotid arteries in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and to discover whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between IMT and accompanying risk factors. cross-sectional study. angiology department, university teaching hospital. the study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotensives with FT for essential hypertension aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age- and sex-matched controls without FT. the hypertensive subjects were being treated either with long-acting calcium-channel antagonists or ACE-inhibitors. using high resolution ultrasound, IMT of the carotid bifurcation and of the common carotid artery was measured. In the hypertensives, the mean IMT was greater than that in the controls (0.92 (0.10) mm vs 0.72 (0.07) mm; p<0.00005). The IMT was independently related to accompanying risk factors: a positive family history of hypertension, age of the patient, duration of EH and the level of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP), body mass index and total/LDL-cholesterol. In subjects with FT, IMT was also greater compared to the control group (0.60 (0.05) mm vs 0.55 (0.04) mm; p<0.00005). IMT was not related to BP values. In treated essential patients with the EH, the IMT was increased. Individuals with FT also had greater IMT in the absence of elevated BP. The IMT in hypertensives was related to accompanying risk factors, which could be pathogenetic determinants of EH and/or its complications.

  11. Haemodynamic response to ACTH administration in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, J A; Saines, D; Andrews, J; Sloman, J G; Scoggins, B A

    1981-01-01

    1. The haemodynamic and volume response to ACTH administration was investigated in six patients with mild, untreated essential hypertension and two patients with Addison's disease on maintenance steroids. Blood pressure, heart rate and weight were recorded daily. Plasma volume (125I-HSA) and cardiac output (thermo-dilution) were measured during the control period and on the 5th day of ACTH treatment. 2. In the hypertensive subjects, mean arterial pressure rose from 94.3 +/- 2.2 to 105.7 +/- 2.8 mmHg on the 5th day of ACTH administration (P less than 0.02). Plasma volume rose from 29.8 +/- 2.2 to 34 +/- 2.2 ml/kg. Cardiac index increased from 2.85 +/- 0.21 to 3.32 +/- 0.14 l/min per m2 (P less than 0.05). Cardiac output rose from 5.81 +/- 0.69 to 6.72 +/- 0.59 l/min. Calculated total peripheral resistance, heart rate and body weight were unchanged. No such changes were seen in patients with Addison's disease. 3. The haemodynamic characteristics of ACTH in patients with mild untreated essential hypertension are similar to those in the experimental model of ACTH induced hypertension in sheep.

  12. Myocardial indium-111-antimyosin uptake in essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenlue, M.; Temiz, N.H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Cengel, A. [Dept. of Cardiology, Gazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-06-01

    Aim: Evaluation of myocardial uptake of {sup 111}In-antimyosin antibodies in patients with essential hypertension for the verification of our hypothesis that it may increase in stage 1 in the left ventricle as a result of myocardial damage. Patients, methods: Twelve men (mean age: 59 {+-} 2.4 years) suffering from angina like symptoms and essential hypertension in clinical stage 1 according to the JNC-VI criteria were included into the study. These patients showed normal perfusion as revealed by thallium-201 myocardial study and coronary angiography. Left ventricular mass index was determined in echocardiography. Planar antimyosin images were obtained 48 h after the intravenous injection of the tracer. Heart to lung ratios were calculated as a parameter of myocardial tracer uptake using appropriate region of interests; values >1.52 were considered as abnormal. Results: We observed increased antimyosin uptake (mean: 1.71 {+-} 0.12) consistent with myocardial damage in 11 of 12 patients. Nine of 12 patients had a left ventricular hypertrophy with left ventricular mass index values (mean: 131 g/m{sup 2} {+-} 9.48) above 115 g/m{sup 2}. Heart to lung ratio was correlated significantly to left ventricular mass index (r = 0.902, p <0.001) and duration of hypertension (r = 0.948, p <0.001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that {sup 111}In-antimyosin imaging may indicate myocyte damage in early phases of hypertensive heart disease. (orig.)

  13. Exercise renography in essential hypertension; Belastungsrenografie bei essenzieller Hypertonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotmann, A. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Exercise renography using {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}) permits recognition of a disease specific renal functional disturbance of essential hypertension. This disturbance can be visualized scintigraphically as pronounced bilateral parenchymal/tissue tracer retention. Clearance determinations during light ergometric exercise demonstrated that transitory bilateral tissue tracer retention results from a selective and prominent reduction of glomerular filtration, while effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) remains comparatively stable. Results obtained with exercise renography and with clearance determinations suggest that the physiological relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and ERPF, i.e. a filtration fraction (FF) of 0.2, is severely disrupted (FF << 0.2) in about 60% of patient with essential hypertension. This functional disturbance must result in the activation of the renin-angiotensin axis. A particularly exciting consequence of this research was the recognition that {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-scintigraphy can visualize a reduced FF. This opens the door to a broad area of research unrelated to essential hypertension. Initial results in renovascular disease and in urinary tract obstruction demonstrated that a reduced FF puts the involved organs at risk. (orig.)

  14. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

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    Anastasios Vamvakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension.

  15. [Clinical characteristics of patients with essential hypertension regarding salt intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla García, J D; Fernández Torres, C; Aliaga Martínez, L; León Ruiz, L; Sabio Sánchez, M; Jiménez Alonso, J

    2001-11-01

    A number of epidemiologic and experimental studies have revealed the close relationship between salt intake and blood pressure. The objective of this study was to know the salt intake among 293 not previously treated hypertensive patients and to identify their clinical characteristics that would allow us to define the profile of patients with high sodium intake. Hypertensive patients who first attended a specialized high blood pressure (HBP) clinic not previously treated with drugs, at least for the last month were selected. Sodium 24 h urinary excretion was determined on two occasions, as sodium intake index. Thirteen percent of patients had a salt intake lower than 100 mEq/24 h and 35% of patients higher than 200 mEq/24 h. Sodium intake was higher among men, younger patients, those with a higher Quetelet index, smokers, higher socioeconomic status, and less years with IBP. No differences were observed between salt intake among hypertensive patients with associated diabetes or hyperlipidemia. The Quetelet index, sex, age and smoking were identified as independent variables for salt intake by the multiple linear regression analysis. No correlation was found between salt intake and blood pressure. In conclusion, a high sodium intake was observed in our setting among hypertensive patients who had previously been advised to moderate salt intake. The highest salt intake was observed among men, youths, obese and smokers.

  16. Nephrotic proteinuria as a result of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obialo, Chamberlain I; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Fulong, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    The presence of nephrotic-range proteinuria in a nondiabetic hypertensive patient is generally indicative of an underlying glomerular disease. A few published reports have noted nephrotic proteinuria in some patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. The frequency of this association is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed renal biopsy reports on all cases of nephrotic syndrome over an 8-year period (1993-2000). We excluded all cases of diabetes mellitus, lupus, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, and chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Biopsy specimens showing glomerular eosinophilic hyalinosis lesions, positive immunofluorescence staining, or dense deposits on electron microscopy were also excluded. Thirteen of the remaining 237 (5.5%) biopsy specimens satisfied the standard histological criteria for hypertensive nephrosclerosis. All patients were African-Americans with a mean age of 47.5 +/- 13 years and an average mean arterial blood pressure of 122 +/- 19 mm Hg. The mean values for urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine, albumin, and cholesterol were 8.9 g/day, 3.3 mg/dl, 3.1 g/dl, and 245 mg/dl, respectively. Optimal blood pressure control required at least three antihypertensive agents. Progression to end-stage renal disease occurred over a mean duration of 8.3 +/- 6.5 months. Multivariate regression showed a strong but nonsignificant association between the level of proteinuria at the time of biopsy, duration of hypertension, and number of blood pressure medications (R(2) = 0.56, p = 0.38). Nephrotic syndrome may be more common in poorly controlled essential hypertension than previously realized. In African-American patients, the differential diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome should include hypertensive nephrosclerosis, but abrogation of renal biopsy is not implied. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Treating resistant hypertension: role of renal denervation

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    Urban D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Urban, Sebastian Ewen, Christian Ukena, Dominik Linz, Michael Böhm, Felix Mahfoud Department of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology, Angiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Saarland, Homburg, Saarland, Germany Abstract: Arterial hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although pharmacological treatment is generally well tolerated, 5%–20% of patients with hypertension are resistant to medical therapy, which is defined as blood pressure above goal (>140/90 mmHg in general; >130–139/80–85 mmHg in patients with diabetes mellitus; >130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive drugs of different classes, including a diuretic, at optimal doses. These patients are at significantly higher risk for cardiovascular events, in particular stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, as compared with patients with nonresistant hypertension. The etiology of resistant hypertension is multifactorial and a number of risk factors have been identified. In addition, resistant hypertension might be due to secondary causes such as primary aldosteronism, chronic kidney disease, renal artery stenosis, or obstructive sleep apnea. To identify patients with resistant hypertension, the following must be excluded: pseudo-resistance, which might be due to nonadherence to medical treatment; white-coat effect; and inaccurate measurement technique. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the development and maintenance of hypertension by increasing renal renin release, decreasing renal blood flow, and enhancing tubular sodium retention. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN is a novel technique specifically targeting renal sympathetic nerves. Clinical trials have demonstrated that RDN significantly reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension. Experimental studies and small

  18. Investigation of Homocysteine-Pathway-Related Variants in Essential Hypertension

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    Javed Y. Fowdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Essential hypertension (EH, a polygenic condition, has also been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular related disorders. To investigate the role of the homocysteine (Hcy metabolism pathway in hypertension we conducted a case-control association study of Hcy pathway gene variants in a cohort of Caucasian hypertensives and age- and sex-matched normotensives. We genotyped two polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C, one polymorphism in the methionine synthase reductase gene (MTRR A66G, and one polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 gene (MTHFD1 G1958A and assessed their association with hypertension using chi-square analysis. We also performed a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR analysis to investigate any potential epistatic interactions among the four polymorphisms and EH. None of the four polymorphisms was significantly associated with EH and although we found a moderate synergistic interaction between MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G, the association of the interaction model with EH was not statistically significant (P=0.2367. Our findings therefore suggest no individual or interactive association between four prominent Hcy pathway markers and EH.

  19. Non-dipper treated hypertensive patients do not have increased cardiac structural alterations

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    Magrini Fabio

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-dipping pattern in hypertensive patients has been shown to be associated with an excess of target organ damage and with an adverse outcome. The aim of our study was to assess whether a reduced nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP, established on the basis of a single 24-h BP monitoring, in treated essential hypertensives is related to more prominent cardiac alterations. Methods We enrrolled 229 treated hypertensive patients attending the out-patient clinic of our hypertension centre; each patient was subjected to the following procedures : 1 clinic BP measurement; 2 blood and urine sampling for routine blood chemistry and urine examination; 3 standard 12-lead electrocardiogram; 4 echocardiography; 5 ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM. For the purpose of this study ABPM was carried-out in three subgroups with different clinic BP profile : 1 patients with satisfactory BP control (BP 2 in men and 110 g/m2 in women, ≥51/gm2.7 in men and 47/g/m2.7 in women. Results Of the 229 study participants 119 (51.9% showed a fall in SBP/DBP Conclusions In treated essential hypertensives with or without BP control the extent of nocturnal BP decrease is not associated with an increase in LV mass or LVH prevalence; therefore, the non-dipping profile, diagnosed on the basis of a single ABPM, does not identify hypertensive patients with greater cardiac damage.

  20. The evaluation of arterial stiffness of essential hypertension and white coat hypertension in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlemez Tokgöz, Semiha; Yılmaz, Dilek; Tokgöz, Yavuz; Çelik, Bülent; Bulut, Yasin

    2017-12-10

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare cardiovascular risks by assessing arterial stiffness in children with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. Paediatric patients followed up with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension diagnoses and with no established end organ damage were involved in the study. Arterial stiffness in children included in the study was evaluated and compared by using the oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph) method. A total of 62 essential hypertension (34 male, 28 female), 38 white coat hypertension (21 male, 17 female), and 60 healthy controls (33 male, 27 female) were assessed in the present study. Pulse wave velocity of the essential hypertension, white coat hypertension, and control group was, respectively, as follows: 5.3±0.6 (m/s), 5.1±0.4 (m/s), 4.3±0.4 (m/s) (p<0.001); augmentation index outcomes were, respectively, determined as follows: 21.3±6.5, 19.3±6.4, 16.0±0.3 (p<0.001). Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index values of children with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension were found to be higher compared with the control group. This level was identified as correlated with the duration of hypertension in both patient groups (p<0.01). Arterial stiffness in children with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension was impaired compared with healthy children. This finding has made us think that white coat hypertension is not an innocent clinical situation. This information should be taken into consideration in the follow-up and treatment approaches of the patients.

  1. Stress, abdominal obesity and intrarenal resistive index in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, G M; Pace, P; Martines, G F; Trovato, F M; Pirri, C; Catalano, D

    2012-07-01

    Although it is commonly believed that a strong causal link exists between psychological stress and hypertension, as well with other factors, such as obesity, just what kind of empirical evidence supports this assumption is still controversial. The aim of the study is to investigate if perceived stress have any interference with intrarenal resistance and hence with mechanisms related to Essential Hypertension (EH) and if Anxiety, Depression, Self efficacy and Illness Perception can account for perceived stress. Obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), Doppler Renal Resistive Index (RRI) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are studied along with Psychological Stress Measure (PSM), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), Generalized Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in 119 hypertensive patients referred for stable lasting EH, and 150 normal controls. Lower salt/lower calories Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By Odds Ratios, higher risk of EH is associated with greater perceived stress, older age, lower GFR, obesity, greater RRI and insulin resistance. By Multiple Linear Regression the most significant variable that accounts for higher RRI are abdominal obesity and arterial pulse pressure; the only significant independent psychological variable that accounts for abdominal obesity are PSM and identity IPQ subscale. Self-Efficacy anxiety and Illness perception subscales (IPQr), accounts significantly for 62.0% of the variance to PSM, with possible effects on RRI and on the pathophysiological hypertension cascade. Worst identity and treatment control perceptions of EH, and a lower self-efficacy are the main psychological factors accounting for a greater stress. Interventions aimed to reduce perceived stress can be warranted in EH.

  2. Postharvest quality of essential oil treated roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mariano Manfredini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of commercial quality during storage and transportation of roses is one of the factors that reflect on production costs, leading producers to preventively apply harmful chemicals, mainly to hamper Botrytis cinerea development and reduce further losses. An alternative to increase flower longevity without contaminating the environment with harmful chemicals is the use of natural products, such as essential oils, which have fungistatic and insecticide properties, as well as low toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils on the vase life of Rosa cv. Avalanche: 12 treatments were tested, resulting from the combination of 5 types of essential oils plus the control in two cold storage periods (2 to 6 days at 1 °C, 90-95% RH. The essential oils tested were eucalyptus, cinnamon, lemongrass and peppermint (1%, clove (0.1%, plus a control with distilled water. Application was made by spraying the flower buds. After storage at low temperatures, the flower stems were kept in a room (16 °C, 70% RH during 10 days for evaluation. Flower stems stored for 2 days in a cold chamber showed better means for darkening, turgor and bent neck, as well as a lower weight loss by the stems. The application of lemongrass essential oil at 1% caused burns on the petals, compromising quality and pot life. The essential oils of peppermint and eucalyptus allowed flower quality maintenance until the 10th day of evaluation. It is possible to conclude that post-harvest spraying with peppermint or eucalyptus essential oil at 1%, combined with cold storage for 2 days, provided greater longevity and quality for cv. Avalanche roses.

  3. Current role of statins in the treatment of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostapanos, Michael S; Milionis, Haralampos J; Elisaf, Moses S

    2010-11-01

    Hypertension and hyperlipidemia often co-exist and seem to be interrelated through common pathophysiological pathways. Drugs employing beneficial effects in both conditions could be advantageous in a concerted effective management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Statins are known to enhance cardiovascular protection beyond their lipid-lowering capacity. MEDLINE was searched, up to January 2010, for studies assessing the effect of statin treatment on blood pressure control in various populations or animal models of hypertension. The potential mechanisms implicated in the putative antihypertensive action of statins are also reviewed. To learn about the role of statins as potential antihypertensive drugs in various populations. Clinical advice for the use of statins either as monotherapy or in combination with antihypertensive drugs in high-risk populations is also provided. Statins may exert a mild, but clinically relevant, antihypertensive effect which is probably mediated by mechanisms that are independent of their lipid-lowering effects. Patients with high BP levels at baseline as well as those treated with ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers are expected to benefit more in this regard.

  4. Relationship between Serum Bilirubin and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    Full Text Available Prospective studies have found low bilirubin levels were an important predictive factor of cardiovascular events. However, few have yet investigated possible association between serum bilirubin level and LVH in essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum bilirubin levels with LVH in newly diagnosed hypertension patients.The present study evaluated the relationship between serum total bilirubin level and left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients with a sample size of 344. We divided subjects into LVH group (n=138 and non-LVH group (n=206. Physical examination, laboratory tests and echocardiography were conducted. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to verify the independent association between RDW and LVH.Our results found that patients with LVH had lower bilirubin levels than non-LVH ones. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed total bilirubin level (B=-0.017, P=0.008 was negatively associated with left ventricle mass index (LVMI even adjusting for some confounders. The multiples logistic regression found total bilirubin level was independently related with of LVH, as a protective factors (OR=0.91, P=0.010.As a routine and quick laboratory examination index, serum bilirubin may be treated as novel marker for evaluating LVH risk in hypertensive patients. Cohort study with larger sample size are needed.

  5. RAS Genetic Variants in Interaction with ACE Inhibitors Drugs Influences Essential Hypertension Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Arkani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Essential Hypertension (EH) is a common disorder associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. To investigate how genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) influence EH control with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor drugs (ACEI). A case-control, cross-sectional population-based nested study (n = 142) included hypertensive subjects treated with ACEI drugs, either lisinopril or enalapril (20 mg, once daily) as monotherapy for 24 weeks. In total seven possible polymorphisms of RAS genes were genotyped. The association between those polymorphisms and the changes in blood pressure were observed in the 24 week treatment. Statistically significant associations of I, G, T, M and G alleles of ACE (I/D, G2350A), AGT (M235T, T175M and G-6A) respectively were observed in essential hypertensive subjects. The decrease in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure after 24 weeks of treatment of the patients carrying II, GG, and TT genotypes were greater than the groups carrying DD, AA, MM, MM and GG of I/D, G2350A, M235T, T174M and G-6A genotypes respectively. In contrast, No significant difference was observed between renin gene polymorphisms (Bg/I and MboI) and hypertensives. Although this study shows a possible association of polymorphisms of RAS genes with the risk of non-control of HT in ACEI-treated patients and indicates the importance of all this system's components in regulating HT, it needs to be replicated in other data sources. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting the immune system to treat hypertension: where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jennifer L; Sharma, Avadhesh C

    2014-09-01

    Research over the past decade has significantly deepened our understanding of mechanisms that drive the development of hypertension. In particular, a novel paradigm of inflammation as a common mediator of cardiovascular and kidney disease has emerged. This review will summarize the role of the immune system in cardiovascular disease, explore some of the most promising new therapeutic directions and consider their potential as new treatments for hypertension. Recent data continue to demonstrate that targeting the immune system can prevent hypertension in a variety of experimental models. Tempering the enthusiasm for a long-awaited new approach to treating hypertension is decades of clinical data, showing that classic immunosuppression regimens are associated with significant side-effects - including cardiovascular disease - that effectively preclude their use in the setting of chronic hypertension. New, more specific therapies are being developed that target cytokines including IL-17, IL-6 and TNFα. Preclinical data convincingly demonstrate a key role for the immune system and specific cytokine mediators. Several biotherapeutics targeting these pathways are on the market and more are in development. Side-effects, however, continue to resemble those of classic immunosuppressants, highlighting the challenge of translating these research advances into new therapies for hypertension. http://links.lww.com/CONH/A9.

  7. [Pathogenesis of essential hypertension--a half of the century perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszewicz, Włodzimierz; Kabat, Marek; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years a great progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. The contribution of excessive sympathetic nerves activity in the development of hypertension and target organ damage has been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies. Also the important role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension has been confirmed in many studies. During the last three decades many studies revealed the relationship between low birth weight and arterial hypertension. Sleep disturbances--short sleep duration, insomnia are proposed as a possible pathophysiological factor of hypertension. The novel concept that immune system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension has gained support in recent years. The multifactorial nature of essential hypertension is now widely accepted.

  8. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on nocturnal blood pressure variation in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Igeta, Masataka; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal variations in night-time hypertension such as "non-dipping" type (candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was performed using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at baseline and Week 14. Effects of study drugs on nocturnal BP variations according to patients' nocturnal SBP dipping status were evaluated. ABPM data were available for 273 patients treated with azilsartan and 275 with candesartan. In the dipping group (≥ 10% decrease from daytime SBP), azilsartan produced a greater reduction from baseline in daytime than in night-time SBP (- 14.1 and - 10.9 mmHg, respectively), and the change in daytime SBP was significantly greater with azilsartan than with candesartan (p = 0.0077). In the non-dipping group, azilsartan produced a greater reduction from baseline in night-time than in daytime SBP (- 20.2 and - 9.9 mmHg, respectively), and reductions in both night-time SBP (p = 0.02) and daytime SBP (p = 0.0042) were significantly greater with azilsartan than with candesartan. Once-daily azilsartan improved non-dipping night-time SBP to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  9. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  10. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  11. Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Buus, Niels Henril; Sihm, Inger

    2007-01-01

    Objective Structural abnormality of resistance arteries is a characteristic pathophysiological phenomenon in essential hypertension and can be assessed in vitro as an increase in the media : lumen ratio (M : L) of isolated small arteries. We have investigated whether M: L is a risk predictor in u......). Conclusion Abnormal resistance artery structure independently predicts cardiovascular events in essential hypertensive patients at moderate risk. J Hypertens 25:1021-1026 Q 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Journal of Hypertension 2007, 25:1021-1026...

  12. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension and...

  13. EFFECTS OF INTEGRATED APPROACH OF YOGA (IAY ON ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to find out the effects of Integrated Approach of Yoga (IAY on Essential Hypertension in a sample of 120 subjects from Cardiology OPD of AIIMS, Bhubaneswar in the age group of 21 years to 65 years divided into Experimental group and Control group60 in each. The Experimental group was exposed to regular yogic practice of 1 hour 15 minutes per day in morning for a period of 3 weeks. The Control group was not exposed to any yogic exercises, rather they were advised a regular morning walk 30minutes per day 5 days a week for a period of 3 weeks. The pre and post readings on subjective and objective parameters before and after the training programme were noted for both the groups. The study showed that the experimental group showed a significant reduction in blood pressure ( S ystolic and diastolic, pulse rate, respiration rate, BMI and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAR (p<0.01 , however the Control group failed to achieve it

  14. [Essential hypertension in young people--ambulatory versus hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, F; Leon, Maria-Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in our country. The number of young people with hypertension grow up quickly, so a good control of dyslipidemia and blood pressure (BP) is essential in prevention of cardiovascular disease. To investigate the prevalence of HTA at young people and established the corelation with another risk factors like smoke, colesterol, obesity and heredity, few data are available on the blood pressure characteristics of young patients. It has been investigate 366 young people between 19-25 years old, in ambulatory system and 350 younger with the same age, in hospital. Blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures, and was considered well-controlled if it was colesterol and 2.1 at men with big colesterol. The relation between HTA--obesity is proven in our study, the incidence of HTA is 2.6 bigger at the obeses patients. These arguments should also promote further research in primary care on the control and the therapeutic behavior of the physicians.

  15. Effects of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine on Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized

  16. Exercise renography in essential hypertension; Belastungsrenographie bei essenzieller Hypertonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotmann, A.; Clorius, J.H. [Kreiskrankenhaus Donaueschingen und Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Exercise renography is an investigative procedure used to visualize a renal functional disturbance of essential hypertension (EH). The exercise protocol was developed to intensify a renal functional abnormality previously observed in standing hypertensive patients. Clearance determinations during ergometric exercise demonstrated that the transitory tissue retention of Tc-99m-MAG3 seen in nearly 60% of the patients with EH in the exercise renogram, result from a prominent reduction of glomerular filtration, while effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) remains comparatively stable. The results obtained with exercise renography and clearance determinations suggest that afferent-efferent glomerular vessel dysfunction disrupts the stable relationship between GFR and ERPF in EH. This relationship can be severely disturbed during exercise but it can even be compromised in 20% of EHs while they stand. It is suspected that this functional abnormality results in the activation of the renin-angiotensin axis. A particularly exciting consequence of this research is the recognition that Tc-99m-MAG3 scintigraphy permits recognition of a disruption of the stable relationship of GFR and ERPF. This opens the door to a broad area of research unrelated to EH, since initial results in renovascular disease and in urinary tract obstruction indicates that the fixed relationship between GFR and ERPF can be disturbed in these and in other diseases. Initial investigations suggest that the consequence of such dysfunction may put the involved organs at risk. (orig.) [German] Bei der Belastungsrenographie handelt es sich um ein Untersuchungsprotokoll, das zur Anwendung kommt, um eine renale Funktionsstoerung, die bei der essenziellen Hypertonie (EH) vorkommt, zu provozieren und zu dokumentieren. Diese renographische Untersuchungsmethode wurde entwickelt, um die Intensitaet einer renalen Funktionsstoerung zu verstaerken, die urspruenglich bei stehenden hypertensiven Patienten gefunden wurde. Es

  17. Nebivolol in the management of essential hypertension: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, W; Goa, K L

    1999-04-01

    ; however, the overall incidence of adverse events was greater with nifedipine or metoprolol. Some atenolol or enalapril, but not nebivolol, recipients reported impotence or decreased libido during therapy. Current evidence indicates that nebivolol 5 mg once daily is a well tolerated beta-blocker, which is as effective as once daily atenolol and other classes of antihypertensive agents. It may therefore be recommended as a useful alternative first-line treatment option for the management of patients with mild to moderate uncomplicated essential hypertension.

  18. Increased systolic ambulatory blood pressure and microalbuminuria in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Kristensen, Kjeld S; Bang, Lia E

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of smoking status on both clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) by using 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in treated and non-treated hypertensive smokers and non-smokers. A secondary aim was to evaluate...

  19. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, F; Catena, C; Camozzi, V; Luisetto, G; Cosma, C; Plebani, M; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Sechi, L A

    2012-10-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels may have an important role in predisposing to hypertension and myocardial disease. We investigated the relationship between 25(OH)D and left ventricular (LV) structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, in a series of patients with essential hypertension (EH). Sixty-two newly diagnosed never-treated patients (32 male/30 female), aged 18-65 years, with grade 1-2 hypertension, no diabetes, no obesity, no hyperlipidemia, and no cardiopulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease, were studied. Twenty-four healthy normotensive sex-, age-, BMI-matched subjects served as controls. Hypertensive patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L, had higher prevalence of LV hypertrophy (LVH) than their 25(OH)D-sufficient counterparts (57.1 vs 17.6%, P = 0.02); no differences between the two groups were found in blood pressure levels as well as in other biochemical and hormone parameters. There was an inverse correlation between LV mass index and 25(OH)D levels (r = -0.366, P < 0.003) and a direct correlation between LV mass index and BMI (r = 0.333, P < 0.006) in the entire hypertensive population. The two variables remained independently associated with LVH at multivariable logistic regression analysis (OR 1.05, P < 0.005 and OR 1.25, P = 0.03, respectively). Prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was similar in EH patients and controls (45.1 vs 41.6%, P = 0.89), whereas no correlation between echocardiographic parameters and hormone levels was found. In the absence of major cardiovascular risk factors, 25(OH)D deficiency is a frequent finding in EH patients and is independently associated with LVH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of...

  1. Insulin resistance in Nigerians with essential hypertension | Akande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The hypertensives we studied had a higher occurrence of insulin resistance compared to the normotensives. This makes it necessary for persons with hypertensive to have regular screening for diabetes and other categories of glucose intolerance as the increased insulin increases their risk of developing type 2 ...

  2. Medium-term effects of bisoprolol administration on renal hemodynamics and function in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Parrinello, Gaspare; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Torres, Daniele; La Rocca, Gabriella; Antona, Roberta; Vernuccio, Laura; Fornaciari, Ersilia; Tarantino, Antonina; Piccione, Ercole; Fasullo, Sergio; Licata, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a significant cause of end-stage renal failure; effective treatment of hypertensive patients reduces the rate of progression of this disorder. ss-Blockers, particularly nonselective agents, are associated with deterioration of renal function in patients with chronic renal failure. Previous studies on the interaction of the beta1-selective adrenergic antagonist bisoprolol with kidney function have been performed only acutely and over the short term. This study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and effects on renal hemodynamics and function of bisoprolol during medium-term (6 mo) treatment of patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. After a 2-wk run-in period on placebo, 87 consecutive hypertensive patients (46 men, 41 women) according to ESH-ESC (European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology) guidelines, aged from 27 to 64 y (mean age, 50+/-11 y), without renal or cardiovascular disease, were enrolled and assigned to treatment with bisoprolol 5 mg once daily for 6 mo. At recruitment and at 6 mo after treatment, renal function was assessed and renal hemodynamics evaluated in all patients through radioisotope studies. The medium-term effects of bisoprolol included a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate (Pfunction or hemodynamics, or in cardiac output. Data presented here indicate that bisoprolol 5 mg given once daily to treat patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension is effective and safe for treatment and for preservation of renal performance when given on a medium-term basis.

  3. [Modification of the risk profile of obese essential hypertensive patients by the group "hypertension discussion" program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, H D; Baumann, H; Beckers, H H; Bergdolt, H; Deschner, W; Ebschner, K J; Hasper, M; Kies, H K; Nüssel, E; Wenzel, G

    1988-01-01

    The programme "Discussions on Hypertension" is a programme for group treatment of obese essential hypertensives in medical practices on the basis of behavioural therapy. A co-operation model was developed between the Department for General Medicine of the "Medizinische Hochschule Hannover", the Institute for Medical Psychology of the "Philipps-Universität Marburg" and the company Galenus Mannheim and was offered to doctors in general practice. The effects of the programme on the modifying of the risk profile for coronary heart disease was investigated in a controlled study in 137 patients by nine general practitioners. 81 patients were enrolled in the experimental group and 56 patients were assigned to a control group that was not using the programme. The experimental and control groups were comparable with respect to sociodemographic, psychological and medical parameters. Three months after completing the programme, the results of the study was shown in specific effect both on the psychological criteria of success (well-being, health knowledge, healthy behaviour, salt use and compliance) and in a reduction of the diastolic blood pressure in spite of a reduction of the antihypertensive drug treatment. The blood lipid levels (cholesterol and triglycerides) and the blood glucose level were also favourably affected. Patients in the experimental group had reduced their weight by an average of 5.6 kg. The patients in the control group only by 0.8 kg. Overall, there was a marked reduction in the proportion of patients with several risk factors in the experimental group, so that the programme can be attributed a preventive effect.

  4. [A clinical study on the relationship of autonomic nervous function and arteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Li, S H; Tan, X

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between autonomic nervous function and arteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension. From January 2011 to December 2013, a total of 269 patients with essential hypertension hospitalized in Chang'an Branch of First People's Hospital of Liangshan were divided into normal PWV group (PWVarteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension. Our results show that sympathetic activation and vascular injury are closely related in patients with essential hypertension.

  5. E-selectin gene in essential hypertension: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kamna; Chandra, Sudhir; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with endothelial cell dysfunction. E-selectin, an endothelial cell adhesion molecule, is specific for endothelial cell activation. Polymorphism in E-selectin gene has recently been identified among which Leu554Phe E-selectin gene polymorphism is least investigated in essential hypertension. This study reports the association of E-selectin gene Leu554Phe polymorphism and the expression of E-selectin gene in patients with essential hypertension. We analysed the Leu554Phe polymorphism and expression of E-selectin gene in 250 patients with essential hypertension and 250 normal healthy controls. Genotyping of Leu554Phe polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and the expression of E-selectin gene at mRNA and protein levels were carried out by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. A significant association of E-selectin genotypes (CT + TT) with essential hypertension (P E-selectin gene in patients with essential hypertension was ~12-fold higher as compared to control. We observed an elevated level of E-selectin protein expression (up to 1.9 times) in patients as compared to controls. A significant association of E-selectin (Leu554Phe) gene and increased expression of E-selectin gene at mRNA and protein levels in patients might be related to the genetic predisposition to develop essential hypertension. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  6. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, oxidative stress, and vascular nitric oxide synthase in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dan; Strandgaard, Svend; Iversen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We reported impaired endothelium-derived relaxation factor/nitric oxide (EDRF/NO) responses and constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity in subcutaneous vessels dissected from patients with essential hypertension (n = 9) compared with normal controls (n = 10). We now test the hypothesis...... and hypertensive subjects, the individual values for plasma levels of ADMA and HODE were both significantly (P oxidative stress in a group of hypertensive...

  7. Cardiac autonomic responses after resistance exercise in treated hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alves Trevizani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess and to compare heart rate variability (HRV after resistance exercise (RE in treated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nine hypertensive men [HT: 58.0±7.7 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP =133.6±6.5 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP =87.3±8.1 mmHg; under antihypertensive treatment] and eleven normotensive men (NT: 57.1±6.0 years, SBP =127±8.5 mmHg, DBP =82.7±5.5 mmHg performed a single session of RE (2 sets of 15-20 repetitions, 50% of 1RM, 120 s interval between sets/exercise for the following exercises: leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion, seated arm curl. HRV was assessed at resting and during 10 min of recovery period by calculating time (SDNN, RMSSD and frequency domain (LF and HF indices. Mean values of HRV indices were reduced in the post-exercise period compared to the resting period (HT: lnHF: 4.7±1.4 vs. 2.4±1.2 ms²; NT: lnHF: 4.8±1.5 vs. 2.2±1.1 ms², p<0.01. However, there was no group vs. time interaction in this response (p=0.8. The results indicate that HRV is equally suppressed after RE in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that a single session of RE does not bring additional cardiac autonomic stress to treated hypertensive subjects.

  8. Daily nighttime melatonin reduces blood pressure in male patients with essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Mairuhu, Gideon; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with essential hypertension have disturbed autonomic cardiovascular regulation and circadian pacemaker function. Recently, the biological clock was shown to be involved in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Our objective was to determine whether enhancement of the functioning of the

  9. Coherence and Coupling Functions Reveal Microvascular Impairment in Treated Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ticcinelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex interactions that give rise to heart rate variability (HRV involve coupled physiological oscillators operating over a wide range of different frequencies and length-scales. Based on the premise that interactions are key to the functioning of complex systems, the time-dependent deterministic coupling parameters underlying cardiac, respiratory and vascular regulation have been investigated at both the central and microvascular levels. Hypertension was considered as an example of a globally altered state of the complex dynamics of the cardiovascular system. Its effects were established through analysis of simultaneous recordings of the electrocardiogram (ECG, respiratory effort, and microvascular blood flow [by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF]. The signals were analyzed by methods developed to capture time-dependent dynamics, including the wavelet transform, wavelet-based phase coherence, non-linear mode decomposition, and dynamical Bayesian inference, all of which can encompass the inherent frequency and coupling variability of living systems. Phases of oscillatory modes corresponding to the cardiac (around 1.0 Hz, respiratory (around 0.25 Hz, and vascular myogenic activities (around 0.1 Hz were extracted and combined into two coupled networks describing the central and peripheral systems, respectively. The corresponding spectral powers and coupling functions were computed. The same measurements and analyses were performed for three groups of subjects: healthy young (Y group, 24.4 ± 3.4 y, healthy aged (A group, 71.1 ± 6.6 y, and aged treated hypertensive patients (ATH group, 70.3 ± 6.7 y. It was established that the degree of coherence between low-frequency oscillations near 0.1 Hz in blood flow and in HRV time series differs markedly between the groups, declining with age and nearly disappearing in treated hypertension. Comparing the two healthy groups it was found that the couplings to the cardiac rhythm from both respiration and

  10. Essential hypertension in adolescents and children: Recent advances in causative mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in adults, and it is recognized more often in adolescents than in younger children. It is well known that the probability of a diagnosis of essential hypertension increases with age from birth onward. The initiation of high blood pressure burden starts in childhood and continues through adolescence to persist in the remaining phases of life. The genesis of essential hypertension is likely to be multifactorial. Obesity, insulin resistance, activation of sympathetic nervous system, sodium homeostasis, renin-angiotensin system, vascular smooth muscle structure and reactivity, serum uric acid levels, genetic factors and fetal programming have been implicated in this disorder. In addition, erythrocyte sodium transport, the free calcium concentration in platelets and leukocytes, urine kallikrein excretion, and sympathetic nervous system receptors have also been investigated as other possible mechanisms. Obesity in children appears to be the lead contributor of essential hypertension prevalence in children and adolescents. Suggested mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and altered vascular function. The etiopathogenesis of essential hypertension in children and adolescents appears to closely resemble that of adults. The minor variations seen could probably be due to the evolving nature of this condition. Many of the established mechanisms that are confirmed in adult population need to be replicated in the pediatric age group by means of definitive research for a better understanding of this condition in future.

  11. Cluster analysis: a new approach for identification of underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease in essential hypertensive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qi; Lu, Xiaoni; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Bin; Su, Dan; Song, Anqi; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Grading of essential hypertension according to blood pressure (BP) level may not adequately reflect clinical heterogeneity of hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to explore clinical phenotypes in essential hypertensive patients using cluster analysis. This study recruited 513 hypertensive patients and evaluated BP variations with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Four distinct hypertension groups were identified using cluster analysis: (1) younger male smokers with relativel...

  12. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Coxson, Pamela G.; Rasmussen, Petra W.; Huang, Chen; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Tzong, Keane Y.; Xiong, Juyang; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Dong; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is China’s leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world’s largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs. Methods and Findings The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35–84 y over 2015–2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention) and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140–159/90–99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg). Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015) were considered cost-effective. Treating

  13. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng Gu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is China's leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world's largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs.The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35-84 y over 2015-2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015 were considered cost-effective. Treating hypertensive adults with prior

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Coxson, Pamela G; Rasmussen, Petra W; Huang, Chen; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Tzong, Keane Y; Xiong, Juyang; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Dong; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is China's leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world's largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35-84 y over 2015-2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention) and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140-159/90-99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg). Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015) were considered cost-effective. Treating hypertensive adults with prior cardiovascular

  15. Global DNA methylation changes in blood of patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Iwona; Wyszko, Eliza; Barciszewska, Anna M; Nowak, Stanislaw; Gawronska, Iwona; Jablecka, Anna; Barciszewska, Miroslawa Z

    2010-03-01

    Hypertension is a common disease of the cardiovascular system and one of the main causes of mortality in the world. Its etiopathogenesis and molecular mechanisms are unknown. Epigenetic changes may play a role in its development. Therefore the level of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), a well-known epigenetic marker, was analyzed in DNA from the blood of essential hypertension patients. TLC chromatographic analysis of the DNA nucleotide composition was used to determine 5mC levels in blood DNA samples from 60 patients suffering from essential hypertension (30 with stage 1 and 30 with stage 2 hypertension) and 30 control subjects. The mean levels of 5mC were 1.80 + or - 0.69 in the healthy subjects, 1.14 + or - 0.48 in all the patients with essential hypertension, 1.29 + or - 0.50 in those with stage 1, and 0.99 + or - 0.42 in those with stage 2 of hypertension. Statistically significant differences in 5mC amount in DNA were observed between the control group and the whole patient group, the control group and each subgroup of patients, and the groups of patients with stage 1 and stage 2 of hypertension. The level of 5mC in the DNA of the essential hypertension patients was independent of clinical and biochemical factors. The level of 5mC in the DNA of patients suffering from essential hypertension is lower than in healthy people and depends of the progression of hypertension.

  16. Isolated uncontrolled hypertension at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients from the J-HOME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Funahashi, Jin; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Kei; Metoki, Hirohito; Oikawa, Takuya; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the current status of blood pressure (BP) control as measured at home and in the office, as well as to clarify and compare the prevalence and characteristics of isolated uncontrolled hypertension as measured at home (home hypertension) and in the office (office hypertension). A cross-sectional study. Primary care offices in Japan. A sample of 3400 patients with essential hypertension (mean age, 66 years; males, 45%) receiving antihypertensive treatment. Overall, the mean home systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) was 140/82 mmHg, and the mean office SBP/DBP was 143/81 mmHg. Of the 3400 subjects, 19% had controlled hypertension (home SBP/DBP office SBP/DBP home hypertension (home SBP/DBP >/= 135/85 mmHg and office SBP/DBP office hypertension (home SBP/DBP office SBP/DBP home SBP/DBP >/= 135/85 mmHg and office SBP/DBP >/= 140/90 mmHg). Compared to controlled hypertension, factors associated with isolated uncontrolled home hypertension included obesity, relatively higher office SBP, habitual drinking, and the use of two or more prescribed antihypertensive drugs. Compared to uncontrolled hypertension, factors associated with isolated uncontrolled office hypertension included female gender, lower body mass index, and relatively lower office SBP. The use of all four, three of four, or all three predictive factors might be useful for the clinician to suspect isolated uncontrolled home or office hypertension.

  17. Diagnostic Analysis of Patients with Essential Hypertension Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, A Mi; Lee, In Hee; Lee, Gyeong Ho; Park, Hyung Seop; Yoon, Kyung Il; Lee, Jung Jeung; Kim, Yoon Nyun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the records of patients diagnosed with essential hypertension using association rule mining (ARM). Methods Patients with essential hypertension (ICD code, I10) were extracted from a hospital's data warehouse and a data mart constructed for analysis. Apriori modeling of the ARM method and web node in the Clementine 12.0 program were used to analyze patient data. Results Patients diagnosed with essential hypertension totaled 5,022 and the diagnostic data extracted from those patients numbered 53,994. As a result of the web node, essential hypertension, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and cerebral infarction were shown to be associated. Based on the results of ARM, NIDDM (support, 35.15%; confidence, 100%) and cerebral infarction (support, 21.21%; confidence, 100%) were determined to be important diseases associated with essential hypertension. Conclusions Essential hypertension was strongly associated with NIDDM and cerebral infarction. This study demonstrated the practicality of ARM in co-morbidity studies using a large clinic database. PMID:21818427

  18. Serum Uric Acid Levels among Nigerians with Essential Hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    City, 2Department of Chemical Pathology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. 3Department of Medicine,. Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Summary: There is an ongoing debate on the role of serum uric acid as an independent risk factor for hypertension and renal disease. This study determined ...

  19. Essential hypertension: another look at possible aetiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is a world – wide problem with sometimes very devastating complications especially in the black race. It is a silent disease and a silent killer through its assault on the vital organs of the body like the heart, brain and kidneys. There are well known therapeutic modalities, including diet and weight control, regular ...

  20. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  1. Electrolyte profiles in Nigerian patients with essential hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... rich and poor societies although with differing pathoge- netic basis (Amory and Strouser, 1996; Fuentes et al.,. 2000; Van den Hoogen et al., 2000; Kearney et al. ... renal defects, whether primary or secondary, may adversely affect electrolyte and water balance leading to hypertension (Blaustein et al., 1991; ...

  2. Nature of elevated blood pressure in normoalbuminuric type I diabetic patients. Essential hypertension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Rasmussen, E; Jensen, T

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize type I diabetic patients with essential hypertension with respect to kidney function, renal hormones, and endothelial function. After 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the following groups: group 1, 14...... healthy controls; group 2, 13 nondiabetic patients with essential hypertension (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg); group 3, 11 type I diabetic patients with hypertension but urinary albumin excretion (UAE) persistently normal (UAE: 10 mg/24 h, range 3 to 18) both before, during, and after discontinuing...... antihypertensive treatment; group 4, 15 type I diabetic patients with clinical nephropathy (UAE: 611 mg/24 h, range 192 to 3837) and hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar in the three hypertensive groups: 147/96 +/- 8/6, 150/94 +/- 11/9, and 152/92 +/- 12/6 mm Hg (groups 2, 3, and 4...

  3. Insulin resistance adds to endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients and in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether endothelium-dependent (nitric oxide-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA) is impaired in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. Angiology department at a teaching hospital. The study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age-matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotonics with FT aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age-and sex-matched controls without FT. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest, during reactive hyperaemia (endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application (endothelium-independent dilation) were measured. In hypertonics FMD was significantly lower than in controls [2.4 (2.9) vs. 7.4 (2.5)%; P < 0.00005], as was GTN-induced dilation [12.1 (4.3) vs. 16.1 (4.6)%; P=0.0007]. In subjects with FT, FMD was also decreased compared with the control group [5.8 (4.1) vs. 10.0 (3.0)%; P < 0.00005]. The response to GTN was comparable in both groups of young subjects. FMD was negatively related to insulin concentration in all subjects studied (P < 0.00005). In treated patients with EH, flow-mediated dilation of the BA as well as endothelium-independent dilation are decreased. In individuals with FT the endothelial function of the peripheral arteries is also altered in the absence of elevated blood pressure. Endothelial dysfunction is related to hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance, which could be one of the pathogenetic determinants of EH and its complications.

  4. Capillary growth, ultrastructure remodeling and exercise training in skeletal muscle of essential hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Buess, Rahel; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to elucidate whether essential hypertension is associated with altered capillary morphology and density and to what extend exercise training can normalize these parameters. METHODS: To investigate angiogenesis and capillary morphology in essential hypertension, muscle biopsies were...... obtained from m. vastus lateralis in essential hypertensive patients (n=10) and normotensive controls (n=11) before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Morphometry was performed after transmission electron microscopy and protein levels of several angioregulatory factors were determined. RESULTS......: At baseline, capillary density and capillary-fiber-ratio were not different between the two groups. However, hypertensive patients had 9% lower capillary area (12.7±0.4 vs. 13.9±0.2μm(2) ) and tended to have thicker capillary basement membranes (399±16 vs. 358±13nm; P=0.094) than controls. Protein expression...

  5. A randomised controlled trial for the evaluation of risk for type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients receiving thiazide diuretics: Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shinichiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ando, Shin-ichi; Takishita, Shu-ichi; Kawano, Yuhei; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thiazide diuretics are one of the first choice antihypertensives but not optimally utilised because of concerns regarding their adverse effects on glucose metabolism. The Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study was designed, for the first time, to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with essential hypertension during antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics compared to those not treated with diuretics. Design Multicentre, unblinded, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial with blinded assessment of end points and intention-to-treat analysis that was started in 2004 and finished in 2012. Setting Hypertension clinics at 106 sites in Japan, including general practitioners’ offices and teaching hospitals. Participants Non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Interventions Antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics at 12.5 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazide or equivalent (Diuretics group) or that without thiazide diuretics (No-diuretics group). Main outcome The primary outcome was new onset of type 2 diabetes diagnosed according to WHO criteria and the criteria of Japanese Society of Diabetes. Results 1130 patients were allocated to Diuretics (n=544) or No-diuretics group (n=586). Complete end point information was collected for 1049 participants after a median follow-up of 4.4 years. Diabetes developed in 25 (4.6%) participants in the Diuretics group, as compared with 29 (4.9%) in the No-diuretics group (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.58; p=0.800). Conclusions Antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics at low doses may not be associated with an increased risk for new onset of type 2 diabetes. This result might suggest safety of use of low doses of thiazide diuretics. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00131846. PMID:25031188

  6. Comparison of primary care residents' confidence and clinical behavior in treating hypertension versus treating alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, A B; Liepman, M R; McQuade, W H; Wolfson, M A; Levy, S M

    1993-07-01

    To compare the self-reported confidence and clinical behaviors of primary care residents in treating alcoholism versus hypertension. Eighty-five residents, 36 in family medicine and 49 in primary care internal medicine, representing all years of the three-year training programs at two hospitals affiliated with the Brown University School of Medicine, were surveyed in 1988. Self-report questionnaires elicited demographic data and several responses (ranged on scales of 1, not confident or frequent, to 10, very confident or frequent) about the residents' confidence and frequency of use of clinical behaviors with both alcoholic and hypertensive patients. Paired t-tests were used to compare the responses about hypertension with those about alcoholism. Questionnaires were completed by 54 (63.5%) of the residents. No significant difference was found between the residents' responses by sex or program, but there was a significant difference (p < .0001) between the responses with regard to the two disorders. The residents had more confidence about their management of hypertension (a mean score of 8.81 versus 7.95 for alcoholism). They also reported greater use of appropriate clinical behaviors with hypertensive patients (mean scores in the very confident range of 7.5 to 8.2 compared with means in the moderate range of 4.9 to 7.1 for alcoholism). Both the family medicine and the internal medicine residents were significantly more confident in managing all aspects of hypertension than in managing alcoholism, and they reported significantly greater frequency in utilizing appropriate clinical behaviors for hypertension than for alcoholism.

  7. Essential hypertension, cerebral white matter pathology and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most-frequent causes of death and the first cause of disability worldwide. Different mechanisms are related to the pathogenesis of stroke, involving multiple biological systems, which are often inter-connected. Besides age, hypertension is the most important risk factor for stroke and may also predispose to the development of more subtle cerebral damage based on arteriolar narrowing or pathological microvascular changes. Age and high blood pressure are responsible for silent structural and functional cerebral changes leading to white matter lesions and cognitive impairment. The clinical significance and pathological substrate of white matter lesions are not fully understood. Hypertensive patients have more white matter lesions, which are an important prognostic factor for the development of stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and death, than normotensive people. Over the past 10 years, strong evidence has emerged that cerebral white matter lesions in hypertensive patients should be considered a silent early marker of brain damage. The mechanisms that would explain all these relationships remain to be elucidated, but available data suggest that arteriosclerosis of the penetrating brain vessels is the main factor in the pathogenesis of ischemic white matter lesions.

  8. The effects of biofeedback for the treatment of essential hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, J; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y

    2009-10-01

    To assess the evidence for the long-term effectiveness of biofeedback for the treatment of essential hypertension in adults and to model any clinical benefits. Bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, ISI Web of Knowledge/ISI Proceedings, the Cochrane Library 2007, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO were searched up to May 2007. A systematic review following accepted guidelines was conducted. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared biofeedback procedures with antihypertensive medication, placebo (sham biofeedback treatment), no intervention or other behavioural treatments were included. The outcome measure was change in blood pressure. A total of 927 non-duplicate references were identified by the search strategy and subsequently screened for inclusion in the review. From these, 41 publications (including three abstracts) reporting 36 RCTs with a total population of 1660 treated patients met the inclusion criteria of the review. Twenty-one trials employed biofeedback treatment with no adjunctive therapy and 15 trials used biofeedback treatment alongside another treatment. The majority of trials were small with no post-treatment follow-up or follow-up of less than 6 months. The poor quality of the trials, differences in interventions and inconsistencies in the measurement of outcomes meant that it was inappropriate to pool data across studies. A narrative summary of the data based on trial author conclusions is presented. No studies reported long-term (> 12 months) follow-up of patients. Data were grouped first by treatment type and then by comparator. Trial results were variable and conflicting, demonstrating no consistent benefits of biofeedback in relation to moderation of hypertension. The lack of evidence of clinical effectiveness negated the need to conduct an economic analysis. No evidence was found that consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of any particular biofeedback treatment in

  9. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  10. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...

  11. Effect of antihypertensive treatments on insulin signalling in lympho-monocytes of essential hypertensive patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Flati, Vincenzo; Rossini, Claudia; Rufo, Anna; Porteri, Enzo; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Petroboni, Beatrice; La Boria, Elisa; Donini, Carlotta; Pasini, Evasio; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    It was previously demonstrated that metabolic syndrome in humans is associated with an impairment of insulin signalling in circulating mononuclear cells. At least in animal models of hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may correct alterations of insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle. In the first study, we investigated the effects of a 3-month treatment with an ARB with additional PPARγ agonist activity, telmisartan, or with a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, on insulin signalling in patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Insulin signalling was evaluated in mononuclear cells by isolating them through Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and protein analysis by Western Blot. An increased expression of mTOR and of phosphorylated (active) mTOR (p-mTOR) was observed in patients treated with telmisartan, but not in those treated with nifedipine, while both treatments increased the cellular expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4). We also investigated the effects of antihypertensive treatment with two drug combinations on insulin signalling and oxidative stress. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine. Then they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. An increased expression of insulin receptor, GLUT-4 and an increased activation of p70S6K1 were observed during treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril but not with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. In conclusion, telmisartan and nifedipine are both effective in improving insulin signalling in human hypertension; however, telmisartan seems to have broader effects. The combination treatment lercanidipine + enalapril seems to be more effective than lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide in activating insulin signalling in human lympho-monocytes.

  12. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка; Юлия Николаевна Шапошникова

    2015-01-01

    The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of...

  13. Reversible Renal Failure in Hypertensive Idiopathic Nephrotics Treated with Captopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowu Wasiu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI- induced acute renal failure (ARF is not as commonly reported in children as in adults. We report two cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome that developed ARF following captopril (an ACEI treatment for prednisolone-induced hypertension. The two cases further alert us to the potential risk of ACEI-induced ARF in any nephrotic child on ACEI treatment. Low or high dose ACEIs should be given with extreme caution in active nephrotics in view of their relative hypovolemic state that may provoke ARF. The nephrotic children, who must be treated with ACEIs with or without diuretics, should be closely monitored for the development of ARF during the use of ACEIs.

  14. Increased 22Na+-influx in lymphocytes from offspring of essential hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1989-01-01

    Lymphocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of 22Na+-influx during sodium pump inhibition by ouabain. The measurements were made using lymphocytes from young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension in order to assess any changes and to analyse whether...... in offspring of hypertensive parents especially in the normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents. The association between heredity and increased 22Na+-influx found by us in vitro may be caused by either an increased passive sodium-influx and/or an increased sodium-sodium exchange mechanism....

  15. Prognostic value of microalbuminuria during antihypertensive treatment in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Escrich, Miguel; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Whether changes over time of urinary albumin excretion have prognostic value is a matter of discussion. The objective was to assess the prognostic value of changes in urinary albumin excretion over time in cardiovascular risk during antihypertensive treatment. Follow-up study of 2835 hypertensives in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease (mean age 55 years, 47% men, BP 138/80 mm Hg, 19.1% diabetics, and calibrated systemic coronary risk estimation 5 or >10.6%). Usual-care of antihypertensive treatment was implemented to maintain blood pressure<140/90 mm Hg. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed yearly, and the values were expressed as the creatinine ratio. Incidence of cardiovascular events, fatal and nonfatal, was recorded during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (17 028 patients-year), 294 fatal and first nonfatal cardiovascular events were recorded (1.73 CVD per 100 patients/year). Independently of blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, level of cardiovascular risk, and antihypertensive treatment, microalbuminuria at baseline and at any time during the follow-up resulted in higher risk for events, hazard ratio (HR) 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79) and HR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.14-1.94), respectively. Likewise, development of microalbuminuria (HR 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.46) or persistence from the beginning (1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.06) had a significantly higher rate of events than if remained normoalbuminuric (HR 1) or regress to normoalbuminuria (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.92-2.06) with an 18%, 18%, 8%, and 11% events, respectively, P<0.001. The study supports the value of urinary albumin excretion assessment as a prognostic factor for cardiovascular risk, but also opens the way to consider it as an intermediate objective in hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Risk conferred by FokI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, N; Vamsi, U Mohana; Usha, G; Padma, T

    2011-09-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene serves as a good candidate gene for susceptibility to several diseases. The gene has a critical role in regulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influencing the regulation of blood pressure. Hence determining the association of VDR polymorphisms with essential hypertension is expected to help in the evaluation of risk for the condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate association between VDRFok I polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to essential hypertension. Two hundred and eighty clinically diagnosed hypertensive patients and 200 normotensive healthy controls were analyzed for Fok I (T/C) [rs2228570] polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies in patients and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to predict the risk for developing hypertension by the individuals of different genotypes. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of Fok I (T/C) [rs2228570] VDR polymorphism differed significantly between patients and controls (χ(2) of 18.0; 2 degrees of freedom; P = 0.000). FF genotype and allele F were at significantly greater risk for developing hypertension and the risk was elevated for both the sexes, cases with positive family history and habit of smoking. Our data suggest that VDR gene Fok I polymorphism is associated with the risk of developing essential hypertension.

  17. Impact of the National Essential Public Health Services Policy on Hypertension Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglan; Pan, Xi; Li, Shukai; Liang, Di; Hou, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Lu

    2017-12-08

    Hypertension remains a severe challenge to population health worldwide. This study assessed the impact of a nationwide program in China-Essential Public Health Services (EPHS) on improvement of hypertension treatment and control. A cohort of hypertensive patients was identified from the 2011-2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Hypertension was defined based on: (i) an average systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, and/or an average diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg; and/or (ii) currently taking antihypertensive medications. Outcomes assessed included the rate of hypertension control, medication use, and blood pressure monitoring at a doctor's office. The key independent variable was defined as whether one received services from the EPHS-covered physical examination by 2013. Probit regression models with a difference-in-difference approach were performed for each of the 3 outcomes. Data were analyzed in 2017. Among the 4,958 hypertensive patients, 404 (8.1%) received the EPHS-covered service by 2013. Coverage by the EPHS program was associated with an increase of 7.9% in hypertension control rate (SE = 2.9%, P = 0.020), an increase of 10.3% in the rate of medication use (SE = 2.5%, P program helped mitigate the geographic disparities in access to health services such as blood pressure monitoring. The National EPHS program improved the treatment and control among hypertension patients. Expanding its program reach could further benefit the cardiovascular health of the population.

  18. Association between human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40 and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei-hong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YKL-40, a proposed marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, is associated with atherosclerosis and an increased cardiovascular mortality in the general population. However, the relationship between YKL-40 and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients has not been adequately assessed. Methods The relationship between serum levels of YKL-40 and arterial stiffness was evaluated in 93 essential hypertensive subjects and 80 normal subjects. Essential hypertensive subjects were divided into two groups based upon urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR: nonmicroalbuminuric group, (ACR n = 50 and microalbuminuric group (ACR ≥30 mg/g, n = 43. Large artery wall stiffness was assessed by measuring femoral arterial stiffness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV. Serum levels of YKL-40 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The study demonstrated that YKL-40,cf-PWV and femoral arterial stiffness were increased significantly (PPr = 0.44, P = 0.000 and femoral arterial stiffness ( r = 0.42, P =0.001. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that YKL-40 was the impact factor of arterial stiffness ( P Conclusion YKL-40 levels are elevated in essential hypertension subjects with an independent association between increasing YKL-40 levels and increasing arterial stiffness. The study suggests it played a positive role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular complications in patients with essential hypertension.

  19. [Value of C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of arteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lie-Hua; Huang, Rong; Wu, Zhen-Li; Xu, Ding-Li

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of arteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension. This study included 771 patients with essential hypertension and 243 healthy individuals, and all the subjects were measured for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and serum CRP level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of CRP in the diagnosis of arteriosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was evaluated with cfPWV> or =9 m/s as the golden diagnostic standard. The hypertensive patients had significantly higher cfPWV and serum CRP concentration than the healthy individuals (16.51-/+1.6 vs 9.81-/+1.1, Parteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis and nonspecific inflammation are prevalent in patients with essential hypertension, and CRP with the cutoff value of 3.85 mg/L may serve as a sensitive indicator for arteriosclerosis diagnosis in these patients.

  20. Strong independent association between obesity and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, M R; Lee, J Z; Lim, W Y; Hashemzadeh, M; Hashemzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and hypertension (HTN) are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Association between obesity and HTN has not been studied in a large populations following adjustment for comorbidities. The goal of this study was to evaluate any association between obesity and HTN after adjusting for baseline characteristics. We used ICD-9 codes for obesity and HTN from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Two randomly selected years, 1992 and 2002, were chosen from the databases as two independent samples. We used uni- and multivariable analysis to study any correlation between obesity and HTN. The 1992 database contained a total of 6,195,744 patients. HTN was present in 37.2 % of patients with obesity versus 12% of the control group (OR: 4.36, CI 4.30-4.42, P obesity versus 25.6% of the control group (OR: 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P obesity remained correlated with HTN in both years (1992: OR 2.69, CI 2.67-2.72, P obesity was found to be strongly and independently associated with HTN. The cause of this correlation is not known warranting further investigation. © 2016 World Obesity.

  1. Cardiovascular risk of essential hypertension: influence of class, number, and treatment-time regimen of hypertension medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2013-03-01

    A number of observational studies have found that treated hypertensive patients, even those with controlled clinic blood pressure (BP), might have poorer prognosis than untreated hypertensives. Different trials have also shown that relatively low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk cannot be achieved in high-risk hypertensive patients, leading to the belief they have a "residual CVD risk" that cannot be attenuated by conventional treatment. All these conclusions disregard the facts that the correlation between BP level and CVD risk is stronger for ambulatory than clinic BP and that the BP-lowering efficacy and effects on the 24-h BP pattern of different classes of hypertension medications exhibit statistically and clinically significant treatment-time (morning versus evening) differences. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential differential administration-time-dependent effects on CVD risk of the various classes of hypertension medications and the number of them used for therapy in the MAPEC (Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares, i.e., Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Prediction of Cardiovascular Events) study, a prospective, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial on 2156 hypertensive patients (1044 men/1112 women), 55.6 ± 13.6 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, randomized to ingest all prescribed once-a-day hypertension medications upon awakening or the entire daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime. Ambulatory BP was measured for 48 h at baseline, and again annually or more frequently (quarterly) when adjustment of treatment was necessary to achieve ambulatory, i.e., awake and asleep, BP control. CVD risk according to the number and classes of medications used at the final evaluation was calculated by comparison with that of 734 normotensive subjects who were identically followed and remained untreated. After a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs, CVD risk of hypertensive patients randomized to ingest all medications upon awakening

  2. Microalbuminuria in Patients With Essential Hypertension And its Relationship to Target Organ Damage: An Indian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitha B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent microalbuminuria (MA is the earliest indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients with MA have high risk for target organ damage (TOD resulting in stroke, retinopathy and adverse cardiovascular events. Though the prevalence of hypertension is high in India, the relationship between MA and TOD in hypertension is not well studied. To address this issue, this study was conducted at the Kottayam Medical College, Kerala, South India, between May 2005 and October 2006. The principal aim was to find out the prevalence of MA and its relationship to TOD in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 150 hypertensives without diabetes mellitus and/or other conditions causing MA were studied. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR was assessed and MA was defined as albumin excretion between 30-300 mg/day. The relationship of MA with the duration, severity and previous treatment of hypertension, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile and TOD′s like left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, hypertensive retinopathy and stroke was assessed by univariate analysis. Forty patients (26.67% were found to have MA of whom 24 were males and 16 were females. MA was significantly higher in those with longer duration and greater severity of hypertension (p < 0.001 in each. Older age (p < 0.001, adverse lipid profile (p < 0.01 and higher BMI (p < 0.04 were the other identifiable risk factors for MA. Gender and history of smoking did not pose higher risk for MA. Stroke (OR=3.8, echocardiography-proven LVH (OR=9.42 and hypertensive retinopathy (OR=9.7 were significantly higher in those with MA. In conclusion, the prevalence of MA in essential hypertension is high and patients with MA have high odds for developing TOD like stroke, LVH and hypertensive retinopathy. Early screening of hypertensives for MA and prompt treatment of positive cases might reduce the burden of CKD and cardiovascular disease in the

  3. RENAL AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF THE RENIN INHIBITOR REMIKIREN IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL-HYPERTENSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANPAASSEN, P; DEZEEUW, D; DEJONG, PE

    Remikiren is an orally available renin inhibitor with an established blood pressure-lowering effect in patients with essential hypertension. No data are available on the renal effects of remikiren in humans. We therefore studied the effects of a single oral administration of remikiren on blood

  4. Exercise training alters the balance between vasoactive compounds in skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effects of physical training on the formation of vasodilating and vasoconstricting compounds, as well as on related proteins important for vascular function, were examined in skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension (n=10). Muscle microdialysis samples were obtained from...

  5. Acute cardiovascular effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Randløv, A; Abrahamsen, Jimmi

    1998-01-01

    A role for vitamin D in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension has frequently been suggested, but acute direct effects on blood pressure, cardiac output, renal hemodynamics, or hormones have not previously been demonstrated. The rapid effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-D) were ...

  6. Calcium channel blockers shorten the periodicity of ultradian variation in blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H; Mitsubayashi, H; Saito, T; Kanmatsuse, K; Saito, N

    1998-09-01

    We studied ultradian and circadian variations in blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension who were receiving antihypertensive agents. No patient had previously received antihypertensive agents before this study began. After a 2-wk control period, we performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in 86 patients with essential hypertension (WHO stages I or II). The patients were then given a long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) (captopril or imidapril), a beta-receptor blocker (arotinolol or bisoprolol), or a calcium channel blocker (nisoldipine or benidipine) twice daily to control BP. We evaluated the patients' BP once every 2 wk to ensure optimal control. After 12 wk, ultradian and circadian variations in BP were analyzed by the maximum entropy method (MEM). All antihypertensive agents decreased office systolic BP (SBP), office diastolic BP (DBP), 24-h SBP, and 24-h DBP. ACEI did not change office, 24-h, daytime, or nighttime pulse rate (PR). Arotinolol and bisoprolol decreased 24-h PR. All antihypertensive agents decreased 24-h, daytime, and nighttime pressure rate product. MEM showed that no antihypertensive agent affected the circadian variation in the 1st peak (24-h periodicity) of SBP, DBP, or PR. However, calcium channel blockers shortened the periodicity of circadian variations in the 2nd peak (12-h periodicity) of SBP and the 3rd peak (8 to 6 h periodicity) of SBP. Therefore, ultradian variations in BP should be carefully monitored in hypertensive patients treated with calcium channel blockers.

  7. Predisposition to essential hypertension and development of diabetic nephropathy in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerudd, J A; Tarnow, L; Jacobsen, P

    1998-01-01

    of hypertension in this group. However, the difference in prevalence of parental hypertension was not evident using office blood pressure measurements (64 vs. 57%; NS; difference 7% [-5.8-20%). Furthermore, patients with DN+ and with antihypertensive therapy in both parents were themselves more frequently treated......Conflicting results have been reported on the relationship between familial predisposition to hypertension and development of diabetic nephropathy in IDDM. In our case-control study, we assessed the prevalence of hypertension among parents of 73 IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN......+; persistent albuminuria > 200 microg/min or > 300 mg/24 h) and 73 IDDM patients without diabetic nephropathy (DN-; urinary albumin excretion pressure (SpaceLabs 90207) > or = 135/85 mm...

  8. Effect of Anti-Hypertensive Medication Withdrawal in Well-Controlled Treated Hypertensive Patients: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranakitjaroen, Peera; Phoojaroenchanachai, Meta; Thongma, Pavitra; Wimonsophonkitti, Raiwin

    2016-02-01

    To determine prevalence of hypertensive (HT) patients whose BP can be normalized (hospital BP anti-HT drug withdrawal. Clinical characteristics of this group of patients were assessed. At least a year of well controlled HT patients by hospital BP without target organ damage and diabetes mellitus who were treated with single low-to-standard dose anti-HT medication in hypertension clinic, Siriraj Hospital were screened. After an informed consent was signed, epidemiologic data, cardiovascular risks and laboratory data done within a year was collected. The anti-HT drug taken would be discontinued and a series of home blood pressure (HBP) was measured twice a day (wake-up time and bed time) for 2 weeks. The anti-HT drug was still discontinued in normal HBP group (average HBP anti-HT medications were resumed in high HBP group (average HBP >135/85 mmHg), at week 2. At week 12, those who became hypertensive (hospital BP > 140/90 mmHg) would be advised to continue the drug. Ninety-five patients were recruited. Six patients were excluded since they did not complete HBP measurement data. After 2 weeks of antihypertensive drug discontinuation, 16 out of 89 patients enrolled were found to be HT by HBP. The rest 73 patients (82.0%) were remained NT At week 12, 7 patients (7.9%) self-administrated drug prior to the visit date. Therefore, 66 patients (74.1%) were left for further analyses. Of them, 55 patients (61.8%) were still NT by hospital BP and 11 patients (12.3%) turned to be HT. There were no significant differences of all risk factors studied between those NT and HT, except male was found in a higher proportion than female (p = 0.021). Fifty five patients (61.8%) out of 89 enrolled patients are still NT and able to stop anti-HT drug after 12 weeks follow-up. Male had a higher rate to remain NT than female.

  9. Masked hypertension: evidence of the need to treat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Agyemang, Charles; Ravenell, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of masked hypertension has been made easier with the widespread availability of home blood pressure monitoring devices with levels of accuracy comparable to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The negative impact of masked hypertension on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is

  10. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Essential Hypertensive Patients: Influence of Age and Left Ventricular Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Eduardo Cantoni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE - To evaluate diastolic dysfunction (DD in essential hypertension and the influence of age and cardiac geometry on this parameter. METHODS - Four hundred sixty essential hypertensive patients (HT underwent Doppler echocardiography to obtain E/A wave ratio (E/A, atrial deceleration time (ADT, and isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT. All patients were grouped according to cardiac geometric patterns (NG - normal geometry; CR - concentric remodeling; CH- concentric hypertrophy; EH - eccentric hypertrophy and to age (60 years. One hundred six normotensives (NT persons were also evaluated. RESULTS - A worsening of diastolic function in the HT compared with the NT, including HT with NG (E/A: NT - 1.38±0.03 vs HT - 1.27±0.02, p<0.01, was observed. A higher prevalence of DD occurred parallel to age and cardiac geometry also in the prehypertrophic groups (CR. Multiple regression analysis identified age as the most important predictor of DD (r²=0.30, p<0.01. CONCLUSION - DD was prevalent in this hypertensive population, being highly affected by age and less by heart structural parameters. DD is observed in incipient stages of hypertensive heart disease, and thus its early detection may help in the risk stratification of hypertensive patients.

  11. Incidence and risk of hypertension in patients newly treated for multiple myeloma: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Ajai; Mezzi, Khalid; Zhu, Shao; Werther, Winifred; Felici, Diana; Lyon, Alexander R

    2016-11-22

    Hypertension is commonly reported in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and may be associated with older age, disease-related complications and consequences of MM treatments. This study evaluated the incidence rates of and risk factors for hypertension and malignant hypertension in newly-treated MM patients in the United States. Newly-treated adult MM patients were identified from Truven MarketScan claims database from 1/1/05 to 3/31/14. Inclusion criteria were new diagnosis of MM with start of MM treatment, ≥12 months continuous enrollment prior to diagnosis, ≥30 days of continuous enrollment following initial diagnosis, and prescription drug coverage. Non-MM patients were matched for age (within +/- 5 years), sex and distribution of index dates to MM patients. Baseline cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities, incidence rate of hypertension and malignant hypertension in the follow-up period, and risk of hypertension and malignant hypertension based on existing baseline CV comorbidities were evaluated. A total of 7895 MM patients (38% with hypertension history) and 23,685 non-MM patients (24% with hypertension history) were included in the study. Twenty-two percent of MM patients versus 3% of non-MM patients had baseline renal failure. A higher percentage of MM versus non-MM patients had baseline hypertension in combination with renal failure, congestive heart failure or both. The incidence rate of hypertension in MM and non-MM patients was 260 and 178 per 1000 person-years, respectively. There was a 30% increase in the risk of hypertension for MM versus non-MM patients: hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.37). In MM patients with a history of hypertension, the risk of malignant hypertension was significantly increased with the following comorbid conditions: cardiomyopathy, HR 2.79 (95% CI 1.20, 6.48); renal failure, HR 2.13 (95% CI 1.36, 3.34); and diabetes mellitus, HR 1.59 (95% CI 1.05, 2.39). This study confirms that the incidence of

  12. [Rational therapy of patients with essential hypertension and abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pligovka, V M

    2014-11-01

    It was determined the characteristics of lipid status of patients with essential hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism--mostly increased levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In assessing the effectiveness of statin therapy in combination with levothyroxine replacement therapy compared with statin monotherapy, combination therapy showed the best result in terms of achievement of target levels of both total cholesterol and LDL. The obtained results allow us to recommend the use of combination therapy for patients with hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism in order to achieve the target values of LDL and thus to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these patients.

  13. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and IgG in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jensen, H A; Westrup, M

    1977-01-01

    Transcapillary escape rates of albumin and IgG (fractions of intravascular mass of albumin and IgG that pass to the extravascular space per unit time) were determined simultaneously from the initial disappearance of intravenously injected 131I human albumin and 125I human IgG in seven untreated...... subjects suffering from essential hypertension. The average mean arterial blood pressure of these subjects 193/119 mmHg; four subjects had grade I-III funduscopic changes. Transcapillary escape rates of albumin (TERalb) and IgG (TERIgG) were found significantly increased in the hypertensive subjects...

  14. Impaired formation of vasodilators in peripheral tissue in essential hypertension is normalized by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Jensen, Lasse Gliemann; Thaning, Pia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: This study examined vascular function and the adenosine system in skeletal muscle of patients diagnosed with essential hypertension (n¿=¿10) and of normotensive (n¿=¿11) patients, before and after aerobic training. METHODS:: Before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training, the patients...... biopsies were obtained from muscle vastus lateralis. RESULTS:: Before training, leg vascular conductance in response to arterial adenosine infusion was similar in the hypertensive and normotensive groups and the individual vascular response was positively correlated to that of both acetylcholine infusion...

  15. Association between xanthine dehydrogenase tag single nucleotide polymorphisms and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baogang; Hao, Ying; Shi, Jin; Geng, Ning; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Yanli; Sun, Zhaoqing; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Hong; Li, Naijing; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in the rural Han Chinese population of Fuxin, Liaoning. Han Chinese individuals, who had lived in rural areas of Fuxin, were selected as subjects for the present study. A total of 521 unrelated patients with hypertension were selected, along with a further 533 unrelated individuals with normal blood pressure, in order to serve as controls. Five tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the XDH gene were selected. An estimation of SNP allele frequency was determined using DNA pooling and pyrosequencing methods. Prior to Bonferroni correction, T allele frequency for rs206811 was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (64.1 vs. 59.4%; P=0.031); C allele frequency for rs1042039 was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (66.1 vs. 60.6%; P=0.011), C allele frequency for rs1054889 was significantly lower in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (38.8 vs. 44.8%; P=0.007); and A allele frequency for rs2073316 was significantly lower in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (29.2 vs. 34.4%; P=0.013). However, once a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied, the XDH gene polymorphisms rs1042039, rs1054889, and rs2073316 were shown to be associated with hypertension (P=0.044, 0.035, and 0.039, respectively). These results suggest that the XDH gene polymorphisms rs1042039, rs1054889, and rs2073316 may be associated with hypertension in the rural Han Chinese population.

  16. Novel approaches for treating hypertension [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a prevalent yet modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While there are many effective treatments available to combat hypertension, patients often require at least two to three medications to control blood pressure, although there are patients who are resistant to such therapies. This short review will briefly update on recent clinical advances and potential emerging therapies and is intended for a cross-disciplinary readership.

  17. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.D.; Oh, B.S.; Jang, W.S.; Roh, K.H.; Park, B.I.; Cho, M.K. (National Police Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1983-04-01

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm/sup 3/) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO/sub 4/) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m/sub 2/) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition.

  18. Study on plasmatic metabolomics of Uygur patients with essential hypertension based on nuclear magnetic resonance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Zhang, J-P; Nuermaimaiti, A-G; Yunusi, K-X

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics is the analysis of the global constitution of endogenous metabolites in cells, tissue, and bodily fluids based on analysis techniques with high output, high sensitivity, and high resolution. The physiological and pathological state of the subject investigated could be identified and analyzed through examining metabolite changes. In this study, 1H-NMR metabolomics was employed to study plasma metabolites of both Uygur patients with hypertension and healthy people, thereby filtering out characteristic metabolites for Uygur patients with hypertension. The pathogenesis of hypertension was discussed via metabolic pathways. A total of 256 Uygur subjects were recruited for this study and divided into two groups, namely hypertension group (157 Uygur patients with hypertension) and normal group (99 healthy Uygur subjects). They were all taken from epidemiological surveys on the Uygur people of Qira County, Hotan, and Xinjiang between 2009 and 2012 conducted by Hypertension Research Group of Xinjiang Medical University. Furthermore, all subjects have Uygur blood within three generations. For the hypertension group, the recruitment criteria is systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg (lmmHg = 0.133 kPa) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg at rest. Patients who had taken antihypertensive drugs within two weeks and those who were diagnosed with essential hypertension (EH) were also included in this group, while patients with secondary hypertension, myocardiosis, congenital heart disease, and rheumatic valvular heart disease were not included. In the healthy normal-pressure group, blood pressures were within normal range: SBP NMR) spectrometer to conduct the 1H-NMR experiment. Serum specimens from both the hypertension group and the healthy control group were used for NMR spectrograms before data pre-processing, where aggregate analysis was performed for NMR data/metabolic information with principal component analysis (PCA). Then, partial least

  19. Left ventricular mass and cardiovascular morbidity in essential hypertension: the MAVI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, P; Carini, G; Circo, A; Dovellini, E; Giovannini, E; Lombardo, M; Solinas, P; Gorini, M; Maggioni, A P

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass at echocardiography in uncomplicated subjects with essential hypertension. Only a few single-center studies support the prognostic value of LV mass in uncomplicated hypertension. The MAssa Ventricolare sinistra nell'Ipertensione study was a multicenter (45 centers) prospective study. The prespecified aim was to explore the prognostic value of LV mass in hypertension. Admission criteria included essential hypertension, no previous cardiovascular events, and age > or =50. There was central reading of echocardiographic tracings. Treatment was tailored to the single subject. Overall, 1,033 subjects (396 men) were followed for 0 to 4 years (median, 3 years). Mean age at entry was 60 years, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 154/92 mm Hg. The rate of cardiovascular events (x100 patient-years) was 1.3 in the group with normal LV mass and 3.2 in the group (28.5% of total sample) with LV mass > or =125 g/body surface area (p = 0.005). After adjustment for age (p < 0.01), diabetes (p < 0.01), cigarette smoking (p < 0.01) and serum creatinine (p = 0.03), LV hypertrophy was associated with an increased risk of events (RR [relative risk] 2.08; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.22 to 3.57). For each 39 g/m(2) (1 SD) increase in LV mass there was an independent 40% rise in the risk of major cardiovascular events (95% CI: 14 to 72; p = 0.0013). Our findings show a strong, continuous and independent relationship of LV mass to subsequent cardiovascular morbidity. This is the first study to extend such demonstration to a large nationwide multicenter sample of uncomplicated subjects with essential hypertension.

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AMID ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Marina Mikhaylovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of monitoring of pregnant women with hypertension against the background of pharmacotherapy. A comparative evaluation of the clinical efficacy of treatment of hypertension in pregnancy, the drug metoprolol tartrate (Egilok retard, Egis, Hungary and methyldopa (dopegit, Egis, Hungary. The positive effect of metoprolol tartrate in pregnant women with hypertension in the kidney, heart, psychological profile, as well as safety for the fetus. Purpose:To evaluate the psychological profile of pregnant women with essential hypertension on antihypertensive therapy. The method and methodology of work: We observed 43 pregnant women with pre-existing hypertension of pregnancy. Surveyed women were divided into 2 groups by open randomized trial. The first group was assigned to metoprolol tartrate (Egilok retard at a dose of 50-75 mg / day, once in monotherapy, the second - methyldopa (dopegit at a daily dose of 500-1000 mg as a single agent. The first group included women aged 24 to 40 years, mean age was 30,1 ± 4,15 years, the second from 23 to 36 years with a mean age of 28,5 ± 3,55 years. The groups were matched for age, presence of somatic diseases, gynecological diseases, the presence of harmful habits. The area of ​​application of the results: medicine.

  1. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes Polymorphisms and Essential Hypertension in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daméhan Tchelougou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between three polymorphisms of renin-angiotensin system and the essential hypertension in the population of Burkina Faso. Methodology. This was a case-control study including 202 cases and 204 matched controls subjects. The polymorphisms were identified by a classical and a real-time PCR. Results. The AGT 235M/T and AT1R 1166A/C polymorphisms were not associated with the hypertension while the genotype frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between patients and controls (DD: 66.83% and 35.78%, ID: 28.22% and 50.98%, II: 4.95% and 13.24%, resp. were significantly different (p < 10−4. The genotype DD of ACE gene (OR = 3.40, p < 0.0001, the increasing age (OR = 3.83, p < 0.0001, obesity (OR = 4.84, p < 0.0001, dyslipidemia (OR = 3.43, p = 0.021, and alcohol intake (OR = 2.76, p < 0.0001 were identified as the independent risk factors for hypertension by multinomial logistic regression. Conclusion. The DD genotype of the ACE gene is involved in susceptibility to hypertension. Further investigations are needed to better monitor and provide individualized care for hypertensive patients.

  2. Reverse-dipper pattern of blood pressure may predict lacunar infarction in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Peng, L; Dong, Q; Zheng, F; Yang, P; Sun, L; Gong, S; Zeng, L; Wang, G

    2015-06-01

    The fluctuation of circadian blood pressure (BP) is of great diversity in patients with essential hypertension and may provide significant prognostic value for stroke. However, it remains uncertain whether reverse-dipper pattern of BP influences the incidence of lacunar infarction in hypertensive patients. In the current study, 362 hypertensive patients (195 males, 167 females) were enrolled. BP patterns were evaluated with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to analyse the possible relationships between lacunar infarction and various clinical risk factors such as ABPM. A total of 93 patients (25.7%) had reverse-dipper BP pattern. Non-dipper pattern of BP was observed in 179 hypertensive patients (49.4%) and dipper pattern in 90 patients (24.9%). The percentage of lacunar infarction was the highest in the patients with reverse-dipper pattern compared with pure hypertension or atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (P logistic regression analysis, reverse-dipper pattern of BP (odds ratio 2.492; 95% confidence interval 1.133-5.479; P Reverse-dipper BP pattern may serve as an independent risk factor for lacunar infarction and more personalized BP management should be offered to the patients who have elevated nocturnal BP. © 2015 EAN.

  3. [Clinical research on electrode and laser stimulating on acupoint combined with music therapy for grade 1 essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hai-Yu; Chen, Yi-Shen; Hong, Zhong-Si; Shi, Jing-Li; Yang, Zhang-Bin; Chen, Zhong-Ben; Zhan, Hong-Rui

    2014-07-01

    To explore safe, effective, simple and easy non-drug treatments for grade 1 essential hypertension. According to TCM syndrome differentiation, 126 cases of grade 1 essential hypertension were classified into 4 types: liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome, yin-deficiency and yang-hyperactivity syndrome, excessive phlegm-dampness syndrome, yin-yang deficiency syndrome, and then the patients were randomly divided into a photoelectric combined with musical treatment group (group A), an acupuncture group(group B) and a placebo group (group C). The acupoints were selected according to TCM syndrome differentiation in group A and group B, and multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus and acupuncture were used in the two groups respectively, once daily. Taichong (LR 3) and Quchi (LI 11) were selected in liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome, Taixi (KI 3) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were selected yi yin-deficiency and yang-hyperactivity syndrome, Zusanli (ST 36) and Fenglong (ST 40) were selected in excessive phlegm-dampness syndrome, while Taixi (KI 3) and Guanyuan (CV 4) were selected yi yirryang deficiency syndrome. The group C was treated with oral administration of starch tablet (25 mg), one tablet each time,three times everyday. Ten days were considered as one course, totally three courses were required in the three groups. The blood pressure and scores of TCM syndromes before and after treatment were compared among the three groups. The blood pressure decreased significantly after treatment in group A and group B (all P 0.05). The clinical effect of multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus for treatment of grade 1 essential hypertension is reliable. Meanwhile, it has the advantages of a non-invasive and simple operation.

  4. Intravenous labetolol in treating hypertensive crisis following dexmedetomidine infusion for procedural sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Thilaka; Moni, Amarnath; Mathews, Lailu; Balaji, Sudarshan

    2016-03-01

    Dexmedetomidine is widely used for procedural sedation because of its unique combination of sedation, analgesia, and anxiolysis with minimal respiratory depression. Transient hypertension has been reported during the use of dexmedetomidine which is usually benign and is taken over by the hypotensive response on continuing the infusion. We report a case of hypertensive crisis following dexmedetomidine infusion used for procedural sedation, necessitating discontinuation of the infusion and treatment of hypertension. The dilemmas involved in treating hypertension caused by dexmedetomidine are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endothelial Dysfunction and Its Correction in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shalimova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying the effectiveness of α-lipoic acid impact as a part of complex therapy on endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were revealed a significant improvement in metabolic homeostasis, decreased severity of endothelial dysfunction, reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines under additional use of α-lipoic acid compared with standard therapy.

  6. Long-term impact of systolic blood pressure and glycemia on the development of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Gonzalez, Carmen; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Redon, Josep

    2005-06-01

    The objective was to assess the temporal impact of factors related to the development of microalbuminuria during the follow-up of young adult normoalbuminurics with high-normal blood pressure or at stage 1 of essential hypertension. Prospective follow-up was conducted on 245 normoalbuminuric hypertensive subjects (mean age 40.9 years; 134 men; blood pressure 139.7/88.6 mm Hg; body mass index 28.5 kg/m2) never treated previously with antihypertensive drugs, with yearly urinary albumin excretion measurements, until the development of microalbuminuria. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment or with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve a blood pressure of 15 mg per 24-hour systolic blood pressure >139 mm Hg and a positive trend in fasting glucose were observed in the univariate analyses. However, in the multivariate analysis, only the baseline urinary albumin excretion and the trend of fasting glucose were independently related to the risk of developing microalbuminuria. In mild hypertensives, the development of microalbuminuria was linked to insufficient blood pressure control and to a progressive increment of glucose values.

  7. Cardiovascular-sleep interaction in drug-naïve patients with essential grade I hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Provini, Federica; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Annagrazia; Pierangeli, Giulia; Cortelli, Pietro

    2013-03-01

    Lack of nighttime blood pressure (BP) reduction by 10-20% from the mean daytime values (dipping) has been described as a distinguishing feature of essential hypertension and associated, also in normotensive subjects, with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Mechanisms involved in the loss of the nocturnal dip are still unclear, but involvement of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity probably plays a crucial role. Sleep is fundamental in modulating ANS activity to maintain the physiological BP circadian rhythm, and for this reason its integrity has been widely investigated in hypertension. We investigated, under controlled conditions, the autonomic control of the CV system through an autonomic reflex screen in the awake condition and by assessment of circadian rhythm-, day-night-, time-, and state-dependent changes of BP and heart rate (HR) and associated sleep parameters in patients with a recent (≤1 yr) diagnosis of essential grade I hypertension naïve of therapy. Fourteen hypertensive patients (6 males, age: 43 ± 11 yrs; body mass index [BMI]: 24 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were compared with 28 healthy controls matched for sex, age, BMI (2 controls/patient) for cardiovascular reflex and to 8 different subjects from previous controls (6 males), comparable for age and BMI, for the day-night and nighttime CV profiles during two consecutive nights. The cardiovascular reflex screen data showed increased sympathetic effect in hypertensive patients, represented by higher overshoot of BP after Valsalva maneuver. Nighttime sleep architecture during the dark period in terms of duration, representation of sleep stages, sleep fragmentation, and incidence of arousals-periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) and PLMS arousals-was similar in patients and controls. Hypertensive patients displayed higher 24-h BP and HR values, but their sleep-related BP decrease was significantly reduced compared with controls. The circadian rhythms of BP and HR were intact and similar in

  8. Effects of catgut-embedding acupuncture technique on nitric oxide levels and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhana; Srilestari, A.; Marbun, M. B. H.; Mihardja, H.

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is common a health problem and its prevalence in Indonesia is quite high (31.7%). Catgut embedding—an acupuncture technique—is known to reduce blood pressure; however, no study has confirmed the underlying mechanism. This study examines the effect of catgut embedding on serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Forty hypertension patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group received anti-hypertensive drugs whereas the case group received anti-hypertensive drugs and catgut embedding. Results showed a statistically significant mean difference in NO concentration (p < 0.05) and statistically and clinically significant mean difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups (p < 0.05). The results confirm that catgut embedding can influence serum NO concentration and blood pressure in essential hypertension patients.

  9. Pattern electroretinogram in treated ocular hypertension: a cross-sectional study after timolol maleate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotto, A; Salgarello, T; Giudiceandrea, A; De Luca, L A; Coppè, A; Buzzonetti, L; Falsini, B

    1995-01-01

    To investigate pattern electroretinogram changes in treated ocular hypertension, we evaluated pattern electroretinogram recordings of 48 hypertensive eyes following an 8-month timolol maleate therapy. During treatment, 27 of 48 eyes had normalized intraocular pressures (15-18 mm Hg), while 21 retained elevated values (21-25 mm Hg). Twenty-eight eyes with untreated hypertension (22-25 mm Hg) lasting at least 8 months, as well as 32 untreated, normotensive eyes served as controls. When compared to untreated normotensive controls, timolol-treated eyes with either elevated or normalized intraocular pressures showed reductions in the mean electroretinographic amplitudes. However, these amplitude reductions were substantially greater in treated eyes with elevated pressures as compared to those with normalized ones. Untreated hypertensive controls showed pattern electroretinogram reductions, with respect to normal values, that were comparable to those of treated hypertensive eyes, but larger than those of treated normotensive ones. These results indicate that, in treated ocular hypertension, pattern electroretinogram losses tend to be associated with moderately increased intraocular pressures in the range of 21-25 mm Hg. Electroretinographic abnormalities may be, at least in part, prevented only by lowering intraocular pressure into a normal range.

  10. The effects of treating hypertension following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdicks, E. F.; Vermeulen, M.; Murray, G. D.; Hijdra, A.; van Gijn, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated in a consecutive series of 134 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage whether institution of antihypertensive treatment was related to the incidence of cerebral ischemia and rebleeding. The aim of hypertensive treatment was to reduce the diastolic blood pressure to levels

  11. Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensives in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Goal blood pressure (BP) was defined by the JNC VI and the World Health Organization- International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) as <140 mm Hg systolic and <90 mm Hg diastolic for the general and <130 mm Hg systolic and <85 mm Hg diastolic for special high-risk populations. It is well established ...

  12. Geometry of the carotid arteries and tilt-up hypotension in subjects with essential arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, M; Antonelli, G; Di Venere, N; Campaniello, M; di Noia, D; Rizzon, P

    1996-09-01

    Dysfunction of the baroreceptor structures located in the carotid bulb is considered responsible for hypotensive responses to orthostatic posture in hypertensive subjects. Because of a recurrent vascular impairment in essential hypertensives, the authors hypothesized that in these cases the baroreceptive dysfunction could be related to some peculiar vascular disarrangement of the carotid arteries, at the level of the bulb. To test this, they compared two groups of mild essential hypertensives, divided into group A--15 subjects considered hyporeacting because of a decrease in mean blood pressure > or = 10 mmHg at the first minute of a passive orthostatic stress--and group B--15 subjects considered normoreacting because of an increase in mean blood pressure > or = 5 mmHg. They evaluated by high definition echo Doppler ultrasonography: (1) an arterial compliance index, (2) the volume of the carotid bulb, and (3) a score expressing the degree of arteriopathy at the level of the carotid arteries. In group A, results demonstrated a significant impairment of the carotid artery structure, expressed by an increase in volume of the carotid bulb (389.4 +/- 134.7 vs 233.2 +/- 116.5 mm3, P < 0.05) and a higher vascular score (2.7 vs 1, P < 0.001), while the index of arterial compliance was similar in the two groups. In conclusion, in mild essential hypertension a baroreceptor dysfunction could be strictly linked to a derangement of the carotid artery structure, while arterial compliance does not seem to involve the baroreceptor function.

  13. The Impact of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarth, Christian; Grimm, Daniela; Wehland, Markus; Bauer, Johann; Krüger, Marcus

    2018-02-03

    The aim of this review is to investigate, whether there is a possible link between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is known for being deeply involved in cardiovascular tonus and blood pressure regulation. Hence, many of the pharmaceutical antihypertensive drugs inhibit this system. Interestingly, experimental studies in mice have indicated that vitamin D supplementation significantly lowers renin synthesis and blood pressure. It is conceivable that similar mechanisms may be found in the human organism. Regarding this, large-scale cross-sectional studies suggest the serum 25(OH)D-level to be inversely correlated to the prevalence of hypertension. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not found a clear association between vitamin D supplementation and improvements in hypertension. Nevertheless, the missing association of vitamin D and hypertension in clinical trials can be due to suboptimal study designs. There are hints that restoration of serum 25(OH)D levels during vitamin D therapy is essential to achieve possible beneficial cardiovascular effects. It is important to perform long-term trials with a short dose interval and a high bioavailability of supplementation. Taken together, more RCTs are required to further investigate if vitamin D can be beneficial for the reduction of blood pressure.

  14. SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE AND LIPIDS IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH UNCOMPLICATED ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswari D, Ramalingam, Sharmila T, Prasad Naidu M, Naidu JN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase initially used as an indicator of alcohol ingestion is now viewed as a sensitive marker of sub clinical inflammation. Recent clinical studies have shown its association with blood pressure and lipid profile. As GGT degrades glutathione, an antioxidant GGT can be considered as a pro inflammatory marker playing a role in atherogenesis and hypertension. Materials and methods: 65 subjects with Essential hypertension and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls both male and female between 18-50 years of age were recruited from General Medicine department of Narayana Medical college and Hospital, Nellore, A.P. Serum GGT was measured by calorimetric kinetic assay. Fasting Serum Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol and HDL cholesterol by standard enzymatic procedures and LDL cholesterol by Friedwald equation. Results: GGT is significantly elevated in hypertensive subjects (Mean±SD 64.2±18.62IU/L compared to controls (Mean±SD 26.20±8.91IU/L (P value <0.001. GGT is significantly correlated with systolic BP (r= 0.26 p<0.01 and diastolic BP(r= 0.28 p<0.01. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated GGT in young adults may contribute to their susceptibility to hypertension and provide an additional evidence of novel role of GGT in cardiovascular risk evaluation.

  15. Investigation of the relationship between arterial stiffness and sleep architecture in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hang; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    A change in sleep architecture might increase the risk of hypertension and worsen target organs. This study thus aimed to study the features of sleep architecture and examine its relationship with pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, in patients with essential hypertension and healthy people aged 45-65 years (n = 106). We collected data on demographics, the serum index, overnight polysomnography, vascular testing and ambulatory blood pressure in addition to measuring arterial stiffness and monitoring sleep respiration. We found that patients with hypertension had longer sleep latency and shorter duration. Their sleep efficiency and the ratio of N3 in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement were lower, while the micro-arousal index (MI), N1 and N2 in NREM, and the apnea-hypopnea index were higher than normal people in controls. PWV raised with a decrease in N3 and an increase in the MI. In summary, there were notable changes in sleep architecture and with a decrease in N3 and increase in MI can accelerate arterial stiffness and then worsen target organ damage in patients with hypertension.

  16. [Efficacy on borderline hypertension treated with acupuncture combined with anti-hypertensive plaster intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-mei

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy difference in treatment of borderline hypertension between acupuncture combined with anti-hypertensive plaster and simple acupuncture. Sixty patients of borderline hypertension were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. In the observation group, acupuncture was applied to Fengchi (GB 20), Taichong (LR 3) and the others, once a day, 5 treatments made one session. There were 2 days at interval among the sessions. Totally, 4 sessions were required. Additionally, in combination, the anti-hypertensive plaster was prepared with the fine powder of Chuanxiong (ligusticum wallichii) and Wuzhuyu (fructus evodiae) at 1.1 and mixed with vinegar. The plaster was applied to the umbilicus, once every two days, totally 15 times were required. In the control group, acupuncture was given simply. The selected acupoints and operation were the same as the observation group. Before and after treatment, blood pressure and syndrome score were observed and the short-term and long-term efficacies were assessed in the two groups. After treatment, the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (all P0.05). In follow-up of the effective cases and remarkably effective cases in 3 months, the total effective rate in the observation group was 89.3% (25/28) and was 60.0% (15/25) in the control group, indicating the significant difference in comparison (Panti-hypertensive plaster is the effective method in prevention and treatment of borderline hypertension. Regarding the long-term efficacy, this combined therapy achieves the superior improvement in the symptoms and physical signs of the patients of borderline hypertension as compared with simple acupuncture.

  17. Left ventricular hypertrophy in mild essential hypertension. Its progression, prediction and treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doba, N; Tomiyama, H; Yoshida, H; Kihara, Y; Watanabe, G; Hinohara, S

    1996-07-01

    Since the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is thought to be multifactorial, the antihypertensive strategy also has to be multifaceted. Diagnosis of LVH is more reliable than ever with echocardiography either of the M-mode or 2D method. Diagnostic criteria have already been proposed by Ganau et al who classified LV morphology into 4 different sectors based on the standard values of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness in diastole (RWTd); normal, concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy. The concentric hypertrophy pattern is the most risky with regard to prognosis. Therefore, its detection and prediction for further progression have to be conducted with relatively easy routine work-up procedures such as echocardiography and maximal exercise testing. The prediction of LVH progression has already been proposed based on several studies conducted in patients with borderline or mild hypertension. The following two predictors were defined as LVMI > 124 g/m2 and peak Ps at maximal exercise testing > 200 mmHg. Therefore, the patient who meets these criteria has to be treated with medications that are appropriately selected on an individualized basis. Both hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are thought to be involved in the initiation, promotion and potentiation of remodeling of the LV in hypertension. Physical fitness also seems to be decreased in a parallel manner. Selection of the most appropriate drug for a given patient has to be individually determined based on the risks that have to be corrected. Finally, arteriosclerosis, which is almost always initiated and progresses in concert with hypertension, must also be targeted with regard to such prognostic aspects as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arteriosclerosis is pathogenetically independent from hypertension, but usually behaves in concert with it. Selection of medication must be focussed on an individualized basis

  18. [Microalbuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential arterial hypertension. A study in non-diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, G; Chameau, A M; Bouhanick, B; Page, J D; Hallab, M; Richard, C; Girault, A; Fressinaud, P; Marre, M

    To evaluate the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension, we studied, cross-sectionally, 64 subjects with essential hypertension and no diabetes. Urinary albumin excretion and Sokolow index correlated significantly (r = 0.483; P = 0.0001). Five subjects were positive for microalbuminuria (> 30 mg/24 h) and Sokolow index (> 35 mm); 43 were negative for both, with a concordance rate of 77 percent (chi-squared test 11.1; P = 0.0009). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated two independent determinants for urinary albumin excretion: Sokolow index (F = 18.29), and diastolic blood pressure (F = 12.23). The relationships between urinary albumin excretion, Sokolow index, and blood pressure were not different in the 18 subjects taking angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors and in the 46 others. The close relationship between urinary albumin excretion and Sokolow index observed in this study suggests that left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertension may account for the increased cardiovascular mortality observed in non diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria.

  19. Effects of music on cardiovascular responses in men with essential hypertension compared with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion...

  20. Body weight variation and control of cardiovascular risk factors in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Perez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Gonzalez, Carmen; Lurbe, Empar; Redón, Josep

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of weight changes on blood pressure (BP), lipids and glucose goals in a cohort of hypertensive subjects. Prospective follow-up. Hypertension clinic. 326 hypertensive non-diabetic subjects, 46% with metabolic syndrome (MS). Usual care treatment, which included diet, physical exercise and drugs prescribed when indicated. All patients were observed for up to 1 year. BP and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal were those in ESH/ESC and ATP III recommendations, respectively. The glucose goal was to delay progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus, or to achieve blood glucose <100 mg/dl for non-diabetics. According to body weight changes, patients were categorized using adjusted ROC curves models. Overall, there was a significant weight increment of 0.5 kg (95% CI 0.1-0.9 kg); 28 patients (8.6%) lost more than 5 kg, and only four (1.2%) lost more than 10 kg. BP, LDL-C and glucose goals were achieved in 56%, 78% and 61% of patients, respectively. To lose or not gain weight was an independent prognostic factor to achieve the BP goal in all the patients and the LDL goal in the presence of MS. For glucose control, being treated with beta-blockers and/or diuretics was a negative factor. In hypertensive subjects, even small changes in weight may have an important impact on achieving cardiovascular goals, mainly in those with MS.

  1. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of anthropometric parameters. They were identified lipid profile, CRP, TSH, T4. Determination of IMT was performed using color Doppler ultrasound machine with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 13.0.Results. A study of patients showed that the comparison group matched for age, sex, BMI. The levels of atherogenic lipids and CRP were statistically higher in the subclinical hypothyroidism group compared with the control group. A mathematical analysis showed that TSH affects indicators such as the IMT, CRP and BMI.In subclinical hypothyroidism group were statistically significantly higher levels of atherogenic lipids, CRP as compared with the control group. Mathematical analysis showed that the significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism are the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone, CRP and BMI.Conclusions: Significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism is the TSH, CRP and BMI. The level of TSH above 10.2 mIU/L is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism

  2. Arterial wall stiffness in patients with essential hypertension at young age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnik E.L.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research objective was investigating arterial wall stiffness in patients with hypertension at young age and assessing the relationship between subclinical target organs damage and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM parameters. 30 male patients aged 18-35 years with essential hypertension stage I and II, hypertension 1 and 2nd grade were surveyed. The examination included general clinical methods, echocardiography, ABPM and suprasystolic sfigmography. It was found that the pulse wave velocity (PWVao (r = 0,557 p <0,01, central aortic blood pressure (SBPao (r = 0,492 p <0,01 and augmentation index (AIxao (r = 0,489 p <0.01 significantly increased with the pa¬tients’ age. Abdominal obesity (r = 0,566 p <0,01 and BMI (r = 0,599 p <0,01 impacted on the PWVao acceleration. Increasing of the left ventricular mass index (LVMI is highly associated with SBPao (r = 0,506 p <0,05 and PWVao (r = 0,434 p <0,05. According to ABPM the most significant correlation with arterial wall stiffness parameters demon¬strated diastolic blood pressure (DBP daytime level (AIxao (r = 0,418 p <0,01, with PWVao (r = 0,699 p <0.01 and SBPao (r = 0,695 p <0,01. Thus, age, excessive body weight and obesity should be considered as unfavorable factors that worsen arterial wall stiffness in patients with hypertension at the age before 35 years. Increase of DBP levels especially during the day causes maximum negative impact on the arterial wall stiffness parameters according to ABPM. Increased SBPao and PWVao in patients with hypertension at a young age are associated with increased left ventricular mass index.

  3. Nitric oxide, cholesterol oxides and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in plasma of patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Moriel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify disturbances of nitric oxide radical (·NO metabolism and the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in human essential hypertension. The concentrations of·NO derivatives (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols and nitrotyrosine, water and lipid-soluble antioxidants and cholesterol oxides were measured in plasma of 11 patients with mild essential hypertension (H: 57.8 ± 9.7 years; blood pressure, 148.3 ± 24.8/90.8 ± 10.2 mmHg and in 11 healthy subjects (N: 48.4 ± 7.0 years; blood pressure, 119.4 ± 9.4/75.0 ± 8.0 mmHg.Nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosothiols were measured by chemiluminescence and nitrotyrosine was determined by ELISA. Antioxidants were determined by reverse-phase HPLC and cholesterol oxides by gas chromatography. Hypertensive patients had reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperemia (H: 9.3 and N: 15.1% increase of diameter 90 s after hyperemia, and lower levels of ascorbate (H: 29.2 ± 26.0, N: 54.2 ± 24.9 µM, urate (H: 108.5 ± 18.9, N: 156.4 ± 26.3 µM, ß-carotene (H: 1.1 ± 0.8, N: 2.5 ± 1.2 nmol/mg cholesterol, and lycopene (H: 0.4 ± 0.2, N: 0.7 ± 0.2 nmol/mg cholesterol, in plasma, compared to normotensive subjects. The content of 7-ketocholesterol, 5alpha-cholestane-3ß,5,6ß-triol and 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol in LDL, and the concentration of endothelin-1 (H: 0.9 ± 0.2, N: 0.7 ± 0.1 ng/ml in plasma were increased in hypertensive patients. No differences were found for ·NO derivatives between groups. These data suggest that an increase in cholesterol oxidation is associated with endothelium dysfunction in essential hypertension and oxidative stress, although ·NO metabolite levels in plasma are not modified in the presence of elevated cholesterol oxides.

  4. Cluster analysis: a new approach for identification of underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease in essential hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Lu, Xiaoni; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Bin; Su, Dan; Song, Anqi; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Grading of essential hypertension according to blood pressure (BP) level may not adequately reflect clinical heterogeneity of hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to explore clinical phenotypes in essential hypertensive patients using cluster analysis. This study recruited 513 hypertensive patients and evaluated BP variations with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Four distinct hypertension groups were identified using cluster analysis: (1) younger male smokers with relatively high BP had the most severe carotid plaque thickness but no coronary artery disease (CAD); (2) older women with relatively low diastolic BP had more diabetes; (3) non-smokers with a low systolic BP level had neither diabetes nor CAD; (4) hypertensive patients with BP reverse dipping were most likely to have CAD but had least severe carotid plaque thickness. In binary logistic analysis, reverse dipping was significantly associated with prevalence of CAD. Cluster analysis was shown to be a feasible approach for investigating the heterogeneity of essential hypertension in clinical studies. BP reverse dipping might be valuable for prediction of CAD in hypertensive patients when compared with carotid plaque thickness. However, large-scale prospective trials with more information of plaque morphology are necessary to further compare the predicative power between BP dipping pattern and carotid plaque. PMID:28266630

  5. Cluster analysis: a new approach for identification of underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease in essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Lu, Xiaoni; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Bin; Su, Dan; Song, Anqi; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Gang

    2017-03-07

    Grading of essential hypertension according to blood pressure (BP) level may not adequately reflect clinical heterogeneity of hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to explore clinical phenotypes in essential hypertensive patients using cluster analysis. This study recruited 513 hypertensive patients and evaluated BP variations with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Four distinct hypertension groups were identified using cluster analysis: (1) younger male smokers with relatively high BP had the most severe carotid plaque thickness but no coronary artery disease (CAD); (2) older women with relatively low diastolic BP had more diabetes; (3) non-smokers with a low systolic BP level had neither diabetes nor CAD; (4) hypertensive patients with BP reverse dipping were most likely to have CAD but had least severe carotid plaque thickness. In binary logistic analysis, reverse dipping was significantly associated with prevalence of CAD. Cluster analysis was shown to be a feasible approach for investigating the heterogeneity of essential hypertension in clinical studies. BP reverse dipping might be valuable for prediction of CAD in hypertensive patients when compared with carotid plaque thickness. However, large-scale prospective trials with more information of plaque morphology are necessary to further compare the predicative power between BP dipping pattern and carotid plaque.

  6. Metabolomics of renal venous plasma from individuals with unilateral renal artery stenosis and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eugene P; Clish, Clary B; Pierce, Kerry A; Saad, Ahmed; Lerman, Lilach O; Textor, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    To compare the metabolite profiles of venous effluent from both kidneys of individuals with unilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in order to directly examine how impaired renal blood flow impacts small-molecule handling in humans. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling to venous plasma obtained from the stenotic (STK) and contralateral (CLK) kidneys of ARAS patients (n = 16), and both the kidneys of essential hypertensive controls (n = 11). Study samples were acquired during a 3-day protocol that included iothalamate clearance measurements, radiographic kidney phenotyping (Duplex ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography, and blood-oxygen-level-dependent MRI), and controlled sodium and caloric intake and antihypertensive treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis demonstrated clear separation of essential hypertensive kidney metabolite profiles versus STK and CLK metabolite profiles, but no separation between metabolite profiles of STK and CLK samples. All of the discriminating metabolites were similarly elevated in the STK and CLK samples, likely reflecting the lower glomerular filtration rate in the ARAS versus essential hypertensive individuals (mean 66.1 versus 89.2  ml/min per 1.73 m). In a paired analysis within the ARAS group, no metabolite was significantly altered in STK compared with CLK samples; notably, creatinine was the same in STK and CLK samples (STK/CLK ratio = 1.0, P = 0.9). Results were unchanged in an examination of ARAS patients in the bottom half of renal tissue perfusion or oxygenation. Metabolite profiling does not differentiate venous effluent from STKs or CLKs in individuals with unilateral ARAS, despite the measurable loss of kidney volume and blood flow on the affected side. These findings are consistent with the kidney's ability to adapt to ARAS to maintain a range of metabolic functions.

  7. A fixed combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride for the treatment of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, L; Alcazar, J M; Diaz, V P; Jarillo, M D; Millet, V G; Rodicio, J L

    1980-01-01

    The combination of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride has been used in a group of patients diagnosed as having essential hypertension. Sixty-five percent of the patients for whom dietary restrictions did not achieve a reduction in blood pressure were initially controlled with this combination; the addition of a second or third drug was required by the remaining patients. During the six-month follow-up, the control of blood pressure was satisfactory with increased drug requirements, but the diuretic had to be discontinued in 12 patients because of side effects.

  8. Effects of arotinolol on serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, J; Handa, K; Arakawa, K

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen patients with mild essential hypertension received 20 mg of arotinolol daily for 12 weeks. The patients' systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rate decreased significantly after arotinolol. The ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-I decreased significantly after treatment. No significant changes were observed in serum and lipoprotein lipid levels, apolipoprotein levels, or in the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results indicate that arotinolol is an effective antihypertensive agent with favorable effect on apolipoproteins.

  9. Comparative trial of labetalol and acebutolol, alone or associated with dihydralazine, in treatment of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibonnier, M; Lardoux, M D; Corvol, P

    1980-01-01

    1 Labetalol, an alpha- and beta- adrenoceptor blocking drug, was compared with acebutolol, alone or associated with dihydralazine in forty patients with moderate essential hypertension. 2 Labetalol (400--800 mg daily) seemed to have a slightly higher potency than acebutolol alone (400--800 mg daily). 3 Labetalol (1200--1600 mg daily) had the same potency as the combination of acebutolol (400--800 mg daily) and dihydralazine (50--100 mg daily). 4 Contrarily to acebutolol, the drop in blood pressure with labetalol was not correlated with initial plasma renin activity. 5 Labetalol side effects were minor and did not lead to drug withdrawal. PMID:6992823

  10. Association between the Angiotensinogen (AGT gene (M235T polymorphism and Essential Hypertension in Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium M. Shamaa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in hypertension-related genes can affect blood pressure (BP via alteration of salt and water reabsorption by the nephron. The genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS have been extensively studied because of the well documented role of this system in the control of BP. It has been previously shown that angiotensinogen (AGT gene polymorphism could be associated with increased risk of EH. The current study evaluated the frequency of AGT (M235T polymorphism in relation to EH in a group of Egyptian population. The study population included 83 hypertensive patients and 60 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-Polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR was used for the analysis of M235T polymorphism of AGT genes in peripheral blood samples of all patients and controls. The results revealed that there was a positive risk of developing EH when having the T allele whether in homozygous or heterozygous state. It was concluded that there was an association between AGT (M235T gene polymorphism and the risk of developing EH.

  11. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium M. Shamaa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH is affected by genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in hypertension-related genes can affect blood pressure (BP via alteration of salt and water reabsorption by the nephron. The genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS have been extensively studied because of the well documented role of this system in the control of BP. It has been previously shown that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1 gene polymorphism could be associated with increased risk of EH. So, in the current study, we evaluated the frequency of ATR1 (A1166C polymorphism in relation to EH in a group of Egyptian population. The study population included 83 hypertensive patients and 60 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphism – Polymerase chain reaction (RFLP – PCR was used for the analysis of A1166C polymorphism of ATR1 genes in peripheral blood samples of all patients and controls. The results revealed that there was a positive risk of developing EH when having the T allele whether in homozygous or heterozygous state. From this work, it was concluded that there was an association between ATR1 (A1166C gene polymorphism and the risk of developing EH.

  12. Sex-specific effects of NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci on susceptibility to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Glorioso

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease, heart failure, fatal arrhythmias, stroke, and renal disease are the most common causes of mortality for humans, and essential hypertension remains a major risk factor. Elucidation of susceptibility loci for essential hypertension has been difficult because of its complex, multifactorial nature involving genetic, environmental, and sex- and age-dependent nature. We investigated whether the 11p15.5 region syntenic to rat chromosome 1 region containing multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL detected in Dahl rat intercrosses harbors polymorphisms that contribute to susceptibility/resistance to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population. Initial testing performed using microsatellite markers spanning 18 Mb of 11p15.5 detected a strong association between D11S1318 (at 2.1 Mb, P = 0.004 and D11S1346 (at 10.6 Mb, P = 0.00000004, suggesting that loci in close proximity to these markers may contribute to susceptibility in our Sardinian cohort. NLR family, pyrin domain containing 6/angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (NLRP6/AVR, and adrenomedullin (ADM are in close proximity to D11S1318 and D11S1346, respectively; thus we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within NLRP6/AVR and ADM for their association with hypertension in our Sardinian cohort. Upon sex stratification, we detected one NLRP6/AVR SNP associated with decreased susceptibility to hypertension in males (rs7948797G, P = 0.029; OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.94]. For ADM, sex-specific analysis showed a significant association between rs4444073C, with increased susceptibility to essential hypertension only in the male population (P = 0.006; OR = 1.44 [1.13-1.84]. Our results revealed an association between NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci with male essential hypertension, suggesting the existence of sex-specific NLRP6/AVR and ADM variants affecting male susceptibility to essential hypertension.

  13. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Ané

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman's literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils. PMID:28546822

  14. Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Orchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman’s literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Propionibacterium acnes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils.

  15. The Association of Elevated HDL Levels With Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women With Untreated Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Trivilou, Paraskevi; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Tzortzis, Stavros; Xenogiannis, Iosif; Schoinas, Antonios; Lekakis, John

    2015-11-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), a negative risk factor, is positively associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease. We investigated the association between high HDL-C levels and target organ damage (TOD) in never treated women with hypertension. We measured HDL-C levels in 117 women followed by estimation of TODs, that is, pulse wave velocity, microalbuminuria, left ventricular mass index, coronary flow reserve, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Women were divided into 2 groups (HDLH and HDLL), regarding HDL-C quartiles (upper quartile vs the first 3 lower quartiles). In HDLH group : HDL ≥70 mg/dL), cIMT was nonindependently, negatively related to HDL-C (ρ = -.42, P < .05). Using receiver -operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis in the HDLH group, we concluded that the cutoff value of HDL ≥76.5 mg/dL moderately predicted the absence of carotid atherosclerosis (area under the curve: 0.77, P = .02; confidence interval: 0.57-0.97; sensitivity 73% and specificity 67%). Increased HDL-C may predict the absence of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-age women with untreated essential hypertension and consequently contribute to total cardiovascular risk estimation and treatment planning. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Structured Educational Program for Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Sabine; Niederl, Ella; Kos, Cornelia; Mrak, Peter; Ederer, Herbert; Rakovac, Ivo; Beck, Peter; Kraler, Elisabeth; Stoff, Ingrid; Klima, Gert; Pieske, Burkert M; Pieber, Thomas R; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions are essential keys for the management of hypertension. In this respect, a structured educational program for hypertensive patients has got remarkable merits (herz.leben). In order to determine the isolated effect of participation in the educational program, neglecting the possible impact of more intense care, this prospective multicenter randomized controlled study was designed (NCT00453037). A total of 256 patients in 13 centers were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups (G). G-I (n = 137) underwent the educational program immediately (T-0), G-II (n = 119) after 6 months (T-6). Follow-up visits were done after 6 (T-6) and 12 (T-12) months. Primary endpoint was a difference in office blood pressure (BP) at T-6, when only G-I had undergone the educational program. Patients' baseline characteristics were comparable. At T-6, systolic office and home BP were significantly lower in G-I compared to G-II: office BP systolic 139 (134-150) mm Hg vs. 150 (135-165) mm Hg (P educational program differences in BP disappeared. The results of this multicenter randomized controlled study provide significant evidence for benefit by participation in a structured educational program. Positive effects seem to be mediated by better adherence and life style changes due to higher levels of information and patient empowerment. Therefore, educational strategies should be considered as standard of care for hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. C‐reactive protein is elevated in the offspring of parents with essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Juan Jose; Arguelles, Juan; Málaga, Ignacio; Perillán, Carmen; Diéguez, Angeles; Vijande, Manuel; Málaga, Serafín

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies in adults have shown that high sensitivity C‐reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with increased risk of CVD and essential hypertension (EHT). Genetic background is widely accepted as a risk factor for CVD. The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of high sensitivity CRP levels with other cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults with at least one parent with EHT. Methods Fifty one healthy children and young adults (28 boys) with at least one parent with hypertension and 69 (41 boys) whose parents did not have hypertension were recruited prospectively from primary care centres. High sensitivity CRP, fasting lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric variables were obtained for all participants. Results CRP values were higher in the study group than in controls (logCRP mean difference: −0.69; 95% confidence interval: −1.05 to −0.33), even when differences were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride levels (p = 0.01). No differences were observed in BP values between groups. In the study group, 35.3% of the participants had a CRP level ⩾1 mg/l compared to 14.5% in the control group (p = 0.009). CRP showed a significant correlation with body weight (rho = 0.28, p = 0.04), BMI (rho = 0.32; p = 0.02) and ponderosity index (rho = 0.28; p<0.05). Conclusions CRP is significantly higher in the offspring of parents with EHT. A significant positive relationship exists between BMI and serum CRP levels in this high risk group of children and young adults. PMID:17158147

  18. Genetic polymorphisms and endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, S; Akkaya, V; Cine, N; Oflaz, H; Yekeler, E; Ozturk, S; Cleophas, T J; Fici, F

    2005-04-01

    Both in animal models and humans an association between endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) gene polymorphism and the development of hypertension has been found. However, the relation between ecNOS polymorphism and endothelial function in patients with hypertension has not been systematically studied. Genes of the renin-angiotensin system include the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATIR) gene, and have been associated with essential hypertension. However, no consistent data are available about the relation between polymorphisms of these genes and the presence of endothelial dysfunction in such patients. To assess the presence of genetic polymorphisms and of endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. To determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on endothelial dysfunction in these subjects. In 129 patients with essential hypertension and the same number of age-matched controls polymorphisms of the ecNOS gene, ACE gene, and AT1R gene were analysed by polymerase chain reactions. Endothelial function was assessed by maximal endothelial dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperaemia using high resolution ultrasound examinations of the brachial arteries. To assess correlation between genetic markers, endothelial function, and the presence of hypertension both univariate and multivariate analyses were used including Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients, and multiple logistic regressions. The size of endothelium-dependent vasodilation between patients and controls differed by 16% (pstudy to demonstrate the latter may be due to confounders. Also, other genes may be more important in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and essential hypertension. The current study underscores that endothelial dysfunction and hypertension are not simple genetic disorders, and that they are, essentially, multicausal.

  19. Nutrition and lifestyle in patients pharmacologically treated due to hypertensionally treated due to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Wolańska, Diana; Stolińska, Hanna; Respondek, Wioleta; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina

    2016-07-21

    Proper nutrition and physical activity are together an important way of non-pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension. The aim of the study was to answer the question whether patients with hypertension use non-pharmacological methods of hypertension treatment. The study included a group of 280 patients aged 18-85, suffering from hypertension. In the study, 10 nutritional and non-nutritional factors affecting the treatment of hypertension were analyzed. Data regarding the diet were collected by a method of 24-h recall. Basic anthropometric measurements (body weight, body height, waist and hip circumference) were taken, as well as threefold measurement of blood pressure. The data were statistically analyzed. The average value of blood pressure was 131.2 ± 15.5/82.9 ± 10.5 mm Hg. Approximately 90% of the respondents had abnormal body weight, i.e. excessive weight or obesity. Abdominal obesity according to waist hip ratio (WHR) assessment was diagnosed in 87% of women and 66% of men; according to the measurement of waist circumference, it was diagnosed in 140 (81%) women and 88 (81%) men. Among the ingredients with antihypertensive effect, the sodium intake was 4,417.8 ± 2,052.7 mg/d, which when converted to salt is on average 11 g/d, potassium: 3,808.5 ± 1,265.7 mg/d, calcium: 724.6 ± 413.7 mg/d, and magnesium: 383.9 ± 139.3 mg/d. One in 5 (18%) people declared smoking. Only 5% of subjects reported high level of physical activity. In persons with diagnosed hypertension, vast majority of patients did not implement non-pharmacological hypertension treatment.

  20. Assessment of Periodontal Tissue Status in Patients with Generalized Periodontitis and Essential Hypertension

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    T I Vicharenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vascular disorders play a significant role in the development of dystrophic inflammatory process. There is a direct correlation between the degree of damage to blood vessels in the jaw and a depth of the destructive process in periodontal tissue. A certain role is played by endogenous factors, such as: age, vitamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, essential hypertension and others. Clinical and epidemiological studies using pathological techniques showed significant changes in vascular wall of the artery in the periodontium, the interdental artery in particular.  Atherosclerosis, essential hypertension and periodontal pathology were proven to occur in individuals older than 40 years. The objective of the research was to determine periodontal tissue status in patients with stage II hypertension and generalized periodontitis of II degree of severity. Materials and methods. The study involved 36 patients with stage II hypertension and generalized periodontitis of II degree of severity (the main group. The patients’ age ranged from 35 to 54 years. The control group included 10 patients of corresponding age without generalized periodontitis and somatic pathology. To assess the status of periodontal tissues, we applied the Papillary-Marginal-Attached Index and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs. When diagnosing periodontal disease, the classification of M.F. Danilevskyi was used. Results. The analysis of the indicators of the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index showed the following results: in patients of the main group, the index was 2.38±0.07 points (p<0.001 pointing out a need for a course of professional oral hygiene. In patients of the control group, the index was 0.5±0.17 points indicating that there was no need for treatment, however, there was a need for improving oral hygiene. The indicators of the Papillary-Marginal-Attached Index in the main group were 55.49±1.96 points pointing out a severe degree of

  1. Reversible Pulmonary Hypertension in an Infant Treated with Diazoxide

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    Masoud Dehdashtian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diazoxide is the main therapeutic agent for congenital hyperinsulinism. The drug is generally well tolerated; however, in this report severe adverse effects including heart failure (HF and pulmonary hypertension (PH in an infant are reported.Case report: A sixteen-day male infant with persistent hypoglycemia and with diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism underwent near total pancreatectomy. Despite surgery, hypoglycemia persisted, and thus oral dizoxide 5 mg/kg/dose three times per day was administered. At four months of age, the patient was again admitted to the hospital because of respiratory distress and poor feeding from a week earlier. On physical examination, he was tachypneic and mild intercostal retraction was present. Tachycardia existed without definitive murmur. Moderate hepatomegaly was detected. Chest X-ray revealed cardiomegaly. Echocardiography showed right atrial and ventricular dilatation, and pulmonary pressure of 70 mmHg. In the next day, respiratory failure developed and so the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Diazoxide was discontinued and 10% dextrose water (DW was initiated. Four days later, the patient was extubated. Blood glucose remained in normal limit. Gradually the concentration of DW was decreased. The patient was discharged and followed up without any medication. Echocardiogram in one month later showed normal heart dimension and reduction of pulmonary pressure to 20 mmHg, and resolution of right atrial and ventricular enlargement.Discussion: Diazoxide reduces peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure as the result of direct vasodilatory effect on smooth muscles in peripheral arterioles. It causes sodium and water retention and decrease of urinary output which can result in expansion of plasma and extracellular fluid volume, and consequently edema and congestive cardiac failure.Conclusion: Diazoxide therapy for infants with congenital hyperinsulinism is associated with the

  2. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    depletion with a simultaneous decrease in absolute sodium efflux probably due to primary changes in sodium influx. Conversely intralymphocytic sodium content increased in normotensive subjects, which may be caused by an inhibition of the sodium, potassium pump. Our findings indicate that autoregulatory......Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...... mechanisms with regard to lymphocyte sodium metabolism differs between hypertensive and normotensive subjects....

  3. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME Study

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    Nariyasu Mano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study. We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning–evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study.

  4. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-02-04

    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning-evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study.

  5. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Satoh, Michihiro; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP) is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement) for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study). We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning–evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study. PMID:27713260

  6. Mitral annular calcification and incident ischemic stroke in treated hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Marco, Marina; Gerdts, Eva; Casalnuovo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibro-calcification of the mitral annulus (MAC) has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in general populations. This study was performed to assess whether MAC predicts incidence of ischemic stroke in treated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LV...

  7. Angiotensin-related genes involved in essential hypertension: allelic distribution in an Italian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettimano, M; Lanni, A; Migneco, A; Specchia, M L; Romano-Spica, V; Savi, L

    2001-08-01

    Blood pressure is a quantitative multifactorial trait influenced by environmental and genetic determinants. Although several candidate genes have been associated with the development of essential hypertension, the mechanisms of individual susceptibility still remain unclear. Knowledge on the distribution of genetic polymorphisms in different populations is fundamental for the assessment of the predictive value of genetic variation. We genotyped 300 healthy normotensive subjects from the Italian population for three polymorphisms, at the angiotensinogen (AGT, M and T), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATIR, A and C) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, D and I) genes. Polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. Statistical analysis was performed to verify the agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The observed allelic distribution was in accordance with estimates reported for Caucasian populations. Variant allelic frequencies were 0.36 for the T and C alleles at the AGT andAT1R locus and 0.47 for the I allele of the ACE gene. AT1R and ACE genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while there was a deviation of the AGT genotypes from those predicted by the equation. The studied polymorphisms are largely distributed in the Italian population sample, with a frequency of homozygous subjects for mutant alleles ranging from 9 to 22%. Epidemiology of mutations in the genes involved in blood pressure regulation provides tools to evaluate susceptibility to hypertension.

  8. Different Impact of Essential Hypertension on Structural and Functional Age-Related Vascular Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Duranti, Emiliano; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Di Candio, Giulio; Chiarugi, Massimo; Taddei, Stefano; Virdis, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated whether vascular remodeling is present in physiological aging and whether hypertension accelerates the aging process for vascular function and structure. Small arteries from 42 essential hypertensive patients (HT) and 41 normotensive individuals (NT) were dissected after subcutaneous biopsy. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation (pressurized myograph) was assessed by acetylcholine, repeated under the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methylester or the antioxidant tempol. Structure was evaluated by media-lumen ratio (M/L). Intravascular oxidative generation and collagen deposition were assessed. Inhibition by N-nitro-l-arginine methylester on ACh was inversely related to age in both groups (Phypertension interaction occurred (P=0.0009). In NT, intravascular superoxide emerged in the oldest subgroup, whereas it appeared earlier among HT. Among NT, aged group displayed an increment of collagen fibers versus young group. In HT, collagen deposition was already evident in youngest, with a further enhancement in the aged group. In small arteries, ageing shows a eutrophic vascular remodeling and a reduced nitric oxide availability. Oxidative stress and fibrosis emerge in advanced age. In HT, nitric oxide availability is early reduced, but the progression rate with age is similar. Structural alterations include wide collagen deposition and intravascular reactive oxygen species, and the progression rate with age is steeper. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Studies on Renin Stimulation in Normal Controls and in Patients with Essential Hypertension

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    Koh, Chang Soon; Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-03-15

    To find out a convenient and reliable method of detecting low renin status, we employed intravenous furosemide injection as a stimulatory maneuver. The results thus obtained were compared with those from the postural stimuli and basal plasma renin activity (PRA) in relation to sodium excretion. Intravenous furosemide test was performed in 66 control subjects and 44 patients with essential hypertension. The results were as follow; 1) Mean PRA in control subjects rose from 2.5+-1.95 ng/ml/hr (basal) to 4.5+-2.51, 5.2+-2.49 and 4.2+-2.44 ng/ml/hr at 1, 2 and 3 hrs after IV injection. One-hour response is more convenient in clinical practice. 2) Postural stimuli by assuming an upright posture for 3 hrs gave rise to considerable increase in PRA (4.0+-2.92 from 2.4+-1.85), but we found it less convenient than stimulation with furosemide. 3) The increase in PRA was much less marked in patients with essential hypertension as a whole (2.9+-2.75). Hyporesponsiveness to furosemide stimuli was found in 34.1%. Of these hyporesponders, a third had a normal basal PRA, indicating the need for this kind stimulatory procedure. 4) Younger age group showed greater renin responsiveness than older age group after furosemide stimuli. Likewise mean age of low renin patients (52.9+-5.38 years old) was significantly higher than that of high and normal renin patients (44.1+-13.78 years old).

  10. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-06-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20-40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the 'surge group'). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences -5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and -5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  11. The RGS2 (-391, C>G genetic variation correlates to antihypertensive drug responses in Chinese patients with essential hypertension.

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    Fazhong He

    Full Text Available Regulators of G-protein signaling protein 2 (RGS2 play an irreplaceable role in the control of normal blood pressure (BP. One RGS2 (-391, C>G genetic variation markedly changes its mRNA expression levels. This study explored the relationship between this genetic variation and the responses to antihypertensive drugs in Chinese patients with essential hypertension.Genetic variations of RGS2 were successfully identified in 367 specimens using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assays. All patients were treated with conventional doses of antihypertensives after a 2-week run-in period and followed-up according to our protocol. A general linear model multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for the data analysis.A significant difference in the mean systolic BP change was observed between RGS2 (-391, C>G CC/CG (n = 82 and GG (n = 38 genotype carriers (-13.6 vs. -19.9 mmHg, P = 0.043 who were treated with candesartan, irbesartan or imidapril at the end of 6 weeks. In addition, the patients' BP responses to α,β-adrenergic receptor blockers exhibited an age-specific association with the RGS2 (-391, C>G genetic variation at the end of 4 weeks.The RGS2 (-391, C>G genetic polymorphism may serve as a biomarker to predict a patient's response to antihypertensive drug therapy, but future studies need to confirm this.

  12. Association between serum uric acid, metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria in previously untreated essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Costa, José A; González, Carmen; Miralles, Amparo; Moral, Desamparados; Pascual, José María

    2009-01-17

    The aim of the study was to assess the association of serum uric acid levels with microalbuminuria -urinary albumin excretion (UAE)> or = 30mg/24h-. Cross-sectional study in 429 (220 women) hypertensive, non diabetic, never treated patients (mean age: 47 years) with glomerular filtration rate > or =60ml/min/1.73m(2). The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 20.5%; 18% had hyperuricemia and 47% fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS). Baseline UAE correlated in the unvaried analysis to diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and uric acid. In multiple linear regression models, only MS (beta=0.113; p=0.03), and serum uric acid values (beta=0.04; p=0.05) were independently associated with logUAE, after adjustment for age and sex. Hyperuricemia (serum uric acid level > or =7.0mg/dl for men and > or =6.5mg/dl for women; odds ratio=2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-3.92; p=0.010), and MS (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.53; p=0.002) were independently associated with a higher risk of microalbuminuria in multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 45.8% in patients with coexistent MS and hyperuricemia, as compared to 13.6% in hypertensive patients without it (p<0.001). In patients with concomitant MS and hyperuricemia the probability of being microalbuminuric was 3.7 times higher than in patients without those factors. Serum uric acid level is associated with microalbuminuria. Coexistence of MS and hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients increases almost 4 times the odds of being microalbuminuric.

  13. Abnormal increase in urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to hypertonic saline in essential hypertension

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    Graffe Carolina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the expression/shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2 and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC in renal collecting duct principal cells has been found in animal models of hypertension. We tested whether a similar dysregulation exists in essential hypertension. Methods We measured urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC β-subunit corrected for creatinine (u-AQP2CR, u-ENaCβ-CR, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2 and cyclic AMP (u-cAMP, fractional sodium excretion (FENa, free water clearance (CH2O, as well as plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP, renin (PRC, angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Aldo, and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP in 21 patients with essential hypertension and 20 normotensive controls during 24-h urine collection (baseline, and after hypertonic saline infusion on a 4-day high sodium (HS diet (300 mmol sodium/day and a 4-day low sodium (LS diet (30 mmol sodium/day. Results At baseline, no differences in u-AQP2CR or u-ENaCβ-CR were measured between patients and controls. U-AQP2CR increased significantly more after saline in patients than controls, whereas u-ENaCβ-CR increased similarly. The saline caused exaggerated natriuretic increases in patients during HS intake. Neither baseline levels of u-PGE2, u-cAMP, AVP, PRC, Ang II, Aldo, ANP, and BNP nor changes after saline could explain the abnormal u-AQP2CR response. Conclusions No differences were found in u-AQP2CR and u-ENaCβ-CR between patients and controls at baseline. However, in response to saline, u-AQP2CR was abnormally increased in patients, whereas the u-ENaCβ-CR response was normal. The mechanism behind the abnormal AQP2 regulation is not clarified, but it does not seem to be AVP-dependent. Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT00345124.

  14. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene intron 4, 27 bp repeat polymorphism and essential hypertension in the Kazakh Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fengmei; Hu, Qinghua; Tang, Bin; He, Fang; Guo, Shuxia; Chen, Jiang; Li, Feng; Wu, Xuehua; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Huimin; Zhao, Juan; Zhong, Hua; He, Ling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Le; Wang, Shuren

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between 27 bp repeat polymorphism in intron 4 in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS4) gene and essential hypertension in the Kazakh Chinese population, 151 patients with essential hypertension and 138 healthy people were selected from the Boertonggu countryside of Shawan region in the Xinjiang uygur autonomous region of China in 2006. The polymorphism of eNOS in the two groups was detected with polymerase chain reaction assays and the genotype frequencies in each group were calculated following the Hardy-Weinberg law. Four and five tandem 27 bp repeats were designated as "a" and "b", respectively. It was found that the frequencies of b/b, b/a and a/a genotypes of the eNOS4 gene were 84.06%, 15.22% and 0.72% in the control group, and 81.46%, 15.89% and 2.65% in the hypertension group, respectively. The frequencies of gene "a" and "b" were 91.67% and 8.33% in the control group and 89.40% and 10.60% in the hypertension group, respectively. It was found that plasma eNOS activity was not associated with genotypes and alleles of eNOS gene. Plasma eNOS activity in the hypertension group was significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.01). The results suggest that eNOS4 gene polymorphisms are unlikely to be the major genetic susceptibility factors for essential hypertension in the Xinjiang Kazakh population. However, a positive association between plasma eNOS activity and essential hypertension has been revealed.

  15. Antibacterial mouthwash blunts oral nitrate reduction and increases blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is fundamental to cardiovascular health. Dietary nitrate and nitrate from endothelial derived NO metabolism provides a significant contribution to the circulating NO pool through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. A critical step in this pathway is the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota. We aimed to assess the effects of antibacterial mouthwash use on markers of nitrate-nitrite-NO metabolism and blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women. Fifteen treated hypertensive men and women (mean age 65 years) were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. The effects of 3-day use of antibacterial mouthwash on oral nitrate to nitrite reduction, salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite, plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were compared to control (water). Relative to control, 3-day antibacterial mouthwash use resulted in decreased oral nitrate to nitrite reduction (P = 0.02), decreased salivary nitrite (P = 0.01) and increased salivary nitrate (P nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway through the use of antibacterial mouthwash was paralleled by a small elevation of systolic blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Clinical effect of arotinolol hydrochloride and its influence on renal function in elderly patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, E; Matsumoto, M; Kimura, Y; Hattori, H; Tsukio, Y; Tsuchiya, H; Takasaki, M; Munehira, J; Yamada, K; Iwai, K; Kawanishi, K; Hoshino, T; Murai, H

    1999-08-01

    Arotinolol hydrochloride with alpha-and beta-receptor blocking action, developed in Japan, is mainly used for the treatment of hypertension. The study population consisted of 42 outpatients with essential hypertension with a blood pressure greater or equal to 160/96 mmHg. 10 men and 32 women, with a mean age of 77.5 year. The patients received 10 mg arotinolol hydrochloride daily for 24 weeks which was taken orally twice a day. We evaluated the changes of blood pressure, heart rate and chief complaints of patients before and every 4 weeks during treatment and the renal function before, 12 weeks after and 24 weeks after, the administration of arotinolol hydrochloride. Blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly after 4 weeks of treatment with arotinolol hydrochloride (p arotinolol hydrochloride has antihypertensive effects without renal dysfunction in elderly patients with essential hypertension.

  17. Cardiac Organ Damage and Arterial Stiffness in Autonomic Failure: Comparison With Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Valeria; Maule, Simona; Di Stefano, Cristina; Tosello, Francesco; Totaro, Silvia; Veglio, Franco; Milan, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic failure (AF) is characterized by orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, and increased blood pressure (BP) variability. AF patients develop cardiac organ damage, similarly to essential hypertension (EH), and have higher arterial stiffness than healthy controls. Determinants of cardiovascular organ damage in AF are not well known: both BP variability and mean BP values may be involved. The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac organ damage, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics in AF, compared with EH subjects with similar 24-hour BP and a group of healthy controls, and to evaluate determinants of target organ damage in patients with AF. Twenty-seven patients with primary AF were studied (mean age, 65.7±11.2 years) using transthoracic echocardiography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, central hemodynamics, and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. They were compared with 27 EH subjects matched for age, sex, and 24-hour mean BP and with 27 healthy controls. AF and EH had similar left ventricular mass (101.6±33.3 versus 97.7±28.1 g/m(2), P=0.59) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (9.3±1.8 versus 9.2±3.0 m/s, P=0.93); both parameters were significantly lower in healthy controls (Phypertensive heart disease and increased arterial stiffness, similar to EH with comparable mean BP values. Twenty-four-hour and nighttime systolic BP were determinants of cardiovascular damage, independent of BP variability. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Differences in circadian time structure of diastolic blood pressure between diabetes mellitus and essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteucci Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal circadian blood pressure patterns have been associated with cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. We have described that the acrophase of diastolic blood pressure (DBP registered in type 1 diabetes (T1D patients was significantly earlier than normal and DBP ecphasia was more pronounced in patients with lower heart rate variability during deep breathing. The aim of this study was to compare the circadian rhythm characteristics of BP among different groups: normotensive (NT control subjects, patients affected by T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D, and patients with essential hypertension (HT. Findings We retrospectively evaluated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring records in 30 NT, 20 T1D, 20 T2D, 20 HT whose fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c were contemporaneously measured. The four groups were well-matched regarding age, gender, and BMI. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP midline-estimating statistic of rhythm were higher in T1D, T2D, and HT groups. DBP ecphasia was present only in the diabetic individuals: the acrophase of DBP occurred four hours earlier than normal in T1D group, whereas two hours earlier in T2D group. In a multiple regression analysis, only HbA1c and SBP acrophase were statistically significant correlates of DBP acrophase. Conclusions People with diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2, have their circadian acrophase of DBP occurring 2–4 hours earlier than normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Altered circadian timing of DBP, potential trigger of cardiovascular events, seems to be a distinguishing feature of diabetes mellitus and correlates with the previous 2–3 months of glycaemic control.

  19. Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanPaassen, P; deZeeuw, D; Navis, G; deJong, PE

    Many patients with essential hypertension respond to a high dietary sodium intake with a rise in blood pressure. Experimental evidence suggests that the renal hemodynamic response to sodium determines, at least partially, this rise in blood pressure. Our aim was to clarify the role of the

  20. Rubidium uptake of mononuclear leukocytes from normotensive and borderline hypertensive first degree relatives to patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Nielsen, J R; Poulsgård, L

    1985-01-01

    Uptake of 86Rubidium of mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) was used as a measure of cellular sodium-potassium pump activity. 86Rb-uptake was determined with the pump stimulated mainly from inside the cells by sodium as well as with a combined stimulation from inside by sodium and from outside by Rb....... In the first case there was an increased pump activity in MNL from borderline hypertensive offspring of hypertensive patients (BHO), and this may be related to an increased number of pump sites observed previously (10). Estimation of maximal pump activity (Vmax) of MNL suggested that Vmax of each pump site...

  1. CORRELATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF LEFT VENTRICLE WITH AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING DATA IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Khromtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the relationship of 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring data with myocardial mass and type of left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH in non-treated patients with essential hypertension (HT.Patients and methods. We reviewed echocardiograms and BP monitoring data of 500 patients (250 females and 250 males; aged 53,1±12,2 y.o..Results. Normal geometry of left ventricle (LV was found in 143 patients (28,6%, concentric remodeling of LV – in 73 (14,6%, concentric LVH - in 138 (27,6% and eccentric LVH – in 146 patients (29,2%. The least disturbances of 24-hour BP profile were observed in patients with normal LV geometry; 60,1% of patients had normal reduction of night BP. More than a third of patients had disturbances of circadian BP profile. Mostly severe disturbances of 24-hour BP profile were observed in patients with concentric and eccentric LVH. Circadian BP disturbances were revealed in two thirds of patients. Inadequate night BP reduction and inverted type of circadian BP profile predominated. Negative correlation between 24-hour systolic BP index and LV myocardial mass index was observed. Some LV structural disturbances as well as systolic dysfunction were revealed in patients with LV concentric remodeling. Besides HT of 3 grade and excessive night BP reduction were observed more often in these patients.Conclusion. The relationships between LV structural disturbances and 24-hour BP profile allow to reveal patients with unfavorable course of HT.

  2. CORRELATION OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF LEFT VENTRICLE WITH AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING DATA IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Khromtsova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the relationship of 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring data with myocardial mass and type of left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH in non-treated patients with essential hypertension (HT.Patients and methods. We reviewed echocardiograms and BP monitoring data of 500 patients (250 females and 250 males; aged 53,1±12,2 y.o..Results. Normal geometry of left ventricle (LV was found in 143 patients (28,6%, concentric remodeling of LV – in 73 (14,6%, concentric LVH - in 138 (27,6% and eccentric LVH – in 146 patients (29,2%. The least disturbances of 24-hour BP profile were observed in patients with normal LV geometry; 60,1% of patients had normal reduction of night BP. More than a third of patients had disturbances of circadian BP profile. Mostly severe disturbances of 24-hour BP profile were observed in patients with concentric and eccentric LVH. Circadian BP disturbances were revealed in two thirds of patients. Inadequate night BP reduction and inverted type of circadian BP profile predominated. Negative correlation between 24-hour systolic BP index and LV myocardial mass index was observed. Some LV structural disturbances as well as systolic dysfunction were revealed in patients with LV concentric remodeling. Besides HT of 3 grade and excessive night BP reduction were observed more often in these patients.Conclusion. The relationships between LV structural disturbances and 24-hour BP profile allow to reveal patients with unfavorable course of HT.

  3. Type D Personality and Essential Hypertension in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study Within a Cohort of Patients Visiting General Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Francesco; Versino, Elisabetta; Gammino, Lorenzo; Colombi, Nicoletta; Ostacoli, Luca; Carletto, Sara; Furlan, Pier Maria; Picci, Rocco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the relationship between type D personality and essential hypertension among patients visiting their GPs for any health problem, 101 hypertensive and 138 nonhypertensive patients were consecutively recruited and assessed using the Type D Personality Scale (DS14). The predictive value of type D personality was determined using a logistic regression model, taking into account the differences in recognized confounders between groups. Type D personality in the hypertension group was twice as frequent as in the no hypertension group and hypertension was more frequent among type D than non-type D patients. Logistic regression showed a significant predictive value of type D personality for hypertension, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, family history of hypertension, living condition, education, and employment. Therefore, type D personality was strongly related to hypertension and it was a noteworthy predictor of hypertension in a real-world cohort of primary care patients.

  4. [Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of endothelin-1 and receptor A associated to cardiovascular in essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiozzo, S R; Lassen, O C; Herrera, J; Igarzabal, P; Tabares, S; Sembaj, A

    The endothelin system, for its vasoconstrictor action, is related to the development of essential hypertension (HTAe). The polymorphism analysis of their genes represents a new approach to the study of this disease. We propose to analyze the interaction between stages of essential hypertension (HTAe) and risk factors with polymorphisms 138ex1 ins/del A gene endothelin-1 (ET-1) and H323H receptor gene A ET-1 (ETRA). We included 300 patients of both sexes, unrelated, who consecutively attended the clinic hypertension medical service. Each one underwent a complete physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Rx thorax. The degree of severity of hypertension was determined in stages. The determination of polymorphisms was performed by amplification followed by cutting by specific restriction enzyme from DNA obtained from peripheral blood. The 46% of patients had HTAe controlled, 17.6% had organ damage or cardiovascular, brain or kidney disease. It was observed that the 4A/4A carriers showed lower frequency of cardiovascular disease, kidney and brain (Pcardiovascular damage. Their identification could help recognize subgroups of the hypertensive patients with different risk. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Brazilian multicenter study on efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril in mild-to-moderate essential arterial hypertension. EMBATHE substudy with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kohlmann Jr

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study involving 34 centers from different Brazilian regions was performed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril, an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, in the treatment of mild-to-moderate systemic arterial hypertension. METHODS: Of 262 patients enrolled in this study, 127 were treated with trandolapril 2 mg/day for 8 consecutive weeks, and the remaining 135 patients received placebo for the same period of time. Reduction in blood pressure (BP and the occurrence of adverse events during this period were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: Significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic pressures were observed in patients treated with trandolapril when compared with those on placebo. Antihypertensive efficacy was achieved in 57.5% of the patients on trandolapril and in 42% of these normal values of BP were obtained. The efficacy of trandolapril was similar in all centers, regardless of the area of the country. In a subset of 30 patients who underwent ABPM, responders showed a significant hypotensive effect to trandolapril throughout the 24 hour day. The adverse event profile was similar in both trandolapril and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate, for the first time in a large group of hypertensive patients from different regions in Brazil, good efficacy and tolerability of trandolapril during treatment of mild-to-moderate essential systemic hypertension.

  6. [The efficacy of antihypertension drugs and their combinations in the non-treated hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruksin, V V; Grishin, O V; Chiritso, M M

    2013-01-01

    In case of non-treated hypertension several medications and their combinations were studied (captopril, and moxonidine as such, captopril + nifedipine, captopril + moxonidine). Moxonidine to be more effective in patients with the prevalence of the sympathetic tone, captopril in patients without increased sympathetic activity. At a combination of captopril + nifedipine efficiency of therapy was reduced, and at a combination moxonidine + nifedipine - increased. Beyond that administration of captopril + nifedipine possessed more side effects, as to compare with the moxonidine + nifedipine.

  7. Relationship between ADD1 Gly460Trp gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Célia; Palma Dos Reis, Roberto; Pereira, Andreia; Borges, Sofia; Freitas, Ana Isabel; Guerra, Graça; Góis, Teresa; Rodrigues, Mariana; Henriques, Eva; Freitas, Sónia; Ornelas, Ilídio; Pereira, Décio; Brehm, António; Mendonça, Maria Isabel

    2017-10-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex disease in which physiological, environmental, and genetic factors are involved in its genesis. The genetic variant of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD1) has been described as a risk factor for EH, but with controversial results.The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of ADD1 (Gly460Trp) gene polymorphism with the EH risk in a population from Madeira Island.A case-control study with 1614 individuals of Caucasian origin was performed, including 817 individuals with EH and 797 controls. Cases and controls were matched for sex and age, by frequency-matching method. All participants collected blood for biochemical and genotypic analysis for the Gly460Trp polymorphism. We further investigated which variables were independently associated to EH, and, consequently, analyzed their interactions.In our study, we found a significant association between the ADD1 gene polymorphism and EH (odds ratio 2.484, P = .01). This association remained statistically significant after the multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.548, P = .02).The ADD1 Gly460Trp gene polymorphism is significantly and independently associated with EH risk in our population. The knowledge of genetic polymorphisms associated with EH is of paramount importance because it leads to a better understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this pathology.

  8. Association between potassium channel SNPs and essential hypertension in Xinjiang Kazak Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Li-Jie; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Ma, Ke-Tao; Li, Li; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of β1 subunit of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCNMB1) and inwardly rectifying K+ channel, subfamily J, member-11 (KCNJ11) are associated with essential hypertension (EH) in Xinjiang Kazak Chinese patients. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to detect the distribution of selected alleles and genotype frequencies in a cohort of Xinjiang Kazak Chinese patients. Samples from 267 patients with EH and 259 normotensive (NT) controls were analyzed. An unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of the risk factors that are associated with the development of EH. Genotype and allele frequency analyses revealed that the frequency of genotypes KCNJ11-rs2285676 and KCNMB1-rs11739136 was not significantly different between the EH and NT groups. Individuals carrying the GG genotype of KCNJ11-rs5219 had a 2.08 times higher risk of having EH than individuals carrying the GA+AA genotype of KCNJ11-rs5219. Furthermore, the G allele frequency of KCNJ11-rs5219 in the EH group was significantly higher than that of the NT group (P=0.048). Additionally, logistic regression analysis revealed that the body weight and GG genotype of KCNJ11-rs5219 were positively associated with EH in Xinjiang Kazak Chinese patients (P<0.01).

  9. Effects of traditional Chinese patent medicine on essential hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-02-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials

  10. Rapidly reversible albumin and beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion in recent severe essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1983-01-01

    Seven young patients with newly diagnosed severe hypertension were studied for one week. The mean age was 34.9 years (range 28-44). The mean initial values +/- s.d. for systolic and diastolic pressures were 223 +/- 27 and 141 +/- 8 mmHg, respectively. Secondary hypertension was excluded by conven...

  11. STUDY OF LIPOPROTEIN (A LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun S. Menon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipoprotein (a has been identified as an important, independent, causal risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases, but its association with hypertension has shown differing results. The studies regarding this association are limited. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In the present study, the levels of Lp (a and other lipid parameters like Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum LDL Cholesterol, Serum HDL Cholesterol, serum triglycerides have been studied in hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients to investigate any significant relationship between the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 essential hypertensive patients were selected and were compared with 30 controls matched in terms of age and sex. Lipid profile including Total cholesterol, LDL- Cholesterol, HDL- Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Lp (a were studied in both groups. RESULTS Hypertensive patients were observed to have higher levels of Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum Triglycerides, Serum LDL cholesterol, but it was not found to be significant. But lipoprotein (a was found to be significantly higher (p<0.01 in cases than in controls.

  12. Association of obesity and treated hypertension and diabetes with cognitive ability in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A; Strassnig, Martin; Mausbach, Brent T; Bowie, Christopher R; Wolyniec, Paula; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Pulver, Ann E; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D

    2014-06-01

    People with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia are at greater risk for obesity and other cardio-metabolic risk factors, and several prior studies have linked these risk factors to poorer cognitive ability. In a large ethnically homogenous outpatient sample, we examined associations among variables related to obesity, treated hypertension and/or diabetes and cognitive abilities in these two patient populations. In a study cohort of outpatients with either bipolar disorder (n = 341) or schizophrenia (n = 417), we investigated the association of self-reported body mass index and current use of medications for hypertension or diabetes with performance on a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. We examined sociodemographic and clinical factors as potential covariates. Patients with bipolar disorder were less likely to be overweight or obese than patients with schizophrenia, and also less likely to be prescribed medication for hypertension or diabetes. However, obesity and treated hypertension were associated with worse global cognitive ability in bipolar disorder (as well as with poorer performance on individual tests of processing speed, reasoning/problem-solving, and sustained attention), with no such relationships observed in schizophrenia. Obesity was not associated with symptom severity in either group. Although less prevalent in bipolar disorder compared to schizophrenia, obesity was associated with substantially worse cognitive performance in bipolar disorder. This association was independent of symptom severity and not present in schizophrenia. Better understanding of the mechanisms and management of obesity may aid in efforts to preserve cognitive health in bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Plasma beta-endorphins and catecholamines before and after clonidine in essential hypertension and pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodakowska, J; Wocial, B; Januszewicz, W; Chojnowski, K; Feltynowski, T; Lazecki, D

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the possible release of beta-endorphins (beta EN) from tumors and to investigate their possible involvement in the hypotensive mechanism of clonidine (CLO) in pheochromocytoma (PHEO), as compared with essential hypertension (EH), we studied 12 patients with PHEO, 17 patients with uncomplicated stable EH (SEH), nine patients with borderline EH (BEH), and seven healthy volunteers (N). All subjects were hospitalized and excreted normal amounts of sodium. Mean blood pressure (MAP) and plasma beta EN, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA) were measured before and 180 min after an oral dose of 0.3 mg CLO. Following CLO, a significant (p less than 0.01) decrease in MAP was present in all groups. Plasma NE and E decreased (p less than 0.02 to p less than 0.01) in N, BEH, and SEH, but not in PHEO. DA did not change in any group. Pretreatment beta EN did not differ significantly between the groups, and following CLO it did not change in N or PHEO, while it increased significantly in BEH (p less than 0.01) and in SEH (p less than 0.02). Absolute changes in MAP correlated with those of beta EN only in the SEH group. Changes in NE or E did not correlate with changes in MAP in either group. Likewise, changes in NE or E were not correlated with those of beta EN, in N or EH, but a correlation between resting plasma E and resting beta EN concentrations was demonstrated in PHEO. These results support a role of beta EN in the hypotensive action of CLO in EH, but not in N or PHEO.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. 6D.02: GHRELIN RESTORES NITRIC OXIDE AVAILABILITY IN THE FOREARM MICROCIRCULATION OF ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, A; Duranti, E; Lorenzini, G; Taddei, S

    2015-06-01

    Essential hypertensive patients (EH) are characterized by endothelial dysfunction caused by a reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability due to reactive oxygen species excess and low-grade inflammatory condition. Ghrelin is a recently identified growth hormone-releasing peptide, with recognized cardiovascular actions. Possible effects on endothelial dysfunction have been never investigated in EH. In this study we evaluated whether exogenous ghrelin can improve endothelial dysfunction in the forearm microcirculation of untreated mild-moderate EH. In 9 EH (51.8 ± 8.1 yrs) and 9 normotensive subjects (NS, 50.5 ± 3.5 yrs), we studied the forearm blood flow (FBF, strain-gauge plethysmography) response to intrabrachial acetylcholine (ACh, 0.15-15 mg/100 ml/min) with and without NO synthase blockade by L-NMMA (100 μg/100 ml/min), or the antioxidant vitamin (Vit) C (8 mg/100 ml/min). The protocol was repeated under exogenous ghrelin intra-arterial infusion (200 ng/min, 30' pre-infusion). In NS, the maximal vasodilation (VD) to ACh (480 ± 20%) was inhibited by L-NMMA (292 ± 22, -39 ± 7%; P Ghrelin failed to modify these vascular responses. In EH, VD to ACh was blunted vs NS (337 ± 45%; P Ghrelin, while not modifying the basal FBF, it increased (P ghrelin infusion (486 ± 45%). In EH ghrelin significantly (P sodium nitroprusside was similar between EH and NS and not affected by ghrelin. Exogenous ghrelin is able to increase endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO availability in the forearm microcirculation of EH, an effect probably determined by antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activities.

  15. Oxidative Stress State Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mechanics Changes, Measured by Speckle Tracking in Essential Hypertensive Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Antonio Moreno-Ruíz; David Ibarra-Quevedo; Erika Rodríguez-Martínez; Maldonado, Perla D.; Benito Sarabia-Ortega; José Gustavo Hernández-Martínez; Beda Espinosa-Caleti; Beatriz Mendoza-Pérez; Selva Rivas-Arancibia

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress state is characterized by an increase in oxygen reactive species that overwhelms the antioxidant defense; we do not know if these pathological changes are correlated with alterations in left ventricular mechanics. The aim was correlating the oxidative stress state with the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Twenty-five patients with essential hypertension and 25 controls paired by age and gender were ...

  16. Efficacy of Virechana and Basti Karma with Shamana therapy in the management of essential hypertension: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gyanendra; Bhatted, Santosh K; Dave, Alankruta R; Shukla, Vageesha Datta

    2013-01-01

    Considering high prevalence and the need to look for alternative medicine, essential hypertension was screened in light of Vata-Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara as mentioned by Acharya Charaka. Comparing the etiological factors, symptomatology, and complications with Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara with that of essential hypertension, a striking similarity was revealed. To prove the practical approach of management of Vata-Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara, a randomized open clinical trial on 33 uncomplicated subjects of essential hypertension was conducted. The subjects were allotted in two groups, viz. (Group A) Virechana group having 16 cases who underwent Virechana Karma by Trivrita, Aragvadha, Eranda Taila, and Draksha Kwatha as Sahapana; and (Group B) Basti group consisting of 17 cases who were administered Dashmoola Kala Basti in which Niruha with Dashmoola Kwatha and Anuvasana with Dashmoola Taila was done. Patients of both the groups were followed by Shamana Chikitsa (Arjunadi Ghanavati). The overall effect of the therapies on systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed that Virechana proved better relief (43.75%) as compared to Basti (29.41%). The response was encouraging and has created scope for further studies.

  17. Hypertension

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for hypertension hyperlipidemia. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County...

  18. hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Hatipoglu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disease associated with important cardiovascular complications. Persistent blood pressure of 140/90 or higher despite combined use of a reninangiotensin system blocker, calcium channel blocker and a diuretic at highest tolerated doses constitutes resistant hypertension. Excess sympathetic activity plays an important pathogenic role in resistant hypertension in addition to contributing to the development of metabolic problems, in particular diabetes. Reduction of renal sympathetic activity by percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation via the renal arteries has been shown in several studies to decrease blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension, and importantly is largely free of significant complications. However, longer term follow-up is required to confirm both long-term safety and efficacy.

  19. Factors associated with high brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity in non-hypertensive and appropriately treated hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dai Ato,1 Toshitami Sawayama2 1Gakujutsu Shien (Academic Support Co., Ltd. Tokyo, 2Sawayama Clinic, Okayama, Japan Abstract: While pulse wave velocity (PWV correlates with blood pressure (BP, its extent differs between patients, and some cases of high PWV in normotensives are present. Moreover, PWV frequently remains high in hypertensive patients despite adequate BP control. The factors associated with such phenomena are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the factors associated with brachial–ankle PWV (baPWV in 107 patients whose systolic BP was under 140 mmHg at their latest baPWV measurement. There were 64 controlled hypertensives and 43 normotensives. Multivariate regression analysis identified age, hypertension, body mass index (BMI, systolic BP, and heart rate (HR as independent factors for baPWV. Next, we divided the subjects into groups according to their age (in 5-year increments and calculated the mean and standard deviation (SD of the baPWV for each group. For each age group, we defined patients with a baPWV above the mean + SD baPWV for the group as the high-baPWV cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that BMI, hypertension, and smoking were independent determinants of a high-baPWV subject. This represents the first study to report the existence of the hypertensive state itself as one of the independent predictors of high baPWV in normotensive and well-treated hypertensive patients. This finding implies that the hypertensive state itself possibly worsens arterial stiffness independently from aging in spite of adequate BP maintenance. To prevent the early progression of arterial stiffness, the application of an appropriate intervention during the early stages of hypertension is important and the continuation of an appropriate BP treatment is suggested. Keywords: arterial stiffness, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity, heart failure, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease

  20. Clinical risk factors for the development of hypertension in patients treated with inhibitors of the VEGF signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Choueiri, Toni K; Turchin, Alexander; McKay, Rana R; Goyal, Lipika; Davis, Michael; Kaymakcalan, Marina D; Williams, Jonathan S

    2015-01-15

    VEGF signaling pathway inhibitor (anti-VEGF) therapy is associated with hypertension, but little is known about predisposing clinical characteristics. This study describes the real-world association between baseline clinical characteristics, blood pressure (BP) response, and survival in patients prescribed anti-VEGF therapies. Clinical data from Partners HealthCare in Massachusetts was obtained from adults treated with anti-VEGF therapies (2002-2013). Treatment-induced hypertensive response was defined as worsening of preexisting hypertension or new diagnosis of hypertension (if no prior hypertension history). Data from 1120 patients with renal cell carcinoma (32.2%), hepatocellular carcinoma (11.6%), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (12.5%), and other sarcomas (15.3%) were analyzed. Most patients received sunitinib (52%), sorafenib (25.9%), or pazopanib (18%). A treatment-induced hypertensive response was identified in 49.7% of treated patients. Preexisting hypertension, present in 65.4%, was an independent risk factor for BP elevation (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.92); other risk factors included age ≥60 years (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52), and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.53). Race, sex, anti-VEGF therapy prescribed, and baseline antihypertensive class were not significant risk factors. The absolute observed mean increase in BP was 21 mm Hg (systolic)/15 mm Hg (diastolic), both in patients with and without preexisting hypertension. The development of hypertension predicted improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.65-0.89). Preexisting hypertension, age, and BMI identify patients at risk for significant anti-VEGF therapy-induced BP elevation. Hypertension appears to be a clinical biomarker of efficacy of anti-VEGF therapies in a broad range of malignancies. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  1. Cost-utility analysis of physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention for treating hypertension compared with usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchaitanaroaj, Puttarin; Brooks, John M; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Goedken, Amber M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Carter, Barry L

    2017-01-01

    To estimate long-term costs and outcomes attributable to a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention compared with physician management alone for treating essential hypertension. A Markov model cohort simulation with a 6-month cycle length to predict acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and heart failure throughout lifetime was performed. A cohort of 399 patients was obtained from two prospective, cluster randomized controlled clinical trials implementing physician-pharmacist collaborative interventions in community-based medical offices in the Midwest, USA. Framingham risk equations and other algorithms were used to predict the vascular diseases. SBP reduction due to the interventions deteriorated until 5 years. Direct medical costs using a payer perspective were adjusted to 2015 dollar value, and the main outcome was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); both were discounted at 3%. The intervention costs were estimated from the trials, whereas the remaining parameters were from published studies. A series of sensitivity analyses including changing patient risks of vascular diseases, probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were performed. The lifetime incremental costs were $26 807.83 per QALY (QALYs gained = 0.14). The intervention provided the greatest benefit for the high-risk patients, moderate benefit for the trial patients, and the lowest benefit for the low-risk patients. If a payer is willing to pay $50 000 per QALY gained, in 48.6% of the time the intervention would be cost-effective. Team-based care such as a physician-pharmacist collaboration appears to be a cost-effective strategy for treating hypertension. The intervention is most cost-effective for high-risk patients.

  2. [The evaluation of level of epigenetic indicator--5-methylcytosine in smoking and non-smoking patients with mild essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Iwona; Olszewski, Jan; Naskret-Barciszewska, Mirosława; Wyszko, Eliza; Jabłecka, Anna

    2007-01-01

    5-methylcytosine (m5C, 5mC) is a nucleotide occurring naturally in genomic DNA and play an important role in regulation of genes expression. Methylation of cytosine in DNA is an epigenetic modification and different intrinsic and extrinsic factors can influence on its level. For example, it is subject to modification and/or degradation by the free radicals which are commonly present in environment of human, among others the cigarette smoke. The reactions of m5C with free radicals lead to origination of many products which effect is decrease of level of m5C in DNA (hypomethylation) and excessive expression of genes inducing development of different diseases, especially cardiovascular system diseases. The aim of the study was statement if exist differences of level of 5-methylcytosine in DNA between smoking and non-smoking patients suffering from mild essential hypertension. The study group was composed of 30 patients suffering from mild essential hypertension (21 females and 40 males) aged from 18 to 55 years (32.4+/-10.3 years). The group of smoker was composed of 13 patients (5 females and 8 males) and the group of non-smokers was composed of 17 patients (7 females and 10 males). 3-5 ml of blood was sampled on EDTA and then thin-layer chromatography analysis of 5-methylcytosine level in DNA after previous enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA and radioactive phosphorus labeling [32p] was performed. The mean level of 5-methylcytosine (m5C) were 1.30+/-0.56 [%] in non-smoking patients, and 1.28+/-0.42 [%] in smoking patients suffering from mild essential hypertension. There is no significant statistically differences between non-smoking and smoking patients (p>0.4). In the study the following conclusion was drawn: the level of m5C in DNA of patients suffering from mild essential hypertension in the study is independent of smoking (p>0.4) in patients with mild essential hypertension. However it supposes, out of regard for theoretic datum suggestive such influence, the study

  3. Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, V; Hodgson, J M; Beilin, L J; Giangiulioi, N; Rogers, P; Puddey, I B

    2001-10-01

    In population studies, higher blood pressure has been associated with lower intake of protein and, possibly, lower fiber consumption. In the present randomized controlled trial, we sought to determine whether dietary protein and fiber had additive effects on blood pressure reduction in hypertensives. Treated hypertensive patients changed for 4 weeks (familiarization) to a diet low in protein (12.5% energy) and fiber (15 g/d). Patients (n=41) were then randomized to 1 of 4 groups in an 8-week factorial study of parallel design in which they continued the low-protein, low-fiber diet alone or had supplements of soy protein to increase protein intake to 25% energy, of psyllium to provide an additional 12 g soluble fiber/d, or of both protein and fiber. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was compared from the end of familiarization to the end of intervention. In the 36 subjects who provided complete data, protein and fiber had significant additive effects to lower 24-hour and awake systolic blood pressure. Relative to control subjects, the net reduction in 24-hour systolic blood pressure was 5.9 mm Hg with fiber and with protein. Findings were independent of age, gender, and change in weight, alcohol intake, or urinary sodium and potassium. Relative to reduced fiber and protein intake, dietary protein and soluble fiber supplements lower blood pressure additively in hypertensives. These findings have important implications for the prevention and management of hypertension, particularly in populations in which high blood pressure is prevalent in association with diets low in protein, fiber, or both.

  4. The influence of aldosterone on the development of left ventricular geometry and hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ahmet; Temizhan, Ahmet; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Sokmen, Gulizar; Koylu, Oznur; Telli, Hasan Huseyin

    2004-09-01

    The identification of risk factors for the initiation of left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients, is very important. The objective of the present study was to identify the relationship of aldosterone with LVH and different geometrical patterns of left ventricle that develop in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 83 patients with essential hypertension (44 females, mean age, 51 +/- 8 years, 39 males, mean age, 57 +/- 10 years) were included in this study. Thirty-two had LVH. When evaluated according to the geometrical patterns of LVH, 18 patients had concentric LVH, 14 had eccentric LVH, and 17 had concentric remodeling. Thirty-four patients had normal left ventricle geometry. Two weeks after the cessation of antihypertensive medications, sodium, potassium, and proteinuria in 24-hour urine samples and plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity were measured. Plasma aldosterone levels of the patients with LVH were found to be significantly higher (9.92 +/- 6.34 ng/dL versus 5.83 +/- 3.5 ng/dL, P < 0.01). The difference between plasma renin activities was not statistically significant. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma aldosterone level and age were independent parameters increasing left ventricle mass index. The plasma aldosterone levels of patients with concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle were significantly higher than those of patients with normal geometry and concentric remodeling. There was no significant difference between plasma renin activities. Twenty-four hour urine protein concentrations of the patients with LVH were found to be significantly higher and sodium to be significantly lower. Plasma aldosterone levels seem to be correlated with LVH especially with concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle in patients with essential hypertension.

  5. E-selectin gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in Asian population: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojun Cai

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that E-selectin gene polymorphisms (A561C and C1839T may be associated with essential hypertension (EH, but the results are conflicting in different ethnic populations. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and the risk of EH.We searched the relevant studies for the present meta-analysis from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to evaluate the strength of the association between E-selectin gene polymorphisms and EH susceptibility. The pooled ORs were performed for dominant model, allelic model and recessive model. The publication bias was examined by Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test.A total of eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies came from Asians. Ten studies (12 cohorts evaluated the A561C polymorphism and EH risk, including 2,813 cases and 2,817 controls. The pooled OR was 2.280 (95%CI: 1.893-2.748, P<0.001 in dominant model, 5.284 (95%CI: 2.679-10.420, P<0.001 in recessive model and 2.359 (95%CI: 1.981-2.808, P = 0.001 in allelic model. Four studies (six cohorts evaluated C1839T polymorphism and EH risk, including 1,700 cases and 1,681 controls. The pooled OR was 0.785 (95%CI: 0.627-0.983, P = 0.035 in dominant model, 1.250 (95%CI: 0.336-4.652, P = 0.739 in recessive model and 0.805 (95%CI: 0.649-0.999, P = 0.049 in allelic model.The current meta-analysis concludes that the C allele of E-selectin A561C gene polymorphism might increase the EH risk in Asian population, whereas the T allele of E-selectin C1839T gene polymorphism might decrease the EH risk.

  6. Aspectos psicológicos e hipertensão essencial Psychological aspects and essential arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.J. Mac Fadden

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Embora os fatores orgânicos e hereditários sejam reconhecidos na etiologia da hipertensão arterial, pesquisas apontam também para a importância das variáveis psicológicas. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou investigar os dinamismos psicológicos, possivelmente envolvidos na etiologia da hipertensão arterial essencial, por meio da prova de Rorschach. MÉTODO: A amostra é constituída de 20 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária dos 27 aos 55 anos, com hipertensão arterial essencial como doença básica, sem patologia secundária. O grupo padrão de referência constituiu-se de 100 pacientes, não hipertensos, utilizados por Silveira (1964, na padronização da prova de Rorschach. A investigação das condições psíquicas foi feita por meio da entrevista psicológica e da prova de Rorschach. RESULTADOS: Os resultados revelaram que, nas diferentes esferas da personalidade, predominam os dinamismos mais imaturos e subjetivos, sobre as reações mais maduras e atuais, levando os pacientes à retração emocional, como defesa contra a inadequação afetiva. CONCLUSÃO: O bloqueio da expressão afetivo-emocional, assim como a presença de ansiedade subjacente, pode atuar sobre o sistema nervoso autônomo, favorecendo crises hipertensivas transitórias que, ao longo do tempo, podem transformar-se em crises permanentes.In addition to organic and hereditary factors, psychological variations among individuals are also known to play an important role in the etiology of essential arterial hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in detail the psychological processes possibly involved in the etiology of essential arterial hypertension. METHODS: A group of 20 subjects, all of whom where diagnosed as suffering from essential arterial hypertension, was studied using psychological interviews and the Rorschach Test. The results obtained were compared with those gathered from normal (non-hypertensive individuals represented by the Rorschach

  7. Association of Baseline Proteinuria and Adverse Outcomes in Pregnant Women With Treated Chronic Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jamie L; Nelson, David B; Roberts, Scott W; Wells, C Edward; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary

    2016-08-01

    To assess the importance of baseline proteinuria in women treated for chronic hypertension during pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study included women with chronic hypertension who received antihypertensive therapy in the first half of pregnancy and completed urine protein quantification before 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed according to the presence or absence of baseline proteinuria, defined as 300 mg or greater per 24 hours identified before 20 weeks of gestation. Frequencies of superimposed preeclampsia, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational-age neonates were further evaluated according to stratified urine protein excretion levels from less than 50 mg to greater than 1,000 mg/24 hours. Between January 2002 and December 2014, a total of 447 women met inclusion criteria. Of these, 56 (13%) had baseline proteinuria. Women with baseline proteinuria were statistically significantly more likely to develop superimposed preeclampsia (79% compared with 49%), deliver preterm (18% compared with 6% 30 weeks of gestation or less, 34% compared with 17% 34 weeks of gestation or less, and 48% compared with 26% less than 37 weeks of gestation), and deliver an small-for-gestational-age neonate (41% compared with 22% less than the 10th percentile, 20% compared with 9% less than the third percentile) when compared with women who did not have proteinuria (all Pproteinuria levels less than 300 mg/d were analyzed separately, a significant association was observed for rates of superimposed preeclampsia and preterm birth. In pregnant women with treated chronic hypertension, baseline proteinuria was significantly associated with increased rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, and growth restriction-even at proteinuria values previously considered to be within normal range (less than 300 mg/d).

  8. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes, and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE (key enzyme linked to hypertension were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and nitric oxide (NO] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH*, NO*, and ABTS* and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  9. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Manisha; Pati, Pallabi; Swain, Surendra N; Mohapatra, Manoj K; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, Shantanu K; Ranjit, Manoranjan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a serious health issue worldwide and essential hypertension, which includes 90-95% of the cases, is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Identification of these factors may help in control of this disease. The Insertion/Deletion (I/D) polymorphism in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene and rs2106809 (C > T) polymorphism in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene have been reported to be associated with essential hypertension in different populations. To investigate the association of ACE I/D and ACE2 rs2106809 polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, an eastern Indian state. A total of 246 hypertensives (159 males and 87 females) and 274 normotensives (158 males and 116 females) were enrolled in the study. Detailed anthropometric data, tobacco, alcohol and food habits were recorded and 2 ml of venous blood was collected for biochemical and genetic analysis. The DD genotype of ACE and TT genotype of ACE2 were significantly high among female hypertensives, while T allele of ACE2 was linked to male hypertensives. In the male population, alcohol was also identified as a potential risk factor. Among females, ACE I/D and ACE2 rs2106809 polymorphisms, while among males, ACE2 rs2106809 polymorphism and alcohol consumption are associated with essential hypertension in the study population.

  10. Role of nitric oxide and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and blood pressure in humans with essential hypertension: effect of high-intensity aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Jensen, Lasse Gliemann; Thaning, Pia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids in the regulation of leg blood flow and systemic blood pressure before and after 8 weeks of aerobic high-intensity training in individuals with essential hypertension (n=10) and matched healthy control subjects (n=11). Hypertensive subjects...

  11. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbolade, Adebayo

    2012-10-31

    A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tonic activity of carotid body chemoreceptors contributes to the increased sympathetic drive in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siński, Maciej; Lewandowski, Jacek; Przybylski, Jacek; Bidiuk, Joanna; Abramczyk, Piotr; Ciarka, Agnieszka; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2012-05-01

    Carotid chemoreceptors provoke an increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activation (MSNA) in response to hypoxia; they are also tonically active during normoxic breathing. The contribution of peripheral chemoreceptors to sympathetic activation in hypertension is incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of chemoreceptor deactivation on sympathetic activity in untreated patients with hypertension. A total of 12 untreated hypertensive males and 11 male controls participated in this randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study. MSNA, systolic blood pressure(BP), diastolic BP, heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sat%) and respiratory movements were measured during repeated 10-min periods of respiration with 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen in a blinded fashion. Compared with controls, hypertensives had higher resting MSNA (38 ± 10 vs. 29 ± 0.9 burst per min, Pchemoreceptor deactivation with hyperoxia. HR decreased and Sat% increased in both the study groups. These results confirm the role of tonic chemoreceptor drive in the development of sympathetic overactivity in hypertension.

  13. Impaired suppression of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia and alterations in high density lipoproteins in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; vanTol, A; vanHaeften, TW; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Essential hypertension may be associated with abnormalities in free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride metabolism, which could lead to alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key

  14. Lack of effect of long-term amlodipine on insulin sensitivity and plasma insulin in obese patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Maximilian; Ferrari, P; Schneider, M

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of long-term treatment antihypertensive with the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine on insulin sensitivity, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein metabolism in obese hypertensive patients. We measured the insulin sensitivity index (SI), determined by the Minimal Model...... Method of Bergman, fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, serum total triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, and blood pressure in 20 obese, non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension before and after 6 weeks of placebo and again after 6 months of amlodipine. Ten patients...... [mean body mass index (BMI) 30.2 kg.m-2] had been on prior treatment with a thiazide diuretic in low dosage and/or a beta-adrenoceptor blocker (group A), and 10 matched patients [BMI 31.8 kg.m-2] had been previously untreated (group B). Amlodipine was started in a dose of 5 mg and was increased to 10 mg...

  15. Renin angiotensinogen system gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension among people of West African descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, L M; Christensen, D L; Gjesing, A P

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian populati......This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian...

  16. [Blood pressure control in a population of hypertensive diabetic patients treated in primary care: PRESCAP-Diabetes Study 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquilla García, A; Llisterri Caro, J L; Prieto Díaz, M A; Alonso Moreno, F J; García Matarín, L; Galgo Nafría, A; Mediavilla Bravo, J J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the level of blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive diabetic patients treated in primary care and to determine the factors associated with poor control. A cross-sectional, multicentre study that enrolled hypertensive diabetics recruited by consecutive sampling by family doctors in Spain in June 2010. A mean BP of less than 140/90mmHg was considered as good control of arterial hypertension. The percentages of patients withPrimaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative effect of fixed dose combination of Amlodipine + Bisoprolol versus Amlodipine and Bisoprolol alone on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirure PA,Tadvi NA, Bajait CS, Baig MS, Gade PR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Employment of low dose combinations of two antihypertensives, with different mode of action has gained acceptance worldwide for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. However, most studies in hypertensive disease have focused on monotherapy. The combination therapy in the treatment of hypertension is largely extrapolated from these monotherapy studies. Objectives: To study and compare the effect of amlodipine, bisoprolol and fixed dose combination of amlodipine + bisoprolol on blood pressure in stage-2 essential hypertensive patients. Methods: The present study was carried out in Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Department of Medicine at Government Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad. Results and Conclusion : Amlodipine + bisoprolol in fixed dose combination have showed significant blood pressure control in patients of stage-2 essential hypertension and the antihypertensive effect was greater than individual monotherapy study groups.

  18. Correlation of Hypertension and Proteinuria with Outcome in Elderly Bevacizumab-Treated Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Jaime; Salud, Antonieta; Safont, Maria J.; García-Girón, Carlos; Aparicio, Jorge; Losa, Ferran; Bosch, Carlos; Escudero, Pilar; Casado, Enrique; Jorge, Monica; Bohn, Uriel; Pérez-Carrión, Ramon; Carmona, Alberto; Custodio, Ana B.; Maurel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies suggest a relationship between hypertension and outcome in bevacizumab-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We performed a retrospective analysis of two phase II studies (BECA and BECOX) to determine if hypertension and proteinuria predict outcome in elderly patients with mCRC treated with bevacizumab. Patients and Methods Patients ≥70 years of age received either capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 bid days 1–14 + bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg day 1 every 21 days (BECA study) or capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 bid days 1–14 with bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 day 1 (BECOX study). The primary objective was to correlate hypertension and proteinuria with overall response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Secondary objectives included identification of risk factors associated with the development of hypertension and proteinuria and determining whether development of hypertension or proteinuria in the first 2 cycles was related to ORR, disease-control rate (DCR), TTP or OS. Results In total, 127 patients (median age 75.5 years) were included in the study. Hypertension correlated with DCR and OS; proteinuria correlated with ORR and DCR. Proteinuria or hypertension in the first 2 cycles did not correlate with efficacy. Risk factors for hypertension were female gender (odds ratio [OR] 0.241; P = 0.011) and more bevacizumab cycles (OR 1.112; P = 0.002); risk factors for proteinuria were diabetes (OR 3.869; P = 0.006) and more bevacizumab cycles (OR 1.181; Pproteinuria is correlated with ORR but not with OS and TTP. Both hypertension and proteinuria are associated with the duration of bevacizumab treatment and do not represent an independent prognostic factor. PMID:25602286

  19. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation prevents memory impairment, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Eyup; Aydin, Emel; Ungureanu, Eugen; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-12-01

    Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel is used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine around the world, including Turkey. Ethnobotanical studies suggest that Anthriscus essential oil could improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of inhaled Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil on memory, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil was administered by inhalation in the doses of 1% and 3% for 21 continuous days and scopolamine (0.7mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min before the behavioral testing. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. As expected, the scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease the percentage of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze test, increase the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. However, dual scopolamine and Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil-treated rats showed significant improvement of memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. These results suggest that Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation can prevent scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic Value of Nondipping and Morning Surge in Elderly Treated Hypertensive Patients With Controlled Ambulatory Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Sante D; Pierdomenico, Anna M; Coccina, Francesca; Lapenna, Domenico; Porreca, Ettore

    2017-02-01

    The independent prognostic significance of nondipping and morning surge (MS) of blood pressure (BP) in treated hypertensive patients with controlled ambulatory BP is not yet clear. We investigated the association between the aforesaid ambulatory BP parameters and cardiovascular risk in elderly treated hypertensive patients with normal achieved ambulatory BP. The occurrence of a composite end-point (stroke, coronary events, heart failure, and peripheral revascularization) was evaluated in 391 elderly treated hypertensive patients (age range 60-90 years) with controlled ambulatory BP (both daytime BP 23 mm Hg) and nondippers. During the follow-up (9.3 ± 4.6 years, range 0.5-20 years), 76 events occurred. The event-rate was 2.09 per 100 patient-years. After adjustment for age, gender, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, asymptomatic LV systolic dysfunction at baseline and left atrial enlargement, dippers with high MS (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.27-4.73, P = 0.007) and nondippers (hazard ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.53, P = 0.01) were at higher cardiovascular risk than dippers with normal MS. In elderly treated hypertensive patients with normal achieved ambulatory BP, dippers with high MS and nondippers are at increased cardiovascular risk. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Role of Osteoprotegerin and Its Gene Polymorphisms in the Occurrence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Essential Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Anna; Hou, Xuwei; Yang, Deguang; Liu, Tingrong; Zheng, Dezhong; Deng, Liehua; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) development in patients with essential hypertension (EH). A total of 1092 patients diagnosed with EH were recruited. The LVHs were determined and OPG gene polymorphisms were genotyped. Patients with LVH had a significantly higher mean serum OPG level than those without LVH. The 1181CC genotype carriers had significantly lower risk for LVH compared with GC and GG genotype carriers. The serum OPG level and OPG 1181 G>C polymorphism were found to be independent risk factors for the occurrence of LVH in hypertensive patients. In vitro study shows that OPG overexpression upregulates cell surface size, protein synthesis per cell, and hypertrophy- and fibrosis-related proteins in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, whereas OPG inhibition can abolish the above-mentioned changes. Consistent with the in vitro data, our in vivo study revealed that the OPG administration induced the LVH in hypertensive rats. This study is the first to report the close association between OPG and LVH development in EH patients and the regulatory effect of OPG on cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:25546658

  2. Implications of recent hypertension trials for the generalist physician: whom do we treat, and how?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Lee

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The publication of the results of the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 (STOP-2 and the termination of the doxazocin arm of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack (ALLHAT study again raise the question of whether all antihypertensives deliver equal cardiovascular outcome benefits. Data from research on congestive heart failure and from the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE trial illuminate the roles and possible mechanisms of humoral mediators of vascular damage, suggesting, first, that some antihypertensives (thiazides, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can deliver more improvement in outcomes than other agents and, second, that decisions on whom to treat are best made based on risk appraisal, not merely pressures.

  3. Up-regulation of gap junction in peripheral blood T lymphocytes contributes to the inflammatory response in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xin; Wang, Ai; Zhang, Liang; Shan, Li-Ya; Zhang, Hai-Chao; Li, Li; Si, Jun-Qiang; Luo, Jian; Li, Xin-Zhi; Ma, Ke-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been shown to play an important role in the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Connexins (Cxs)-based gap junction channels (GJCs) or hemichannels (HCs) are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in the immune system. However, the role of Cx43-based channels in T-lymphocytes in mediating the immune response in essential hypertension is not fully understand. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Cxs-based channels in T lymphocytes in the regulation of hypertension-mediated inflammation. The surface expressions of T lymphocyte subtypes, Cx40/Cx43, and inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ (interferon-gamma) and TNF-ɑ (tumor necrosis factor alpha)) in T cells, as well as gap junction communication of peripheral blood lymphocytes from essential hypertensive patients (EHs) and normotensive healthy subjects (NTs) were detected by flow cytometry. Expression levels and phosphorylation of Cx43 protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes of EHs and NTs were analyzed by Western blot. The proliferation rate of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after treatment with a Cxs inhibitor was examined by a CCK-8 assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were detected using ELISA. Within the CD3+ T cell subsets, we found a significant trend toward an increase in the percentage of CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio as well as in serum levels of IFN-γ and TNF-ɑ in the peripheral blood of EHs compared with those in NTs. Moreover, the peripheral blood lymphocytes of EH patients exhibited enhanced GJCs formation, increased Cx43 protein level and Cx43 phosphorylation at Ser368, and a significant increase in Cx40/Cx43 surface expressions levels in CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocytes. Cx43-based channel inhibition by a mimetic peptide greatly reduced the exchange of dye between lymphocytes, proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes and the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of EHs and NTs. Our data suggest that Cx40/Cx43-based channels in

  4. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus + 0.10 mg/dl; p = 0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control.

  5. Oral magnesium supplementation improves endothelial function and attenuates subclinical atherosclerosis in thiazide-treated hypertensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana Rosa; D'El-Rei, Jenifer; Medeiros, Fernanda; Umbelino, Bianca; Oigman, Wille; Touyz, Rhian M; Neves, Mario F

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse association between serum magnesium and incidence of cardiovascular disease. Diuretics commonly cause hypomagneseamia. We evaluated effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular function in thiazide-treated hypertensive women in a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Hypertensive women (40-65 years) on hydrochlorothiazide and mean 24-h BP at least 130/80 mmHg were divided into placebo and supplementation (magnesium chelate 600 mg/day) groups. Patients were evaluated for nutritional and biochemical parameters, office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry, assessment of carotid intima-media thickness, central hemodynamic parameters and pulse wave velocity at inclusion and after 6-month follow-up. The magnesium group had a significant reduction in SBP (144 ± 17 vs. 134 ± 14 mmHg, P = 0.036) and DBP (88 ± 9 vs. 81 ± 8 mmHg, P = 0.005) at 6 months, without effect on plasma glucose, lipids, or arterial stiffness parameters. The placebo group showed a significant increase in carotid intima-media thickness (0.78 ± 0.13 vs. 0.89 ± 0.14 mm, P = 0.033) without change in the magnesium group (0.79 ± 0.16 vs. 0.79 ± 0.19 mm, P = 0.716) after 6 months. The magnesium group demonstrated a significant increase in variation of FMD vs. the placebo group (+3.7 ± 2.1 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2%, P = 0.015). There was a significant correlation between the intracellular magnesium variation and FMD (r = 0.44, P = 0.011). Magnesium supplementation was associated with better BP control, improved endothelial function and amelioration of subclinical atherosclerosis in these thiazide-treated hypertensive women.

  6. Association of uric acid with risk factors for chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Shingo; Tsutsui, Kensuke; Fujii, Takurou; Yamazaki, Kouji; Anzawa, Ryuko; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has recently been recognized to not only be a predictor of cardiovascular disease but also a marker of metabolic syndrome. We examined the association between uric acid levels and various clinical parameters, including the components of metabolic syndrome, in essential hypertension. One hundred forty-six untreated Japanese hypertensive patients (mean 58.3 years) without overt cardiovascular disease were divided into low and high uric acid groups by the median uric acid value (cut-off: 6.3 for men and 4.4 mg/dL for women). The high uric acid group had higher serum creatinine (0.74 vs. 0.67 mg/dL, p = 0.019) and a larger body mass index (BMI) (25.2 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p = 0.018) compared to the low group. Men from the high uric acid group were younger and had higher blood pressure (BP) than men from the low group. Uric acid levels were correlated with creatinine in both genders, with blood pressure, triglycerides in men only, and with BMI, fasting glucose in women only. Multiple regression analysis also indicated a significant correlation of uric acid with creatinine in both genders, with triglycerides in men, and with glucose in women. Metabolic syndrome (modified NCEP-ATPIII definition) was found in 37.0% of the high uric acid group (men 45.0, women 27.3%) and 20.8% of the low group. Results suggest that an increase of uric acid is associated with impaired renal function and constitutes a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Uric acid may also be a useful index for initial risk stratification of untreated patients with essential hypertension.

  7. Effect of aliskiren on circulating endothelial progenitor cells and vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Athanasios E; Markakis, Konstantinos P; Mazioti, Maria C; Ikonomidis, Ignantios; Maratou, Eirini P; Vlahakos, Dimitrios V; Kotsifaki, Eleni E; Voumvourakis, Asterios N; Tsirogianni, Alexandra G; Lambadiari, Vaia A; Lekakis, John P; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aliskiren on vascular function and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension. The study enrolled type 2 diabetic patients aged >50 years under stable glycemic control and first diagnosed mild essential hypertension. In phase A (n = 20), patients received aliskiren 150-300 mg daily for 3 months. In phase B (n = 12), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5-25mg daily substituted for aliskiren for 3 more months. At baseline and at the end of each phase, we assessed (i) brachial blood pressure (BBP); (ii) central aortic systolic pressure (CSP), aortic augmentation index (Aix), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as markers of arterial stiffness; (iii) brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) as a marker of endothelial function; (iv) left ventricular (LV) twisting and untwisting as markers of LV function and (v) EPC numbers in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Aliskiren similarly reduced BBP and CSP, increased FMD (P < 0.001) and EPC numbers (P < 0.001), decreased PWV and Aix (P < 0.05), and improved LV twisting and untwisting (P < 0.05). Although substitution of HCTZ sustained BBP at similar levels, CSP and echocardiographic indices nearly returned at baseline levels, and the improvement of FMD, PWV, Aix, and EPC numbers was abolished. Aliskiren had a favorable effect on endothelial function and EPCs, reduced arterial stiffness, and improved LV twisting and untwisting. These effects were independent of BBP lowering, as they were not observed after the achievement of similar values of BBP with HCTZ. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Adiponectin gene polymorphism is selectively associated with the concomitant presence of metabolic syndrome and essential hypertension.

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    Hsin-Bang Leu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular risk increases with the presence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypertension (HTN. Although the adiponectin (ADIPOQ gene has been reported to be involved in MetS, its association with HTN remained undetermined. This study aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ gene with the phenotypes of HTN and MetS. METHODS: A total of 962 participants from 302 families from the Taiwan young-onset hypertension genetic study were enrolled. Plasma adiponectin were measured, and association analysis was conducted by using GEE regression-based method. Another study, of 1448 unrelated participants, was conducted to replicate the association between ADIPOQ gene and variable phenotypes of MetS with or without HTN. RESULTS: Among 962 subjects from family samples, the lowest plasma adiponectin value was observed in MetS with HTN component (9.3±0.47 µg/ml compared with hypertensives (13.4±0.74 µg /ml or MetS without HTN (11.9±0.60 µg/ml, P<0.05. The SNP rs1501299 (G276T in ADIPOQ gene was found associated with the presence of HTN in MetS (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.14-5.3, p = 0.02, but not rs2241766 (T45G. No association of ADIPOQ gene with HTN alone or MetS without HTN was observed. The significant association of the SNP rs1501299 (G276T with the phenotype of presence of HTN in MetS was confirmed (odds ratio for GG+GT vs. TT = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3 in the replication study. CONCLUSIONS: ADIPOQ genetic variants were selectively and specifically associated with the concomitant presence of MetS and HTN, suggesting potential genetic linkage between MetS and HTN.

  9. micro-RNA screening and prediction model construction for diagnosis of salt-sensitive essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Han; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Bin; Cao, Han; Sun, Weiping; Yan, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Commonly used tests for diagnosis of salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) are complex and time-consuming, so new methods are required. Many studies have demonstrated roles for miRNAs in hypertension; however, the diagnostic value of miRNAs has yet to be determined for human SSH. In this study, we examined miRNA expression profiles by initial high-throughput miRNA sequencing of samples from patients with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertension (SSH and SRH, respectively; n = 6, both groups), followed by validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a larger cohort (n = 91). We also evaluated differences in baseline characteristics (e.g., age, sex, body mass index, consumption of specific foods) between the SSH and SRH groups. Of 36 miRNAs identified as differentially expressed between SSH and SRH groups by RNA-Seq, 8 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. There were significant differences in the expression levels of hsa-miR-361-5p and hsa-miR-362-5p between the 2 groups (P = .023 and.049, respectively). In addition, there were significant differences in sauce and poultry consumption between the 2 groups (P = .004 and.001, respectively). The areas under the curve (AUC) determined by receptor operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for hsa-miR-361-5p and all 8 miRNAs were 0.793 (95% CI, 0.698-0.888; sensitivity = 73.9%, specificity = 74.4%; P SSH.

  10. Effect of Spirulina maxima Supplementation on Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc Status in Obese Patients with Treated Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Szulińska, M; Tinkov, A A; Bogdański, P

    2016-09-01

    The effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc status were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of spirulina or a placebo daily for 3 months. At baseline and after treatment, the calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc concentration in plasma was assessed. It was found that 3 months of S. maxima supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in the iron level in the plasma of obese patients. In conclusion, this is the first clinical study on the influence of spirulina supplementation on mineral status in obese patients with hypertension. Spirulina supplementation affects the iron status of obese Caucasians with well-treated hypertension.

  11. Follow-up of 5- to 11-year-old children treated for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Klokker, Mads

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Determine the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and relate this to cumulative exposure to hypoxia, hypocapnia and hypotension. Describe chronic health problems among 5- to 11-year-old children treated for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). METHODS: The index...

  12. Home blood pressure level and decline in renal function among treated hypertensive patients: the J-HOME-Morning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Kazuki; Obara, Taku; Kikuya, Masahiro; Satoh, Michihiro; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Mano, Nariyasu; Nakayama, Masaaki; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association between home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and further decline in renal function among treated hypertensive patients with and without renal dysfunction. We calculated annual decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) in 1535 treated hypertensive patients with home and office BP measurements. We defined ΔeGFR home, evening home and office systolic BP (SBP) levels and morning home diastolic BP (DBP) levels were positively associated with the risk of decline in renal function (trend P=0.003, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.004). Compared to patients with home SBP home SBPs ⩾135 mm Hg and between 130-135 mm Hg, while the risk was similar in those with home SBP of 125-130 mm Hg. For 1015 patients with normal eGFR at baseline, only morning home SBP level was positively associated with the risk of decline in renal function (trend P=0.004). Morning home BP might be useful for risk evaluation of decline in renal function even among treated hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Target levels of home BP control among treated hypertensive patients need to be further investigated.

  13. Prevalence of masked uncontrolled and treated white-coat hypertension defined according to the average of morning and evening home blood pressure value: from the Japan Home versus Office Measurement Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Takua; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Keia; Metoki, Hirohito; Inoue, Ryusuke; Oikawa, Takuya; Komai, Rie; Murai, Kayo; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of masked uncontrolled and treated white-coat hypertension defined according to the average of morning and evening home blood pressure values. The study population consisted of 3303 essential hypertensive outpatients receiving antihypertensive treatment in Japan. Information on the characteristics of the patients was collected by a physician's self-administrated questionnaire. The office blood pressure value was calculated as the average of the four readings in two visits. All patients were asked to measure their blood pressure once every morning and once every evening. In the study, we included patients with at least three measurements in the morning and in the evening, respectively. The average of all home blood pressure values was taken as the home blood pressure value. The mean value of home systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 136.8/79.3 mmHg, and the mean value of office systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 142.8/80.6 mmHg. Of the 3303 patients, 758 (23.0%) had controlled hypertension (home office home > or =135/85 mmHg and office home office > or =140/90 mmHg), and 1277 (38.7%) had uncontrolled hypertension (home > or =135/85 mmHg and office > or =140/90 mmHg). Treated white-coat hypertension and masked uncontrolled hypertension were often observed in clinical settings. Physicians need to understand the prevalence of such patients to prevent inadequate diagnosis and treatment in them.

  14. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...... were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had...

  15. Trend of office and home blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients: changes in antihypertensive medication and salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwashima, Yoshio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Satoko; Kamide, Kei; Horio, Takeshi; Kawano, Yuhei

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensives has improved in recent years; however, it remains insufficient. We investigated the trend of BP control status in hypertensive patients with antihypertensive medication and salt intake. Two hundred and eight treated hypertensive patients were prospectively followed between 2007 and 2012. During this period, average clinic BP significantly decreased from 137±12/80±9 to 133±11/76±8 mmHg, and the achievement rate of BP control defined as home BP also significantly decreased from 132±8/80±8 to 130±8/76±7 mmHg, and the percentage of patients with sustained hypertension (CBP≥140/90 mmHg and HBP≥135/85 mmHg) decreased from 27% to 16% (pOffice and home BP decreased and the rate of BP control increased in treated hypertensive patients in the past 5 years. Intensive pharmacological therapy, but not a reduction in salt intake appears to have contributed to improved BP control.

  16. Effects of altered platelet number on pulmonary hypertension and platelet sequestration in monocrotaline pyrrole-treated rats

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    White, S.M.; Wagner, J.G.; Roth, R.A.

    1989-06-15

    To study the role of platelets in monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP)-induced pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary sequestration of 111In-labeled platelets in rats treated with MCTP and anti-rat platelet serum (PAS) was examined. Lung injury from a single, intravenous injection of MCTP (3.5 mg/kg) at Day 8 was evident as elevated lung weight and lavage fluid protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Additionally, right ventricular hypertrophy and elevated pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) occurred. Treatment with PAS on Days 6-8 did not affect the lung injury but resulted in an attenuation of the pulmonary hypertensive response. Pulmonary platelet sequestration was also decreased in PAS-treated rats, yet the sequestration in the lungs of MCTP-treated rats that received PAS was significantly higher than that in the lungs of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) controls. MCTP-treated rats receiving control serum (CS) tended to sequester more 111In-labeled platelets than respective DMF controls, but this was not statistically significant. Blood platelet half-life was unaltered in rats receiving CS. When rats were treated similarly with MCTP and PAS and were killed at 18 days, the attenuation of the pulmonary hypertensive response previously described was not observed, and lung injury was more extensive than when CS was given. Apparently, platelet depletion delayed the development of the pulmonary hypertensive response. Supranormal platelet numbers produced by splenectomy did not affect MCTP-induced lung injury or the elevation in PAP. These results support the hypothesis that the development of MCTP-induced pulmonary hypertension is mediated in part by platelets.

  17. Safety and usefulness of Laghu shankha prakshalana in patients with essential hypertension: A self controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashyal, Prakash; Bhargav, Hemant; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2014-01-01

    Yoga and Ayurveda texts emphasize the role of cleansing the bowel as an important component of management of hypertension (HTN). Observations during our clinical experience and pilot studies on Laghu shankha prakshalana kriya (LSP), a yogic bowel cleansing technique, appeared to be safe and complimentary. To test the safety and effectiveness of LSP in patients with essential hypertension. This self control study recruited 32 patients with mild to moderate essential HTN admitted for a week long residential integrated yoga therapy program at the integrative health home in Bengaluru. Patients had a daily routine of 6 hours of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) module for HTN that included physical postures, relaxation sessions, pranayama and meditations. LSP, an additional practice, that involved drinking of luke-warm water (with or without a herbal combination, triphala) followed by a set of specific yoga postures that activates defecation reflex, was administered on 2(nd) (LSP without triphala) and 5(th) day (LSP with triphala). Assessments (sitting blood pressure and pulse rate) were done just before and after both the sessions of LSP. Secondary outcome measures such as body mass index (BMI), symptom scores, medication scores, fatigue, state and trait anxiety, general health and quality of life were assessed on 1(st) and 6(th) day of IAYT intervention. There was significant (P < 0.001, paired t test) reduction in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and pulse rate immediately after both the sessions (LSP with and without triphala). There were no adverse effects reported during or after LSP. There was no significant difference between the two techniques (P < 0.505, independent samples t test), although the percentage change appeared to be higher after triphala LSP session. The number of visits to clear the bowel during the procedure was significantly (P < 0.001, independent samples t test) higher after LSP with triphala than LSP without triphalā. After

  18. Safety and usefulness of Laghu shankha prakshalana in patients with essential hypertension: A self controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Mashyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga and Ayurveda texts emphasize the role of cleansing the bowel as an important component of management of hypertension (HTN. Observations during our clinical experience and pilot studies on Laghu shankha prakshalana kriya (LSP, a yogic bowel cleansing technique, appeared to be safe and complimentary. Objective: To test the safety and effectiveness of LSP in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: This self control study recruited 32 patients with mild to moderate essential HTN admitted for a week long residential integrated yoga therapy program at the integrative health home in Bengaluru. Patients had a daily routine of 6 hours of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT module for HTN that included physical postures, relaxation sessions, pranayama and meditations. LSP, an additional practice, that involved drinking of luke-warm water (with or without a herbal combination, triphala followed by a set of specific yoga postures that activates defecation reflex, was administered on 2 nd (LSP without triphala and 5 th day (LSP with triphala. Assessments (sitting blood pressure and pulse rate were done just before and after both the sessions of LSP. Secondary outcome measures such as body mass index (BMI, symptom scores, medication scores, fatigue, state and trait anxiety, general health and quality of life were assessed on 1 st and 6 th day of IAYT intervention. Results: There was significant (P < 0.001, paired t test reduction in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic and pulse rate immediately after both the sessions (LSP with and without triphala. There were no adverse effects reported during or after LSP. There was no significant difference between the two techniques (P < 0.505, independent samples t test, although the percentage change appeared to be higher after triphala LSP session. The number of visits to clear the bowel during the procedure was significantly (P < 0.001, independent samples t test higher

  19. Effects of four different antihypertensive drugs on plasma metabolomic profiles in patients with essential hypertension.

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    Timo P Hiltunen

    Full Text Available In order to search for metabolic biomarkers of antihypertensive drug responsiveness, we measured >600 biochemicals in plasma samples of subjects participating in the GENRES Study. Hypertensive men received in a double-blind rotational fashion amlodipine, bisoprolol, hydrochlorothiazide and losartan, each as a monotherapy for one month, with intervening one-month placebo cycles.Metabolomic analysis was carried out using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Full metabolomic signatures (the drug cycles and the mean of the 3 placebo cycles became available in 38 to 42 patients for each drug. Blood pressure was monitored by 24-h recordings.Amlodipine (P values down to 0.002, bisoprolol (P values down to 2 x 10-5 and losartan (P values down to 2 x 10-4 consistently decreased the circulating levels of long-chain acylcarnitines. Bisoprolol tended to decrease (P values down to 0.002 the levels of several medium- and long-chain fatty acids. Hydrochlorothiazide administration was associated with an increase of plasma uric acid level (P = 5 x 10-4 and urea cycle metabolites. Decreases of both systolic (P = 0.06 and diastolic (P = 0.04 blood pressure after amlodipine administration tended to associate with a decrease of plasma hexadecanedioate, a dicarboxylic fatty acid recently linked to blood pressure regulation.Although this systematic metabolomics study failed to identify circulating metabolites convincingly predicting favorable antihypertensive response to four different drug classes, it provided accumulating evidence linking fatty acid metabolism to human hypertension.

  20. Aliskiren and amlodipine in the management of essential hypertension: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Yukai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aliskiren is a novel renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitor, the combination therapy of aliskiren and amlodipine for blood pressure control have been reported recently. The primary objective of this analysis is to review recently reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare antihypertensive effects and adverse events between mono (amlodipine or aliskiren alone and combination therapy of both medicines. METHODS: Databases for the search included Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Revman v5.0 statistical program was used to analyze the data. Weighted mean differences (WMD with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used for the calculation of continuous data, and relative risk (RR with a 95% CI was used for dichotomous data. RESULTS: We analyzed the data from 7 RCTs for a total of 6074 participants in this meta-analysis. We found that the aliskiren/amlodipine combination therapy had a stronger effect in lowering blood pressure as compared with the monotherapy using aliskiren (SBP: WMD = -10.42, 95% CI -13.03∼-7.82, P = 30 kg/m(2 hypertensive and non-obese (body mass index <30 kg/m(2 hypertensive patients. Moreover, there was no difference with the blood pressure lowering or adverse effects with regards to the combination therapy in both subgroups. CONCLUSION: We found that aliskiren/amlodipine combination therapy provided a more effective blood pressure reduction than monotherapy with either drug without increase in the occurrence of adverse events.

  1. Morning pressor surge, blood pressure variability, and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giacomo; Battista, Francesca; Anastasio, Fabio; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    An excess morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) may portend an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms thereof have been little investigated. The link between MBPS, short-term blood pressure (BP) variability, and arterial stiffness has not been entirely defined. In 602 consecutive untreated hypertensive patients (48 ± 12 years, 61% men, office BP 149/93 ± 17/10 mmHg), we measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, SphygmoCor) and 24-h ambulatory BP. Using self-reported sleep and wake times, MBPS was defined as sleep-trough (ST-MBPS), prewaking, rising. Short-term BP variability was calculated as weighted 24-h SBP SD and average real variability of 24-h SBP (ARV), that is, average of absolute differences between consecutive SBP readings. ST-MBPS (r = 0.16, P < 0.001) and rising MBPS (r = 0.12, P = 0.003) showed a direct correlation with cf-PWV, whereas prewaking MBPS had no such relation (r = 0.06, P = 0.14). Only ST-MBPS was independently associated with cf-PWV (t = 1.96, P = 0.04) after adjustment for age, sex, height, office mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal function. This association was lost after further adjustment for weighted 24-h SBP SD (P = 0.13) or ARV (P = 0.24). ARV was a significant mediator of the relationship between ST-MBPS and cf-PWV (P = 0.003). In untreated hypertension, ST-MBPS has a direct relation with aortic stiffness, which is mediated by an increased ARV. The adverse effects of MBPS may be partly explained by its link with arterial stiffness, mediated by short-term SBP variability.

  2. Acute aerobic exercise reduces 24-h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Ciolac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with anti-hypertensive therapy, it is difficult to maintain optimal systemic blood pressure values in hypertensive patients. Exercise may reduce blood pressure in untreated hypertensive, but its effect when combined with long-term anti-hypertensive therapy remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of a single session of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure of long-term-treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive patients (18/32 male/female; 46.5±8.2 years; Body mass index: 27.8±4.7 kg/m² were monitored for 24 h with respect to ambulatory (A blood pressure after an aerobic exercise session (post-exercise and a control period (control in random order. Aerobic exercise consisted of 40 minutes on a cycle-ergometer, with the mean exercise intensity at 60% of the patient's reserve heart rate. RESULTS: Post-exercise ambulatory blood pressure was reduced for 24 h systolic (126±8.6 vs. 123.1±8.7 mmHg, p=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (81.9±8 vs. 79.8±8.5 mmHg, p=0.004, daytime diastolic blood pressure (85.5±8.5 vs. 83.9±8.8 mmHg, p=0.04, and nighttime S (116.8±9.9 vs. 112.5±9.2 mmHg, p<0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (73.5±8.8 vs. 70.1±8.4 mmHg, p<0.001. Post-exercise daytime systolic blood pressure also tended to be reduced (129.8±9.3 vs. 127.8±9.4 mmHg, p=0.06. These post-exercise decreases in ambulatory blood pressure increased the percentage of patients displaying normal 24h systolic blood pressure (58% vs. 76%, p=0.007, daytime systolic blood pressure (68% vs. 82%, p=0.02, and nighttime diastolic blood pressure (56% vs. 72%, p=0.02. Nighttime systolic blood pressure also tended to increase (58% vs. 80%, p=0.058. CONCLUSION: A single bout of aerobic exercise reduced 24h ambulatory blood pressure levels in long-term-treated hypertensive patients and increased the percentage of patients reaching normal ambulatory blood pressure values. These effects suggest that

  3. Oxidative Stress State Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mechanics Changes, Measured by Speckle Tracking in Essential Hypertensive Patients

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    Luis Antonio Moreno-Ruíz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress state is characterized by an increase in oxygen reactive species that overwhelms the antioxidant defense; we do not know if these pathological changes are correlated with alterations in left ventricular mechanics. The aim was correlating the oxidative stress state with the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS and the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Twenty-five patients with essential hypertension and 25 controls paired by age and gender were studied. All of the participants were subjected to echocardiography and biochemical determination of oxidative stress markers. The hypertensive patients, compared with control subjects, had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of oxidized proteins (5.03±1.05 versus 4.06±0.63 nmol/mg, lower levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD activity (0.045±0.02 versus 0.082±0.02 U/mg, higher LVEDP (16.2±4.5 versus 11.3±1.6 mm Hg, and lower GLS (−12% versus −16%. Both groups had preserved ejection fraction and the results showed a positive correlation of oxidized proteins with GLS (r=0.386, p=0.006 and LVEDP (r=0.389, p=0.005; we also found a negative correlation of EC-SOD activity with GLS (r=-0.404, p=0.004 and LVEDP (r=-0.347, p=0.014.

  4. Effect of Brahmyadi Churna (Brahmi, Shankhapushpi, Jatamansi, Jyotishmati, Vacha, Ashwagandha and tablet Shilajatu in essential hypertension: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HTN is one among the fiery health problems of the present era. Since it does not cause symptoms usually for many years until a vital organ is damaged. The present study was carried out on 40 patients of essential HTN with Brahmyadi Churna and tablet Shilajatu for a period of 1 month with milk as Anupana. Observation was done before the treatment, 3 mid test assessments on 7 th , 14 th , and 21 st day, posttest assessment was done on 30 th day. Intervention revealed that 19 had marked improvement, 14 had moderate improvement, 5 had mild improvement, and no improvement was noticed in 2 individuals. Reduction in blood pressure was observed markedly with P < 0.000.

  5. Reviving the use of aldosterone inhibitors in treating hypertension in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Anne-Cecile; Belin De Chantemèle, Eric J

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease associated with hypertension. In the obese population, the incidence of hypertension is high and resistant hypertension is commonly observed. Mechanisms to explain the resistance to current antihypertensive treatments are still poorly understood. Emerging knowledge of the role of aldosterone in controlling blood pressure in obesity may have therapeutic benefit. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibitors are currently used as the fourth line of treatment. Clinical studies summarized in this short review suggest that MR antagonists have a strong efficacy in decreasing blood pressure in the hypertensive obese population and could be used as a primary antihypertensive in obesity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A

    1990-01-01

    , and to analyze whether any such changes were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. Four groups of subjects were evaluated: 28 normotensive (NTO) and 20 borderline hypertensive (BHO) offspring of hypertensives, 12 borderline hypertensives with normotensive parents (BH) and 28 normotensive...... subjects with normotensive parents (NT). The cellular sodium/potassium contents of the four groups were not discernibly different. Ouabain insensitive sodium efflux rate constant and corresponding absolute efflux were significantly increased in offspring of hypertensives. Ouabain sensitive absolute sodium...

  7. African Americans’ Perceptions of Adherence to Medications and Lifestyle Changes Prescribed to Treat Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Pettey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80 million Americans have hypertension (HTN, and African Americans (AAs are disproportionately affected. AAs also have lower rates of adherence to HTN treatment. It is important to understand AAs’ perceptions of adherence to develop effective interventions. The aim of this study is to examine AAs’ perceptions of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes prescribed to treat HTN. In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to recruit Southern AAs with HTN aged 21 and older from a free, faith-based clinic. We recorded individual, in-person interviews about perceptions related to adherence to treatment of HTN and analyzed verbatim transcripts using content analysis and constant comparison. We also conducted medical record audits. Twenty-nine AAs participated (52% female, 38% were <50 years of age, 52% had taken anti-HTN medications for ≥5 years. Audits indicated that 65% had uncontrolled HTN during the previous year. Two main themes included causes of HTN and ways to improve blood pressure. Perceived causes of HTN included diet, stress, unhealthy actions, genes, and obesity. Ways to improve HTN included using cultural treatments “passed down,” increasing exercise, reducing stress, and losing weight. Many reported using home remedies to control HTN, including drinking pickle juice. More than half of this sample had uncontrolled HTN. They identified influences of culture on perceptions of adherence including causes and treatment of HTN, and possibly detrimental home remedies. It is imperative that clinicians identify culturally appropriate interventions for this high-risk group.

  8. Risk indicators for death in patients treated for hypertension; emphasis on consequences for airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulpitt, C J

    1984-03-01

    The treatment of hypertensive aircrew should also include changes in dietary habits, and advice against smoking. Relaxation exercises and changes in life style may prove of benefit. Increasing age, hypertension and smoking multiply to give a risk of cardiovascular event which merits careful assessment.

  9. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  10. Eligibility for Renal Denervation: Anatomical Classification and Results in Essential Resistant Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Pellerin, Olivier [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Savard, Sébastien [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Hypertension, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Curis, Emmanuel; Monge, Matthieu [INSERM, Clinical Investigation Center 9201 (France); Frank, Michael; Bobrie, Guillaume [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Hypertension, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Yamaguchi, Masato; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Center for Endovascular Therapy (Japan); Plouin, Pierre-François; Azizi, Michel [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Hypertension, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France); Sapoval, Marc [Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (France)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo classify the renal artery (RA) anatomy based on specific requirements for endovascular renal artery denervation (RDN) in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (RH).Materials and MethodsThe RA anatomy of 122 consecutive RH patients was evaluated by computed tomography angiography and classified as two types: A (main RA ≥20 mm in length and ≥4.0 mm in diameter) or B (main RA <20 mm in length or main RA <4.0 mm in diameter). The A type included three subtypes: A1 (without accessory RAs), A2 (with accessory RAs <3.0 mm in diameter), and A3 (with accessory RAs ≥3.0 mm in diameter]. A1 and A2 types were eligible for RDN with the Simplicity Flex catheter. Type B included twi subtypes based on the main RA length and diameter. Patients were accordingly classified into three eligibility categories: complete (CE; both RAs were eligible), partial (PE; one eligible RA), and noneligibility (NE; no eligible RA).ResultsBilateral A1 type was the most prevalent and was observed in 48.4 % of the patients followed by the A1/A2 type (18 %). CE, PE, and NE were observed in 69.7, 22.9, and 7.4 % of patients, respectively. The prevalence of accessory RAs was 41 %.ConclusionsOf RH patients, 30.3 % were not eligible for bilateral RDN with the current Simplicity Flex catheter. This classification provides the basis for standardized reporting to allow for pooling of results of larger patient cohorts in the future.

  11. Antihypertensive efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil and ramipril in elderly patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension: the ESPORT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacco, Ettore; Omboni, Stefano; Volpe, Massimo; Auteri, Alberto; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the angiotensin II antagonist olmesartan medoxomil (O) and the ACE inhibitor ramipril (R) in elderly patients with essential arterial hypertension. After a 2-week placebo wash-out 1102 treated or untreated elderly hypertensive patients aged 65-89 years (office sitting diastolic blood pressure, DBP, 90-109 mmHg and/or office sitting systolic blood pressure, SBP, 140-179 mmHg) were randomized double-blind to 12-week treatment with O 10 mg or R 2.5 mg once-daily. After the first 2 and 6 weeks doses could be doubled in non-normalized [blood pressure (BP) < 140/90 mmHg for nondiabetic and < 130/80 mmHg for diabetic) individuals, up to 40 mg for O and 10 mg for R. Office BPs were assessed at randomization, after 2, 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, whereas 24-h ambulatory BP was recorded at randomization and after 12 weeks. In the intention-to-treat population (542 patients O and 539 R) after 12 weeks of treatment baseline-adjusted office SBP and DBP reductions were greater (P < 0.01) with O [17.8 (95% confidence interval: 16.8/18.9) and 9.2 (8.6/9.8) mmHg] than with R [15.7 (14.7/16.8) and 7.7 (7.1/8.3) mmHg]. BP normalization rate was also greater under O (52.6 vs. 46.0% R, P < 0.05). In the subgroup of patients with valid ambulatory BP recording (318 O and 312 R) the reduction in 24-h average BP was larger (P < 0.05) with O [SBP: 11.0 (12.2/9.9) and DBP: 6.5 (7.2/5.8) mmHg] than with R [9.0 (10.2/7.9) and 5.4 (6.1/4.7) mmHg]. The larger blood pressure reduction obtained with O was particularly evident in the last 6 h from the dosing interval; a better homogeneity of the 24-h BP control with O was confirmed by higher smoothness indices. The proportion of patients with drug-related adverse events was comparable in the two groups (3.6 O vs. 3.6% R), as well as the number of patients discontinuing study drug because of a side effect (14 O vs. 19 R). In elderly patients with essential arterial hypertension O provides an effective, prolonged

  12. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  13. Difference between home and office blood pressures among treated hypertensive patients from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Metoki, Hirohito; Inoue, Ryusuke; Kikuya, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to clarify the factors associated with the magnitude of the difference between home and office blood pressures in treated hypertensive patients. Study subjects consisted of 3,308 essential hypertensive patients (mean age, 66 years; males, 44%) receiving antihypertensive treatment in primary care settings in Japan. Patients were classified into 3 groups (the home effect group, small difference group, and office effect group) according to tertiles of the magnitude of the office-home systolic blood pressure difference. Compared to the other two groups, the home effect group patients were significantly and independently older, were more often habitual drinkers, had a greater family history of cerebrovascular disease or personal history of ischemic heart disease, and were prescribed a greater number of antihypertensive drugs, non-amlodipine calcium channel blockers, and alpha-blockers as antihypertensive drugs. Compared to the other two groups, the office effect group patients were significantly and independently younger, included more females, less frequently had a family history of cerebrovascular disease or personal history of ischemic heart disease, and were less often prescribed alpha-blockers as antihypertensive drugs. The characteristics of home effect group patients and the factors negatively affecting the blood pressure difference were the same. Among treated hypertensive patients, compared to patients in the other groups, office effect group patients had a lower-risk profile, whereas home effect group patients had a higher-risk profile. These predictive factors might be useful clinically to help identify patients who may have a large difference between home and office blood pressures.

  14. L-citrulline provides a novel strategy for treating chronic pulmonary hypertension in newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Candice D.; Summar, Marshall; Aschner, Judy L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapies are urgently needed for infants with forms of pulmonary hypertension that develop or persist beyond the first week of life. The L-arginine nitric oxide (NO) precursor, L-citrulline, improves NO signalling and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in newborn animal models. In vitro studies demonstrate that manipulating L-citrulline transport alters NO production. Conclusion Strategies that increase the supply and transport of L-citrulline merit pursuit as novel approaches to managing infants with chronic, progressive pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24862864

  15. Cortical and hippocampal EEG effects of neurotransmitter agonists in spontaneously hypertensive vs. kainate-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Schibaev, Nikolai; Kaptsov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Georgii; Sengpiel, Frank

    2011-04-06

    To analyze mediatory mechanisms underlying attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their association with epilepsy, the electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to various centrally applied neurotransmitter agonists were studied in spontaneously hypertensive (SH), kainate-treated (KA), and normotensive (control) rats, with chronically implanted electrodes into the frontal cortex and hippocampus and a cannula into the lateral cerebral ventricle. In SH rats, the baseline EEG showed increased delta and beta2 activity in the hippocampus and decreased alpha/beta1 activity in both brain areas. In KA rats, these delta and alpha/beta1 effects were observed 2 weeks post-kainate, while the beta2 activity increase occurred after 5 weeks in the hippocampus and, to a greater extent, 9 weeks post-injection in both brain areas. In SH rats, NMDA increased delta and decreased alpha/beta1 activity, similar to KA rats 5 weeks post-injection. In SH rats, clonidine augmented theta/beta2 increase in the cortex and alpha suppression in both brain areas, in parallel with induction of beta2 activity in the hippocampus. These beta2 effects were observed 5 and 9 weeks post-kainate. In SH rats, baclofen produced robust delta/theta enhancement and alpha/beta1 suppression in both brain areas, with additional beta2 activity increase in the hippocampus, while muscimol was ineffective in both groups of rats. In KA rats, EEG responses to GABA agonists were similar to those in control. Our results demonstrate sensitization of NMDA receptors and α2-adrenoceptors both in SH and KA rats and that of GABAb receptors specifically in SH rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Namdar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50. Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively. And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036. However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Conclusion: Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  17. Effects of music on cardiovascular responses in men with essential hypertension compared with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  18. Increased left ventricular mass and diastolic dysfunction are associated with endothelial dysfunction in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to investigate left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait - FT), and to determine the association between LV mass and determinants of LV diastolic function and endothelium-dependent (NO-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotonics with FT aged 28-39 (mean 33) years and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and LV diastolic function was measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). LV diastolic filling properties were assessed and reported as the peak E/A wave ratio, and peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) on TDI. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (flow-mediated dilation--FMD) were measured. In subjects with FT, the LV mass index was higher than in controls (92.14+/-24.02 vs 70.08+/-20.58); p<0.001). Offspring of hypertensive families had worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E/A ratio, lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p<0.001). In subjects with FT, FMD was decreased compared with the controls (6.11+/-3.28% vs 10.20+/-2.07%; p<0.001). LV mass index and E(m)/A(m) ratio were associated with FMD (p<0.001). In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional changes were found. We demonstrated that an increase in LV mass and alterations in LV diastolic function are related to endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Dominance of the forward compression wave in determining pulsatile components of blood pressure: similarities between inotropic stimulation and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Henry; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Jiang, Benyu; Li, Ye; Epstein, Sally; Alastruey, Jordi; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile components of blood pressure may arise from forward (ventricular generated) or backward wave travel in the arterial tree. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of forward and backward waves to pulsatility. We used wave intensity and wave separation analysis to determine pulsatile components of blood pressure during inotropic and vasopressor stimulation by dobutamine and norepinephrine in normotensive subjects and compared pulse pressure components in hypertensive (mean±SD, 48.8±11.3 years; 165±26.6/99±14.2 mm Hg) and normotensive subjects (52.2±12.6 years; 120±14.2/71±8.2 mm Hg). Dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg per minute) increased the forward compression wave generated by the ventricle and increased pulse pressure from 36.8±3.7 to 59.0±3.4 mm Hg (mean±SE) but had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or the midsystolic backward compression wave. By contrast, norepinephrine (50 ng/kg per minute) had no significant effect on the forward compression wave but increased the midsystolic backward compression wave. Despite this increase in the backward compression wave, and an increase in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine increased central pulse pressure less than dobutamine (increases of 22.1±3.8 and 7.2±2.8 mm Hg for dobutamine and norepinephrine, respectively; Phypertensive and normotensive subjects, respectively; Phypertensive and normotensive subjects. Increased central pulse pressure during inotropic stimulation and in essential hypertension results primarily from the forward compression wave. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Potential of a registry in evaluation of treatment of patients with essential hypertension in primary care (using the example of polyclinic located in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov S.N.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion ― Using the Htn, CAD and CHF Registry in primary care unit allows objective evaluation of clinical guidelines performance among Htn patients. It was revealed that combined antihypertensive treatment and separated recommended drugs in case of associated clinical conditions (statins in CAD, anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation was administered sub optimally. Only half of patients with essential hypertension had their blood pressure controlled.

  1. Adrenalin-induced platelet aggregation in essential hypertensive patients in the acute phase of hemispheric ischaemic stroke: LTA results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zhemanyuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquired platelet disorders caused by pathological state or medical induced have pure knowledge according to the experts, especially in essential hypertensive (EH patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk due to the association with an increased risk of death as stroke and myocardial infarction. The aim of the study was to determine adrenalin-induced platelet aggregation parameters in essential hypertensive patients in acute phase of hemispheric ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods. A total of 98 study participants were analyzed. The first group (n=46; aged 63 (56−71; 38 % man were well-controlled essential hypertensives according to the «office» and ABMP results, and the second one (n=52; aged 63 (56−71; 66 % man were EH patients with an acute hemispheric ischaemic stroke (HIS. Light transmittance aggregation (LTA was conducted with adrenaline (5 μmol/l.We analyzed the percentage and time of maximal aggregation monitored for 5 and 10 min (Tmax,5minand tTmax,5min, respectively; the percentage of aggregation in 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min, 10 min (T1min, T2min, T3min, T5min and T10min, respectively; area under the curve at the end of 1, 5 and 10 min periods (AUC1min, AUC5min and AUC10min, respectively; the slope of aggregation (∆T, %/min.; deaggregation at the end of 5 and 10 min periods (Kdesagg,5min andKdesagg,10min,respectively; LTA tracings. Results. There was a decrease of Tmax,5min by 57 % (р=0,028; T1min by 71 % (р=0,002, T2min by 65 % (р=0,002, T3 min by 60 % (р=0,004 and T5min by 59 % (р=0,027; ∆T by 62 % (р=0,002; AUC1min by 84 % (р=0,002, AUC5min by 62 % (р=0,004, AUC10min by 60 % (р=0,018 in group of EH patients with an acute HIS in comparison with the group of well-controlled EH patients. Moreover, as analyzed LTA tracing only so called «considerably decreased» (P=0,020 and «fused» patterns of aggregation (P=0,008 achieved significance in groups. Conclusion. Light transmission aggregometry

  2. Borderline Intracranial Hypertension Manifesting as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Treated by Venous Sinus Stenting

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Nicholas; Pickard, John; Lever, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome and cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension without signs of raised intracranial pressure can be impossible to distinguish without direct measurement of intracranial pressure. Moreover, lumbar puncture, the usual method of measuring intracranial pressure, can produce a similar respite from symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue as it does in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This suggests a connection between them, with chronic fatigue syndrome representi...

  3. Severe hypertension due to renal polar artery stenosis in an adolescent treated with coil embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docx, Martine K. [Koningin Paola Kinderziekenhuis, Department of Paediatrics, Chronic Diseases and Hypertension, Antwerp (Belgium); Vandenberghe, Philippe [Koningin Paola Kinderziekenhuis, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Maleux, Geert [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Gewillig, Marc [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Leuven (Belgium); Mertens, Luc [Hospital for Sick Children, Paediatric Cardiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    A 12-year-old boy presented with severe arterial hypertension due to a severe subsegmental renal artery stenosis. Treatment consisted of selective embolization of the stenosed polar artery, which resulted in near normalization of the arterial pressures. Renal artery stenosis should always be considered, even in young adolescents, as a cause for arterial hypertension. Only selective angiography was able to demonstrate the subsegmental artery stenosis in this patient. (orig.)

  4. Borderline Intracranial Hypertension Manifesting as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Treated by Venous Sinus Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nicholas; Pickard, John; Lever, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome and cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension without signs of raised intracranial pressure can be impossible to distinguish without direct measurement of intracranial pressure. Moreover, lumbar puncture, the usual method of measuring intracranial pressure, can produce a similar respite from symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue as it does in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This suggests a connection between them, with chronic fatigue syndrome representing a forme fruste variant of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. If this were the case, then treatments available for idiopathic intracranial hypertension might be appropriate for chronic fatigue. We describe a 49-year-old woman with a long and debilitating history of chronic fatigue syndrome who was targeted for investigation of intracranial pressure because of headache, then diagnosed with borderline idiopathic intracranial hypertension after lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Further investigation showed narrowings at the anterior ends of the transverse sinuses, typical of those seen in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and associated with pressure gradients. Stenting of both transverse sinuses brought about a life-changing remission of symptoms with no regression in 2 years of follow-up. This result invites study of an alternative approach to the investigation and management of chronic fatigue.

  5. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea

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    Jun Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs as penetration enhancers (PEs to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil >> Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05. The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05. In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  6. [Angiotensinogen gene T174M polymorphism: opposite relationships with essential hypertension and obesity in a homogeneous population from Majorca (Baleric Islands, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J; Zabay, J M; García-Marco, M A; Gomez, G; Mulet, J M; Munar, M A; Soler, J; Viader, C

    2005-01-01

    Numerous association studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between the angiotensinogen gene and the essential hypertension, but their results are conflicting. The conflicting results may be explained by methodological reasons, particularly genetic differences in the population samples, phenotypic differences in the hypertensive populations analyzed, lack of appropriate control for other hypertension risk factors in some studies, or limited statistical power among many studies. Furthermore, hypertension is a public health issue of great relevance in Baleric Islands (Spain). For these reasons we performed an association study about the relationship between the M235T, T174M and G-6A diallelic polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen gene and hypertension in a population from Majorca (Balearic Islands), in which a considerable homogeneity with respect to ethnicity and environmental factors could be documented. This population was composed of 109 patients and 107 controls. Alleles of the angiotensinogen gene were determined by PCR and restriction site polymorphism analysis. The different genotypes were tested for association with dependent variables by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the univariate analysis we found no evidence of association between the angiotensinogen gene genotypes and hypertension. This lack of association was independent of obesity, familial history of hypertension and diabetes for the genotypes of the polymorphisms M235T and G-6A; however, in the multivariate analysis the T174T174 genotype showed an almost significant positive association with hypertension [OR = 2.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-7.65, p = 0.05)]. The T174T174 genotype also showed a significant negative association with obesity [OR = 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.90, p = 0.03)] that remained after adjustment by sex, hypertension and diabetes [OR = 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.65, p = 0.004)]. Our results: a) are in

  7. Non-invasive treatment to grade 1 essential hypertension by percutaneous laser and electric pulse to acupoint with music: A randomized controlled trial.

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    Zhan, Hong-Rui; Hong, Zhong-Si; Chen, Yi-Shen; Hong, Hai-Yu; Weng, Ze-Bin; Yang, Zhang-Bin; Shi, Jing-Li; Chen, Zhong-Ben

    2016-09-01

    To study a non-drug therapy for hypertension disease by combining percutaneous laser and electric pulse stimulation to acupoint with music, and to test the efficiency of the combining treatment to grade 1 essential hypertension. A total of 174 patients with grade 1 essential hypertension were randomly assigned to 3 groups with a random number table after Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome differentiation: the photoelectric and musical treatment group (Group 1, with a self-developed multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus), acupuncture group (Group 2), and oral placebo group (Group 3), 58 cases per group. The curative effect of each group was evaluated by the changes of blood pressure and CM syndrome integral before and after treatment. Compared with Group 3, there were significant decrease of blood pressure and CM syndrome integral in Group 1 and Group 2 (P0.05). The multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus, combining music, laser and electric pulse stimulation, is clinically useful for grade 1 essential hypertension. This "three in one" therapy method is non-invasive, easy and simple to handle. It is expected to be popularized as a new alternative treatment.

  8. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2 995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1 362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.09–1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07–1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  9. DETERMINANTS OF PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR REGARDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

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    D. Yu. Platonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze potential determinants of preventive behavior (PB in patients with essential hypertension (HT and chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD, and to establish their significance and hierarchy. Material and methods. Patients with HT (n=285 and CIHD (n=223 were studied. Questioning of all patients was performed to assess the characteristics of their PB. Differentiated multivariate analysis of activity and efficacy of PB determinants was performed in HT and CIHD patients by the method of step-by-step backward logistic regression. Results. Awareness of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and its prevention (odds ratio [OR] 6.08 as well as high level of general education (OR=2.29 were the most significant determinants of active PB in HT patients. Sufficient social support (OR=3.77, awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR=3.16 were the most significant determinants of active PB in patients with CIHD. Efficacy of PB in patients with HT and CIHD mostly depends on satisfaction of medical service (OR=10.2 and 6.63, respectively, social support (OR=6.25 and 10.5, respectively, adequate awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR, 6.92 and 6.64, respectively. Conclusion. PB activity and efficacy in patients with HT and CIHD depends on many contributing and impeding factors. Disregarding these factors can result in failure in preventive efforts at both individual and population levels.

  10. Substantiation of the developed program of physical rehabilitation of physically prepared persons with essential arterial hypertension of the I degree

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    Tamara Ridkovets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: scientifically substantiate the developed complex physical rehabilitation program aimed at accelerating the recovery process at different rehabilitation periods for people with essential hypertension of the first and second adulthood who have been engaged in fitness for more than three years. Material & Methods: in the patients of the main and control groups, the functional state was determined using the analysis of the heart rate variability on the Poly-Spectrum apparatus © Neurosoft, blood pressure measurement by the method of N. S. Korotkov, bioimpedance study of the body composition, and the quality of life according to the MOS SF-36. The main group consisted of 31 people (24 men and 7 women, the control group was 31 (23 men and 8 women. Results: program of physical rehabilitation has been developed, which includes kinesitherapy (training on simulators, independent exercises, dosed aerobic exercise, morning hygienic gymnastics, thermo-contrast agents and nutrition correction and was introduced in the sports and recreational complex "Monitor" in the main group. Conclusion: use of the developed program of physical rehabilitation helped to normalize blood pressure, improve the functional state and the level of quality of life to a greater extent than in the control group in which the standard program of the institution was applied.

  11. Relationship between clinical, 24-hour, average day-time and night-time blood pressure and measures of arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.

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    Rosa, J; Strauch, B; Petrák, O; Pikus, T; Holaj, R; Zelinka, T; Wichterle, D; Widimský, J

    2008-01-01

    Arterial wall stiffness is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between clinical, 24-hour, average day-time and night-time blood pressure (BP) and measures of arterial stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) (using SphygmoCor applanation tonometer) in essential hypertension (severe-resistant (RH, n=29) and moderate hypertension (EH, n=35)) and in normotensive control subjects (n-29) (NCS) matched by age. After multiple regression analysis, PWV remains significantly correlated mainly with night-time pulse pressure and to a lesser extent with age. PWV was significantly higher in RH compared to moderate EH and NCS.

  12. Associations of short-term weight changes and weight cycling with incidence of essential hypertension in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

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    Schulz, M; Liese, A D; Boeing, H; Cunningham, J E; Moore, C G; Kroke, A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of short-term weight gain, weight loss, and weight cycling on the odds of developing hypertension. Normotensive middle-aged German men and women (n=12,362) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study were assigned to categories of 2-year short-term weight changes that were self-reported to have occurred prior to recruitment into the study (gain only, loss only, weight cycling, stable). After 2 years of follow-up after recruitment, 180 cases of incident essential hypertension were identified. In logistic regression models, odds ratios were estimated for the associations between short-term weight changes and risk of developing hypertension. Obesity status (BMI>or=30 or BMI<30 kg/m2) modified the associations between short-term weight change and incidence of diagnosed hypertension. Among obese individuals, short-term weight gain occurring during the 2 years prior to recruitment (OR=2.79, 95% CI 1.19-6.56), weight loss (OR=6.74, 95% CI 2.58-17.6) and weight cycling (OR=4.29, 95% CI 1.55-11.9) were strongly positively associated with incident hypertension, adjusted for age and gender, compared to obese individuals with short-term stable weight. No significant associations between short-term weight changes and risk of diagnosed hypertension were detected among non-obese individuals. Short-term weight changes appeared to present strong risk factors for developing hypertension among obese individuals. The effect seen for weight cycling supports the hypothesis that weight cycling increases the risk of hypertension. The finding for short-term weight loss may be explained by subsequent weight regain and needs further investigation.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene are associated with essential hypertension and increased ACE enzyme levels in Mexican individuals.

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    Nancy Martínez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels. METHODS: Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes. RESULTS: Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363 were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA, H2 (GGATG, H3 (AGATG, and H4 (AGACA. Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 0.77, P = 0.023 and OR = 1.41, P = 0.004 respectively. According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR = 2.0; P = 0.002 and OR = 2.09; P = 0.011, respectively. Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1 as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P = 0.0048. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the "GGATG" haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels.

  14. Repeated Melatonin Supplementation Improves Sleep in Hypertensive Patients Treated with Beta-Blockers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Morris, Christopher J.; Garcia, Joanna I.; Smales, Carolina; Kelly, Erin E.; Marks, Jenny; Malhotra, Atul; Shea, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In the United States alone, approximately 22 million people take beta-blockers chronically. These medications suppress endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion, which may explain a reported side effect of insomnia. Therefore, we tested whether nightly melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Setting: Clinical and Translational Research Center at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Patients: Sixteen hypertensive patients (age 45-64 yr; 9 women) treated with the beta-blockers atenolol or metoprolol. Interventions: Two 4-day in-laboratory admissions including polysomnographically recorded sleep. After the baseline assessment during the first admission, patients were randomized to 2.5 mg melatonin or placebo (nightly for 3 weeks), after which sleep was assessed again during the second 4-day admission. Baseline-adjusted values are reported. One patient was removed from analysis because of an unstable dose of prescription medication. Measurements and Results: In comparison with placebo, 3 weeks of melatonin supplementation significantly increased total sleep time (+36 min; P = 0.046), increased sleep efficiency (+7.6%; P = 0.046), and decreased sleep onset latency to Stage 2 (-14 min; P = 0.001) as assessed by polysomnography. Compared with placebo, melatonin significantly increased Stage 2 sleep (+41 min; P = 0.037) but did not significantly change the durations of other sleep stages. The sleep onset latency remained significantly shortened on the night after discontinuation of melatonin administration (-25 min; P = 0.001), suggesting a carryover effect. Conclusion: n hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers, 3 weeks of nightly melatonin supplementation significantly improved sleep quality, without apparent tolerance and without rebound sleep disturbance during withdrawal of melatonin supplementation (in fact, a

  15. Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treated with riociguat: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Ochoa-Parra, Nuria; Navas-Tejedor, Paula; Morán-Fernández, Laura; Gómez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2015-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, WHO functional class III-IV and exercise-related syncope. Transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography pulmonary angiography were performed, leading to a diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. She was referred to our pulmonary hypertension unit, where a complete study was performed, including ventilation/perfusion scan, which was consistent with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Risk factors for this condition were excluded and therapeutic options were evaluated. Imaging studies showed distal pulmonary disease so pulmonary endarterectomy was rejected. Further therapeutic options were evaluated and the patient was subsequently enrolled in an open-label uncontrolled trial with riociguat. After one year of treatment, significant improvement in functional class, 6-minute walk test and NT-proBNP were seen, without significant secondary effects. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. An assessment of the relationship between excess fluoride intake from drinking water and essential hypertension in adults residing in fluoride endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Li, Bingyun; Li, Mang; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-01-15

    In this study, the relationships between high water fluoride exposure and essential hypertension as well as plasma ET-1 levels were investigated. A total of 487 residents aged 40 to 75 were randomly recruited from eight villages in Zhaozhou County from Heilongjiang Province in China and were divided into 4 groups according to the concentrations of fluoride in their water. Consumption levels of drinking water fluoride for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.84±0.26 mg/L, 1.55±0.22 mg/L, 2.49±0.30 mg/L, and 4.06±1.15 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in each group was 20.16%, 24.54%, 32.30%, and 49.23%, respectively. There were significant differences between all the groups; namely, with the increase in water fluoride concentrations, the risk of essential hypertension in adults grows in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant differences were observed in the plasma ET-1 levels between the different groups (Pwater fluoride concentrations (F(-)≥3.01 mg/L, OR(4/1)=2.84), age (OR(3/1)=2.63), and BMI (OR(2/1)=2.40, OR(3/1)=6.03) were closely associated with essential hypertension. In other words, the study not only confirmed the relationship between excess fluoride intake and essential hypertension in adults, but it also demonstrated that high levels of fluoride exposure in drinking water could increase plasma ET-1 levels in subjects living in fluoride endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of abdominal obesity and ambulatory blood pressure in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in never treated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Martín, Joaquin; González, Carmen; Pascual, Jose M; Redon, Josep

    2014-03-20

    The principal objective was to assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive, never treated patients, depending on adjustment for body surface or height. Secondary objectives were to determine geometric alterations of the left ventricle and to analyze the interdependence of hypertension and obesity to induce LVH. Cross-sectional study that included 750 patients (387 men) aged 47 (13, SD) years who underwent ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) monitoring and echocardiography. The prevalence of LVH was 40.4% (303 patients), adjusted for body surface area (BSA, LVHBSA), and 61.7% (463 patients), adjusted for height(2.7) (LVHheight(2.7)). In a multivariate logistic analysis, systolic BP24h, gender and presence of elevated microalbuminuria were associated with both LVHBSA and LVHheight(2.7). Increased waist circumference was the strongest independent predictor of LVHheight(2.7), but was not associated with LVHBSA. We found a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and systolic BP24h in LVHheight(2.7). Concentric remodelling seems to be the most prevalent alteration of left ventricular geometry in early stages of hypertension (37.5%). The impact of obesity as predictor of LVH in never treated hypertensives is present only when left ventricular mass (LVM) is indexed to height(2.7). Obesity interacts with systolic BP24h in an additive but not merely synergistic manner. Systolic BP24h is the strongest determinant of LVH when indexed for BSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. [Efficiency of Siberian pine oil in complex treating of people ill with benign hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Iu V; Budaeva, V V; Vereshchagin, A L; Egorova, E Iu; Zhukova, E Iu; Saratikov, A S

    2006-01-01

    For people ill with benign hypertension and going through basis hypotensive therapy, taking in Siberian pine nut oil as much as 17,5 g per day, is accompanied by cholesterol-lessening effect, normalization of lipid spectrum of blood, systolic (maximum) benign pressure and lessening of surplus body mass.

  19. Chronic kidney disease in hypertensive subjects ≥60 years treated in Primary Care

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    Betlem Salvador-González

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: One in 5 hypertensive patients without cardiovascular disease ≥60 years in primary care presented with a moderate decrease in eGFR. In addition to age and sex, albuminuria and heart failure were the main associated factors. Despite the increased exposure to drugs, BP control was lower in CKD.

  20. J-shaped relation between blood pressure and stroke in treated hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Voko (Zoltan); M.L. Bots (Michiel); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between hypertension and risk of stroke in the elderly. The study was performed within the framework of the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. The risk of first-ever

  1. Neurohormonal modulation of the innate immune system is proinflammatory in the prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat, a genetic model of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Sailesh C; Chapleau, Mark W; Legge, Kevin L; Ballas, Zuhair K; Abboud, François M

    2012-10-12

    Inflammation and autonomic dysfunction contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Cholinergic stimulation suppresses innate immune responses. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces hypertension and is associated with proinflammatory immune responses. Our goal was to define the innate immune response in a model of genetic hypertension and the influences of cholinergic stimulation and Ang II. Studies were conducted on 4- to 5-week-old prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive control, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Isolated splenocytes were preexposed to nicotine or Ang II before Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Culture supernatants were tested for cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-10, and IL-6). TLR-mediated cytokine responses were most pronounced with TLR7/8 and TLR9 activation and similar between WKY rats and SHRs. Nicotine and Ang II enhanced this TLR-mediated IL-6 response in prehypertensive SHR splenocytes. In contrast, nicotine suppressed the TLR-mediated IL-6 response in WKY rats, whereas Ang II had no effect. In vivo, nicotine enhanced plasma levels of TLR7/8-mediated IL-6 and IL-1β responses in prehypertensive SHRs but suppressed these responses in WKY rats. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in a CD161+ innate immune cell population, which was enhanced by nicotine in the prehypertensive SHR spleen but not in WKY. There is a pronounced anti-inflammatory nicotinic/cholinergic modulation of the innate immune system in WKY rats, which is reversed in prehypertensive SHRs. The results support the novel concept that neurohormonal regulation of the innate immune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension and provide putative molecular targets for treatment of hypertension.

  2. The effect of candesartan on pentraxin-3 plasma levels as marker of endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, V; Andor, M; Cristescu, C; Voicu, M; Cochera, F; Tuduce, P; Petrescu, L; Tomescu, M C

    2017-08-01

    In the last decades, the studies performed on the field of endothelial dysfunction confirmed the fact that the starting point of this pathology is the inflammation. Several inflammatory biomarkers had been discovered and studied, ones showing systemic inflammation, and others being more specific biomarkers and showing the local inflammation. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a new inflammatory biomarker, from the same family as high-selectivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), but it is a more specific biomarker, due to its local production: the endothelial cells and not the liver like in the case of hs-CRP. Several antihypertensive classes of drugs seem to have a positive impact on reducing the local endothelial inflammation, beyond their effect of lowering the blood pressure, so this study aims to analyze the effect of candesartan on the two inflammatory biomarkers: PTX3 and CRP, compared with other antihypertensive drugs, in hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction. A total of 365 patients were included in the study: 127 hypertensive patients were under treatment with candesartan, 134 patients were under treatment with other hypotensive medication (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics), both groups with controlled values of blood pressure, and 104 were normotensive persons. Classical methods of assessing the endothelial function were correlated with these biochemical markers. The patients treated with candesartan had a significant lower value of PTX3 and hs-CRP, compared with those under treatment with other antihypertensive medication as follows: PTX3: 0.61 ± 0.49 vs 0.95 ± 1.04 ng/ml, P = 0.006 and hs-CRP: 0.19 ± 0.20 vs 0.20 ± 0.22 mg/dl, P = 0.54. Candesartan decreases PTX3 and hs-CRP plasma levels more powerful than other classes of antihypertensive drugs (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics), so we may assume that candesartan has a more potent action in reversing endothelial dysfunction and that it offers a

  3. Association between the CYP4A11 T8590C variant and essential hypertension: new data from Han Chinese and a meta-analysis.

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    Hua-Cheng Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: CYP4A11 oxidizes endogenous arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a renal vasoconstrictor and natriuretic in humans. Previous studies demonstrated an association between a functional variant (T8590C of CYP4A11 and essential hypertension, though with conflicting results. To elucidate this relationship, a case-control study and meta-analysis were performed to assess the possible association of essential hypertension with CYP4A11 genetic variations. METHODS: Associations between the T8590C polymorphism and essential hypertension were examined in 328 unrelated cases and 297 age-matched controls in Han Chinese individuals. High-resolution melting was used to identify the CYP4A11 variant. To further investigate the association, we conducted a meta-analysis including eight studies published previously in July 2012. RESULTS: The frequency of the CYP4A11 T8590C polymorphism showed no significant difference between cases and controls (all P>0.05. However, the meta-analysis showed that the CYP4A11 T8590C polymorphism may increase the risk of essential hypertension in an additive model (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.29, P = 0.02, a dominant model (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32, P = 0.03, a recessive model (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15-2.02, P = 0.003 and a homozygote contrast (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07-1.78, P = 0.01. Also, a significant relationship was observed among Caucasians in the additive model, the homozygote contrast, the recessive model and the dominant model (all P0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests there is a significant association between the CYP4A11 T8590C variant and essential hypertension, especially in Caucasians. The case-control study did not find a significant association among the Han Chinese population, but the controls were poorly matched and meaningful conclusions cannot therefore be made. Further large-scale studies are needed to clarify whether the CYP4A11 T8590C polymorphism is associated with

  4. Optimal therapeutic strategy for treating patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis: focus on olmesartan medoxomil

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    Mason

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available R Preston MasonCardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and Elucida Research, Beverly, MA, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular (CV disease is a major factor in mortality rates around the world and contributes to more than one-third of deaths in the US. The underlying cause of CV disease is atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory process that is clinically manifested as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, or peripheral artery disease. It has been predicted that atherosclerosis will be the primary cause of death in the world by 2020. Consequently, developing a treatment regimen that can slow or even reverse the atherosclerotic process is imperative. Atherogenesis is initiated by endothelial injury due to oxidative stress associated with CV risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Since the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS plays a key role in vascular inflammatory responses, hypertension treatment with RAAS-blocking agents (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] and angiotensin II receptor blockers [ARBs] may slow inflammatory processes and disease progression. Reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability has an important role in the process of endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, agents that increase NO and decrease oxidative stress, such as ARBs and ACEIs, may interfere with atherosclerosis. Studies show that angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism with an ARB improves endothelial function and reduces atherogenesis. In patients with hypertension, the ARB olmesartan medoxomil provides effective blood pressure lowering, with inflammatory marker studies demonstrating significant RAAS suppression. Several prospective, randomized studies show vascular benefits with olmesartan medoxomil: reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable angina pectoris

  5. Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Atrial Fibrillation in Elderly Han Chinese Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Song, Jie; Jiang, Min-Hui; Zheng, Jin-Guo; Gao, Shu-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence indicating a strong association between inflammation and the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine, functions as a mediator of inflammatory response, and has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the −634C/G polymorphism of the IL-6 gene with AF in elderly Han Chinese patients with essential hypertension (EH). A total of 169 elderly patients with EH were eligible for this study. Patients with AF (n=75) were allocated to the AF group, and 94 subjects without AF to the control group. The polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to assess the genotype frequencies. The distribution of the IL-6 −634C/G genotypes (CC, CG, and GG) was 67.02%, 30.85%, and 2.13% in the controls, and 50.67%, 40.00%, and 9.33% in AF subjects, respectively (P=0.0312). The frequency of the G allele in the AF group was significantly higher than that in the control group (29.33% vs. 17.55%, P=0.0103). Compared with the CC and CG genotypes, the GG homozygote had a 4.7353-fold increased risk of AF [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9537–23.5116, P=0.0382]. These findings suggest that the IL-6 −634C/G polymorphism is associated with AF, and the G allele has increased risk of AF in elderly Han Chinese patients with EH. PMID:22924939

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of candesartan and losartan in the management of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenfeng Zheng; Huilan Shi; Junya Jia; Dong Li; Shan Lin

    2011-09-01

    Candesartan is a relatively novel antihypertensive agent of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Several clinical trials have compared candesartan with losartan in the management of essential hypertension. However, systematic assessment of efficacy and safety between candesartan and losartan is still lacking. We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing candesartan with losartan for net reduction in blood pressure from baseline, response and control rates, and incidences of common and serious adverse events.Weighted mean differences (WMD), and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for continuous and dichotomous data, respectively. A total of 12 RCTs with 3644 patients were included in this meta-analysis. When comparing the efficacy of candesartan and losartan in reducing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at the end of the follow-up period, results with candesartan were superior to losartan in the reduction SBP and DBP (WMD, -2.97; 95% CI, -4.18 - -1.77; p Candesartan had better response and control rates than losartan. (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; p candesartan was lower than for losartan (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.92; p = 0.03). The net reduction of DBP showed negative correlation with baseline DBP in both candesartan and losartan groups (regression coefficient -1.81, p = 0.03 and regression coefficient -1.56, p = 0.02, respectively). Candesartan is superior to losartan in reducing blood pressure. Candesartan also causes fewer serious adverse events than losartan.

  7. Chronic kidney disease in hypertensive subjects ≥60 years treated in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-González, Betlem; Mestre-Ferrer, Jordi; Soler-Vila, Maria; Pascual-Benito, Luisa; Alonso-Bes, Eva; Cunillera-Puértolas, Oriol

    Hypertension (HT) is the second leading cause of kidney failure. In hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), blood pressure (BP) control is the most important intervention to minimise progression. For CKD diagnosis, standardised creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) testing by CKD-EPI is recommended. To describe the prevalence and factors associated with a moderate decrease in eGFR (by CKD-EPI) and BP control in subjects with HT. Cross-sectional descriptive study in subjects ≥ 60 years included in the SIDIAP plus database with hypertension and standardised serum creatinine and BP tests in the last 2years. eGFRrenal function, antiplatelet and lipid lowering agents). BP control criteria: ≤130/80mmHg in individuals with albuminuria, ≤140/90 in all other subjects. Prevalence of eGFR <60=18.8%. Associated factors: age, gender, heart failure, albumin/creatinine ratio, auricular fibrillation, smoking, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and obesity. BP control: 66.14 and 63.24% in eGFR≥60 and eGFR <60, respectively (P<.05). Exposure to drugs was higher in eGFR<60. One in 5hypertensive patients without cardiovascular disease ≥60 years in primary care presented with a moderate decrease in eGFR. In addition to age and sex, albuminuria and heart failure were the main associated factors. Despite the increased exposure to drugs, BP control was lower in CKD. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure in untreated and treated hypertensive patients at high altitude: the High Altitude Cardiovascular Research-Andes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilo, Grzegorz; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Faini, Andrea; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Revera, Miriam; Giuliano, Andrea; Caravita, Sergio; Gregorini, Francesca; Lombardi, Carolina; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Macarlupu, Jose Luis; Ossoli, Deborah; Landaveri, Leah; Lang, Morin; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Sosa, José Manuel; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-06-01

    Blood pressure increases during acute exposure to high altitude in healthy humans. However, little is known on altitude effects in hypertensive subjects or on the treatment efficacy in this condition. Objectives of High Altitude Cardiovascular Research (HIGHCARE)-Andes Lowlanders Study were to investigate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive subjects and to assess antihypertensive treatment efficacy in this setting. One hundred untreated subjects with mild hypertension (screening blood pressure, 144.1±9.8 mm Hg systolic, 92.0±7.5 mm Hg diastolic) were randomized to double-blind placebo or to telmisartan 80 mg+modified release nifedipine 30 mg combination. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed off-treatment, after 6 weeks of treatment at sea level, on treatment during acute exposure to high altitude (3260 m) and immediately after return to sea level. Eighty-nine patients completed the study (age, 56.4±17.6 years; 52 men/37 women; body mass index, 28.2±3.5 kg/m(2)). Twenty-four-hour systolic blood pressure increased at high altitude in both groups (placebo, 11.0±9 mm Hg; Pblood pressure both at sea level and at high altitude (147.9±11.1 versus 132.6±12.4 mm Hg for placebo versus treated; Pblood pressure, and for nighttime blood pressure. Treatment was well tolerated in all conditions. Our study demonstrates that (1) 24-hour blood pressure increases significantly during acute high-altitude exposure in hypertensive subjects and (2) treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker-calcium channel blocker combination is effective and safe in this condition. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830530. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of diet and nutritional status in patients aged 45+ with diagnosed, pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguła, Julita; Śmidowicz, Angelika; Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Diet plays a significant role in the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension. Appropriate diet makes it possible to maintain adequate body weight and improve biochemical blood parameters. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status of arterial hypertension patients in terms of their diet. The study involved 55 patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension aged 45-70 years. Diet was evaluated using a 24-hour 7-day diet recall interview. In the course of the diet recall interview arterial pressure was measured three times at regular times, after a 15-minute rest period, and the recorded values were averaged. Nutritional status was assessed based on anthropometric measurements (height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference) and the resulting nutrition status indexes, i.e. BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-hip ratio) as well as values of biochemical blood parameters. It was found that a considerable proportion of patients are overweight or obese, have an inappropriate lipid profile and elevated blood glucose levels. Daily food rations (DFR) were inappropriately balanced. Daily food rations were deficient in energy, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, PUFA and folates. It was found that inadequate diet was correlated with nutritional status, lipid profile parameters and arterial blood pressure.

  10. Hypertensive crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Alexandra; Kumar, Siva K; De Caro, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic medical condition affecting over 65 million Americans. Uncontrolled hypertension can progress to a hypertensive crisis defined as a systolic blood pressure >180 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure >120 mm Hg. Hypertensive crisis can be further classified as a hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency depending on end-organ involvement including cardiac, renal, and neurologic injury. The prompt recognition of a hypertensive emergency with the appropriate diagnostic tests and triage will lead to the adequate reduction of blood pressure, ameliorating the incidence of fatal outcomes. Severely hypertensive patients with acute end-organ damage (hypertensive emergencies) warrant admission to an intensive care unit for immediate reduction of blood pressure with a short-acting titratable intravenous antihypertensive medication. Hypertensive urgencies (severe hypertension with no or minimal end-organ damage) may in general be treated with oral antihypertensives as an outpatient. Rapid and short-lived intravenous medications commonly used are labetalol, esmolol, fenoldopam, nicardipine, sodium nitroprusside, and clevidipine. Medications such as hydralazine, immediate release nifedipine, and nitroglycerin should be avoided. Sodium nitroprusside should be used with caution because of its toxicity. The risk factors and prognosticators of a hypertensive crisis are still under recognized. Physicians should perform complete evaluations in patients who present with a hypertensive crisis to effectively reverse, intervene, and correct the underlying trigger, as well as improve long-term outcomes after the episode.

  11. Blood pressure (BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care clinic in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun S Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nonadherence to therapeutic plans has been reported among hypertensive patients. Researchers have also shown that adherence to therapeutic plans improves if motivation in the form of social support is provided. There is a dearth of local studies that explore the influence of family support on treatment outcomes of hypertensive patients. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care setting in Western Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Subjects and Methods: Systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting 360 hypertensive respondents between April and July 2013. Data were collected through a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized tool, Perceived Social Support Family Scale, which measured the respondents′ level of perceived family support. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze data. Results: The majority of the respondents were middle-aged (61.1% and female (59.4%. Blood pressure (BP was controlled in 46.4% of the respondents. Most of the respondents (79.4% had "strong" perceived family support. Strong perceived family support (odds ratio [OR] 4.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.569-8.887 and female gender (OR 1.838, 95% CI = 1.177-2.869 were independent predictors of controlled BP. Conclusions: The proportion of hypertensive patients with optimal BP control is low in this practice setting. The positive association between BP control and perceived family support emphasizes the need for physicians to reflect on the available family support when managing hypertensive patients.

  12. [Development of a risk calculator for drug compliance in treated hypertensives: The FLAHS Compliance Calculator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, X; Hanon, O; Pannier, B; Vaïsse, B

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the determinants of non-compliance with antihypertensive treatments among participants in the FLAHS 2015 survey and to develop a risk calculator for drug compliance in a hypertensive population. The FLAHS surveys are carried out by self-questionnaire sent by mail to individuals from the TNS SOFRES (representative panel of the population living in metropolitan France) sampling frame. In 2015, FLAHS was performed in subjects aged 55years and older. Using the Girerd questionnaire, the "perfect observance" was determined for a score of 0 and "nonobservance" for a score of 1 or higher. A Poisson regression was conducted in univariate and multivariate to estimate risk ratios for each determinant. A non-compliance risk calculator is constructed from multivariate analysis. A Poisson regression was performed in univariate and multivariate to estimate risk ratios. For each sex, a probability table is produced from the equation of the multivariate analysis and then the calculation of a nonobservance probability ratio (PR) using the profile with the best probability as a reference. Each subject is then classified into one of the three classes of risk of non-compliance: low (PR =2) and intermediate (PR>=1.5 and non-compliance are: male sex, young age, number of antihypertensive tablet, treatment for a metabolic disease (diabetes, dyslipidemia), presence of other chronic illness, secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. To get the risk class of nonobservance a web page is available at http://www.comitehta.org/flahs-observance-hta/. The development of the FLAHS Compliance Test is a tool whose use is possible during an office visit. Its free availability for French doctor will be one of the actions undertaken as part of the "call for action for adherence in hypertension" proposed by the French League Against Hypertension in 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Variability of urinary salt excretion estimated by spot urine in treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Kimika; Sakaki, Minako; Sakata, Satoko; Oniki, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Among the several methods used to assess salt intake, estimating 24 h urinary salt excretion by spot urine seems appropriate for clinical practice. In this study, we investigated variability in urinary salt excretion using spot urine in hypertensive outpatients. Participants included 200 hypertensive patients who underwent spot urinary salt excretion at least three times during the observation period. Mean urinary salt excretion and the coefficient of the variation were 8.62 ± 1.96 g/day and 19.0 ± 10.2%, respectively. In the analysis of participants who underwent assessment of urinary salt excretion at least eight times (n = 54), a significant reduction in mean urinary salt excretion was found at the 5th measurement. On the contrary, the coefficient of the variation of urinary salt excretion continued to increase until the 5th measurement, and became stable thereafter. Mean urinary salt excretion was positively correlated with mean clinic diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.27, p Clinic diastolic blood pressure in the high urinary salt excretion group (≥ 10 g/day) was significantly higher than that of the low group (76.2 ± 7.5 vs 73.4 ± 8.3 mmHg, p < 0.05). Mean urinary salt excretion in summer was significantly lower than that of the other seasons (7.75 ± 1.94 vs 9.09 ± 2.68 (spring), 8.72 ± 2.12 (autumn), 8.92 ± 2.17 (winter) g/day, p < 0.01). In conclusion, repeated measurements of urinary salt excretion using spot urine are required to assess daily salt intake of hypertensive patients.

  14. Preservation of chicken breast meat treated with thyme and balm essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; De Martino, Laura; Melone, Antonio; De Feo, Vincenzo; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2010-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of thyme and balm essential oils on the 3-wk storage of fresh chicken breast meat at 4 °C. Thyme and, to a lesser extent, balm essential oils reduced DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical formation in the meat (25% to 30% and 20%, respectively). Treatment with the 2 essential oils also limited lipid peroxidation and the deterioration of sarcoplasmic proteins, helping to preserve the meat even after 2 wk of storage. Thyme and balm essential oils decreased the natural microflora present in the meat; total microbial content decreased down to 50% in comparison to the control samples. In addition, a clear effect on lactic acid bacterial growth was recorded. Balm essential oil significantly limited the growth of Salmonella sp., whereas thyme essential oil effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. Our data demonstrate that these 2 essential oils effectively reduced deteriorative processes in chicken meat and extended the shelf life of this fresh product. Practical Application: The essential oils of thyme and balm can protect the chicken meat from decomposition during the storage time.

  15. Hypertension crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Thomopoulos, Costas; Makris, Thomas; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2010-12-01

    Hypertensive crises (76% urgencies, 24% emergencies) represented more than one fourth of all medical urgencies/emergencies. Hypertensive urgencies frequently present with headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) and hypertensive emergencies frequently present with chest pain (27%), dyspnea (22%) and neurological deficit (21%). Types of end-organ damage associated with hypertensive emergencies include cerebral infarction (24%), acute pulmonary edema (23%) and hypertensive encephalopathy (16%), as well as cerebral hemorrhage (4.5%). The most important factor that limits morbidity and mortality from these disorders is prompt and carefully considered therapy. Unfortunately, hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are among the most misunderstood and mismanaged of acute medical problems seen today. The primary goal of intervention in a hypertensive crisis is to safely reduce BP. Immediate reduction in BP is required only in patients with acute end-organ damage (i.e. hypertensive emergency). This requires treatment with a titratable short-acting intravenous (IV) antihypertensive agent, while severe hypertension with no acute end-organ damage is usually treated with oral antihypertensive agents. Patients with hypertensive emergencies are best treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) with titratable IV hypotensive agents. The aim of this review is to summarize the details regarding the definition-impact, causes, clinical condition and management of hypertensive crises.

  16. [Evaluation of blood pressure control by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and study of factors associated with poor blood pressure control in 300 treated hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamouda-Chihaoui, M; Kanoun, F; Ftouhi, B; Lamine-Chtioui, F; Kamoun, M; Slimane, H

    2011-04-01

    Hypertension is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes and is often difficult to control. Evaluate the frequency of controlled hypertension in our type 2 diabetic patients with known and treated hypertension and determine the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Prospective study concerning 300 type 2 diabetic patients with a known and treated hypertension, sex-ratio: 0.64, mean age: 61.2±9.1 years (37-86). All subjects underwent physical examination, biological investigations and a 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Hypertension was well controlled in 70 patients (23.3%). The concordance rate between clinical measure of blood pressure and ABPM was 70.3%. Subjects with uncontrolled hypertension were older (61.8±8.9 vs 59.1±9.3 years, Pblood pressure rhythm was noted in 239 patients (79.6%) and it was more frequently observed in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (84 vs 66%, PClose monitoring of blood pressure with adjustment of antihypertensive treatment are necessary to improve cardiovascular prognosis of our patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Height and sex is strongly associated with radial augmentation index in Korean patients with never-treated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kye Taek Ahn, Kwang-In Park, Mi Joo Kim, Jin Kyung Oh, Ji Hye Han, Hee Jin Kwon, Seon-Ah Jin, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Jae-Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, In-Whan Seong, Jin-Ok Jeong Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Objectives: Central hemodynamics may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Patients who had confirmed hypertension as assessed by daytime 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (≥135/85 mmHg were enrolled. Central blood pressure and radial augmentation index (AIx corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (radial AIx 75 were measured for all patients. We evaluated the association of age, height, and sex with central hemodynamics in patients with never-treated hypertension. Results: A total of 203 patients were enrolled, of whom men numbered 101 (49.7%. The median height of all patients was 162 cm, and mean age was 53.2 years. In the Pearson correlation analysis, regardless of sex difference (R=-0.627 for height, R=0.035 for age, P-value =0.005, a stronger relationship was observed between height and radial AIx 75 than between age and radial AIx 75. In the multiple regression analysis, the sex difference and height were strongly associated with elevated radial AIx 75 in all patients (adjusted R2=0.428, β=6.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] for women 1.480–10.995, P-value =0.011 and β=-0.632, 95% CI for height -0.929 to -0.335, P-value =0.009, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with never-treated hypertension, female sex and shorter height are the important risk factors of elevated radial AIx 75. Keywords: hypertension, augmentation index, height, sex

  18. The relationship between MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in a sample of an Algerian population of Oran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani-Midoun, Asma; Kiando, Soto Romuald; Treard, Cyrielle; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila

    2016-12-15

    Many studies have investigated the role of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in essential hypertension (EH), but with conflicting results. To determine the eventual association between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism and hypertension in a sample of Algerian population from the Oran city. A case-control study has been performed in 154 subjects including 82 hypertensives defined as subjects with elevated systolic blood pressure SBD≥140mmHg and or sustained diastolic blood pressure DBP≥90mmHg, and 72 normotensive subjects. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to detect the MTHFR C677T variant. We observe no significant differences between allelic and genotypic frequencies between cases and controls for C677T polymorphism (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89-2.56, P=0.13). Analyses adjusted for age, sex and body mass index improved the association level, though the association was still not significant (30% vs. 22%, OR=1.75, 95% CI=0.95-3.24, P=0.07). This work showed that genetic polymorphism related to the MTHFR gene (C677T) is not associated with the risk of hypertension in this sample of Algerian population. Larger case-control samples are required to clearly assess the role of this genetic variant in EH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Circulating Vitamin K Is Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Those Treated for Hypertension in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Booth, Sarah L; Weiner, Daniel E; Brinkley, Tina E; Kanaya, Alka M; Murphy, Rachel A; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Wassel, Christina L; Vermeer, Cees; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2017-05-01

    Background: A role for vitamin K in coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has been proposed because vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP), are present in vascular tissue. Observational studies found that low circulating phylloquinone (vitamin K-1) was associated with increased CAC progression, especially in persons treated for hypertension. It is unknown whether hypertension treatment modifies this putative role of vitamin K in clinical CVD risk.Objective: We determined the association between vitamin K status and incident clinical CVD in older adults in the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study) and whether the association differed by hypertension treatment status.Methods: Plasma phylloquinone was measured in 1061 participants free of CVD (70-79 y of age, 58% women, 39% black). Plasma uncarboxylated MGP [(dp)ucMGP] was measured in a subset of 635 participants. Multivariate Cox models estimated the HR for incident CVD over 12.1 follow-up years. Effect modification by hypertension was tested with the use of interaction terms.Results: Neither low plasma phylloquinone (K status was not significantly associated with CVD risk overall, but low plasma phylloquinone was associated with a higher CVD risk in older adults treated for hypertension. Additional evidence from larger clinical studies is needed to clarify the importance of vitamin K to CVD in persons treated for hypertension, a segment of the population at high risk of clinical CVD events. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Production of reactive oxygen species in macrophages treated with essential oil of Croton argyrophyllus Kunth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvan Araújo; Aline Oliveira; Matheus Santos; Sandra Santos; Jamile Ferro; Emiliano Barreto; Alexandre Cândido; Brancilene Araujo; Angelo Antoniolli; Charles Estevam

    2014-01-01

    ... from Croton argyrophyllus (EOCA) is commonly extracted from its leaves. It is known that the essential oils from Croton species exhibit good antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical and reactiv...

  1. Urinary and dietary sodium and potassium associated with blood pressure control in treated hypertensive kidney transplant recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Remy Annie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In kidney transplant (Kt recipients , hypertension is a major risk for cardiovascular complications but also for graft failure. Blood pressure (BP control is therefore mandatory. Office BP (OBP remains frequently used for clinical decisions, however home BP (HBP have brought a significant improvement in the BP control. Sodium is a modifiable risk factor, many studies accounted for a decrease of BP with a sodium restricted diet. Increased potassium intake has been also recommended in hypertension management. Using an agreement between office and home BP, the present study investigated the relations between the BP control in Kt recipients and their urinary excretion and dietary consumption of sodium and potassium. Methods The BP control defined by OBP 30. Results Using an agreement between OBP and HBP, we identified controlled (21% and uncontrolled recipients (49%. Major confounding effects susceptible to interfere with the BP regulation did not differ between groups, the amounts of sodium excretion were similar (154 ± 93 vs 162 ± 88 mmol/24 h but uncontrolled patients excreted less potassium (68 ± 14 vs 54 ± 20 mmol/24 h; P = 0.029 and had significantly lower potassium intakes (3279 ± 753 vs 2208 ± 720 mg/24 h; P = 0.009, associated with a higher urinary Na+/K + ratio. Systolic HBP was inversely and significantly correlated to urinary potassium (r = −0.48; P = 0.002, a positive but non significant relation was observed with urinary sodium (r = 0,30;P = 0.074. Conclusions Half of the treated hypertensive Kt recipients remained uncontrolled in office and at home. Restoring a well-balanced sodium/potassium ratio intakes could be a non pharmacological opportunity to improve blood pressure control.

  2. Juxtapapillary neovascular membrane secondary to idiopathic intracranial hypertension treated with intravitreal bevacizumab: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, V; Soler-Sanchís, M I; Jiménez-Escribano, R M; Sanz-López, A M

    2016-05-01

    A 48 year-old woman with visual acuity loss in left eye (0.3). Funduscopic examination showed papillary oedema and neovascular membrane in the left eye. All neurological tests were normal, except the lumbar puncture with opening pressure of 35cmH2O, being diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). After four doses of bevacizumab, the visual acuity of the left eye has not improved and is counting fingers. Pathogenesis of the juxtapapillary neovascular membrane associated with IIH is not well known. An effect was observed after the anti-VEGF treatment. In our case, there was no improvement after four doses of intravitreal bevacizumab. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product......In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference...... in myocardial infarction (MI), possibly related to greater reduction in myocardial oxygen demand by atenolol-based treatment. Myocardial oxygen demand was assessed indirectly by the left ventricular mass×wall stress×heart rate (triple product) in 905 LIFE participants. The triple product was included as time...

  4. Portal Hypertensive Colopathy with Pelvic Varices presenting as Severe Lower GI Bleed treated with TIPSS

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, SF

    2018-02-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old lady with a background of significant alcohol intake who presented with frank lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, lower abdominal pain and haemoglobin 6.3g\\/dL. CT abdominal angiogram showed right-sided colonic thickening, atrophic liver and enlarged superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and right-sided pelvic varix. This lead to a diagnosis of portal hypertensive colopathy secondary to alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The patient failed conservative management and underwent a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPSS) procedure. This lead to an immediate resolution of her lower-GI bleeding. Repeat CT at three weeks showed a decompressed SMV and resolution of the right-sided pelvic varix. The patient was discharged after three months following optimization of medical condition and social circumstances.

  5. Radioenzymatic assay of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibiting factor associated with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.J.M.L.; Willemsen, J.J.; Thien, Th.; Benraad, Th.J. (Katholieke Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands). St. Radboud Hospital)

    1982-11-10

    During the evaluation of a modified radioenzymatic determination of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, it has been found that there exists a highly significant (p<0.001) negative correlation between the amount of radioactivity incorporated in the internal standard added to plasma and the period during which the plasma had been stored at -25/sup 0/C, but only in plasma from patients with essential hypertension. Plasma from normotensive persons exhibits a complete lack of correlation between these factors. The consequences of the hypertension-associated COMT-inhibiting factor for the assays' specifications are discussed and data are presented for comparison with a recently-described uremia-associated COMT-inhibitor (Demassieux et al, Clin Chim Acta 115, 377-391; 1981).

  6. The relationship between red blood cell distribution width and blood pressure abnormal dipping in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dan; Guo, Qi; Gao, Ya; Han, Jin; Yan, Bin; Peng, Liyuan; Song, Anqi; Zhou, Fuling; Wang, Gang

    2016-02-23

    To investigate whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with the blood pressure (BP) reverse-dipper pattern in patients with hypertension. Cross-sectional study. Single centre. Patients with essential hypertension were included in our study (n=708). The exclusion criteria included age 90 years, incomplete clinical data, night workers, diagnosis of secondary hypertension, under antihypertensive treatment, intolerance for the 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and BP reading success rate hypertension among different circadian BP pattern groups was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to explore the associations of RDW and other relevant variables with ABPM results. There was significantly increased RDW in reverse dippers (13.52 ± 1.05) than dippers (13.25 ± 0.85) of hypertension (p=0.012). Moreover, multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that RDW (OR 1.325, 95% CI 1.037 to 1.692, p=0.024) and diabetes mellitus (OR 2.286, 95% CI 1.380 to 3.788, p=0.001) were significantly different when comparing the reverse-dipper BP pattern with the dipper pattern. However, there was no difference of RDW between the non-dipper pattern and the reverse-dipper pattern (OR 1.036, 95% CI 0.867 to 1.238, p=0.693). In addition to this, RDW was negatively correlated with the decline rate of nocturnal systolic BP (r=-0.113; p=0.003) and diastolic BP (r=-0.101; p=0.007). Our results suggested that RDW might associate with the abnormal dipper BP patterns of either reverse dipping or non-dipping homogeneously examined with 24 h ABPM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Clinical usefulness of a timed overnight (8 hours) Urine Albumin (microalbumin) excretion in monitor-ing treatment in benign essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatowoju, I O; Ajuluchukwu, J N A; Afonja, O A

    2014-06-01

    This research aims to establish the usefulness of timed over- night (8 hours) Urine Albumin(microalbumin) Excretion (UAE), in monitoring therapy in Nigerian patients with benign essential hypertension. The study population comprised 40 normotensives/controls, (23 males and 17 females) aged between 20-70 years, with a mean blood pressure 116/75mmHg, 30 well-controlled hypertensive patients, diastolic BP 100mmHg or MAP >110mmHg.Urine albumin(microalbumin) was determined on the 8 hours overnight urine samples by ELISA method using kit from Randox Laboratories Limited, N.Ireland Cat No. MA 1410. UAE was calculated from the urine albumin concentration, urine volume and collection time. The intra assay precision was determined by running 20 replicates of two kit controls in a single batch. The coefficient of variation was 6.6% at 10.70mg/L and 4.3% at 51.20mg/L. The average UAE in the three groups were as follows: 12:22 +/-4.65ug/ min, 21.50 +/- 10.5ug/min and 30.10 +/- 24.25 ug/min in the control, well controlled and poorly controlled groups respectively, 12.5% of normotensive subjects, 40% of well controlled and 56.7% of poorly controlled patients were found to have microalbuminuria.The UAE increased significantly with the severity of hypertension (r = 0.32, purine collection for monitoring response to treatment in Nigerian patients with benign essential hypertension.

  8. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of white-coat hypertension based on different definition criteria in untreated and treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Gorostidi, Manuel; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence and associated risks of white-coat hypertension (WCH) are still a matter of debate. We aimed to assess differences in prevalence and associated conditions of WCH defined on the basis of the normality of all daytime, night-time, and 24-h blood pressure (BP), only daytime, or only 24-h BP. We selected 115 708 patients (45 020 untreated and 70 688 treated) from the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring Registry. WCH was estimated in patients with elevated office BP (≥140 and/or 90 mmHg) by using normal daytime (history of cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of WCH is dependent on definition criteria. Only diagnostic criteria which considers the normality of all ambulatory periods identifies patients with cardiovascular risk similar to normotensive patients. These results support using such criteria for a more accurate definition of WCH.

  9. Increased migration of monocytes in essential hypertension is associated with increased transient receptor potential channel canonical type 3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ni, Yinxing; Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    compared to normotensive control subjects (221 ± 20% vs 138 ± 18%). In the presence of 2-APB or after siRNA knockdown of TRPC3 the fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly blocked. The fMLP-induced changes of cytosolic calcium were significantly increased in monocytes from hypertensive patients...

  10. Brimonidine and brinzolamide for treating glaucoma and ocular hypertension; a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Jed Asher; Goldberg, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Brimonidine tartrate and brinzolamide eye drops are often used as third and fourth line treatment options to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Better tolerated, more effective topical agents requiring once daily instillation including prostaglandin analogues and beta-blockers usually are preferred as initial therapy, unless there are contraindications. Brimonidine and brinzolamide are often required owing to progressive glaucoma or intolerances to or ineffectiveness of front-line agents. Areas covered: We review the safety of formulations containing brimonidine tartrate and/or brinzolamide. Safety considerations for these agents in higher risk populations are highlighted. Expert opinion: Each class of ocular hypotensive eye drop has a unique set of possible side effects. Brimonidine might have neuro-protective capabilities and offer reasonable IOP control, but its use is limited by a relatively high rate of ocular allergy, hyperemia and discomfort. Brinzolamide is generally well tolerated, but often lacks efficacy. The introduction of brimonidine/brinzolamide fixed combination suspension improves adherence (by simplifying the medical regimen) and reduces preservative load on the ocular surface. New drug delivery systems incorporating brimonidine and brinzolamide are in development and promise to improve the safety profiles of both drugs.

  11. Mucous membrane pemphigoid in a patient with hypertension treated with atenolol: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanabuch, Patnarin; Arporniem, Samornroj; Thamrat, Suparat; Thumasombut, Pannipa

    2012-10-31

    Atenolol is commonly used by patients with hypertension, angina pectoris, or myocardial infarction. There have been reports of various adverse effects associated with the use of atenolol including bullous pemphigoid. To the best of our knowledge we present the first case report of atenolol-induced mucous membrane pemphigoid. A 42-year-old Thai man presented to our faculty after developing generalized fiery red gingiva and ulcerations on the buccal and labial mucosa after beginning atenolol treatment. Drug-induced mucous membrane pemphigoid was diagnosed from his clinical presentation and histopathologic and direct immunofluorescence examinations, combined with a history of beginning, and withdrawal, from atenolol therapy, with the lesions resolving after the cessation of atenolol therapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of atenolol-induced oral mucous membrane pemphigoid reported in the literature. The observed lesions responded to withdrawal of the offending drug with complete remission. While drug-induced mucous membrane pemphigoid is an uncommon condition, dentists or other health care workers should include this condition in the differential diagnosis when a patient uses drugs suspected to be involved with drug-induced pemphigoid.

  12. Is the fixed-dose combination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide a good approach to treat hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Maillard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Marc P Maillard, Michel BurnierService of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, SwitzerlandAbstract: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with selective AT1 receptor antagonists is recognized as an effective mean to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Among the class of AT1 receptor antagonists, telmisartan offers the advantage of a very long half-life. This enables blood pressure control over 24 hours using once-daily administration. The combination of telmisartan with hydrochlorothiazide is a logical step because numerous previous studies have demonstrated that sodium depletion enhances the antihypertensive efficacy of drugs interfering with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. In accordance with past experience using similar compounds blocking the RAS, several controlled studies have now demonstrated that the fixed-dose combination of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide is superior in lowering blood pressure than either telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide alone. Of clinical interest also is the observation that the excellent clinical tolerance of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist is not affected by the association of the low-dose thiazide. Thus telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide is an effective and well-tolerated antihypertensive combination. Finally, the development of fixed-dose combinations should improve drug adherence because of the one-pill-a-day regimen.Keywords: telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide, fixed-dose combinations, antihypertensive agent, safety, compliance

  13. Mucous membrane pemphigoid in a patient with hypertension treated with atenolol: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Atenolol is commonly used by patients with hypertension, angina pectoris, or myocardial infarction. There have been reports of various adverse effects associated with the use of atenolol including bullous pemphigoid. To the best of our knowledge we present the first case report of atenolol-induced mucous membrane pemphigoid. Case presentation A 42-year-old Thai man presented to our faculty after developing generalized fiery red gingiva and ulcerations on the buccal and labial mucosa after beginning atenolol treatment. Drug-induced mucous membrane pemphigoid was diagnosed from his clinical presentation and histopathologic and direct immunofluorescence examinations, combined with a history of beginning, and withdrawal, from atenolol therapy, with the lesions resolving after the cessation of atenolol therapy. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of atenolol-induced oral mucous membrane pemphigoid reported in the literature. The observed lesions responded to withdrawal of the offending drug with complete remission. While drug-induced mucous membrane pemphigoid is an uncommon condition, dentists or other health care workers should include this condition in the differential diagnosis when a patient uses drugs suspected to be involved with drug-induced pemphigoid. PMID:23110919

  14. Timolol hemihydrate vs timolol maleate to treat ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBiner, H B; Hill, R; Kaufman, H; Keates, E U; Zimmerman, T J; Mandell, A I; Mundorf, T K; Bahr, R L; Schwartz, L W; Towey, A W; Hurvitz, L M; Starita, R J; Sassani, J W; Ropo, A; Gunn, R; Stewart, W C

    1996-05-01

    We compared the therapeutic efficacy and safety of timolol hemihydrate to timolol maleate in patients with ocular hypertension and chronic open-angle glaucoma. We conducted this three-month study as a multicentered, masked, parallel group comparison. Both the 0.25% and 0.5% concentrations were evaluated against similar concentrations of timolol maleate. Dosing was twice daily. An open-label, nine-month study followed the masked portion of the protocol, in which all patients received either 0.25% or 0.5% timolol hemihydrate. A total of 371 patients were included in both the 0.25% and 0.5% studies. We found statistically similar intraocular pressures with both the 0.25% (18.3 and 18.6 mm Hg for the hemihydrate and maleate groups, respectively) and 0.5% (19.9 and 19.5 mm Hg for the hemihydrate and maleate groups, respectively) concentrations of timolol hemihydrate and timolol maleate after three months of masked treatment. Likewise, peak intraocular effect at two hours after taking the medication was statistically similar between medicines at both concentrations. Likewise, both ocular and systemic safety were similar between the maleate and hemihydrate preparations at both concentrations. In the nine-month open-label protocol, therapeutic efficacy (19.9 and 19.1 mm Hg for the 0.25% and 0.5% concentrations, respectively) and safety of timolol hemihydrate were similar to effect and safety of the three-month protocol. This study suggests that timolol hemihydrate had an ocular hypotensive efficacy and safety profile statistically equivalent to that of timolol maleate for up to three months of therapy. Timolol hemihydrate showed efficacy and safety similar to that observed within the first three months, for up to one year of therapy.

  15. Acupuncture Decreases Blood Pressure Related to Hypothalamus Functional Connectivity with Frontal Lobe, Cerebellum, and Insula: A Study of Instantaneous and Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1 There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2 Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3 Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.

  16. Effect of renin-angiotensin system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position on plasma leptin concentration in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Marcin; Kokot, Franciszek; Chudek, Jerzy; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2002-07-01

    Both leptin and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between RAS and plasma leptin concentration in hypertensive patients under conditions of normal and restricted sodium supply and upright position. In 31 patients with essential hypertension (EHP - 14 F, 17 M, age 44I14 years, BMI 29.3I6.4 kg/m2) and 8 healthy subjects (NHS - 4 F, 4 M, age 37(17 years, BMI 25.3I6.6 kg/m2) plasma leptin concentration, plasma renin activity (PRA), and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (UNa) were evaluated twice: first on a diet containing 100-120 mmol sodium per day and after 8 hours overnight bed rest, and a second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction (10-20 mmol daily) and 3 hours in upright position. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position was followed by a significant increase in PRA and decrease of UNa. By contrast, plasma leptin concentration showed a moderate decrease both in EHP and NHS. No significant correlation was found between PRA and plasma leptin concentrations in either of the groups examined. From the results obtained in this study we may conclude that dietary sodium restriction and upright position exerts only a moderate effect on plasma leptin concentration, in contrast to PRA, in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

  17. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Daniel Chukwu; Aneke, Eddy Ikemefuna; Obika, Leonard Fidelis; Nwachukwu, Nkiru Zuada

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the three basic components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Plasma renin, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in mild to moderate essential hypertensive Nigerians and compared with that of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study was used. Seventy-eight newly diagnosed but untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects attending Medical Outpatients Clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu were recruited for the study. Those in Group A received placebo (150 mg/kg/day), Group B were given lisinopril (10 mg once daily) while those in Group C received aqueous extract of HS (150 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of plasma renin, serum ACE, and PA were determined. HS and lisinopril significantly (P < 0.001) reduced PA compared to placebo by 32.06% and 30.01%, respectively. Their effects on serum ACE and plasma renin activity (PRA) were not significant compared to placebo; they reduced ACE by 6.63% and 5.67% but increased plasma PRA by 2.77% and 5.36%, respectively. HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians with equal efficacy as lisinopril. These actions are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract.

  18. Haplotype association and synergistic effect of human aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene polymorphisms causing susceptibility to essential hypertension in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi, Uppuluri Mohana; Swapna, Nagalingam; Padma, Gunda; Vishnupriya, Satti; Padma, Tirunilai

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a key enzyme involved in the terminal steps of aldosterone biosynthesis. Genetic variability in CYP11B2 gene has been associated with heterogeneous aldosterone production, which can affect sodium homeostasis and thereby regulation of blood pressure. Hence, the present study was aimed to explore the single-locus variations, haplotype and epistasis patterns of CYP11B2 (C-344T, intron-2 gene conversion and Lys173Arg) gene polymorphisms, and the risk contributed by them to the development of essential hypertension (EHT). A total of 279 hypertensive patients and 200 normotensive controls were enrolled in this study. C-344T and Lys173Arg polymorphisms of CYP11B2 gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method and intron-2 gene conversion (IC) polymorphism by allele-specific PCR analysis. Single-locus analysis revealed significant association of CYP11B2 C-344T and Lys173Arg polymorphisms with EHT (p < 0.05). Considering the sexes, Lys173 allele was found to be at risk for hypertension in males (OR 1.40; 95% CI = 1.01-1.96). Unphased haplotype analysis revealed H1 (T-Conv-Lys; p = 0.0017) to have significant risk for EHT, while haplotype H4 (T-Wt-Arg) had a significant protective effect. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) interaction analysis found the overall best model with C-344T and IC polymorphisms exhibiting strong synergistic effect. The present study revealed a strong synergistic effect of CYP11B2 C-344T and IC polymorphisms causing susceptibility to EHT and haplotype H1 (-344T-Conv-Lys173) as the risk-conferring factor for hypertension predisposition.

  19. Evaluation of treatment of patients with essential hypertension at primary care units using structured questionnaires (a polyclinic of the Saratov region as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov S.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess patients' view on the treatment of hypertension in polyclinic located in the Saratov region using structured questionnaires. Material and Methods. 83 patients (aged 64.6±9.6 years, males 30% with the diagnosis of essential hypertension who referred to the polyclinic of workers settlement of the Saratov region during the period from July 1, 2015 to July 7, 2015 were interviewed. The questionnaire for patients with elevated blood pressure (BP developed by S. N. Gerasimov et al. (2015 was used. The questionnaire included 16 questions organized in the following panels: awareness of hypertension and risk factors, BP self-monitoring, conducted treatment, compliance to therapy, referrals to medical care. Results. 90% of the interviewed patients have known previously about BP elevation; 90% of respondents have had a tonometer; 84% of hypertensives measured BP no rare then once a week, and 54% did it daily; 88% of enrollers regularly take antihypertensive drugs. Only 36% of patients could be classified as compliant to therapy according the Morisky — Green scale (had 4 points. 92% of respondents have received one or more advice on lifestyle modification: 82% — advice on eating, 66% — advice on weight reduction, 55% — advice on physical activity, 28% — advice on smoking cessation, 26% — advice on alcohol consumption. 62.7% of patients were interested in organization of special follow-up program. Conclusion. High frequency of BP self-measurement was identified together with low compliance of patients to antihypertensive therapy, good knowledge on non-pharmacologic treatment interventions.

  20. [Non-invasive study of the role of carotid distension in the baroreflex response to the arteriolar vasodilator cadralazine in essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S; London, G; Safar, M

    1986-06-01

    Using pulsed Doppler methods, hemodynamics of the common carotid and the brachial arteries were measured in 10 patients with essential hypertension. After vasodilatation due to Cadralazine, a Dihydralazine-like substance, mean arterial pressure significantly decreased and heart rate increased. Change in PRA was significantly and positively correlated with the change in heart rate. In the brachial artery circulation, diameter and vascular resistance decreased while blood flow velocity and volumic blood flow did not increase significantly. In the common carotid artery circulation, diameter, mean blood flow did not change. However, vascular resistance and tangential tension decreased slightly. The increase in heart rate was strongly and negatively correlated (r = 0.82 p less than 0.01) with the change in the carotid artery tangential tension (measured as the product between mean arterial pressure and arterial radius) while no comparable correlation was observed with the change in blood pressure or arterial radius alone. The study suggested that in essential hypertensives, modifications in the carotid artery tangential tension secondary to arteriolar vasodilatation contribute actively to the baroreflex response.

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two types of high blood pressure. Primary (essential) hypertension For most adults, there's no identifiable cause of ... tends to develop gradually over many years. Secondary hypertension Some people have high blood pressure caused by ...

  2. Traditional Mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat Malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Baronti, Ilenia; Najar, Basma; Pisseri, Francesca; Bandeira Reidel, Rose Vanessa; Papini, Roberto; Perrucci, Stefania; Mancianti, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    Several plants extracts from Mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. Five mixtures of essential oils obtained from Mediterranean plants (Citrus paradisi, Salvia sclarea, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Citrus limon, Anthemis nobilis, Lavandula hybrida and Thymus vulgaris) provided with antifungal and/or anti-inflammatory action assayed in vitro, were tested in vivo versus M. pachydermatis to treat once daily for 2 weeks 25 atopic dogs with Malassezia otitis externa. Mixture composed by C. limon 1%, S. sclarea 0,5%, R. officinalis 1%, A. nobilis 0,5% yielded excellent results in all treated dogs. Despite of clinical resolution after all treatments the number of blastospores did not decrease. This study confirms recent findings suggesting a multifactorial alternative approach for the management of canine Malassezia otitis.

  3. How should we manage heart failure developing in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers for hypertension, diabetes or coronary disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    failure despite such treatment. Based on data from hypertension trials it can be estimated that approximately 5% of treated patients will develop heart failure over 5 years. It is unclear whether patients developing heart failure on and off ACE-inhibitors or beta-blockers, respectively, at the time......An increasing number of patients in the community are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers for hypertension, coronary disease or diabetic renal and vascular complications. Some of these patients will develop heart...... of heart failure diagnosis have similar prognosis.Treatment options for patients developing heart failure while already treated with ACE inhibitors/ARBs and beta-blockers are very limited if current heart failure guidelines are followed. In this review possible strategies are outlined and important areas...

  4. How should we manage heart failure developing in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers for hypertension, diabetes or coronary disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis M

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of patients in the community are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers for hypertension, coronary disease or diabetic renal and vascular complications. Some of these patients will develop heart...... failure despite such treatment. Based on data from hypertension trials it can be estimated that approximately 5% of treated patients will develop heart failure over 5 years. It is unclear whether patients developing heart failure on and off ACE-inhibitors or beta-blockers, respectively, at the time...... of heart failure diagnosis have similar prognosis.Treatment options for patients developing heart failure while already treated with ACE inhibitors/ARBs and beta-blockers are very limited if current heart failure guidelines are followed. In this review possible strategies are outlined and important areas...

  5. How should we manage heart failure developing in patients already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers for hypertension, diabetes or coronary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis M

    2010-08-01

    An increasing number of patients in the community are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers for hypertension, coronary disease or diabetic renal and vascular complications. Some of these patients will develop heart failure despite such treatment. Based on data from hypertension trials it can be estimated that approximately 5% of treated patients will develop heart failure over 5 years. It is unclear whether patients developing heart failure on and off ACE-inhibitors or beta-blockers, respectively, at the time of heart failure diagnosis have similar prognosis.Treatment options for patients developing heart failure while already treated with ACE inhibitors/ARBs and beta-blockers are very limited if current heart failure guidelines are followed. In this review possible strategies are outlined and important areas for research are identified. It is suggested that trials are designed specifically to address prognosis and treatment in this growing population.

  6. Local carotid stiffness and intima-media thickness assessment by a novel ultrasound-based system in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarelli, Chiara; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Magagna, Armando; Landini, Linda; Faita, Francesco; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Penno, Giuseppe; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate local carotid stiffness (CS) and intima-medial thickness (C-IMT) in hypertensive patients with different cardiovascular risk profile, using a new user-friendly ultrasound-based system, previously validated vs. RF-based echotracking device. We investigated a population with different cardiovascular risk: 45 healthy normotensives (NT), 90 non-diabetic hypertensives (HT), and 48 patients with hypertension and type-2 diabetes (DM). Framingham risk factor score (FRS) was calculated. PWV was assessed by applanation tonometry. The relative stroke change in diameter (ΔD) and C-IMT were measured on carotid scans. Distensibility coefficient (DC) was calculated as ΔA/(A*ΔP), where A = diastolic lumen area, ΔA = stroke change in lumen area, and ΔP = carotid pulse pressure. CS (m/s) was calculated as (ρ*DC) - 1/2 (ρ = blood density). CS, C-IMT, PWV were significantly increased in HT and DM vs. NT. C-IMT and PWV were significantly higher in DM than HT. ΔD and DC were significantly lower in HT and DM vs. NT. FRS ≥10% group showed increased carotid diameter, C-IMT and CS than the FRS <10%. FRS was (p < 0.001) correlated with CS (r = 0.35); ΔD (r = -0.36), DC (r = 0.35), C-IMT (r = 0.48), PWV (r = 0.38). CS correlated (p < 0.05) with PWV in the entire population (r = 0.37), in the NT (r = 0.35), in the HT and DM (r = 0.20). PWV (r = 0.50) and CS (r = 0.33) were correlated with age. Determinants of aortic and carotid stiffness were identified by multivariate stepwise analysis. The proposed B-mode ultrasound-based system is a reliable and user-friendly method that could serve to investigate the predictive value of CS for cardiovascular events in future large clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Category of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs for Treating Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Basis of a New Development Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Makoto; Majima, Masataka

    2010-01-07

    Terrestrial animals must conserve water and NaCl to survive dry environments. The kidney reabsorbs 95% of the sodium filtered from the glomeruli before sodium reaches the distal connecting tubules. Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. Renal kallikrein is secreted from the distal connecting tubule cells of the kidney, and its substrates, low molecular kininogen, from the principal cells of the cortical collecting ducts (CD). Formed kinins inhibit reabsorption of NaCl through bradykinin (BK)-B₂ receptors, localized along the CD. Degradation pathway of BK by kinin-destroying enzymes in urine differs completely from that in plasma, so that ACE inhibitors are ineffective. Urinary BK is destroyed mainly by a carboxypeptidase-Y-like exopeptidase (CPY) and partly by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Inhibitors of CPY and NEP, ebelactone B and poststatin, respectively, were found. Renal kallikrein secretion is accelerated by potassium and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blockers, such as PNU-37883A. Ebelactone B prevents DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Only high salt intake causes hypertension in animals deficient in BK-B2 receptors, tissue kallikrein, or kininogen. Hypertensive patients, and spontaneously hypertensive rats, excrete less kallikrein than normal subjects, irrespective of races, and become salt-sensitive. Ebelactone B, poststatin, and KATP channel blockers could become novel antihypertensive drugs by increase in urinary kinin levels. Roles of kinin in cardiovascular diseases were discussed.

  8. A Novel Category of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs for Treating Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Basis of a New Development Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Majima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial animals must conserve water and NaCl to survive dry environments. The kidney reabsorbs 95% of the sodium filtered from the glomeruli before sodium reaches the distal connecting tubules. Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. Renal kallikrein is secreted from the distal connecting tubule cells of the kidney, and its substrates, low molecular kininogen, from the principal cells of the cortical collecting ducts (CD. Formed kinins inhibit reabsorption of NaCl through bradykinin (BK-B2 receptors, localized along the CD. Degradation pathway of BK by kinin-destroying enzymes in urine differs completely from that in plasma, so that ACE inhibitors are ineffective. Urinary BK is destroyed mainly by a carboxypeptidase-Y-like exopeptidase (CPY and partly by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP. Inhibitors of CPY and NEP, ebelactone B and poststatin, respectively, were found. Renal kallikrein secretion is accelerated by potassium and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel blockers, such as PNU-37883A. Ebelactone B prevents DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Only high salt intake causes hypertension in animals deficient in BK-B2 receptors, tissue kallikrein, or kininogen. Hypertensive patients, and spontaneously hypertensive rats, excrete less kallikrein than normal subjects, irrespective of races, and become salt-sensitive. Ebelactone B, poststatin, and KATP channel blockers could become novel antihypertensive drugs by increase in urinary kinin levels. Roles of kinin in cardiovascular diseases were discussed.

  9. Determinants of urinary albumin excretion reduction in essential hypertension: A long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Miralles, Amparo; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors related to long-term changes in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) of nondiabetic microalbuminuric (n = 252) or proteinuric hypertensive individuals (n = 58) in a prospective follow-up. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment and/or treatment with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve blood pressure 50% from the initial values, plus reduction of UAE to or = 90 mmHg achieved during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86; P = 0.001), even when adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, fasting glucose, presence of treatment at the beginning of the study and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers during the follow-up. The reduction of urinary albumin excretion was linked to the preserved glomerular filtration rate and to adequate blood pressure control.

  10. [Effect of beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity on blood pressure and blood lipids in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro-Azul, J B; Wajngarten, M; Santomauro, A; Braga, A; Yazbek Júnior, P; Bellotti, G; Serro-Azul, L G; Pileggi, F

    1989-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a beta-blocker (mepindolol) with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) to a beta-blocker (metoprolol duriles) without ISA. Hypertensive patients with more than 50 years of age were selected and randomly allocated to receive either 5 mg/day mepindolol (Group A, 10 patients), or 200 mg/day metoprolol duriles (Group B, 9 patients), or placebo (Group C, 10 patients). They were submitted to clinical exam, stress testing and plasma lipids dosage before and after four weeks of treatment. At rest, there were a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in all groups. The mean values for SBP, DBP and HR at rest after treatment were respectively: 154.0, 95.5, 73.7 (Group A); 148.8, 94.4, 70.1 (Group B); 153.0, 96.0, 77.8; (Group C). During stress testing, there were a significant reduction of SBP, HR and double product (DP). The DBP remained unchanged. The mean values for SBP, DBP, HR and DP during stress testing after treatment were respectively; 198.0, 115.5, 124.3, 246.9 (Group A); 198.8, 114.4, 144.6, 283.2 (Group B); 202.2, 119.0, 143.5, 283.4 (Group C). Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, have not changed with both beta-blockers. There were a significant increase in plasma triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels after treatment with beta-blockers. In conclusion, both mepindolol and metoprolol were similarly effective in reducing arterial blood pressure of hypertensive patients. There were not significant differences between the beta-blocker with or without ISA in regard to their effects on plasma lipids.

  11. Inhibitory potential of omega-3 fatty and fenugreek essential oil on key enzymes of carbohydrate-digestion and hypertension in diabetes rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamden Khaled

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestives enzymes-related to starch digestion secreted by pancreas. Methods The formulation omega-3 with fenugreek terpenenes was administrated to surviving diabetic rats. The inhibitory effects of this oil on rat pancreas α-amylase and maltase and plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were determined. Results the findings revealed that administration of formulation omega-3 with fenugreek terpenenes (Om3/terp considerably inhibited key enzymes-related to diabetes such as α-amylase activity by 46 and 52% and maltase activity by 37 and 35% respectively in pancreas and plasma. Moreover, the findings revealed that this supplement helped protect the β-Cells of the rats from death and damage. Interestingly, the formulation Om3/terp modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 37% in plasma and kidney. Moreover administration of fenugreek essential oil to surviving diabetic rats improved starch and glucose oral tolerance additively. Furthermore, the Om3/terp also decreased significantly the glucose, triglyceride (TG and total-cholesterol (TC and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C rates in the plasma and liver of diabetic rats and increased the HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-Ch level, which helped maintain the homeostasis of blood lipid. Conclusion overall, the findings of the current study indicate that this formulation Om3/terp exhibit attractive properties and can, therefore, be considered for future application in the development of anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and hypolipidemic foods.

  12. Scorpion sting and hypertensive crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ratti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scorpion stings are very frequent in Centre-South America. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms are: local pain and redness, tachycardia, irritability, hypertensive crisis; but it differs with the scorpion species involved. CLINICAL CASE We describe a scorpion sting in a woman who came back from a holiday in Mexico. Consequently she had a hypertensive crisis treated with furosemide. DISCUSSION The scorpion sting can be very dangerous. There are many species which could be lethal; in these cases, identifying the exact species can be essential to save the patient’s life. The treatment consists of symptomatic measures, support of vital functions and i.v. antivenom.

  13. Blood pressure control status and relationship between salt intake and lifestyle including diet in hypertensive outpatients treated at a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Kimura, Yorio; Kitaoka, Chie; Sakata, Tomoko; Abe, Isao; Kawano, Yuhei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate blood pressure (BP) control and salt intake in hypertensive outpatients treated at a general hospital and to examine the relationship between their lifestyles and amount of salt intake. Subjects comprised 429 hypertensive patients (206 males, 223 females, and average age of 71 ± 11 years). We estimated 24-hour salt excretion using spot urine samples and assessed lifestyle using a self-description questionnaire. Average clinic BP and the number of antihypertensive drugs were 132 ± 11/73 ± 8 mmHg and 1.8 ± 0.9, respectively. In all subjects, average estimated salt intake was 9.2 ± 2.8 g/day and the rate of achievement of the estimated salt intake of salt intake was lower in patients living alone than in those with a family. In a multivariate analysis, estimated salt intake correlated positively with body mass index and negatively with age. Among patients with an excessive salt intake (≥10 g/day), 75.2% answered that they made an effort to reduce their salt intake. The amount of food and processed food consumption correlated with estimated salt intake. In conclusion, the rate of achievement of salt restriction was low in hypertensive patients treated at a general hospital. It may be important to provide data on actual salt intake and guide salt restriction in the individual management of hypertension.

  14. Diuretics enhance effects of increased dose of candesartan on ambulatory blood pressure reduction in Japanese patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with medium-dose angiotensin II receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakima, Atsushi; Kita, Toshihiro; Nakada, Seigo; Yokota, Naoto; Tamaki, Noboru; Etoh, Takuma; Shimokubo, Toru; Kitamura, Kazuo; Takishita, Shuichi; Ohya, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although blockade of the renin-angiotensin system by increasing the dose of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is recommended to achieve clinical benefits in terms of blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular and renal outcomes, the effect of this increased dose on ambulatory BP monitoring has not been evaluated completely in Japanese patients with uncontrolled hypertension undergoing medium-dose ARB therapy. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of the relatively high dose of the ARB candesartan (12 mg/day) on 24-h systolic BP and the attainment of target BP levels in uncontrolled hypertension treated with a medium dose of ARBs. A total of 146 hypertensive patients (age: 69.9 ± 9.3 years; females: 65.8%) completed the study. After switching to candesartan at 12 mg/day, all these BP measurements decreased significantly (pdiuretics than those without (p=0.0206). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between the combined ARB and diuretic therapy, and the change in 24-h systolic BP irrespective of preceding ARBs. In conclusion, the switching therapy to increased dose of candesartan caused significant reductions in office and ambulatory BP levels, and improved the attainment of target BP levels in patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with a medium dose of ARBs. Combination with diuretics enhanced this effect.

  15. Effects of triple combination therapy with azilsartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide on office/home blood pressure: a randomized-controlled trial in Japanese essential hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Shimizu, Kohei; Sano, Yuhei; Nishiyama, Yuya; Kinugawa, Yoshinobu; Terashio, Souhei

    2017-12-12

    The efficacy and safety of triple therapy with azilsartan (AZI), amlodipine besylate (AML), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) compared with dual therapy with AZI/AML or HCTZ monotherapy were evaluated in Japanese essential hypertensive patients in a double-blinded manner. A total of 353 patients with office blood pressure (BP) of at least 150/95 mmHg were randomized to a 10-week treatment with AZI/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 mg, AZI/AML/HCTZ 20/5/6.25 mg, AZI/AML 20/5 mg, HCTZ 12.5 mg, or HCTZ 6.25 mg. The mean change from baseline in office diastolic/systolic BPs at week 10 was -25.9/-41.4, -24.9/-38.6, and -22.4/-34.5 mmHg in the AZI/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 mg, AZI/AML/HCTZ 20/5/6.25 mg, and AZI/AML 20/5 mg groups, respectively. AZI/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 mg led to a significantly greater reduction in diastolic and systolic BP than the dual therapy. In addition, the change in home diastolic BP measured with telemetry devices showed a significant difference between the two triple therapy groups. The incidences of adverse events except dizziness postural were similar among the treatment groups in the triple therapy groups. Triple therapy with AZI/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 mg shows a greater antihypertensive effect than the dual therapy and has acceptable safety profiles for Japanese essential hypertensive patients. It was also observed that home BP measurement by automated telemetry could detect changes in BP that were not detected in office BP measurement, although further investigation is needed.

  16. Apoyo familiar en el apego al tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial esencial Family support and drug therapy compliance in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Marín-Reyes

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la asociación entre apoyo familiar (AF y apego al tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial esencial (HAS. Material y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles al que se integraron 80 sujetos con diagnóstico establecido de HAS, con 40 pacientes en cada grupo. Se consideró como casos a los pacientes con apego y como controles a los pacientes sin apego al tratamiento. El estudio se realizó de mayo a diciembre de 1999, en el Hospital Regional del IMSS, en la ciudad de Durango, Durango, México. La edad, género, duración de la HAS, escolaridad y estado civil fueron criterios de pareamiento. Las diferencias se establecieron con las pruebas ji cuadrada y t de student. Se calculó la razón de momios para estimar la fuerza de asociación. El diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial secundaria, o de otras enfermedades crónicas fueron criterios de exclusión. Resultados. No hubo diferencias entre los grupos respecto a las variables sociodemográficas, modalidad de tratamiento ni conocimiento que el enfermo tenía sobre su enfermedad. Tenían control de la presión arterial 31 (77.5% pacientes con apego y 11 (27.5% sin apego, p= 0.003. El AF se asoció de manera independiente con apego al tratamiento, RM 6.9, IC 95% 2.3-21.1. Conclusiones. El apego se vincula de forma significativa con el apoyo que los familiares otorgan al enfermo. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To assess the relationship between family support and drug therapy compliance in essential hypertension. Material and methods. A case-control study was conducted between May and December 1999, at Mexican Institute of Social Security Regional Hospital in Durango, among 80 hypertensive subjects; 40 were cases and 40 controls. Cases were subjects who complied with drug therapy and controls were those who did not, matched by age, gender, schooling, hypertensive disease duration, and marital status

  17. Practice-based randomized controlled-comparison clinical trial of chiropractic adjustments and brief massage treatment at sites of subluxation in subjects with essential hypertension: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaugher, Gregory; Long, Cynthia R; Alcantara, Joel; Silveus, Alyssa D; Wood, Herbert; Lotun, Kapildeo; Menke, J Michael; Meeker, William C; Rowe, Stephen H

    2002-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial in the private practice setting examining short- and long-term effects of chiropractic adjustments for subjects with essential hypertension compared with a brief soft tissue massage, as well as a nontreatment control group. Randomized controlled-comparison trial with 3 parallel groups. Private practice outpatient chiropractic clinic. Twenty-three subjects, aged 24 to 50 years with systolic or diastolic essential hypertension. Two months of full-spine chiropractic care (ie, Gonstead) consisting primarily of specific-contact, short-lever-arm adjustments delivered at motion segments exhibiting signs of subluxation. The massage group had a brief effleurage procedure delivered at localized regions of the spine believed to be exhibiting signs of subluxation. The nontreatment control group rested alone for a period of approximately 5 minutes in an adjustment room. Cost per enrolled subject, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) measured with a random-0 sphygmomanometer and patient reported health status (SF-36). Pilot study outcome measures also included an assessment of cooperation of subjects to randomization procedures and drop-out rates, recruitment effectiveness, analysis of temporal stability of BPs at the beginning of care, and the effects of inclusion/exclusion criteria on the subject pool. Thirty subjects enrolled, yielding a cost of $161 per enrolled subject. One subject was later determined to be ineligible, and 6 others dropped out. In both the chiropractic and massage therapy groups, all subjects were classified as either overweight or obese; in the control group there were only 2 classified as such. SF-36 profiles for the groups were similar to that of a normal population. The mean change in diastolic BP was -4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.6, 0.5) in the chiropractic care group, 0.5 (95% CI: -3.5, 4.5) in the brief massage treatment group, and -4.9 (95% CI: -9.7, -0

  18. COMPARISON OF NEBIVOLOL AND ATENOLOL ON BLOOD PRESSURE, BLOOD SUGAR AND LIPID PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Dev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Beta-blocker is considered to be a very effective antihypertensive drug to control hypertension. But National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE recommended that it should no longer be used as first-line drug as the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension. This recommendation was based on the various studies showing increased risk of new onset Diabetes Mellitus and derangement of lipid metabolism with the use of beta-blocker. These studies were mainly based on Atenolol with or without diuretics. We are in need of a beta-blocker that has effective antihypertensive properties without altering the metabolic profile like blood sugar level and lipid metabolism. Nebivolol, a b1-selective blocker, has got more or less the similar properties. It increases insulin sensitivity in patients with insulin resistance due to its vasodilator properties. Also, antioxidant properties of nebivolol, and increase in nitric oxide properties by reducing its oxidative inactivation may be responsible for beneficial lipid and carbohydrate metabolic profile. MATERIALS AND METHOD A prospective study was conducted between December 2011 to August 2013 on 60 patients at medicine outpatient department (OPD of Katihar Medical College, Katihar, after getting approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were explained in detail about the nature of the trial, its purpose, procedures, and followup. They were provided with detailed trial information sheet. Written informed consent was obtained from those who volunteered to participate in the trial. RESULTS In our study, the mean difference of systolic blood pressure from baseline and at 24 weeks was 40.20±1.74 in the Atenolol group and 43.80±1.405 in the Nebivolol group. Similarly, in Atenolol group, diastolic blood pressure is decreased by 17±1.3 and 19.4±1.223 in Nebivolol group. In our study, the mean difference of blood sugar level from baseline and

  19. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  20. Associations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A level with essential hypertension and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in Chinese population: a meta-analysis of 20 research studies involving 3332 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaojun; Zhang, Bifeng; Weng, Weijin; Yang, Liping; Shi, Ganwei; Xue, Sheliang; Fu, Xingli

    2015-09-28

    To explore the associations between serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) level, and essential hypertension (EH) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) in Chinese population. Pertinent studies were independently searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Wanfang databases and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs was used to estimate the size of the effect. The subgroup analyses and meta-regression analysis were performed to identify the sources of heterogeneity among studies. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the stability of the results. The publication bias between studies was examined by using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test. A total of 20 studies involving 1493 patients and 1839 controls were included in the current meta-analysis. The PAPP-A level was significantly higher in EH patients than in controls (SMD=1.960, 95% CI 1.305 to 2.615, pPAPP-A level was also significantly higher in HDP patients than in healthy pregnant women (SMD=2.249; 95% CI 1.324 to 3.173, pPAPP-A level and the risk of HDP was consistently observed in all subgroups except the subgroup with low NOS score. The present meta-analysis suggests that an elevated PAPP-A level may be associated with susceptibilities to EH and HDP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cell enumeration and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus treated with cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum B.) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniman, C M; Rall, V L M; Doyama, J T; Júnior, A Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils (EOs) in functional foods containing probiotic microorganisms must consider the antimicrobial activity of these oils against beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of L. rhamnosus cultures treated with cinnamon EO through viable cell counts and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy. Cinnamon EO at a concentration of 0.04% had a bacteriostatic activity after 2 h of incubation. Although slight alterations were detected in the cell structure, this concentration was considered to be bactericidal, since it led to a significant reduction in cell numbers after 24 h. On the other hand, cinnamon EO at a 1.00% concentration decreased cell counts by 3 log units after 2 h incubation and no viable cell count was detected after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells treated with 1.00% cinnamon EO were severely damaged and presented cell membrane disruption and cytoplasmic leakage.

  2. Maskeret hypertension i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels...... monitored in a clinical setting, may lead to cardiovascular and obstetric complications equal to those of sustained hypertension. This article discusses masked hypertension and the need for further investigation of blood pressure monitoring during pregnancy....

  3. Renovascular hypertension. Diagnosis and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Sos, T.A.; Nielsen, S.L.

    Hypertension constitutes a major health problem and the challenge is to identify patients having 'surgically' curable renal vascular disease among the majority with so-called essential hypertension. The best of unsatisfactory diagnostic tests are renography and plasma renin activity both before and during angiotensin II blockade. The necessity of better screening tests has increased because of the recent advances in surgical techniques and especially percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. The latter has definitely become the method of choice for correction of suspected hemodynamically significant artery stenoses whenever technically feasible. With improved angioplasty techniques the risk of treating renal artery stenosis without hemodynamic and clinical importance (so-called cosmetic repair) has increased. Unfortunately randomized trials including surgery versus angioplasty are not available. It should be kept in mind that only after correction of the stenosis is achieved and the blood pressure has become normal, can the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension be made with certainty.

  4. Visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure: correlated with the changes of arterial stiffness and myocardial perfusion in on-treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongbin; Wei, Fang; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yingxin; Ye, Lin; Lu, Fanghong; Zhang, Hua; Diao, Yutao; Qi, Zaiwen; Xu, Jianchao

    2015-01-01

    Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure (BP) was demonstrated to correlate with cardiovascular events independent of mean BP. The goal of the present study was to investigate the correlation of visit-to-visit BP variability with artery stiffness and myocardial perfusion in on-treated hypertensive patients. BP was measured in 271 hypertensive patients at every visit over the course of the antihypertensive treatment, and the standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), maximum, and minimum in serial BP were calculated. Non-invasive pulse wave analysis was performed in all patients. Compared with baseline, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), aortic augmentation index (Aix) and Aix adjusted to a "standard heart rate" of 75 beats/min (Aix@HR75) were markedly declined, and sub-endocardial viability ratio (SEVR) was obviously increased in each group (p < 0.001). The changes of cfPWV, SEVR, Aix and Aix@HR75 in patients with lower SD of systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly greater than those in patients with higher SD of SBP. And the changes were statistically correlated with both SD and CV of serial SBP during follow-up, even after adjusted for mean SBP and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Visit-to-visit SBP variability is independently correlated with changes of artery stiffness and myocardial perfusion in on-treated hypertensive patients.

  5. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and home blood pressure in treated elderly hypertensive patients: Japan home versus office blood pressure measurement evaluation in the elderly (J-HOME-Elderly) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamiya, Taku; Obara, Taku; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Shinki, Takahiro; Ishikura, Kazuki; Yoshida, Makoto; Satoh, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Takanao; Hara, Azusa; Metoki, Hirohito; Inoue, Ryusuke; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Imai, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    This study compares relationships between each of morning home blood pressure (BP), evening home BP and office BP with electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among treated hypertensive Japanese patients. We defined ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as Sokolow-Lyon voltage and/or Cornell voltage duration product. Abnormal T waves and ST segment depression were categorized based on the Minnesota code. Office BP was calculated as the mean of four readings taken during two visits. Morning and evening home BP were calculated as the mean of five readings measured once each morning and evening for 5 days, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that ECG-LVH in 747 hypertensives (mean age: 72 years; women: 63%) was more closely associated with morning home BP than with either office or evening home BP. Even the first reading of morning home BP on day 1 was significantly associated with ECG-LVH independently of office BP. The association between home BP and ECG-LVH increased with the cumulative number of home BP measurements. The results for abnormal T waves were similar. Home and office BP did not significantly differ between patients with and without ST segment depression. Morning home BP was more closely associated with ECG-LVH and abnormal T waves than either office or evening home BP among treated hypertensive Japanese patients.

  6. Discovery of new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from medicinal plants to treat hypertension using an in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Niusha; Souri, Effat; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Amin, Gholamreza; Amanlou, Massoud

    2013-12-20

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors plays a critical role in treating hypertension. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate ACE inhibition activity of 50 Iranian medicinal plants using an in vitro assay. The ACE activity was evaluated by determining the hydrolysis rate of substrate, hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL), using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Six extracts revealed > 50% ACE inhibition activity at 330 μg/ml concentration. They were Berberis integerrima Bunge. (Berberidaceae) (88.2 ± 1.7%), Crataegus microphylla C. Koch (Rosaceae) (80.9 ± 1.3%), Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) (66.3 ± 1.2%), Onopordon acanthium L. (Asteraceae) (80.2 ± 2.0%), Quercus infectoria G. Olivier. (Fagaceae) (93.9 ± 2.5%) and Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (51.3 ± 1.0%). Q. infectoria possessed the highest total phenolic content with 7410 ± 101 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant. Antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria (IC50 value 1.7 ± 0.03 μg/ml) was more than that of BHT (IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.15 μg/ml) and Trolox (IC50 value of 3.2 ± 0.06 μg/ml) as the positive controls. In this study, we introduced six medicinal plants with ACE inhibition activity. Despite the high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity of Q. infectoria, due to its tannin content (tannins interfere in ACE activity), another plant, O. acanthium, which also had high ACE inhibition and antioxidant activity, but contained no tannin, could be utilized in further studies for isolation of active compounds.

  7. Blood pressure control and weight loss in overweight or obese patients with previously treated or untreated mild to moderate hypertension given valsartan: An open-label study comparing pretreatment and posttreatment values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villecco, Aldo S.; Cocci, Cinzia; Di Emidio, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is associated with obesity. Recent studies have indicated that therapy with an angiotensin II antagonist, in addition to having an antihypertensive effect, may cause a reduction in body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of valsartan in the treatment of overweight or obese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Methods: Overweight or obese outpatients aged 18 to Clinica Medica II, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Bologna, Italy). After a 1-week pharmacologic washout period, patients were treated with valsartan capsules at a fixed dosage of 80 mg once daily for 8 weeks. The dosage was increased to 160 mg once daily if, at 8 weeks, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was not normalized; otherwise, the 80-mg/d dosage was maintained. Treatment was continued for an additional 16 weeks. Patients' heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured/calculated at baseline (week 0) and 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Patients were asked to maintain a 1600-kcal/d diet throughout the study. Results: Forty-eight patients (28 men, 20 women; mean [SD] age, 57 [9] years) were included in the study. In the 45 patients (93.8%) who completed the study, mean SBP, DBP, and BMI were significantly decreased compared with baseline (all P < 0.001), but WHR was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After 24 weeks of treatment, 71.1 % of patients had SBP/DBP ≤ 140/≤90 mm Hg. Three patients (6.3%) withdrew from the study due to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion: In this population of overweight or obese patients with mild to moderate hypertension, valsartan was well tolerated, and could be effective in controlling blood pressure and achieving weight loss in such patients. PMID:24936115

  8. Plasma erythropoietin by high-detectability immunoradiometric assay in untreated and treated patients with polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneskog, J.; Kutti, J.; Wadenvik, H. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medicine, Haematology Section (Sweden); Lundberg, P.A.; Lindstedt, G. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    By using an immunoradiometric method with a stated detection limit of {<=}1 IU/l (stated normal reference limit in adults 3.7-16 IU/l) we determined EDTA-plasma erythropoietin (EPO) in 58 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) and 49 patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET). At the time of blood sampling, 20 of the PV patients were newly diagnosed and untreated, 23 were treated by phlebotomy only, and 30 also received myelosuppressive treatment (with 32P, hydroxyurea of alpha-interferon). Of the ET patients 24 were untreated and 28 received myelosuppressive therapy. For comparison plasma EPO was also determined in 10 patients with pseudopolycythaemia (PP). In this latter group the results for plasma EPO agreed well with the cited normal reference limits. The majority of untreated PV patients (12/20) had undetectable plasma EPO concentration, and the remainder all had values below the lower normal reference limit. Plasma EPO in PV was not significantly influenced by phlebotomy therapy. Twelve of the 24 untreated ET patients (50%) had plasma EPO values below the reference interval (undetectable in 2 patients). The mean EPO concentration was significantly lower in PV patients receiving phlebotomy therapy than in patients with untreated ET. In the total material of PV and ET treated with myelosuppressive agents the PV patients showed significantly lower values for EPO concentration than did patients with ET. The present results support the view that EPO measurements by high-detectability methods are diagnostically useful and should be included in the panel of new criteria for the diagnosis of PV. (au) 20 refs.

  9. [Control of hypertension in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Alvarez, W; Mulaj, M; De Breucker, S; Leeman, M; Pepersack, T

    2006-09-01

    In a cross sectional study we determined prevalence of hypertension among institutionalized old subjects. Prevalence of hypertension was 69%. Among detected hypertensive patients, 76% received an antihypertensive drug treatment. 61% of the declared hypertensive patients and 80% of the treated hypertensive patients had their blood pressure controlled. The general practitioners should better detect and treat this common geriatric problem associated with a high comorbidity.

  10. CKD and hypertension during long-term follow-up in children and adolescents previously treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Zwiers (Alexandra); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); S.J. Gischler (Saskia); S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); D. Tibboel (Dick); K. Cransberg (Karlien)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background and objectives Many children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation develop AKI. If AKI leads to permanent nephron loss, it may increase the risk of developing CKD. The prevalence of CKD and hypertension and its predictive factors during long-term

  11. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and quality maintenance of cherry tomatoes treated with gaseous essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Xihong

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) from cinnamon bark, oregano, mustard, and of their major components cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was evaluated as a gaseous treatment to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and on tomatoes. In vitro tests showed that mustard EO and AIT had the greatest inhibition of Salmonella, followed by cinnamon EO and cinnamaldehyde, while oregano and carvacrol showed the least inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy images of S. Typhimurium on tomatoes suggest that the EOs and their major components damaged the bacteria, and the damage was more obvious after posttreatment storage at 10 °C for 4 and 7 d. Salmonella on inoculated tomatoes was reduced by more than 5 log colony forming units (CFU)/g by mustard EO and AIT, by 4.56 and 3.79 log CFU/g following cinnamon EO and cinnamaldehyde treatments, respectively, and 1.54 and 3.37 log CFU/g after oregano EO and carvacrol treatments, respectively. Mustard EO and AIT induced discoloration, softening, and loss of the vitamin C and lycopene during 21 d of storage at 10 °C, while treatment with cinnamon EO and cinnamaldehyde did not result in significant changes in tomato quality. Tomatoes treated with oregano EO had better quality than nontreated samples after storage. Therefore, treatment with cinnamon and oregano EO and their major components appeared to be feasible for inactivation of Salmonella on tomatoes and maintaining quality. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Hypertensive effects of oral administration of the aqueous extract of Solanum torvum fruits in L-NAME treated rats: evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Mekhfi, H; Dongmo, A B; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Zoheir, Johar; Legssyer, A; Kamanyi, A; Ziyyat, A

    2009-07-30

    Solanum torvum fruits are commonly used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for treatment of arterial hypertension. It has been previously shown that intravenous administration of aqueous extract from dried fruits (AEST) reduced blood pressure. The present work evaluates acute toxicity and effects of oral administration of AEST in chronic arterial hypertension induced by L-NAME. Effects of AEST were also evaluated on isolated aorta. AEST (200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given solely or concomitantly with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days. Animal body weight, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured before stating the treatment and at the end of each week. Urinary volume and urinary sodium and potassium contents were quantified before and at days 1, 15 and 30 of the treatment. Aorta from treated animals was tested for their sensitivity to noradrenaline and carbachol. Aorta from normal untreated rats was used to evaluate the in vitro vascular effect of AEST. The results showed that AEST did induce neither mortality nor visible signs of toxicity. When given solely or in co-administration with L-NAME, AEST significantly reduced animal's body weight. It amplified the hypertensive and cardiac hypertrophy effect of L-NAME and did not affect these parameters in normotensive animals. AEST increased the sensitivity to noradrenaline in normotensive and significantly reduced it in hypertensive animals. AEST significantly increased urinary volume and sodium excretion in L-NAME treated animals while reducing the sodium excretion in normotensive. In vitro, AEST induced a potent partial endothelium-dependent contraction of aortic ring; contractions that were partially antagonized by prazosin and verapamil and were not relaxed by carbachol. These results suggest that oral chronic administration of AEST induced potentiation of arterial hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in L-NAME treated rats. These effects may result from a reduction in sensitivity to

  13. Effects of antihypertensive drugs losartan and levamlodipine besylate on insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension combined with isolated impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Yin; Ning, Ning; Tan, Ming-Hong; Jiang, Xue-Shu; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong; Wei, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the antihypertensive effect of losartan and levamlodipine besylate on insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension (EH) combined with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG). Patients (n=244) were randomly assigned to losartan potassium tablets (50-100 mg per day) or levamlodipine besylate tablets (2.5-5.0 mg per day) for intensive antihypertensive treatment with no lifestyle interventions for 3 years. The changes in fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin (FINS) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) from before to after treatment were observed. Blood pressure (BP) in each group was significantly reduced by treatment (Plosartan potassium group was significantly decreased and ISI was significantly increased compared with before treatment (P0.05). The incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus was not significantly different between two groups. The antihypertensive effect of losartan and levamlodipine besylate could amoliorate insulin resistance in patients with EH combined with i-IFG. The improvement of insulin resistance by losartan potassium at 12 months might be better than that by levamlodipine besylate; however, after 24 and 36 months of follow-up, both agents significantly alleviated insulin resistance. These results suggest that the effects of these two drugs on insulin resistance are not significantly different.

  14. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Steca

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men. Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  15. Prevalence and costs of treating uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension in primary care: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P; Fletcher, Kate; McManus, Richard J; Mant, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Treatment for uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension is recommended in most international guidelines but there is little evidence to indicate that therapy is beneficial. To estimate the prevalence of this condition in an untreated population and the potential costs of initiating therapy in such patients. Cross-sectional study of anonymised patient records in 19 general practices in the West Midlands, UK. Data relating to patient demographics, existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol) were extracted from patient records. Patients with a blood pressure of 140/90-159/99 mmHg, no CVD, and hypertension. Missing data were imputed. The prevalence of untreated, uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension was estimated using descriptive statistics and extrapolated using national data. The cost of achieving blood pressure control in this population was examined in a cost-impact analysis using published costs from previous studies. Of the 34 975 patients (aged 40-74 years) in this study, untreated, uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension was present in 2867 individuals (8.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9 to 8.5). This is equivalent to 1 892 519 patients in England and Wales, for whom the additional cost of controlling blood pressure, according to guidelines, was estimated at £106-229 million per annum, depending on the health professional delivering care. Untreated, uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension is relatively common, affecting 1 in 12 patients aged 40-74 years in primary care. Current international guidelines and pay-for-performance targets, if followed, will incur significant costs for a patient benefit that is debatable. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  16. Acute resolution of pulmonary alveolar infiltrates in 10 dogs with pulmonary hypertension treated with sildenafil citrate: 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellihan, Heidi B; Waller, Kenneth R; Pinkos, Alyssa; Steinberg, Howard; Bates, Melissa L

    2015-09-01

    To describe clinical canine patients with naturally occurring pulmonary hypertension and radiographic pulmonary alveolar infiltrates before and after treatment with sildenafil. Ten client-owned dogs. A retrospective analysis of dogs with echocardiographically-determined pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary alveolar infiltrates on thoracic radiographs was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) sildenafil therapy. Clinical scores, pulmonary alveolar infiltrate scores and tricuspid regurgitation gradients were analyzed PRE and POST sildenafil. Pulmonary alveolar infiltrates associated with pulmonary hypertension developed in a diffusely patchy distribution (10/10). Sixty percent of dogs had a suspected diagnosis of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis as the etiology of pulmonary hypertension. Median PRE clinical score was 4 (range: 3-4) compared to POST score of 0 (0-2) (p = 0.005). Median alveolar infiltrate score PRE was 10 (5-12) compared to POST score of 4 (0-6) (p = 0.006). Median tricuspid regurgitation gradient PRE was 83 mmHg (57-196) compared to 55 mmHg POST (33-151) (p = 0.002). A subset of dogs with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension present with diffuse, patchy alveolar infiltrates consistent with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The typical clinical presentation is acute dyspnea and syncope, often in conjunction with heart murmurs suggestive of valvular insufficiency. This constellation of signs may lead to an initial misdiagnosis of congestive heart failure or pneumonia; however, these dogs clinically and radiographically improve with the initiation of sildenafil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnitude of Hypotension Based on Office and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Results From a Cohort of 5066 Treated Hypertensive Patients Aged 80 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divisón-Garrote, Juan A; Ruilope, Luis M; de la Sierra, Alejandro; de la Cruz, Juan J; Vinyoles, Ernest; Gorostidi, Manuel; Escobar-Cervantes, Carlos; Velilla-Zancada, Sonsoles M; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R

    2017-05-01

    Elderly patients can be particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of excessive blood pressure (BP) lowering by antihypertensive treatment. The identification of hypotension is thus especially important. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is a more accurate technique than office for classifying BP status. This study examined the prevalence of hypotension and associated demographic and clinical factors among very old treated hypertensive patients undergoing ABPM. Cross-sectional study in which 5066 patients aged 80 years and older with treated hypertension drawn from the Spanish ABPM Registry were included. Office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP were determined using validated devices under standardized conditions. Based on previous studies, hypotension was defined as systolic/diastolic BP office measurement, office hypotension, 33.7% daytime hypotension, 9.2% nighttime hypotension, and 20.5% 24-hour ABPM hypotension. Low diastolic BP values were responsible for 90% of cases of hypotension. In addition, 59.1% of the cases of hypotension detected by daytime ABPM did not correspond to hypotension according to office BP. The variables independently associated with office and ABPM hypotension were diabetes, coronary heart disease, and a higher number of antihypertensive medications. One in 3 very elderly treated hypertensive patients attended in usual clinical practice were potentially at risk of having hypotension according to daytime ABPM. More than half of them had masked hypotension; that is, they were not identified if relying on office BP alone. Thus, ABPM could be especially helpful for identifying ambulatory hypotension and avoiding overtreatment, in particular, in patients with diabetes, heart disease, or on antihypertensive polytherapy. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Secrecy and the Pathogenesis of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Ettner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature supporting a relationship between emotions and regulation of blood pressure dates back to the early 1900s. Theoretical explanations of the pathophysiology of the correlation have centered on several possible trajectories, the most likely being cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Prospective studies have demonstrated that chronic stress and enduring traits such as defensiveness and anxiety, impacts the development of hypertension. An analysis of 195 genetic males seeking contrary hormones for treatment of gender dysphoria revealed a significantly increased prevalence of hypertension in this cohort. The authors attribute this increased prevalence to the known effects of emotional disclosure on health and conclude that the inhibition of emotional expressiveness is significant in the etiology and maintenance of essential hypertension in this population. As hypertension is associated with morbidity and mortality, the implications for the family medicine physician treating gender nonconforming individuals and other patients in the context of a general medical practice will be discussed.

  19. 3A.04: OBJECTIVE FOR 2015: 70% OF TREATED AND CONTROLLED HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS. HOW FAR FROM THIS GOAL WAS FRANCE IN 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, J J

    2015-06-01

    One of the main objectives of the French plan against stroke is to achieve a goal of 70% of treated and controlled hypertensive patients in 2015. Since 2000, very few registries evaluated the rate of BP controlled patients in general practice. The aim of the PASSAGE registry was to evaluate the rate of BP control in outpatient hypertensive patients attending general practitioners offices. A representative sample of 1000 French practitioners was requested to include the first consecutive 20 hypertensive patients. Controlled hypertension was defined as SBP 80 yo. The recruitment period held from november 2013 to february 2014. 21278 patients (mean age 66 ± 12 y; 50.7% of males) were included. 14.2% were >80 yo. 47% had treated dylipidemia and 11.6% were active smokers. Monotherapy, dual therapy were used in 48.7% and 31.8% respectively, whereas 3 treatments and more were prescribed in 16.4% of patients. Mean BP was 140 ± 16 / 80 ± 10 mmHg. Although GP's declared that BP goal was achieved 69.6% of patients, only 54.4% of patients strictly fit BP control definition. 73% of patients >80 yo were at goal. The figure demonstrates that the majority of uncontrolled hypertension was due to SBP not at goal.(Figure is included in full-text article.) : The PASSAGE registry provides updated data on blood pressure control in general practice in France. The percentage of controlled patients seems stable compared to the most recent surveys in the general population. In addition, the application of a specific threshold for octogenarians explains the satisfactory control rate in this subgroup. The percentage of controlled subjects contrasts with the evaluation of practitioners, which can be explained by optimal ambulatory BP measurements, or more probably by an important therapeutic inertia as suggested by the high percentage of patients on monotherapy. The implementation of updated national recommendations as well as the setup of large-scale assessment tools must

  20. Survival and risk of leukaemia in polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia treated with oral radiophosphorus. Are safer drugs available?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, L.; Anderson, H. [University Hospital, Department of Oncology and Southern Swedish Regional Rumour Registry, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    For 366 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythaemia (ET) diagnosed 1971-1990, oral administration of 32-P was used as myelosuppressive treatment. Retreatment was not restricted to any defined interval and the number of treatments or the total dose were not limited. For 107 patients, follow-up was > 10 years. 15 of these presented with life-threatening occlusive vascular symptoms and their survival was short. For the remaining 92 patients 5-yr survival was not significantly worse than for a Swedish population matched for age and sex. Survival at 10 yr was lower, 51% versus 66% expected. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was diagnosed in 11 of the 107 patients (10.3%). In the whole material of 366 patients, 17 have developed AML with a median time of 8.5 yr from start of treatment. There was a maximum incidence of 4% per yr after 8-12 yr. Later, the incidence decreased. The median annual dose of 32-P for the AML patients was 100 MBq and was not significantly larger than for a matched control group surviving without AML, 95 MBq. The results are compared with reports on PV or ET patients treated with busulphan (Bu) or hydroxyurea (HU). With comparable periods of follow-up there are no indications that an adequate myelosuppression with oral 32-P will be associated with shorter survival or higher incidence of AML than treatment with Bu or HU. It is concluded that, for the time being, oral administration of 32-P is an acceptable standard treatment in PV and ET. (au) (20 refs.).

  1. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and essential hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Le; Hu, Cai-Yun; Lu, Shan-Shan; Gong, Feng-Feng; Feng, Fang; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the role of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C polymorphisms in essential hypertension (EH), but results are inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to clarify the effects of MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms on the risk of EH. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published until January 2014. Data were extracted by two independent authors. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95%confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association between MTHFR C677T/A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of EH using random effect models or fixed effect models. Finally,30 studies with 5207 cases and 5383 controls were included for C677T polymorphism and 6 studies with 1009 cases and 994 controls were included for A1298C polymorphism. Meta-analysis results indicated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism contributed to an increased risk of EH (for T vs. C: OR=1.30, 95%CI=1.18–1.43; for TT+CT vs. CC: OR=1.34, 95%CI=1.24–1.46; for TT vs. CC: OR=1.62, 95%CI=1.32–1.99; for TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.26–1.59). However, no significant association was detected between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and the risk of EH. This meta-analysis supports that MTHFR C677T polymorphism plays a role in developing EH. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may not be associated with an increased risk of EH. Further large and well-designed studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension risk and blood pressure levels in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peng; Peng, Yan; Li, Li; Chu, Wei; Wang, Xukai

    2018-01-16

    In this case-control study, 246 EH patients and 157 healthy controls were selected from Chinese Han population to explore the associations between the fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH).The SequenomMassarray system was used for the genotyping of three FGF23 gene Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs7955866, rs13312756, and rs3812822. The primers were designed by Assay Designer 3.1 software, and then the samples were added to a 384-well plate for the polymerase chain reaction amplification, shrimp alkaline phosphatase reaction, and desalting after extension. The distributions of the alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes were compared between the two groups. Confounding factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking, and drinking) were adjusted in the non-logistic regression, and the results showed that rs7955866 and rs3812822 polymorphisms were independently associated with the risk of developing EH (P control group showed that carrying rs7955866 A allele (P = 0.031) and rs3812822 C allele (P = 0.025) was associated with the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP). The insulin (INS) level in the peripheral blood was significantly different between the case and control groups (P = 0.014). After confounding factors were excluded, the results showed that the serum INS level was also an independent risk factor of developing EH (P = 0.044; OR = 1.604, 95%CI: 1.014-2.539). In summary, our results suggest that FGF23 gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing EH in Chinese Han population.

  3. The interactions between alcohol consumption and DNA methylation of the ADD1 gene promoter modulate essential hypertension susceptibility in a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Liu, Panpan; Wang, Changyi; Zhong, Qilong; Fan, Rui; Wang, Lin; Duan, Shiwei; Zhang, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The potential effects of the interactions between DNA methylation (CpG1 and CpG2-5 methylation levels) of the α-adducin (ADD1) gene promoter and ADD1 tagSNPs (tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms) or the environmental factors on essential hypertension (EH) risk have not been clarified. Thus, we performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study to investigate the association between ADD1 tagSNPs and EH. A total of 1020 subjects with EH and 1020 normotensive subjects were genotyped by melting temperature shift technology. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations of ADD1 tagSNPs, environmental factors and EH. The generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method was applied to explore the potential interactions. Under additive, dominant and recessive models, no significant associations were evidenced between EH and rs3755885, rs2071694, rs4963 or rs3775067 with the complete data set or the gender-stratified analysis after adjusting for triglycerides, body mass index and alcohol consumption. However, we observed a significant association between rs4961 and EH under the dominant model after Bonferroni correction when adjusting for confounding factors in the entire sample (odds ratio (OR)=0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.50-0.83, P=0.001). In GMDR, the two-factor interaction model of alcohol consumption and DNA methylation (CpG1 methylation) was the best model, with a maximum cross-validation consistency of 9/10 and testing balance accuracy of 0.63 (P=0.01). Our results indicate that the SNP rs4961 has a protective role in the development of EH. In conclusion, the interactions between alcohol consumption and DNA methylation (CpG1 methylation) of the ADD1 gene promoter have a significant role in modifying EH susceptibility.

  4. Presence of mutation m.14484T>C in a Chinese family with maternally inherited essential hypertension but no expression of LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Wen; Yuan, Yong; Guo, Li; Yu, Dandan; Liu, Juan; Yang, Da-Kuan; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2012-10-01

    Essential hypertension (EH, MIM 145500) is the most common cardiovascular disease and affects one-quarter of the world's adult population. Families with EH in a mode of maternal transmission have been occasionally observed in clinical settings and suggested an involvement of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. We aimed to characterize the role of mtDNA mutation in EH. We reported a large Han Chinese family with a maternally inherited EH and an extraordinarily high percentage of sudden death mainly in affected females. Analysis of the entire mtDNA genome of the proband identified a homoplasmic primary mutation m.14484T>C for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), along with several variants indicating haplogroup F1 status. Intriguingly, no maternal member in this family had LHON though they all harbored m.14484T>C. The arterial stiffness of the members carrying mutation m.14484T>C was significantly increased than that of non-maternal members without this mutation. No environmental factor (including age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hyperlipidemia) was correlated with the decreased aortic elastic properties observed in affected members. Mitochondrial respiration rate and membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) were significantly reduced in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from affected members carrying m.14484T>C when compared to control cell lines (PC causes EH under certain circumstance. This study provides a paradigm for diverse phenotypes of the primary LHON mutation and suggests for the necessity of routine cardiac evaluation in patients with the primary LHON mutation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of ACE gene A2350G and I/D polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the northernmost province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; He, Ning; Zhang, Keyong; Wu, Nan; Zhao, Jingbo; Qiu, Changchun

    2017-11-27

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, as a strong candidate gene for essential hypertension(EH), has been extensively studied. In this study, we carried out a population-based case-control study to explore whether ACE gene I/D and A2350G polymorphisms could consider to be risk factors for EH. A total of 2040 subjeces were recruited from Chinese Han in this study, out of which 1010 were cases and 1030 were normotensive individuals. ACE gene A2350G and I/D polymorphisms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and A2350G polymorphism was detected after restriction enzyme digestion with BstuI. Besides, we choosed 10% samples randomly sequencing to verify the accuracy of results. Genotype and allele frequencies distribution of I/D and A2350G in EH and control groups were significantly different. After grouped by sex or age, there were still statistical significances for two polymorphisms. In dominant and recessive model of A2350G, we found significant differences between two groups, respectively. For ACE I/D polymorphism, we observed that the existence of dramatical difference in dominant model between two groups, while in recessive model, marginally significant difference was found. Among the four haplotypes composed by ACE gene A2350G and I/D, haplotype G-D reached the statistical significance in two groups, and exhibited to be a risk factor for the development of EH, whose P ACE gene A2350G and I/D polymorphisms were associated with increasing the risk of suffering from EH in the northernmost province of China individuals, with D allele and G allele individuals had a higher risk of EH(OR = 1.443, 95%CI = 1.273-1.636 and OR = 1.481, 95%CI = 1.303-1.684).

  6. [Hypertensive crisis: urgency and hypertensive emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Martínez, Javier; Doménech Feria-Carot, Mónica; Morales Salinas, Alberto; Coca Payeras, Antonia

    2016-11-18

    Hypertensive crises lumped several clinical situations with different seriousness and prognosis. The differences between hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency depends on if this situation involves a vital risk for the patient. This risk is defined more by the severity of the organ damage than for the higher values of blood pressure. The hypertensive urgency not involves an immediately risk for the patient, for these reason, the treatment can be completed after discharged. Otherwise, the hypertensive emergency is a critical clinical condition that requires hospital assistance. Faced with a patient, with severe hypertension, asymptomatic or with unspecific symptoms we must be careful. First, we need to confirm the values of blood pressure, with several measures of blood pressure and investigate and treat factors, which triggered this situation. The objective of medical treatment for hypertensive urgency is to reduce blood pressure values (at least 20% of baseline values) but to avoid sudden reduction of these values. In hypertensive urgencies rapid acting drug should not be used because of the risk of ischemic stroke and use drugs with longer half-life. The cardiovascular risk of these patients is higher than that do not suffer hypertensive crisis. The treatment must be personalized in each hypertensive emergency and intravenous it’s the best route to treat these patients.

  7. Perioperative hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pinna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perioperative hypertension is a situation whose management is suggested by the clinical judgement much more than clinical evidences. JNC 7 guidelines give a classification of blood pressure (BP, without any mention specifically dedicated to patients undergoing surgery. The ACC/AHA guidelines recommend deferring surgery if diastolic BP is above 110 mmHg and systolic BP is above 180 mmHg. AIM OF THE STUDY In this review we considered pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic factors related to perioperative management of hypertensive patients. DISCUSSION In actual trend of the preoperative evaluation, alone hypertension is considered as a minor risk factor. BP values ≤ 180/110 mmHg do not influence the outcomes in patients who underwent noncardiac surgery. Therefore, in these conditions it’s not necessary to delay surgery. Hypertensive picks are possible during the operation, mostly because of the intubation, but, much more dangerous, falls of pressure are possible. The intraoperative arterial pressure should be maintained within 20% of the best estimated preoperative arterial pressure, especially in patients with markedly elevated preoperative pressures. After surgery the arterial BP can increase for stress factors, pain, hypoxia and hypercapnia, hypothermia and infusional liquids overload. For all these reasons a careful monitoring is mandatory. Anti-hypertensive medication should be continued during the postoperative period in patients with known and treated hypertension, as unplanned withdrawal of treatment can result in rebounded hypertension. The decision to give anti-hypertensive drugs must be made for each patient, taking into account their normal BP and their postoperative BP. With regard to the optimal treatment of the patient with poorly or uncontrolled hypertension in the perioperative evaluation, recent guidelines suggest that the best treatment may consider cardioselective β-blockers therapy, but also clonidin by

  8. Developing an integrated treatment pathway for a post-coronary artery bypass grating (CABG geriatric patient with comorbid hypertension and type 1 diabetes mellitus for treating acute hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abbas Naqvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ailments afflicting the elderly population is a well-defined specialty of medicine. It calls for an immaculately designed health-care plan to treat diseases in geriatrics. For chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (HTN, they require proper management throughout the rest of patient's life. An integrated treatment pathway helps in treatment decision-making and improving standards of health care for the patient. Case Presentation: This case describes an exclusive clinical pharmacist-driven designing of an integrated treatment pathway for a post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG geriatric male patient with DM type I and HTN for the treatment of hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance. Intervention: The treatment begins addressing the chief complaints which were vomiting and unconsciousness. Biochemical screening is essential to establish a diagnosis of electrolyte imbalance along with blood glucose level after which the integrated pathway defines the treatment course. Conclusion: This individualized treatment pathway provides an outline of the course of treatment of acute hypoglycemia, electrolyte imbalance as well as some unconfirmed diagnosis, namely, acute coronary syndrome and respiratory tract infection for a post-CABG geriatric patient with HTN and type 1 DM. The eligibility criterion for patients to be treated according to treatment pathway is to fall in the defined category.

  9. Developing an Integrated Treatment Pathway for a Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grating (CABG) Geriatric Patient with Comorbid Hypertension and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus for Treating Acute Hypoglycemia and Electrolyte Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Shah, Amna; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    The ailments afflicting the elderly population is a well-defined specialty of medicine. It calls for an immaculately designed health-care plan to treat diseases in geriatrics. For chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary heart disease, and hypertension (HTN), they require proper management throughout the rest of patient's life. An integrated treatment pathway helps in treatment decision-making and improving standards of health care for the patient. This case describes an exclusive clinical pharmacist-driven designing of an integrated treatment pathway for a post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) geriatric male patient with DM type I and HTN for the treatment of hypoglycemia and electrolyte imbalance. The treatment begins addressing the chief complaints which were vomiting and unconsciousness. Biochemical screening is essential to establish a diagnosis of electrolyte imbalance along with blood glucose level after which the integrated pathway defines the treatment course. This individualized treatment pathway provides an outline of the course of treatment of acute hypoglycemia, electrolyte imbalance as well as some unconfirmed diagnosis, namely, acute coronary syndrome and respiratory tract infection for a post-CABG geriatric patient with HTN and type 1 DM. The eligibility criterion for patients to be treated according to treatment pathway is to fall in the defined category.

  10. Radiographic and Histopathologic Analysis on Osteoarthritis Rat Model Treated with Essential Oils of Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Belkhodja , Boumediene Meddah, Aicha Meddah TirTouil, Khaled Slimani, Abdenacer Tou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plants represent an important source of various chemical structures known for their therapeutic activities in folk medicine. Our study aimed to exploit natural bioactive components from well-known medicinal plants "Rosmarinus officinalis and Populus alba". Methods: The study of acute toxicity of essential oils of Rosemary and White poplar was carried out on Wistar rats. Then, the effect of these essential oils was studied in the treatment of experimental models induced by knee osteoarthritis. A radiographic and Histologic analysis was carried out to monitor the efficiency of essential oil. The choice of the model of osteoarthritis turned to unilateral intra-articular injection of a mono-iodo acetic acid. Results: The results revealed that the action of the essential oil showed a significant decrease in the Mankin score compared to the group of untreated rats. Conclusion: The essential oils of R. officinalis, P. alba presented an protective effect against osteoarthritis with difference degrees.

  11. A comparison of treating metabolic acidosis in CKD stage 4 hypertensive kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2013-03-01

    Current guidelines recommend Na(+)-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level metabolic acidosis, and was higher in the HCO3 than the fruits and vegetable group (Pmetabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia.

  12. Screening and treating pulmonary arterial hypertension in a tertiary hospital-based multidisciplinary clinic: the first 200 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A J; Fowler, D; Manghani, M K; Young, I; Garsia, R; Torzillo, P; Youssef, P; Celermajer, D S

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an increasingly recognised serious illness with insidious onset, delayed diagnosis, complex diagnostic algorithms and poor prognosis, but with recently available effective treatments. To efficiently diagnose and to offer treatment for PAH, we established a multidisciplinary service in 2005, where patients attend a clinic staffed by specialists in cardiology, respiratory medicine, rheumatology and immunology in a tertiary referral hospital setting. We studied the first 200 patients referred. Serology, echocardiography, lung function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, World Health Organisation Class determination and 6-min walk tests and/or right heart catheterisation were performed, as clinically indicated. Of the 200 patients seen, 66 had confirmed pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mmHg) diagnosed on echocardiography ± right heart catheterisation. Of these patients, 58 had catheter-proven PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mmHg with mean wedge pressure clinic to prescription of therapy was 16 days (interquartile range; 0-31 days). All surviving patients with PAH have attended for regular 6-monthly follow-up visits with a 100% retention rate up to 4 years. A multidisciplinary clinic can provide efficient diagnosis and rapid triage to PAH-specific therapy, if appropriate. Retention rates remain high, at follow up. © 2011 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Genome-wide association study using a high-density SNP-array and case-control design identifies a novel essential hypertension susceptibility locus in the promoter region of eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Erika; Kutalik, Zoltán; Glorioso, Nicola; Benaglio, Paola; Frau, Francesca; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Arima, Hisatomi; Hoggart, Clive; Tichet, Jean; Nikitin, Yury P.; Conti, Costanza; Seidlerova, Jitka; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Johnson, Toby; Devos, Nabila; Zagato, Laura; Guarrera, Simonetta; Zaninello, Roberta; Calabria, Andrea; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Troffa, Chiara; Thijs, Lutgarde; Rizzi, Federica; Simonova, Galina; Lupoli, Sara; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Braga, Daniele; D’Alessio, Maria C.; Ortu, Maria F.; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mercurio, Maurizio; Descombes, Patrick; Marconi, Maurizio; Chalmers, John; Harrap, Stephen; Filipovsky, Jan; Bochud, Murielle; Iacoviello, Licia; Ellis, Justine; Stanton, Alice V.; Laan, Maris; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Melander, Olle; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Manunta, Paolo; Shabo, Amnon; Vineis, Paolo; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Rivolta, Carlo; Munroe, Patricia B.; Barlassina, Cristina; Staessen, Jan A; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Cusi, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a multi-factorial disorder and is the main risk factor for renal and cardiovascular complications. The research on the genetics of hypertension has been frustrated by the small predictive value of the discovered genetic variants. The HYPERGENES Project investigated associations between genetic variants and essential hypertension pursuing a two-stage study by recruiting cases and controls from extensively characterized cohorts recruited over many years in different European regions. The discovery phase consisted of 1,865 cases and 1,750 controls genotyped with 1M Illumina array. Best hits were followed up in a validation panel of 1,385 cases and 1,246 controls that were genotyped with a custom array of 14,055 markers. We identified a new hypertension susceptibility locus (rs3918226) in the promoter region of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene (odds ratio 1.54; 95% CI 1.37-1.73; combined p=2.58·10−13). A meta-analysis, using other in-silico/de novo genotyping data for a total of 21714 subjects, resulted in an overall odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI 1.25-1.44, p=1.032·10−14). The quantitative analysis on a population-based sample revealed an effect size of 1.91 (95% CI 0.16-3.66) for systolic and 1.40 (95% CI 0.25-2.55) for diastolic blood pressure. We identified in-silico a potential binding site for ETS transcription-factors directly next to rs3918226, suggesting a potential modulation of eNOS expression. Biological evidence links eNOS with hypertension, as it is a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and blood pressure control via vascular tone regulation. This finding supports the hypothesis that there may be a causal genetic variation at this locus. PMID:22184326

  14. Hypertension and cerebrovascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-06-01

    Essential hypertension has devastating effects on the brain, being the major cause of stroke and a leading cause of dementia. Hypertension alters the structure of cerebral blood vessels and disrupts intricate vasoregulatory mechanisms that assure an adequate blood supply to the brain. These alterations threaten the cerebral blood supply and increase the susceptibility of the brain to ischemic injury as well as Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which hypertension disrupts cerebral blood vessels, highlighting recent advances and outstanding issues.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICACY OF FIXED-DOSE COMBINATIONS OF AMLODIPINE/LISINOPRIL AND BISOPROLOL/HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION COMBINED WITH OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the characteristics of the daily profile of blood pressure (BP and heart damage in patients with essential hypertension (HT, depending on the presence of obesity as well as the antihypertensive and organoprotective effects of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine/lisinopril and bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with obesity or overweight.Material and methods. 60 patients with untreated HT, stage II, degree 1-2 (51.7% of men, aged 53.6±0.8 years were examined. 24-hour BP monitoring and transthoracic echocardiography with calculation of myocardial stiffness parameters were performed in all patients. Hypertensive patients with obesity and overweight were randomized into groups treated with fixed-dose combinations amlodipine/lisinopril (n=25 or bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide (n=30. Doses of drugs were titrated until the target BP was achieved. The follow-up was 12 weeks.Results. Patients with HT and obesity (n=28 compared with hypertensive patients without obesity (n=32 had greater systolic BP (SBP variability at night (p<0.05 and a morning surge in SBP (p<0.01, end systolic volume (p<0.05, systolic volume (p<0.01,right ventricle anterior-posterior dimension (p<0.001, right atrium volume (p<0.01, the thickness of the interventricular septum (p<0.01 and the posterior wall (p<0.001 of the left ventricle (LV, significantly lower LV global longitudinal systolic 2D-strain (p<0.001, coefficient of diastolic and end-systolic LV elastance (p<0.05 for both. At the end of the follow-up period patients in the amlodipine/lisinopril group compared to patients in the bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide group had a greater decrease in the mean daily pulse BP (-10.8 vs -5.4 mm Hg, respectively; p<0.05 and variability of SBP in daytime (-2.8±0.8 vs -0.9±0.3 mm Hg, respectively; p<0.05. Only patients in the amlodipine/lisinopril group had a significant decrease in the variability of SBP (from 12.2±0.8 to 10.9±0.5 mm Hg; p<0.05 and

  16. Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have little effect on headaches caused by intracranial hypertension, they may temporarily affect the intensity of a ... study in which 26 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) were treated with octreotide, a synthetic hormone ...

  17. Dialysis-associated hypertension treated with Telmisartan--DiaTel: a pilot, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Huber

    Full Text Available Treatment of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD patients is characterised by lack of evidence for both the blood pressure (BP target goal and the recommended drug class to use. Telmisartan, an Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB that is metabolised in the liver and not excreted via HD extracorporeal circuit might be particularly suitable for HD patients. We designed and conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and cross-over trial for treatment of dialysis-associated hypertension with telmisartan 80 mg once daily or placebo on top of standard antihypertensive treatment excluding other Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS blockers. In 29 patients after randomization we analysed BP after a treatment period of 8 weeks, while 13 started with telmisartan and 16 with placebo; after 8 weeks 11 continued with telmisartan and 12 with placebo after cross-over, respectively. Patients exhibited a significant reduction of systolic pre-HD BP from 141.9±21.8 before to 131.3±17.3 mmHg after the first treatment period with telmisartan or placebo. However, no average significant influence of telmisartan was observed compared to placebo. The latter may be due to a large inter-individual variability of BP responses reaching from a 40 mmHg decrease under placebo to 40 mmHg increase under telmisartan. Antihypertensive co-medication was changed for clinical reasons in 7 out of 21 patients with no significant difference between telmisartan and placebo groups. Our starting hypothesis, that telmisartan on top of standard therapy lowers systolic office BP in HD patients could not be confirmed. In conclusion, this small trial indicates that testing antihypertensive drug efficacy in HD patients is challenging due to complicated standardization of concomitant medication and other confounding factors, e.g. volume status, salt load and neurohormonal activation, that influence BP control in HD patients.Clinicaltrialsregister.eu 2005-005021-60.

  18. Chlorthalidone Versus Amlodipine for Hypertension in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Tacrolimus: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Arthur D; Hesselink, Dennis A; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Zietse, Robert; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-06-01

    Chlorthalidone is a very effective antihypertensive drug, but it has not been studied prospectively in kidney transplant recipients with hypertension. Recent data indicate that calcineurin inhibitors activate the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter, providing further rationale to test thiazides in this population. Randomized noninferiority crossover trial (noninferiority margin, -2.8mmHg). Hypertensive kidney transplant recipients using tacrolimus (median duration, 2.4 years after transplantation; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate, 63±27 [SD] mL/min/1.73m 2 ; mean systolic blood pressure [SBP], 151±12mmHg). Amlodipine (5-10mg) and chlorthalidone (12.5-25mg) for 8 weeks (separated by 2-week washout). Average daytime (9 am to 9 pm) ambulatory SBP. Blood pressure and laboratory parameters. 88 patients underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, of whom 49 (56%) with average daytime SBP>140mmHg were enrolled. 41 patients completed the study. Amlodipine and chlorthalidone both reduced ambulatory SBP after 8 weeks (mean changes of 150±12 to 137±12 [SD] vs 151±12 to 141±13mmHg; effect size, -4.2 [95% CI, -7.3 to 1.1] mmHg). Despite these similar blood pressure responses, chlorthalidone reduced proteinuria by 30% (effect size, -65 [95% CI, -108 to -35] mg/g) and also reduced physician-assessed peripheral edema (22% to 10%; P<0.05 for both). In contrast, chlorthalidone temporarily reduced kidney function and increased both serum uric acid and glycated hemoglobin levels. Open-label design, short follow-up, per-protocol analysis. Chlorthalidone is an antihypertensive drug equally effective as amlodipine after kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term safety of dexamethasone implant for treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion, in eyes with glaucoma or treated ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulou, Sofia; Ellabban, Abdallah A; Johnston, Robert L; Cilliers, Helena; Mohamed, Quresh; Sallam, Ahmed B

    2017-04-01

    To report the short-term safety of dexamethasone implants to treat macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO), in eyes with treated glaucoma or ocular hypertension at baseline using an as-needed re-treatment regimen. Retrospective clinical database study from two centers using the same electronic medical record system. Extracted data included: intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity (VA), central 1 mm retinal thickness (CRT) by optical coherence tomography, phakic status, number of injections, glaucoma treatment, and peri-operative complications. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients on IOP-lowering treatment for glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) at baseline and mean IOP of 16 mmHg at baseline received one to four (mean, 1.8; median, 1) dexamethasone implants over 18 months for RVO-related macular edema. Fourteen eyes (42 %) had IOP of ≥21 mmHg, and three eyes (9 %) had IOP of ≥35 mmHg at one or more visits during the study period. Nine of 14 eyes (64 %) with raised IOP required additional topical treatment only for a mean (SE) period of 8.5 months (3.2), while the remaining five eyes (36 %) required long-term additional IOP-lowering treatment for a mean (SE) of 16 months (1.44). Surgery for IOP lowering was not required in any eye. Mean VA (SE) improved from 44 (3) ETDRS letters at baseline to 47 letters (5) at 2 months (p = 0.049), 48 (8) letters at 6 months and 46 (4) letters at 12 months. Mean CRT (SE) improved from 530 (25) μm at baseline to 323 (27) μm at 2 months (p glaucoma or ocular hypertension at baseline was acceptable and consistent with previous reports in patients without preexisting glaucoma. Treated OHT or glaucoma may not be a strict contraindication against the use of dexamethasone implant, but close monitoring of IOP is required.

  20. Microalbuminuria and sRAGE in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Treated with Nifedipine/Telmisartan Combination Treatment: A Substudy of TALENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colomba Falcone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antihypertensive drugs have also renoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties that go beyond their effect on blood pressure. It has been suggested that microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR are associated with circulating levels of the soluble form of the receptor, sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycation ends-products. In the present analysis, we used data from the TALENT study to evaluate soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE plasma levels in patients with hypertension and high-cardiovascular risk-treated nifedipine and telmisartan in combination. Treatment with nifedipine-telmisartan significantly decreased mean systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressure and resulted in a significant increase in sRAGE plasma concentrations after 24 weeks of therapy. We concluded that in hypertensive patients with early-stage renal disease, sRAGE concentrations are not influenced by either microalbuminuria or GFR. Long-term treatment with a combination of nifedipine-telmisartan may have a beneficial effect increasing sRAGE plasma levels, thus exerting an atheroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Circulating YKL-40 in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera treated with the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Bjørn, Mads Emil; McMullin, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    YKL-40 regulates vascular endothelial growth factors and induces tumor proliferation. We investigated YKL-40 before and after treatment with vorinostat in 31 polycythemia vera (PV) and 16 essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. Baseline PV patient levels were 2 times higher than in healthy contr...

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and quality maintenance of cherry tomatoes treated with gaseous essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) from cinnamon bark, oregano, mustard and of their major components cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) were evaluated as a gaseous treatment to reduce Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and on tomatoes. In dif...

  3. A Comparison of Treating Metabolic Acidosis in CKD Stage 4 Hypertensive Kidney Disease with Fruits and Vegetables or Sodium Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current guidelines recommend Na+-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Results Plasma cystatin C–calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; Pfruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; Pfruits and vegetable group (Pfruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia. PMID:23393104

  4. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Hipertensión Ocular? ...

  5. Obesity-Related Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities. In this review, the following 3 facets of the obesity/hypertension nexus will be discussed: the potential mechanisms by which obesity can lead to elevated arterial pressure, the interaction of obesity with the sequelae of hypertension, and the therapies that are believed to optimally treat obesit...

  6. Hypothalamic signaling mechanisms in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Casey Y; Wainford, Richard D

    2015-05-01

    The etiology of hypertension, a critical public health issue affecting one in three US adults, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system. Increased activation of the central nervous system, driving enhanced sympathetic outflow and increased blood pressure, has emerged as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The hypothalamus is a key brain site acting to integrate central and peripheral inputs to ultimately impact blood pressure in multiple disease states that evoke hypertension. This review highlights recent advances that have identified novel signal transduction mechanisms within multiple hypothalamic nuclei (e.g., paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus) acting to drive the pathophysiology of hypertension in neurogenic hypertension, angiotensin II hypertension, salt-sensitive hypertension, chronic intermittent hypoxia, and obesity-induced hypertension. Increased understanding of hypothalamic activity in hypertension has the potential to identify novel targets for future therapeutic interventions designed to treat hypertension.

  7. Physiological performance and electrophoretic pattern of isoenzymes in Phaseolus vulgaris Lam. seeds treated with essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Antonia Bartolomeu Agustini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different doses of essential oil of Moringa oleifera (EOM on physiological potential and the expression of isoenzymes in bean seeds, an experiment was conducted with two cultivars (Colibri and Campos Gerais and seven treatments (bactericidal, fungicide and the doses 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% EOM. Germination, first count of germination, germination speed index (GSI, emergence and emergence rate index (ERI were evaluated in addition to the enzymes esterase (EST, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and isocitrate lyase (ICL by electrophoresis. In an experiment conducted in the laboratory, the dose containing 0.4% EOM promoted germination and higher averages for first germination in seeds and GSI in the Colibri cultivar. However, the highest dose used (0.8% was responsible for the worst physiological performance by the cultivar. For Campos Gerais, increasing doses of essential oil stimulated germination, first count of germination and GSI. In the field, higher doses of essential oil gave higher germination percentages for the Colibri cultivar, not influencing the seeds of Campos Gerais. The ERI was not altered by the treatments with OEM and changes in the molecular forms of the isoenzymes were observed, with low expression values of bands for EST, ICL and ADH-related vigor, the germination of both cultivars, as well as increased expression of SOD, which is associated with reductions in germination.

  8. Heart failure in hypertension: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Butler, Javed

    2012-07-09

    The heart failure epidemic calls for urgent prevention efforts. Hypertension is present in the majority of individuals who develop heart failure and carries the highest population-attributable risk for heart failure together with coronary heart disease. Therefore, hypertension is a natural prime target for prevention interventions. However, a substantial proportion of heart failure develops among individuals with a systolic BP (SBP) level below current therapeutic target recommendations (140 mmHg or 130 mmHg for high-risk groups), which are accepted as 'normal' levels, underlining the importance of prehypertension for heart failure development. Prevalence and incidence of both hypertension and prehypertension are high. Efforts to prevent or attenuate BP rise could lead to a substantial reduction of complications, including heart failure development. Lifestyle modifications play a crucial role in preventing elevation of BP levels and better control of high BP. Weight loss, control of sodium intake and diet, and physical activity are essential steps towards this direction. However, when medications are needed to reduce BP levels, the selection of the appropriate agent is important not only for effective control of BP but also to reduce hypertension-related complications. Diuretics and renin-angiotensin system modulators seem to be the most effective agents for heart failure prevention according to the existing evidence. Patients with heart failure and hypertension should be treated for hypertension based on the same principles, although medication selection should take into account concomitant medications, other risk factors and type of heart failure (reduced vs preserved left ventricular ejection fraction).

  9. Low occurrence of digital ulcers in scleroderma patients treated with bosentan for pulmonary arterial hypertension: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, F; Pigatto, E; Rizzo, M; Favaro, M; Zanatta, E; Cardarelli, S; Riato, L; Punzi, L

    2013-05-01

    Digital ulcers (DU) are one of the most common and debilitating manifestations of vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their prevention is important in order to improve patients' outcome and as a result of the economic impact they have on society. Randomised controlled studies have demonstrated that bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, reduces the appearance of new DU. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the occurrence of DU in a group of patients receiving long-term bosentan treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with SSc (PAH-SSc). Patients with PAH-SSc and treated with bosentan for at least 6 months (n = 30) were evaluated. Thirty patients with SSc not treated with bosentan, but matched for sex, age, disease duration and cutaneous form of SSc, were considered as a control group. The occurrence of DU, defined as loss of tissue of varying degrees in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, was determined in the bosentan-treated and untreated groups. Mean duration of bosentan treatment was 3.6 years. DU were detected in six patients in the bosentan-treated group (20.0 %) and 16 patients (53.3 %) in the untreated group (p = 0.0015). There were no significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics between patients with or without DU at study end. The occurrence of DU in patients with PAH-SSc receiving long-term bosentan treatment was significantly lower than in untreated patients. The results from this long-term observational study provide valuable information on management of patients with PAH-SSc.

  10. Quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis treated with a mucoadhesive patch containing citrus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürklü-Gürleyen E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esma Kürklü-Gürleyen,1 Merve Öğüt-Erişen,1 Onur Çakır,1 Ömer Uysal,2 Gülsüm Ak1 1Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, 2Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, BezmiÂlem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To assess 1 patient satisfaction of a mucoadhesive biopatch with citrus essential oil and 2 the change in pain severity and the oral health-related quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Patients and methods: Thirty-seven patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis participated in the study. Baseline records of personal data, ulcer assessment, visual analog scale, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were documented. A mucoadhesive patch was applied over the ulcer. Patients were recommended more applications if pain continued. On the fifth day, a post-therapy assessment was made. Results: The mean visual analog scale scores at baseline and posttreatment were significantly different (7.3±2.11 and 4.9±2.6, respectively; P=0.001. The mean duration of pain reduced after patch application. The mean total Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores before and after treatment showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.001. In total, 78.4% of patients reported a considerable improvement in oral functions after treatment (P=0.008. Conclusion: The mucoadhesive biopatch containing citrus essential oil resulted in satisfying pain alleviation and restoration of oral functions with a significant improvement in the oral health-related quality of life. Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, pain, quality of life, essential oil, biopatch, local therapy 

  11. Quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis treated with a mucoadhesive patch containing citrus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürklü-Gürleyen, Esma; Öğüt-Erişen, Merve; Çakır, Onur; Uysal, Ömer; Ak, Gülsüm

    2016-01-01

    To assess 1) patient satisfaction of a mucoadhesive biopatch with citrus essential oil and 2) the change in pain severity and the oral health-related quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Thirty-seven patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis participated in the study. Baseline records of personal data, ulcer assessment, visual analog scale, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were documented. A mucoadhesive patch was applied over the ulcer. Patients were recommended more applications if pain continued. On the fifth day, a post-therapy assessment was made. The mean visual analog scale scores at baseline and posttreatment were significantly different (7.3±2.11 and 4.9±2.6, respectively; P=0.001). The mean duration of pain reduced after patch application. The mean total Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores before and after treatment showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.001). In total, 78.4% of patients reported a considerable improvement in oral functions after treatment (P=0.008). The mucoadhesive biopatch containing citrus essential oil resulted in satisfying pain alleviation and restoration of oral functions with a significant improvement in the oral health-related quality of life.

  12. Impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on mortality and major cardiovascular endpoints in hypertension: A number-needed-to-treat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugts, Jasper J; van Vark, Laura; Akkerhuis, Martijn; Bertrand, Michel; Fox, Kim; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Boersma, Eric

    2015-02-15

    To assess the effectiveness of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors to prevent all-cause and cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke in hypertensive patients considering the number needed to treat (NNT). Data from a meta-analysis of 18 prospective, randomized, controlled morbidity-mortality trials (68 343 RAAS inhibitor; 84 543 control) were used to calculate NNTs for the prevention of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were used in 7 trials and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in 11 trials. Mean follow-up was 4.3years. The annual incidence rate of all-cause mortality was 0.0233 in patients randomized to RAAS inhibitors versus 0.0252 in controls (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 0.99). The corresponding median NNT to prevent one death was 113 (2.5-97.5th percentile, 85 to 168) in favor of RAAS inhibitors, which was driven by ACE inhibitors (NNT 67, 2.5-97.5th percentile, 53 to 92) rather than ARBs (NNT 335, 2.5-97.5th percentile, -4341 to 5076). Results for cardiovascular mortality (NNT 116 for ACE inhibitors and 409 for ARBs, respectively) and myocardial infarction (NNT 80 and 338, respectively) also appeared to be driven by ACE inhibitors. We found a lower NNT for stroke in favor of ARB (NNT 337 and 131, respectively) although this difference was statistically non-significant. Among hypertensive patients, ACE inhibitors but not ARBs, substantially reduce all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Calcium channel blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: Effectiveness in combination with diuretics or β-blockers for treating hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Bisognano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available John D Bisognano1, Trent McLaughlin2, Craig S Roberts3, Simon SK Tang31Internal Medicine Department, Cardiology Division, the University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; 2NDC Health, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This retrospective database analysis compared the effectiveness of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DHPs, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs added to diuretics or β-blockers. Adults with hypertension treated with diuretic or β-blocker monotherapy between 1998 and 2001 were identified from a large US electronic medical records database of primary care practices. Patients were required to have a baseline blood pressure (BP ≥140/90 mmHg (≥130/80 mmHg for diabetes mellitus and recorded BP measurements within 6 months before and 1–12 months following index date. Patients were matched 1:1:1 by propensity score to correct for differences in baseline characteristics. 1875 patients met study criteria and 660 (220 in each cohort were matched based on propensity scores. Matched cohorts had no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Mean changes in systolic/diastolic BP were –17.5/–8.8, –15.7/–6.3, and –13.0/–8.0 mmHg with DHPs, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs, respectively. Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High BP 6/7 goal attainment for each regimen was 47.3%, 40.0%, and 32.2%, respectively. DHPs, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs improved BP when added to patients’ β-blocker or diuretic therapy. The greatest benefits were observed with DHPs, followed by ACE inhibitors, then ARBs.Keywords: hypertension, amlodipine besylate, lisinopril, valsartan, Joint National Committee (JNC 6 and 7

  14. Qualidade de vida de pacientes hipertensos em tratamento ambulatorial Quality of life of hypertensive patients treated at an outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Assad Cavalcante

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As doenças cardiovasculares são principal causa de mortalidade na população brasileira, sendo a hipertensão arterial (HA de maior prevalência. A terapêutica para o tratamento da HA é cada vez maior e sabe-se que melhora a sobrevida dos pacientes, porém questiona-se a melhora na qualidade de vida (QV do paciente hipertenso após tratamento. OBJETIVO: Comparar aspectos relacionados à QV de pacientes hipertensos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 100 pacientes hipertensos; 46 aderidos a um esquema de tratamento padrão (grupo A e 54 (grupo B controle que iniciariam este esquema. Colheu-se dados clínicos e sócio-demográficos, realizou-se questões com enfoque na sexualidade, auto-percepção da QV, número e tipo de medicamentos utilizados e sua interferência na vida sexual e aplicou-se o questionário SF-36. Submeteram-se os resultados à análise estatística comparativa utilizando-se testes: t de Student, qui-quadrado, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e Tukey. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos para nenhum domínio do SF-36. Houve associação entre a questão da auto-percepção da QV e os domínios do SF-36, exceto nos aspectos emocionais. Na questão com enfoque na sexualidade, encontrou-se diferença quanto à QV sexual entre os grupos, sendo menos satisfatória para o grupo A. CONCLUSÃO: Quando aplicado o SF-36, não detectou-se modificações na QV entre os grupos por tratar-se de doença crônica assintomática. Este questionário não avaliou adequadamente os aspectos emocionais dos hipertensos na nossa casuística com grande variabilidade comportamental. A QV sexual foi menos satisfatória no grupo A, entretanto não encontrou-se relacionada ao número e tipo da medicação anti-hipertensiva utilizada.BACKGROUND: The main cause of mortality in braziliam population is the cardiovascular disease and arterial hypertension (AH the most prevalent one. The antihypertensive

  15. Office and ambulatory blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with different two-drug and three-drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Banegas, José R; Vinyoles, Ernest; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; de la Cruz, Juan J; Ruilope, Luis M

    There is scarce information regarding ambulatory blood pressure (BP) achieved in daily practice with a wide range of antihypertensive drug combinations. We looked for differences in office and ambulatory BP among major drug combinations of two and three antihypertensive agents from a different drugs class. A total of 17187 patients treated with six types of two-drug combinations and 9724 treated with six types of three-drug combinations from the Spanish ABPM Registry were analyzed. We compared achieved office and ambulatory BP, as well as office (ambulatory (24-hour BP ambulatory BP control. Moreover, triple combinations containing alpha blockers also had lower rates of ambulatory BP control. We conclude that even with similar office BP control, differences exist among antihypertensive two-drug and three-drug combinations with respect to ambulatory BP control achieved during treatment, with RAS blockers/diuretics and RAS blockers/CCBs/diuretics obtaining better control rates. This can help physicians choose among drug combinations in order to obtain further ambulatory BP reductions.

  16. Is diabetes and hypertension screening worthwhile in resource-limited settings? An economic evaluation based on a pilot of a Package of Essential Non-communicable disease interventions in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukpa, Wangchuk; Teerawattananon, Yot; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Srinonprasert, Varalak; Tongsri, Watsamon; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Wangchuk, Dorji; Dorji, Tandin; Wangmo, Kinzang

    2015-10-01

    In response to a lack of cost-effective data on screening and early treatment of diabetes and hypertension in resource-limited settings, a model-based economic evaluation was performed on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Package of Essential Non-communicable (PEN) disease interventions for primary health care in Bhutan. Both local and international data were applied in the model in order to derive lifetime costs and outcomes resulting from the early treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The results indicate that the current screening option (where people who are overweight, obese or aged 40 years or older who visit primary care facilities are screened for diabetes and hypertension) represents good value for money compared to 'no screening'. The study findings also indicate that expanding opportunistic screening (70% coverage of the target population) to universal screening (where 100% of the target population are screened), is likely to be even more cost-effective. From the sensitivity analysis, the value of the screening options remains the same when disease prevalence varies. Therefore, applying this model to other healthcare settings is warranted, since disease prevalence is one of the major factors in affecting the cost-effectiveness results of screening programs. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Morphology of Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Extracranial Arteries Assessed by Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the morphology of atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial arteries assessed by computed tomography angiography in patients with hypertension. The study included 61 hypertensive patients: 17 active smokers (group A), 18 non-smokers, declaring environmental exposure to tobacco smoke (group B), and 26 non-smokers, not declaring exposure to cigarette smoke (group C). The number of segments with plaques was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C. The number of segments with non-calcified and mixed plaques was significantly higher in group A and group B than in group C. A positive correlation between cigarette-years and the number of segments with atherosclerotic plaques was noted. In summary, both active smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke appear to increase the number of segments of the extracranial arteries with non-calcified and mixed atherosclerotic plaques.

  18. Blood pressure reverse dipping may associate with stable coronary artery disease in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin; Sun, Lu; Gao, Ya; Guo, Qi; Guo, Litao; Wang, Xue; Wang, Gang

    2016-05-03

    The dipping variations of circadian blood pressure (BP) correlate closely with target-organ damages and cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between BP reverse dipping and the prevalence of stable coronary artery disease (sCAD) in hypertensive patients. Clinical data and the results of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were obtained from 718 hypertensive patients (390 males, mean age 59.6 ± 13.8 years) in a single centre in Northern China. Reverse dipping pattern was defined as nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) was higher than daytime SBP. A logistic regression model was applied to explore the independent risk factors of sCAD. The patients with BP reverse dipping accounted for 31.5% in sCAD group and 19.5% in control group (P reverse dipping remained significantly associated with the prevalence of sCAD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.772; p = 0.027). Furthermore, the circadian decline rate of SBP was independently associated with sCAD (OR, 0.975; p = 0.043). The hypertensive patients with reverse BP dipping were found to be more frequently suffering from sCAD. BP reverse dipping examined with 24-hour ABPM may indicate sCAD.

  19. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  20. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  1. A phase III, open-label, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term triple combination therapy with azilsartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Shimizu, Kohei; Nishiyama, Yuya; Sano, Yuhei; Umeda, Yuusuke

    2017-12-13

    Patients with essential hypertension who are receiving treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker and a calcium channel blocker often develop inadequate blood pressure (BP) control and require the addition of a diuretic. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a triple combination therapy with 20 mg azilsartan (AZL), 5 mg amlodipine (AML) and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The phase III, open-label, multicenter study (NCT02277691) comprised a 4-week run-in period and 52-week treatment period. Patients with inadequate BP control despite AZL/AML therapy (n = 341) received 4 weeks' treatment with AZL/AML (combination tablet) + HCTZ (tablet) and 4 weeks' treatment with AZL/AML/HCTZ (combination tablet) in a crossover manner, followed by AZL/AML/HCTZ (combination tablet) from Week 8 of the treatment period up to Week 52. The primary and secondary endpoints were long-term safety and BP (office and home), respectively. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate in intensity, and no deaths or treatment-related serious AEs were reported. The triple therapy provided consistent BP-lowering effects in both office and home measurements. The triple combination therapy with AZL/AML/HCTZ was well tolerated and effective for 52 weeks in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

  2. [Chronic effects of spironolactone in conjunction with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on circulating procollagen marker P III NP and vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi-hong; Liu, Ying-qi; Gai, Lu-yue; Yang, Ting-shu; Li, Tian-de

    2006-06-01

    Disturbances of the synthesis and breakdown of the extracellular matrix of arterial walls have emerged as key features of the atherosclerotic process. We observed the changes of circulating procollagen marker for type III collagen turnover rate, the N-terminal propeptide P III NP and vascular resistance in hypertensive patients treated with various antihypertensive regimens. A total of 130 light to moderate hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive enalapril (group B, n = 43), enalapril + spirolactone (20 mg/d, group A, n = 44) and anti-hypertensive drugs not directly affecting RAAS (calcium antagonist, beta-blocker, group C, n = 43) for 1 year. Target blood pressure is P III NP were similar at baseline among various groups and remained unchanged in group B [(3.4 +/- 0.3) microg/L vs. (3.7 +/- 0.3) microg/L, P > 0.05] and significantly decreased in group A [(2.3 +/- 0.2) microg/L vs. (3.8 +/- 0.2) microg/L, P P P III NP and improving vascular resistance than enalapril alone or antihypertensive drug regimens not directly affecting RAAS.

  3. Intraoperative hypertensive crisis due to a catecholamine-secreting esthesioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Vafi; Schiavi, Adam; Binder, Zev A; Ruzevick, Jacob; Orr, Brent A; Burger, Peter C; Ball, Douglas W; Blitz, Ari M; Koch, Wayne M; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L

    2015-06-01

    Although uncommon, esthesioneuroblastomas may produce clinically significant amounts of catecholamines. We report a patient with a catecholamine-secreting esthesioneuroblastoma who developed an intraoperative hypertensive crisis. A patient with a history of hypertension was referred to our skull base center for management of a residual esthesioneuroblastoma. A staged endonasal endoscopic approach was planned. At the conclusion of the first stage, a hypertensive crisis occurred. Workup revealed elevated levels of serum and urinary catecholamines. The patient was treated with alpha adrenoceptor blockade before the second stage. Serum catecholamine levels after this second stage were normal. On immunohistochemical analysis, the tumor cells were found to be positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, and achaete-scute homologue 1, a transcription factor essential in the development of olfactory and sympathetic neurons. Catecholamine production should be considered in the differential of unexpected extreme hypertension during surgical resection of esthesioneuroblastoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin...... activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This is a topic for future research....

  5. Avaliação do perfil lipídico de pacientes diabéticos e hipertensos tratados com captopril Evaluation of lipid profile in diabetic and hypertensive patients treated with captopryl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bernardes Fernandes Santos

    2009-06-01

    protetor, diminuindo o risco ateroesclerótico desses pacientes e minimizando o efeito deletério aterogênico da HCTZ.INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of death in adults worldwide and its most important treatable risk factors are diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia and systemic hypertension (SH. The treatment with anti-hypertensives may cause undesirable changes in lipid profile, which diminishes its beneficial anti-atherogenic effects on the reduction of blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lipid profile of type 2 diabetic subjects with essential hypertension treated only with captopryl or in combination with other anti-hypertensive drugs in order to show improvement in the lipid pattern of these patients, which leads to a protective effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed total cholesterol (TC, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG levels of 140 patients, average age 59.7 ± 10.9, of both sexes, with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, referred to UNOESTE Laboratory of Clinical analysis. The glycemic control was determined by glycated hemoglobin (HG levels. According to metabolic glycemic control (satisfactory or unsatisfactory, these patients were divided into two groups: treated only with captopril (DC; treated with a combination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ and DC. In patients with GH 11.2% (uncontrolled, DC and HCTZ showed the following levels respectively: total cholesterol (214.3 ± 45.9 and 197 ± 49.5, HDL (35.3 ± 20.5 and 41.5 ± 0.7, LDL (121 ± 43.3 and 116.5 ± 38.9, TG (271.5 ± 175.2 and 194 ± 49.5 and G (232.3 ± 102.9 and 272 ± 53.7. There were no significant differences, either. Nonetheless, it was observed in the last group, the combination of captopryl with HCTZ led to lower levels of TG and slightly elevated HDL levels, which shows that the association has a protective effect by reducing the atherosclerotic risk and minimizing the deleterious atherogenic effects of

  6. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  7. Use of Pharmacy Sales Data to Assess Changes in Prescription- and Payment-Related Factors that Promote Adherence to Medications Commonly Used to Treat Hypertension, 2009 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ritchey

    areas that can be addressed by clinical and policy interventions to improve adherence for medications commonly used to treat hypertension.

  8. Provider perspectives on essential functions for care management in the collaborative treatment of hypertension: the P.A.R.T.N.E.R. framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tanvir; Allen, Allyssa; Halbert, Jennifer; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Boonyasai, Romsai Tony; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Care management has become a widespread strategy for improving chronic illness care. However, primary care provider (PCP) participation in programs has been poor. Because the success of care management relies on provider engagement, understanding provider perspectives is necessary. Our goal was to identify care management functions most valuable to PCPs in hypertension treatment. Six focus groups were conducted to discuss current challenges in hypertension care and identify specific functions of care management that would improve care. The study included 39 PCPs (participation rate: 83 %) representing six clinics, two of which care for large African American populations and four that are in underserved locations, in the greater Baltimore metropolitan area. This was a qualitative analysis of focus groups, using grounded theory and iterative coding. Providers desired achieving blood pressure control more rapidly. Collaborating with care managers who obtain ongoing patient data would allow treatment plans to be tailored to the changing life conditions of patients. The P.A.R.T.N.E.R. framework summarizes the care management functions that providers reported were necessary for effective collaboration: Partner with patients, providers, and the community; Arrange follow-up care; Resolve barriers to adherence; Track treatment response and progress; Navigate the health care system with patients; Educate patients & Engage patients in self-management; Relay information between patients and/or provider(s). The P.A.R.T.N.E.R. framework is the first to offer a checklist of care management functions that may promote successful collaboration with PCPs. Future research should examine the validity of this framework in various settings and for diverse patient populations affected by chronic diseases.

  9. Evaluation Of Prescription Pattern And Medication Adherence Of Antihypertensive Drugs In Stage 1 Essential Hypertensive Patients At Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan S. Urade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives- To study the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and analyze the medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs at rural tertiary care teaching hospital.Materials and Methods- Prospective, observational, 12 weeks, questionnaire based study, conducted in rural tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. 214 antihypertensive prescriptions were analyzed by Morisky medication adherence scale. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel and Graph pad prism 6.0.Results- 28.03% patients were not aware about the medicines taken, 29.90% patients were unacquainted about dose and route of administration whereas 32.71% patients were unfamiliar about frequency of administration of medicines. 53.27% patients were unaware about precautions to be taken while consuming medicines.  58.68% & 12.67% patients consumed amlodipine & atenolol respectively. In 16.43% patients, atenolol + amlodipine combination therapy was prescribed.  Amongst 214 patients 12, 58 & 144 showed high, medium & low adherence respectively.  No significant difference was found on gender basis at any level of adherence.Conclusion- In this study, physicians given preference to amlodipine than other antihypertensive drugs. However, thiazide is a first line drug in stage 1 hypertension, recommended by JNC VII guideline. This indicates that there is need of creating awareness about current management of hypertension to clinicians by organizing various workshops. We observed only 5.60% patients showed high adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Therefore educational strategies must be carried out for physicians focusing on causes for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Also raising patient trust in their physicians may improve patient motivation to prescribed medication. 

  10. Epigenomics of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W.; Mattson, David L.; Kotchen, Theodore A.; Liu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genes and pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigenomic studies of hypertension are beginning to emerge and hold great promise of providing novel insights into the mechanisms underlying hypertension. Epigenetic marks or mediators including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA can be studied at a genome or near-genome scale using epigenomic approaches. At the single gene level, several studies have identified changes in epigenetic modifications in genes expressed in the kidney that correlate with the development of hypertension. Systematic analysis and integration of epigenetic marks at the genome scale, demonstration of cellular and physiological roles of specific epigenetic modifications, and investigation of inheritance are among the major challenges and opportunities for future epigenomic and epigenetic studies of hypertension. Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving multiple genetic and environmental factors and mediated by alterations in multiple biological pathways. Because the non-genetic mechanisms may involve epigenetic modifications, epigenomics is one of the latest concepts and approaches brought to bear on hypertension research. In this article, we summarize briefly the concepts and techniques for epigenomics, discuss the rationale for applying epigenomic approaches to study hypertension, and review the current state of this research area. PMID:24011581

  11. Administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor improves vascular function and urinary albumin excretion in low-risk essential hypertensive patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment with calcium channel blockers. Organ-protecting effects independent of anti-hypertensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takasugi, E; Shitakura, K; Okajima, K; Hota, N; Kubo, Y; Nunoda, S; Otsuka, K

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant administration of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease can prevent cardiovascular disease occurrence, but the effects of this treatment on renal and vascular function in low-risk hypertensive patients are unknown. The current study was an open-label prospective study. Hypertensive patients with no history of cardiovascular disease who had not met their blood pressure (BP) goals with CCB treatment were administered perindopril and followed for 6 months. Both home and office BP were significantly lowered by perindopril administration. The morning/evening (M/E) ratios calculated from home BP were 1.31 and 1.05 for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of an anti-hypertensive response, urinary albumin excretion, and cardio ankle vascular index were significantly reduced by perindopril administration in all the subjects, irrespective of the presence or absence of anti-hypertensive reaction. In low-risk hypertensive patients, perindopril improves renal and vascular function probably via its persistent anti-hypertensive effects and the concomitant effects of CCB.

  12. Influence of Renal Impairment on Outcome for Thrombolysis-Treated Acute Ischemic Stroke: ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study) Post Hoc Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Susan J; Wang, Xia; Olavarria, Veronica V; Lavados, Pablo M; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Kim, Jong S; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Lindley, Richard I; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Ricci, Stefano; Sato, Shoichiro; Sharma, Vijay K; Woodward, Mark; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S; Robinson, Thompson G

    2017-09-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with poor prognosis after stroke. We assessed the effects of RD on outcomes and interaction with low- versus standard-dose alteplase in a post hoc subgroup analysis of the ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study). A total of 3220 thrombolysis-eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age, 66.5 years; 37.8% women) were randomly assigned to low-dose (0.6 mg/kg) or standard-dose (0.9 mg/kg) intravenous alteplase within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Six hundred and fifty-nine (19.8%) patients had moderate-to-severe RD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 90 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ), those with severe RD (stroke. There was no significant association with modified Rankin Scale scores 2 to 6 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.70; P =0.81 for trend), modified Rankin Scale 3 to 6 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-2.01; P =0.44 for trend), or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or any heterogeneity in comparative treatment effects between low-dose and standard-dose alteplase by RD grades. RD is associated with increased mortality but not disability or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in thrombolysis-eligible and treated acute ischemic stroke patients. Uncertainty persists as to whether low-dose alteplase confers benefits over standard-dose alteplase in acute ischemic stroke patients with RD. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01422616. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Seis actuaciones del profesional de enfermería para prevenir los falsos diagnósticos de hipertensión: La hipertensión de bata blanca y el efecto de bata blanca Six performances of the nurse in order to prevent an erroneous diagnosis of essential hypertension: white coat hypertension and white coat effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Amigo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión de bata blanca (HBB puede considerarse como un falso diagnóstico de hipertensión que puede provocar tratamientos farmacológicos innecesarios, afectar a la calidad de vida de las personas e incrementar de un modo notable el gasto sanitario. Se calcula que la prevalencia de la HBB se situaría en torno a un 20% de los pacientes diagnosticados como hipertensos. Las investigaciones experimentales subrayan que la enfermera obtiene, en general, medidas más fiables de la presión arterial (PA que los médicos y que por ello puede desempeñar un papel fundamental para prevenir estos falsos diagnósticos. En esta línea se subrayan seis actuaciones profesionales que contribuirían de manera decisiva para prevenir estos errores.White coat hypertension (WCH can be considerated an erroneous diagnosis of essential hypertension and can represents a serious problem when we consider the clinical and pharmacological and economic consequences of an incorrect blood pressure measurement. The prevalence of WCH is situated around 20% of the patients diagnosed as having high blood pressure. The results from different studies point out that the nurses usually obtain more reliable blood pressure readings than the doctors, because of that they can play an important role in the control of WCH. In relation to this a total of six specific recommendations are put forward with the aim of preventing an erroneous diagnosis of essential hypertension.

  14. Response of Aspergillus niger Inoculated on Tomatoes Exposed to Vapor Phase Mustard Essential Oil for Short or Long Periods and Sensory Evaluation of Treated Tomatoes

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    Ana Elena Aguilar-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of mustard essential oil (EO in vapor phase against Aspergillus niger was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (in tomatoes. Mold response in tomatoes exposed for short or long periods to selected concentrations of mustard EO was also evaluated. Furthermore, a sensory evaluation was also performed among treated tomatoes and compared with nontreated ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the studied EO was determined by the inverted Petri dish method. MIC for the in vitro and in vivo tests for mustard EO was of 3.08 μL/Lair. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate the effectiveness of vapors of mustard EO against A. niger. The studied EO contains highly volatile organic compounds with strong inhibitory effects, even when applied for short periods, and can consequently be considered a good alternative to traditional synthetic antimicrobials without detriment of selected sensory attributes.

  15. Fibromuscular dysplasia in an adult male as a cause of renal artery stenosis and secondary hypertension treated with renal artery stenting

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    K.C. Bishal

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Fibromuscular dysplasia causing stenosis of renal artery is uncommon. High degree of suspicion is required for the timely diagnosis and treatment of this potentially treatable cause of secondary hypertension.

  16. Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) digital intervention for self-management of uncontrolled, essential hypertension: a protocol for the randomised controlled HOME BP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Rebecca; Morton, Katherine; Stuart, Beth; Raftery, James; Bradbury, Katherine; Yao, Guiqing Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy; McManus, Richard J

    2016-11-07

    Self-management of hypertension, including self-monitoring and antihypertensive medication titration, lowers blood pressure (BP) at 1 year compared to usual care. The aim of the current trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) intervention for the self-management of hypertension in primary care. The HOME BP trial will be a randomised controlled trial comparing BP self-management-consisting of the HOME BP online digital intervention with self-monitoring, lifestyle advice and antihypertensive drug titration-with usual care for people with uncontrolled essential hypertension. Eligible patients will be recruited from primary care and randomised to usual care or to self-management using HOME BP. The primary outcome will be the difference in mean systolic BP (mm Hg) at 12-month follow-up between the intervention and control groups adjusting for baseline BP and covariates. Secondary outcomes (also adjusted for baseline and covariates where appropriate) will be differences in mean BP at 6 months and diastolic BP at 12 months; patient enablement; quality of life, and economic analyses including all key resources associated with the intervention and related services, adopting a broad societal perspective to include NHS, social care and patient costs, considered within trial and modelled with a lifetime horizon. Medication beliefs, adherence and changes; self-efficacy; perceived side effects and lifestyle changes will be measured for process analyses. Qualitative analyses will explore patient and healthcare professional experiences of HOME BP to gain insights into the factors affecting acceptability, feasibility and adherence. This study has received NHS ethical approval (REC reference 15/SC/0082). The findings from HOME BP will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications, scientific conferences and workshops. If successful, HOME BP will be directly applicable to UK primary care

  17. Cerebral Targeting of Acupuncture at Combined Acupoints in Treating Essential Hypertension: An Rs-fMRI Study and Curative Effect Evidence

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    Yanjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to explore that the synergistic effect of acupoints combination is not a simple superposition of single acupoint’s effect by comparing and analyzing the changes of blood pressure (BP, SF-36, and brain regions after acupuncture treatment. 47 patients were randomly divided into LR3+KI3 group, LR3 group, and KI3 group. Subjects received Rs-fMRI scan, BP measurement, and SF-36 questionnaires before and after treatment and short-term acupuncture treatment. After treatment, there were no significant differences in BP and SF-36 among 3 groups, compared to the case before treatment, SBP of 3 groups decreased, and DBP significantly decreased while vitality and mental health significantly increased in LR3+KI3 group. Both number and scopes of changes of brain regions in LR3+KI3 group were the largest, which mainly included BAs 3, 4, 8, 19, 21, 24, 32, 44, and 45. In conclusion, acupuncture at LR3+KI3 may auxiliarily reduce BP and improve the vitality and mental health of patients, and the changes of brain regions were related to somatesthesia, movement, vision, audition, emotion and mood, language, memory, etc. BAs 4, 9, 10, 24, 31, 32, and 46 may be the targeting brain areas of acupuncture in assisting hypotension. It is suggested that acupoints combination of LR3+KI3 maybe generates a synergistic effect, and it is not simple sum of single acupoint effect.

  18. Antihypertensive efficacy and safety of the angiotensin receptor blocker azilsartan in elderly patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomohito; Hayashi, Mutsuharu; Fujiwara, Wakaya; Yoshikawa, Daiji; Mukaide, Daisuke; Sugishita, Yoshinori; Yoshinaga, Masataka; Itoh, Takehiro; Yokoi, Hiroatsu; Ishii, Junichi; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Izawa, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    The number of elderly patients with hypertension has been steadily increasing. However, there are limited data on the safety and efficacy of the new angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) azilsartan in elderly patients with hypertension. We investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of azilsartan in this population. The study population comprised 56 ambulatory patients with essential hypertension. We evaluated the reduction in blood pressure and safety after 12 weeks of treatment with azilsartan in 29 hypertensive patients ≥65 years of age (aged group) in comparison with the findings in 27 patients elderly patients and may be safe. Therefore, azilsartan could be a valuable option for treating hypertension in elderly and non-elderly patients.

  19. Bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension previously treated with latanoprost: two randomized 12-week trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers JS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan S Myers,1 Steven Vold,2 Fiaz Zaman,3 Julia M Williams,4 David A Hollander41Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Vold Vision, PLLC, Bentonville, AR, USA; 3Houston Eye Associates, Houston, TX, USA; 4Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.Methods: Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily. Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% are presented.Results: Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957. In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001, ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0% mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9% mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8% mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7% mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  1. El impacto de la reducción del estrés en la hipertensión esencial y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. (Impact of stress reduction on essential hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Orme-Johnson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe ha considerado que el estrés contribuye a la patogénesis y la progresión de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV. Se ha demostrado que la reducción del estrés mediante la Meditación Trascendental [Transcendental Meditation (TM®] ha bajado los niveles de presión arterial (PA y reducido el riesgo de ECV en adultos y adolescentes. Este artículo repasa los resultados que sugieren el impacto beneficioso de la TM en reducir la PA en adultos hipertensos en reposo y en adolescentes pre-hipertensos en reposo, durante un estrés agudo creado en el laboratorio y durante la actividad diaria normal. Dichos resultados tienen implicaciones importantes para la inclusión de la TM en los esfuerzos que se realizan para prevenir y tratar las ECV y sus consecuencias clínicas.AbstractStress has been thought to contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Stress reduction via Trasncendental Meditation (TM® has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP levels and reduce CVD risk in adults and adolescents. This article reviews findings suggesting a beneficial BP-lowering impact of TM in hypertensive adults at rest and in pre-hypertensive adolescents at rest, during acute laboratory stress and during normal daily activity. These findings have important implications for inclusion of TM efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and their clinical consequences.

  2. Evaluation of 24-Hour Arterial Stiffness Indices and Central Hemodynamics in Healthy Normotensive Subjects versus Treated or Untreated Hypertensive Patients: A Feasibility Study

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    Stefano Omboni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Central blood pressure (BP and vascular indices estimated noninvasively over the 24 hours were compared between normotensive volunteers and hypertensive patients by a pulse wave analysis of ambulatory blood pressure recordings. Methods. Digitalized waveforms obtained during each brachial oscillometric BP measurement were stored in the device memory and analyzed by the validated Vasotens technology. Averages for the 24 hours and for the awake and asleep subperiods were computed. Results. 142 normotensives and 661 hypertensives were evaluated. 24-hour central BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV, and augmentation index (AI were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (119.3 versus 105.6 mmHg for systolic BP, 75.6 versus 72.3 mmHg for diastolic BP, 10.3 versus 10.0 m/sec for aortic PWV, −9.7 versus −40.7% for peripheral AI, and 24.7 versus 11.0% for aortic AI, whereas reflected wave transit time (RWTT was significantly lower in hypertensive patients (126.6 versus 139.0 ms. After adjusting for confounding factors a statistically significant between-group difference was still observed for central BP, RWTT, and peripheral AI. All estimates displayed a typical circadian rhythm. Conclusions. Noninvasive assessment of 24-hour arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics in daily life dynamic conditions may help in assessing the arterial function impairment in hypertensive patients.

  3. Hypertensive Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... the Facts About HBP • Know Your Numbers Introduction Hypertensive Crisis Monitoring Your Blood Pressure At Home • Understand Symptoms ...

  4. Comparison of single and combination diuretics on glucose tolerance (PATHWAY-3): protocol for a randomised double-blind trial in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian

    2015-08-07

    Thiazide diuretics are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus. This risk may arise from K(+)-depletion. We hypothesised that a K(+)-sparing diuretic will improve glucose tolerance, and that combination of low-dose thiazide with K(+)-sparing diuretic will improve both blood pressure reduction and glucose tolerance, compared to a high-dose thiazide. This is a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial, comparing hydrochlorothiazide 25-50 mg, amiloride 10-20 mg and combination of both diuretics at half these doses. A single-blind placebo run-in of 1 month is followed by 24 weeks of blinded active treatment. There is forced dose-doubling after 3 months. The Primary end point is the blood glucose 2 h after oral ingestion of a 75 g glucose drink (OGTT), following overnight fasting. The primary outcome is the difference between 2 h glucose at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Secondary outcomes include the changes in home systolic blood pressure (BP) and glycated haemoglobin and prediction of response by baseline plasma renin. Eligibility criteria are: age 18-79, systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥ 140 mm Hg and home BP ≥ 130 mm Hg and one component of the metabolic syndrome additional to hypertension. Principal exclusions are diabetes, estimated-glomerular filtration rate 200 mm Hg or DBP >120 mm Hg (box 2). The sample size calculation indicates that 486 patients will give 80% power at α=0.01 to detect a difference in means of 1 mmol/L (SD=2.2) between 2 h glucose on hydrochlorothiazide and comparators. PATHWAY-3 was approved by Cambridge South Ethics Committee, number 09/H035/19. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Eudract number 2009-010068-41 and clinical trials registration number: NCT02351973. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Bases genéticas de la hipertensión arterial esencial en Colombia: avances en nueve años de estudio Genetic basis of essential arterial hypertension in Colombia: advances in nine years of work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnóvar Aristizábal

    the beta 2 receptor. After nine years exploring the genetic basis of essential hypertension in Colombia, the presence of subgroups of individuals with phenotypic differences through certain genotypes is demonstrated. Theses results open new ways in order to understand the pathophysiology of this condition in our population and are the start point for a better characterization of hypertension with preventive and therapeutic aims.

  6. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-15...

  7. Hypertension og det metaboliske syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael Hecht; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a relatively prevalent condition characterized by co-existence of several metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension. Patients with hypertension have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome which, in turn, increases the cardiovascular...... syndrome is of clinical importance as it makes the treating physician test for other elements of the syndrome in patients with one of the elements, e.g. hypertension. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun...

  8. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...

  9. Autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Héctor; Quiroz, Yasmir; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension affects more than one-third of the adult population of the world. However, the cause of high blood pressure is unknown in the vast majority of patients, classified as patients with essential hypertension. Evidence accumulated over the past decade supports the participation of inflammation in the development of experimental hypertension. Investigations have also demonstrated that immune reactivity to overexpressed heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved in the pathogenesis of salt-induced hypertension. This article reviews, first, the role of T cell-induced inflammation in the arteries, kidney and central nervous system in hypertension and the amelioration of hypertension induced by regulatory T cells. Second, experiments showing that autoimmunity directed to HSP70 in the kidney impairs the pressure natriuresis relationship and has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of salt sensitive hypertension. Finally, we highlight the clinical evidence that supports the participation of autoimmunity in essential hypertension.

  10. Hypertension and renovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, P; Ibsen, H; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21%), nephr......The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21...

  11. Hypertension and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balt, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    As persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) live longer, primary health care and comorbidity issues have come to the forefront. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension can affect a number of other comorbid conditions, including metabolic syndrome, lipid abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Literature specific to hypertension and HIV is limited and most often presented in theory-based, rather than empirically based, articles, with hypertension-specific information presented in small sections of articles on cardiovascular disease. A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate current research evidence to determine prevalence of hypertension in PLWH and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-related and traditional risk factors. Evidence surrounding the cause and effect of HIV and ART on hypertension is conflicting and inconclusive; however, the importance of hypertension diagnosis and treatment is clear. Evidence supports use of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension Guidelines when treating PLWH. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition and nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Mark C

    2010-06-01

    Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are very common in the general population, and may be even more common in patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease due to genetic and environmental causes, and prescription drug use. Vascular biology assumes a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension and target organ damage sequelae. Endothelial activation, oxidative stress and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction (hypertrophy, hyperplasia and remodeling) are initial events that initiate hypertension. Nutrient-gene interactions determine a broad array of phenotypic consequences such as vascular problems and hypertension. Optimal nutrition, nutraceuticals, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation, and moderate restriction of alcohol and caffeine, in addition to other lifestyle modifications, can prevent, delay the onset, reduce the severity, treat and control hypertension in many patients. An integrative approach combining these lifestyle suggestions with the correct pharmacologic treatment will best achieve new goal blood pressure levels, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve vascular health, reduce target organ damage, including coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure and renal disease, and reduce healthcare expenditure. The expanded scientific roles for nutraceutical supplements will be discussed in relation to the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Treatment of pediatric hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, M E; Nahata, M C

    2000-02-01

    We conducted a MEDLINE search from January 1966-March 1999 to obtain information on clinical trials of treatment of pediatric hypertension. An article was selected for review if it described a randomized or nonrandomized study; randomized studies were given priority. Case reports were considered when studies were unavailable. Review articles were useful in identifying references. According to data we collected, hypertension is present in 1-3% of the pediatric population. Nonpharmacologic treatment may be effective initially in those with mild to moderate disease or as an adjunct to drug therapy. Drugs for treatment of chronic hypertension include calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and beta-blockers. Patient and drug characteristics determine therapy. Intravenous labetalol, nicardipine, and nitroprusside are effective for treating hypertensive emergencies.

  14. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochefort Christian M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. Results We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b preferred approach to hypertension management and, c perceptions about

  15. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Christian M; Morlec, Julia; Tamblyn, Robyn M

    2012-02-29

    Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a) perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b) preferred approach to hypertension management and, c) perceptions about hypertension guidelines. Specifically, physicians had

  16. Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrahian, Seyed Mehrdad; Falkner, Bonita

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension, a global public health problem, is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease. It is the major modifiable risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause of hypertension and CKD is also a complication of uncontrolled hypertension. The interaction between hypertension and CKD is complex and increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes. This is particularly significant in the setting of resistant hypertension commonly seen in patient with CKD. The pathophysiology of CKD associated hypertension is multi-factorial with different mechanisms contributing to hypertension. These pathogenic mechanisms include sodium dysregulation, increased sympathetic nervous system and alterations in renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity. Standardized blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential in establishing the diagnosis and management of hypertension in CKD. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides an additional assessment of diurnal variation in BP commonly seen in CKD patients. The optimal BP target in the treatment of hypertension in general and CKD population remains a matter of debate and controversial despite recent guidelines and clinical trial data. Medical therapy of patients with CKD associated hypertension can be difficult and challenging. Additional evaluation by a hypertension specialist may be required in the setting of treatment resistant hypertension by excluding pseudo-resistance and treatable secondary causes. Treatment with a combination of antihypertensive drugs, including appropriate diuretic choice, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate, is a key component of hypertension management in CKD patients. In addition to drug treatment non-pharmacological approaches including life style modification, most important of which is dietary salt restriction, should be included in the management of hypertension in CKD patients.

  17. Central obesity is important but not essential component of the metabolic syndrome for predicting diabetes mellitus in a hypertensive family-based cohort. Results from the Stanford Asia-pacific program for hypertension and insulin resistance (SAPPHIRe) Taiwan follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hwu, Chii-Min; He, Chih-Tsueng; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Assimes, Themistocles; Curb, J David; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2012-04-26

    Metabolic abnormalities have a cumulative effect on development of diabetes, but only central obesity has been defined as the essential criterion of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by the International Diabetes Federation. We hypothesized that central obesity contributes to a higher risk of new-onset diabetes than other metabolic abnormalities in the hypertensive families. Non-diabetic Chinese were enrolled and MetS components were assessed to establish baseline data in a hypertensive family-based cohort study. Based on medical records and glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the cumulative incidence of diabetes was analyzed in this five-year study by Cox regression models. Contribution of central obesity to development of new-onset diabetes was assessed in subjects with the same number of positive MetS components. Among the total of 595 subjects who completed the assessment, 125 (21.0%) developed diabetes. Incidence of diabetes increased in direct proportion to the number of positive MetS components (P ≪ 0.001). Although subjects with central obesity had a higher incidence of diabetes than those without (55.7 vs. 30.0 events/1000 person-years, P ≪ 0.001), the difference became non-significant after adjusting of the number of positive MetS components (hazard ratio = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.45-1.13). Furthermore, in all participants with three positive MetS components, there was no difference in the incidence of diabetes between subjects with and without central obesity (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.50-2.16). In Chinese hypertensive families, the incidence of diabetes in subjects without central obesity was similar to that in subjects with central obesity when they also had the same number of positive MetS components. We suggest that central obesity is very important, but not the essential component of the metabolic syndrome for predicting of new-onset diabetes. ( NCT00260910, ClinicalTrials.gov).

  18. Association of HLA-DRB3*0202 and serum IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae with essential hypertension in a highly homogeneous population from Majorca (Balearic Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabay, J M; Marco, J; Soler, J; Contu, L; Cappai, L; Carcassi, C; Gómez, G; Mulet, J M; Munar, M A; Viader, C

    2005-08-01

    Separate studies investigating the relationship of essential hypertension (EH) with the HLA system and with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection have given conflicting results. Our aim was to clarify these relationships and determine whether the HLA system and C. pneumoniae infection interact with respect to the risk for EH. An association study (110 essential hypertensives and 107 controls) was conducted in a highly homogeneous population in the Balearic Island of Majorca (Spain). Molecular typing of HLA-B and HLA-DRB and quantification of serum levels of IgG antibodies to C. pneumoniae (sIgGa-Cp) were determined. Student's t-test, chi(2)-statistics, logistic regression analysis, and general linear model ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that EH was related with HLA-DRB3*0202 in the whole study population, and with levels of sIgGa-Cp>63.5 BU/ml in the group of individuals with sIgGa-Cp>30 BU/ml (OR (95% CI) adjusted for obesity, familial history of EH and diabetes=2.06 (1.07-3.97), P=0.03, and =4.60 (1.06-19.90), P=0.04, respectively). The association between EH and sIgGa-Cp was observed in the DRB3*0202(+) individuals, but not in the DRB3*0202(-) subgroup (OR (95% CI)=11.14 (1.92-64.54), P=0.004, and =0.98 (0.22-4.43), P=0.64, respectively (P of the Mantel-Haenszel test for homogeneity of OR=0.06)). In our population, EH was positively associated with HLA-DRB3*0202 and with high levels of sIgGa-Cp. Moreover, a significant interaction of DRB3*0202 on the effect of sIgGa-Cp was observed, as the association of EH with these antibodies depended on the presence of DRB*0202.

  19. Obesity: A Perspective from Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, Dinko; Varagic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related hypertension is high worldwide and has become a major health issue. The mechanisms by which obesity relates to hypertensive disease are still under intense research scrutiny, and include altered hemodynamics, impaired sodium homeostasis, renal dysfunction, autonomic nervous system imbalance, endocrine alterations, oxidative stress and inflammation, and vascular injury. Most of these contributing factors interact with each other at multiple levels. Thus, as a multifactorial and complex disease, obesity-related hypertension should be recognized as a distinctive form of hypertension, and specific considerations should apply in planning therapeutic approaches to treat obese individuals with high blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension treated in general practice in Spain: an assessment of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control and accuracy of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderón, Alberto; Llisterri, José L; Alegría, Eduardo; Muñiz, Javier; Matalí, Arantxa

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether primary care physicians in Spain accurately diagnose the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients, to define the profile and management of these patients in clinical practice, and to ascertain the level of blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey involving 12,954 patients with hypertension (Prevención Cardiovascular en España en Atención Primaria: Intervención Sobre el Colesterol en Hipertensión [PRESCOT] study), wherein 52% of the cohort fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel criteria for the metabolic syndrome. The majority of patients (54.6%) had 3 risk factors, 32.4% had 4, and 13% had 5 risk factors. Physician diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was poor, with 43.7% of physicians missing the diagnosis and 12.9% wrongly diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control rates were very low, with only 4.7% of metabolic syndrome patients achieving control for both blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol vs 13.5% for non-metabolic syndrome patients (P<.0001). These findings demonstrate that the metabolic syndrome is common in patients with hypertension and that it is generally poorly diagnosed and treated by primary care physicians.

  1. The role of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea in the pathogenesis and treatment of resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Jonathan A; Pothineni, Aravind; Marcus, Carolina Z; Bisognano, John D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of resistant hypertension, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), three highly prevalent conditions in the United States, is rising. Approximately one in three adults in the US has hypertension, and a significant proportion of these individuals have hypertension that is difficult to treat, or resistant. Obesity and OSA are well-established risk factors for resistant hypertension, a condition that portends significant cardiovascular risk. Awareness of the various mechanisms by which obesity and OSA impact systemic blood pressure is essential to better understand how best to effectively care for patients with resistant hypertension. In this review, we discuss the clinical and pathophysiologic associations between obesity, OSA, and resistant hypertension. Furthermore, we will explore the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) and other therapeutic interventions on blood pressure control in patients with resistant hypertension.Key Points• Obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and resistant hypertension are highly prevalent conditions, with increasing overall incidence [1-3].• Both obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are independent risk factors for the development of resistant hypertension.• OSA is characterized by a physiologic cascade of collapse of the upper airway, which can lead to intermittent hypoxia, hypercapnia, significant negative intra-thoracic pressure, and increased SNS output.• Intermittent hypoxia leads to activation of the endothelin system [17, 18, 19•], which can lead to the development of resistant hypertension.• Intermittent hypoxia can lead to the over activation of the SNS, which can also contribute to the development of resistant hypertension [20, 21].• OSA leads to state of elevated adrenergic tone, which in turn may contribute to resistant hypertension [25-27].• OSA patients have a higher incidence of "non-dipping" of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, a marker of increased adrenergic tone

  2. Presence of Essential Hypertension or Diabetes Mellitus Is a Predictor of Intracranial Bleeding in Elderly Patients: A Study of 108 Patients with Isolated Thrombocytopenia from a Single Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rajan; Pati, Hara Prasad; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Monga, Anuradha

    2015-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia poses a significant problem in the elderly. Not only are there varied causes, but it is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We carried out a study to learn the causes of isolated thrombocytopenia in elderly patients and to correlate the severity of thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations with various etiologic factors and comorbidities. A total of 108 patients above 50 years of age presenting with isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet counts of syndrome in 7 (6.5%), drug-induced thrombocytopenia in 7 (6.5%), and connective tissue disorder in 4 (3.7%) cases. Ten patients presented with intracranial bleedings. Upon logistic regression analysis, comorbidities in the form of essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with occurrence of intracranial bleeding. There was no correlation of serious bleedings with platelet counts. Isolated thrombocytopenia in the elderly is associated with significant morbidity. Diligent clinical and laboratory evaluation is required to elucidate the cause of thrombocytopenia in the elderly. Comorbidities in this population are associated with serious bleedings and not low platelet counts as is commonly thought.

  3. Mizoribine ameliorates renal injury and hypertension along with the attenuation of renal caspase-1 expression in aldosterone-salt-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Toshiki; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Ueno, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Yukio; Kohno, Nobuoki; Masaki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone-salt treatment induces not only hypertension but also extensive inflammation that contributes to fibrosis in the rat kidney. However, the mechanism underlying aldosterone-salt-induced renal inflammation remains unclear. Pyroptosis has recently been identified as a new type of cell death that is accompanied by the activation of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that aldosterone-salt treatment could induce inflammation through pyroptosis and that mizoribine, an effective immunosuppressant, would ameliorate the renal inflammation that would otherwise cause renal fibrosis. Ten days after recovery from left uninephrectomy, rats were given drinking water with 1% sodium chloride. The animals were divided into three groups (n = 7 per group): (1) vehicle infusion group, (2) aldosterone infusion group, or (3) aldosterone infusion plus oral mizoribine group. Aldosterone-salt treatment increased the expression of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3 and caspase-1, and also increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. However, the oral administration of mizoribine attenuated these alterations. Furthermore, mizoribine inhibited hypertension and renal fibrosis, and also attenuated the aldosterone-induced expression of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase and α epithelial sodium channel. These results suggest that caspase-1 activation plays an important role in the development of inflammation induced by aldosterone-salt treatment and that it functions as an anti-inflammatory strategy that protects against renal injury and hypertension.

  4. Clinical analysis of hypertension in children: An urban Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in children, although an uncommon entity, is associated with end-organ damage. We tried to study the clinical profile of hypertension in children presented to our hospital. The medical records from January 1990 to December 2010 of all children aged 18 years and younger with hypertension were studied. The patients were divided into four age groups (infants, pre-school age, school age and adolescents Presenting symptoms and other clinical parameters were thoroughly evaluated. The results were compared with previous studies on hypertension in children. A total of 135 patients were selected (male:female 103:32, with mean age of 0.4 ± 2.1 years (range: six months to 17 years. The most common age group affected was the adolescents group (42.9%. The most common clinical feature at presentation was dizziness (30.3%, followed by headache and chest discomfort (22.9%. Transient hypertension was detected in 34 patients (25.2%, and was most common in the adolescent age group, whereas sustained hypertension was noticed in 101 patients (74.8% and was the most common in the school age group (36/45, 80%. Forty-two patients (31.1% presented with hypertensive crisis. Nine patients were considered to have essential hypertension. The chief causes included chronic glomerulonephritis in 56 (41.5%, endocrine disorders in 21 (15.5%, obstructive uropathy in 16 (11.8%, reflux nephropathy in 12 (8.8% and renovascular disease in 5 (3.7%. Takayasu′s disease was the most common cause of renovascular hypertension. Coarctation of aorta was the most common cause of hypertension in infancy, being present in 40% of the cases. Hypertension in children may be easily underestimated but is a potentially life-threatening problem. Most of them are asymptomatic and a large chunk has an underlying etiology. Primary care clinicians should promptly identify patients with hypertension and treat them immediately and appropriately to prevent damage to the cardiovascular organs.

  5. Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Goetting, Michael; Schwarzer, Mario; Gerber, Alexander; Klingelhoefer, Doris; David A. Groneberg

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by the increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure in the lung circulation. Despite the large number of experimental and clinical studies conducted on pulmonary hypertension, there is no comprehensive work that analyzed the global research activity on PH so far. We retrieved the bibliometric data of the publications on pulmonary hypertension for two periods from the Web of science database. Here, we set the first investigation period from 1900...

  6. [Mineralocorticoid syndromes and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhäusl, W

    1976-08-26

    Mineralocorticoids are out of the causes of secondary hypertension. Excess production of mineralocorticoids induces sodium and fluid retention, loss of potassium and metabolic alcalosis. The diagnosis of mineralocorticoid syndromes depends on the interpretation of the functional status of the renin-mineralocorticoid-system, which is in part responsible for the maintenance of normal blood pressure. The classical representative of this group is the syndrome of primary aldosteronism. Causes of mineralocorticoid syndromes associated with hypertension are: 1. autonomous production of mineralo-corticoids by an adrenal adenoma or by idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia; 2. deficiency of adrenal 17-alpha-hydroxylase or of 11-beta-hydroxylase; 3. secondary aldosteronism associated with primary reninism, or renal arterial stenosis; and 4. pseudo aldosteronism due to excessive ingestion of licorice. Malign or essential hypertension may also often be followed by secondary aldosteronism.

  7. Velocidad de la onda de pulso y la excreción urinaria de albumina en pacientes hipertensos tratados con Perindopril Pulse wave velocity and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients treated with perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Tobilli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica y la excreción urinaria de albúmina (EUA han sido reconocidas como predictores de riesgo cardiovascular. Además, los trastornos de la compliance arterial (CA evaluados mediante la velocidad de la onda de pulso elevada (VOP están estrechamente relacionados con los cambios de la presión arterial y correlacionados con la mortalidad cardiovascular y la presencia de ateroesclerosis. El objetivo primario de este estudio ha sido determinar la relación entre la VOP y la EUA en un grupo de pacientes no fumadores con hipertensión esencial y secundariamente evaluar los cambios producidos por un inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (perindopril sobre estas dos variables. En el estudio participaron setenta pacientes (33 hombres y 37 mujeres hipertensos no fumadores, sin tratamiento previo, de 50 ± 7 años (entre 35-69. La VOP de todos los pacientes fue estudiada por medio de un dispositivo computarizado (Complior en el período basal y a los seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril. También se determinó la EUA por el método de inmunodifusión radial al inicio del tratamiento y luego de seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/día. Al finalizar el estudio se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS (160.2 ± 10.6 vs. 131.9 ± 7.1 mmHg, pSystolic and diastolic blood pressures and urinary albumin excretion (UAE have been recognized as predictors for cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, arterial compliance (AC disorders assessed by increased aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV are closely related to changes in blood pressure and strongly correlated with cardiovascular mortality and presence or extent of atherosclerosis. Our purpose in the present study was to determine a relationship between AC using PWV and UAE in a group of non-smoking patients with essential hypertension, and the level of interaction of ACE inhibition on

  8. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  9. Hypercortisolism in obesity-associated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Amy G; Nimkevych, Oksana; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is prevalent worldwide and associated with co-morbidities that result in increased cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is the most prevalent obesity comorbidity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Obesity hypertension is a distinct subtype of essential hypertension. While endogenous Cushing's syndrome is an uncommon cause of both obesity and hypertension, the recent recognition of other hypercortisolemic states has raised the profile of hypercortisolism as an important contributor in obesity hypertension. The high prevalence of exogenous, iatrogenic, pseudo, and subclinical Cushing's syndromes makes hypercortisolism an important diagnostic consideration in the evaluation and management of patients with obesity hypertension who are resistant to conventional management. Available data suggest that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulating antihypertensives have the best efficacy in hypercortisolism-mediated obesity hypertension. Strategies aimed at reducing cortisol production and action also have utility. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and management options available for glucocorticoid-mediated obesity hypertension.

  10. Modificação do padrão respiratório melhora o controle cardiovascular na hipertensão essencial Spontaneous respiratory modulation improves cardiovascular control in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermano da Justa Pinheiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos recentes apontam os benefícios do controle da respiração na melhoria do barorreflexo, variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca e redução da pressão arterial em pacientes hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento com técnica de respiração lenta na modulação dos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório de pacientes (n=10, homens e mulheres, com 45 a 60 anos de idade com hipertensão arterial essencial, assistidos em ambulatório. MÉTODOS: No delineamento do estudo, cada paciente foi utilizado como controle de si mesmo, sendo a coleta de dados realizada antes e após o período de intervenção. Foram avaliados parâmetros como variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, ventilometria, cirtometria torácica e análise estatística dos dados. O treinamento respiratório utilizou exercícios de baixa freqüência e foi realizado duas vezes por semana durante um mês. Cada sessão teve duração de 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram redução da pressão arterial sistólica, da pressão arterial diastólica e da pressão arterial média (p BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that controlled breathing improves baroreflex and heart rate variability and lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of slow breathing training on cardiorespiratory system modulation of patients (n=10, men and women, ages ranging from 45 to 60 with essential hypertension seen in an outpatient setting. METHODS: According to the study design, each patient was used as his/her own control, and data were collected before and after the intervention. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, respirometry, chest expansion measurement, and statistical data analysis. Respiratory training

  11. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Essential Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjects with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were more represented among those in the control than the study group. Conclusions This is a hospital based study whose findings cannot be generalized. In spite of this, it was found that psychosocial factors such as perceived social support, perceived financial support ...

  12. Vasoregulation and renal function in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. de Leeuw (Peter)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractIt is well known from population studies that blood pressure tends to increase with age (Master et al., 1950; Hamilton et al., 1954; Zinner et al., 1971; Kahn et al., 1972; Buck, 1973; Kimura, 1973; Miall and Chinn, 1973), at least in Western society. Any upward deviation from this

  13. Hypertension hos gravide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...

  14. [Hypertension during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E.R.; Johansen, M.; Kamper, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...

  15. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension What Is Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI- ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  16. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension What Is Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI- ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  17. Alteration of Gene Expression Profile in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Treated with Protein Hydrolysate of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis by DNA Microarray Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Feng

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are rich sources of bioactive components, which are often reported to have antihypertensive effects. However, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of blue mussel protein (HBMP in rats. Peptides with in vitro ACE inhibitory activity were purified from HBMP by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. And the amino acid sequences of isolated peptides were estimated to be Val-Trp, Leu-Gly-Trp, and Met-Val-Trp-Thr. To study its in vivo action, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were orally administration with high- or low-dose of HBMP for 28 days. Major components of the renin-angiotensin (RAS system in serum of SHRs from different groups were analyzed, and gene expression profiling were performed in the kidney of SHRs, using the Whole Rat Genome Oligonucleotide Microarray. Results indicated although genes involved in RAS system were not significantly altered, those related to blood coagulation system, cytokine and growth factor, and fatty acids metabolism were remarkablely changed. Several genes which were seldom reported to be implicated in pathogenesis of hypertension also showed significant expression alterations after oral administration of HBMP. These data provided valuable information for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the potential antihypertensive activities of HBMP, and will contribute towards increased value-added utilization of blue mussel protein.

  18. Control of blood pressure as measured at home and office, and comparison with physicians' assessment of control among treated hypertensive patients in Japan: First Report of the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Obara, Taku; Funahashi, Jin; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Kei; Metoki, Hirohito; Oikawa, Takuya; Takahashi, Hisaki; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Totsune, Kazuhito; Imai, Yutaka

    2004-10-01

    The Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) study was conducted to measure the control of blood pressure (BP) as evaluated by home BP measurement among 3,400 patients with essential hypertension (mean age: 66 years; females: 55%) receiving antihypertensive treatment in primary care settings in Japan. The purpose of this first report was to compare characteristics of BP control as measured at home and in the clinic (office) and define their association with BP control as evaluated by physicians. Mean systolic/diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) values were 140/82 mmHg for home BP and 143/81 mmHg for office BP. BP levels were not adequately controlled among approximately 60% of the patients, according to reference values described in the national guidelines (office BP: home BP: office and home SBP values were insufficiently controlled in approximately 50%. Although the tendency was more remarkable among older patients, whose recommended target BP levels are higher than those of middle-aged patients in the Japanese Hypertension Society 2000 criteria, office and home BP values were not adequately controlled in approximately 50% of the middle-aged patients whose BP control was evaluated as good. Our findings suggest that an important reason why home and office BP values are not adequately controlled is that physicians approve relatively higher BP levels under treatment, even among middle-aged patients.

  19. A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and the Tolerability of a Triple Combination of Amlodipine/Losartan/Rosuvastatin in Patients With Comorbid Essential Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Young; Kim, Seok-Yeon; Choi, Kee-Joon; Yoo, Byung-Su; Cha, Dong-Hun; Jung, Hae Ok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Lee, Kwang Je; Park, Tae Ho; Oh, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Ji-Yong; Kim, Kye Hun; Shim, Jaemin; Kim, Woo-Shik; Choi, Si-Wan; Park, Dae-Gyun; Song, Pil-Sang; Hong, Taek-Jong; Rhee, Moo-Yong; Rha, Seung-Woon; Park, Seung Woo

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a triple combination of amlodipine/losartan/rosuvastatin in patients with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Eligible patients with hypertension and a sitting diastolic blood pressure (SiDBP) of >90 mm Hg and LDL-C levels <250mg/dL were screened. After a 4-week run-in period with therapeutic lifestyle changes and losartan potassium 100mg once daily, patients who met both blood pressure criteria (80 mm Hg ≤ SiDBP < 110 mm Hg) and the LDL-C level criteria (defined in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III cardiovascular risk categories) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks: losartan potassium 100mg + rosuvastatin 20mg treatment (L/R 100/20) group, amlodipine camsylate 5mg + losartan potassium 100mg treatment (A/L 5/100) group, and amlodipine 5mg+ losartan potassium 100mg + rosuvastatin 20mg (A/L/R 5/100/20) group. The primary efficacy variables were the percent change in LDL-C in the A/L/R 5/100/20 and A/L 5/100 groups and the mean change of SiDBP in the A/L/R 5/100/20 and L/R 100/20 groups after 8 weeks of treatment, relative to baseline values. A total of 146 patients were enrolled and the demographic characteristics were similar among the 3 treatment groups. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD) percent change in LDL-C was significantly greater in the A/L/R group than in the A/L group (-48.40% [2.77%] vs -6.70% [3.00%]; P < 0.0001). Moreover, the mean change in SiDBP was significantly greater in the A/L/R group than in the L/R group (-9.75 [0.92] mm Hg vs -1.73 [1.03] mm Hg; P < 0.0001). SiDBP and LDL-C reductions in the A/L/R group were comparable to reductions in the A/L and L/R groups, respectively. Ten adverse events were reported in 7 patients (4.83%), and 1 patient from the A/L group (0.69%) experienced 2 adverse drug reactions

  20. Presence of Essential Hypertension or Diabetes Mellitus Is a Predictor of Intracranial Bleeding in Elderly Patients: A Study of 108 Patients with Isolated Thrombocytopenia from a Single Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Kapoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thrombocytopenia poses a significant problem in the elderly. Not only are there varied causes, but it is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We carried out a study to learn the causes of isolated thrombocytopenia in elderly patients and to correlate the severity of thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations with various etiologic factors and comorbidities. METHODS: A total of 108 patients above 50 years of age presenting with isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet counts of <100x109/L with normal hemoglobin and total leukocyte counts were enrolled in the study. Detailed history and clinical examinations were carried out for each patient. Complete blood counts were analyzed by automated cell counter. Peripheral smears were examined in all cases. HbsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was done in all patients. Wherever clinically indicated, bone marrow aspiration biopsy and cytogenetic studies were done. RESULTS: Out of 108 patients, 102 (94.4% presented with bleeding tendencies. Twenty-nine (26.8% presented with serious (World Health Organization grade 3/4 bleedings. Major findings were immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 79 (73.1%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 7 (6.5%, drug-induced thrombocytopenia in 7 (6.5%, and connective tissue disorder in 4 (3.7% cases. Ten patients presented with intracranial bleedings. Upon logistic regression analysis, comorbidities in the form of essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with occurrence of intracranial bleeding. There was no correlation of serious bleedings with platelet counts. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Isolated thrombocytopenia in the elderly is associated with significant morbidity. Diligent clinical and laboratory evaluation is required to elucidate the cause of thrombocytopenia in the elderly. Comorbidities in this population are associated with serious bleedings and not low platelet counts as is

  1. Knowing hypertension and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology for diagnos......In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology...... for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy...

  2. Renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, M

    2005-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension results from a lesion that impairs blood flow to a part or all, of one or both kidneys. 3-10% of children referred for the evaluation of severe hypertension are subsequently found to have clinically significant renovascular lesions Renovascular hypertension is the second most common cause of correctable hypertension in children second only to coarctation of the aorta. Specific therapeutic options now available, justify the often-invasive investigations required to confirm the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. A systematic evaluation of the child with hypertension will help the pediatrician select correctly, the child most likely to have renovascular hypertension, thus reducing the number of children exposed to the risks involved with diagnostic but invasive investigations like renal arteriography which remains the gold standard Other non-invasive newer modalities like doppler ultrasonography, computed duplex sonography, ACE inhibited radionuclide imaging, and MR/CT/spiral CT angiography may be used depending on the availability of the facilities. Definite therapeutic options for renal artery stenosis include angioplasty, stenting and surgical re-vascularization using a bypass graft.

  3. Estudo "LOTHAR": avaliação de eficácia e tolerabilidade da combinação fixa de anlodipino e losartana no tratamento da hipertensão arterial primária The "LOTHAR" study: evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of amlodipine and losartan in the treatment of essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kohlmann Jr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo LOTHAR avaliou a eficácia, tolerabilidade e os efeitos metabólicos em médio e longo prazo (um ano da combinação fixa de anlodipino e losartana versus anlodipino e losartana isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico brasileiro, randomizado, duplo-cego e comparativo realizado com 198 pacientes com hipertensão arterial primária em estágios 1 e 2. RESULTADOS: A combinação fixa apresenta alta eficácia anti-hipertensiva que se mantém em longo prazo com percentual reduzido de escape do controle pressórico, inferior a dos dois regimes monoterápicos de comparação. Em longo prazo, mais de 60% dos pacientes tratados com a combinação fixa permaneceram com níveis da PAD OBJECTIVE: The LOTHAR study evaluated medium and long term (one year efficacy, tolerability and metabolic effects of the fixed combination of amlodipine and losartan compared to amlodipine or losartan alone. METHODS: Brazilian multicenter, randomized, double-blind and comparative trial performed with 198 patients in stage 1 and 2 essential hypertension. RESULTS: The fixed combination has a high antihypertensive efficacy that is sustained in the long term with very low percentage of loss of blood pressure control. This percentage is incidentally lower than that of the two monotherapy comparative regimens. In the long term, more than 60% of the patients treated with the fixed combination remained with DBP < 85 mmHg, and the antihypertensive effect, when assessed by ABPM persisted for 24 hours with a trough-to-peak ratio of 76.7%. The frequency of adverse events was quite low in this group, and the long-term incidence of leg edema was approximately four-fold lower than that observed with amlodipine alone. The fixed combination did not change glucose and lipid metabolism in the medium or in the long term. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, we can say that the combination of amlodipine and losartan - the first fixed combination of a calcium channel

  4. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (Phypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  5. Intracranial hypertension in pediatric patients treated with recombinant human growth hormone: data from 25 years of the Genentech National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Richard; Maneatis, Thomas; Frane, James; Alexander, Kimberly; Lippe, Barbara; Davis, D Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension (IH) is a rare condition in children. However, a relationship between recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy and IH has been well documented. Risk factors were assessed for 70 rhGH-naive patients enrolled in the National Cooperative Growth Study with reports of IH after treatment initiation. Patients with severe growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), and obesity (particularly in the CRI group) were at highest risk of developing IH during the first year of therapy, suggesting initiation of careful early monitoring. In some patients, factors such as corticosteroid use or other chromosomal abnormalities appear to confer a delayed risk of IH, and these patients should be monitored long-term for signs and symptoms of IH.

  6. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, T

    1996-07-01

    Children presenting with hypertension should be considered for emergency treatment when there is evidence of end-organ toxicity. Complications of extreme hypertension may be very serious, even life threatening, with the potential for life-long sequelae. Of greatest significance is damage to the central nervous system. Treatment of hypertensive emergencies should be directed toward the lowering of blood pressure enough to reduce toxicity, but not at a rate likely to cause hypoperfusion of vital organs. This blood pressure reduction should, in general, be carefully controlled in an intensive care unit, with attention to central nervous system, cardiac, and renal function. Intravenous agents are preferable under these circumstances, due to greater ease in modulating blood pressure. In the absence of specific contraindications, a continuous infusion of nicardipine or sodium nitroprusside is preferable. Intravenous labetalol by bolus injection, followed by continuous infusion, also may be used. Oral agents should be reserved for circumstances in which symptoms of end-organ toxicity are mild or absent. Since general pediatricians have limited experience with the treatment of hypertensive emergencies, consultation with physicians experienced in treating hypertensive emergencies is suggested when possible.

  7. Clinical significance of incident hypokalemia and hyperkalemia in treated hypertensive patients in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Michael H; Piller, Linda B; Ford, Charles E; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Oparil, Suzanne; Cushman, William C; Einhorn, Paula T; Franklin, Stanley S; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Ong, Stephen T; Eckfeldt, John H; Furberg, Curt D; Calhoun, David A; Davis, Barry R

    2012-05-01

    Concerns exist that diuretic-induced changes in serum potassium may have adverse effects in hypertensive patients. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, a large practice-based clinical trial, made it possible to examine consequences of observed changes in potassium during care in conventional practice settings. Normokalemic participants randomized to chlorthalidone (C) versus amlodipine or lisinopril as a first-step drug were stratified by year-1 potassium. Postyear-1 outcomes among hypokalemics (potassium, 5.4 mmol/L) were compared with normokalemics (potassium, 3.5-5.4 mmol/L). Year-1 hypokalemia incidence was 6.8%; incidence in C (12.9%) differed from amlodipine (2.1%; Pheart disease occurred in 8.1% with hypokalemia, 8.0% with normokalemia, and 11.1% with hyperkalemia. Overall, mortality was higher in hypokalemics than in normokalemics (Cox hazard ratio, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.02-1.44]) with statistically significant (interaction, P<0.01) disparity in hazard ratios for the 3 treatment arms (hazard ratios, C=1.21, amlodipine=1.60, lisinopril=3.82). Hyperkalemia was associated with increased risk of combined cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.18]) without significant treatment interactions. In conventional practice settings, the uncommon appearance of hyperkalemia was associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Hypokalemia was associated with increased mortality; however, the statistically significant heterogeneity in hazard ratios across treatment groups strongly suggests that the observed increase in mortality is unrelated to the specific effects of C. Thus, for most patients, concerns about potassium levels should not influence the clinician's decision about initiating hypertension treatment with low-moderate doses of thiazide diuretics (12.5-25.0 mg of C).

  8. Evaluation and management of pediatric hypertensive crises: hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel NH

    2012-11-01