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Sample records for erzurum ne turkey

  1. Molecular diversity of thermophilic bacteria isolated from Pasinler hot spring (Erzurum, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ADIGÜZEL, Ahmet; İNAN, Kadriye; ŞAHİN, Fikrettin; ARASOĞLU, Tulin; GÜLLÜCE, Medine

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of thermophilic bacteria isolated from Pasinler hot spring, Erzurum, Turkey. Fatty acid profiles, BOX PCR fingerprints, and 16S rDNA sequence data were used for the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of thermophilic bacteria. Totally 9 different bacterial strains were selected based on morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. These strains were characterized by molecular tests includi...

  2. Study of the road traffic noise in Erzurum-Turkey

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    Mahir Gökdag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic noise affects a large number of people, especially in urban areas and is generally a major source of complaints. This paper refers to a study of the problem of traffic noise on roads which have been transformed into streets in the city of Erzurum. Noise levels are measured and the impacts suffered by the community are documented. Manual noise measurements were made along 12 streets exploring sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. The results from the measurements showed that, of 750 measured events, approximately 5% of the vehicles exceeded 70 dB(A and less than 2% exceeded 80 dB(A maximum noise level. In summary, the result showed that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a medium-weight vehicle. Among the higher noise levels measured (>80 dB(A this type of vehicle was dominant.

  3. Technical efficiency analysis for oilseed sunflower farms: a case study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Murat

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the technical efficiency of farms producing sunflower in Erzurum, Turkey and to identify factors that might be causing inefficiency. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to measure technical efficiency. One hundred and seventeen randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm-level data in the 2004-2005 production period. Results revealed that the mean technical efficiency for the sunflower farms, estimated by the stochastic production frontier, is 64%. At full technical efficiency, on average, the farmers could reduce their inputs by around 56% without reducing their sunflower production, simply by improving technical efficiency. In the inefficiency model the parameter estimates showed that older farmers, higher level of farmer's education, more experienced farmers, larger farm size and higher information score resulted in lower technical inefficiency, while bigger family size and more credit usage resulted in higher technical inefficiency. This study proposes strategies such as providing better extension services and farmer-training programmes, including more educated people in sunflower farming and also expanding the sunflower-growing area through provision of adequate facilities in order to increase technical efficiency.

  4. Genotoxic effects of water pollution on two fish species living in Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Zehra; Sişman, Turgay

    2014-11-01

    Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the Euphrates River (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey). The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in chub, Leuciscus cephalus, and transcaucasian barb, Capoeta capoeta, collected from contaminated site of the Karasu River, in comparison with fish from an unpolluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. The condition factor (CF) was taken as a general biomarker of the health of the fish, and genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (NA) were carried out on the fish species studied. MN and NA such as kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus, binucleated, lobed nucleus, and blebbed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells, and liver cells of the fish. A significant decrease in CF values associated with a significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in fish collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study show the significance of integrating a set of biomarkers to identify the effects of anthropogenic pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities.

  5. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus infection in a cosmopolitan city (Erzurum) in the eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Ertekin, Vildan; Kiliçaslan, Buket; Giiraksin, Asuman

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine VZV seroprevalence under age 30 and to identify the relationship of VZV seroprevalence and several sociodemographic characteristics of the study subjects. The results were presented in order to design a strategy for vaccination against varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It was planned to include a total of 568 subjects. The sampling method of 30 clusters recommended for field studies was used for selecting subjects of a predetermined number in the rural and urban areas in eastern Turkey. ELISA method was used to examine the blood samples for VZV seropositivity. Age, gender, place of living, educational level, family size and socioeconomic status was investigated in the study subjects. Positive VZV seroprevalence was detected in 78% of 559 subjects. Seroprevalence increased with age. Seroprevalence was 16.67% at the age of 1 year, subsequently increased to 57.58% at the age of 4 years, 70% at the age of 7 years, 92.31% at the age of 10 years and then remained 86.78-96.36% in subjects over the age of 10 years. No association was found between sociodemographic variables studied and prevalence levels of antibodies except for educational level in the 0-14 year group. These results suggest that the majority of VZV infections occur during the early childhood; the best option to reduce the circulation of wild type VZV in the population would be the immunization of young children. VZV vaccine should be introduced into the routine childhood vaccination programme in Turkey.

  6. The accelerating effects of the microorganisms on biodeterioration of stone monuments under air pollution and continental-cold climatic conditions in Erzurum, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhoglu, Y.; Oguz, E.; Uslu, H.; Ozbek, A.; Ipekoglu, B.; Ocak, I.; Hasenekoglu, I.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the accelerating effects of microorganisms on the biodeterioration of stone under air pollution and continental-cold climatic region in Erzurum, Turkey. Studies have been carried out on specimens of the Rustempasa Bazaar, the Lalapasa Mosque, the Erzurum Castle Mosque, the Double Minarets-Madrasah, the Great Mosque and the Haji Mehmet Fountain aged from 441 to 823 years old. The results showed that vegetative and reproductive (generative) forms of the microorganisms could develop during the winter months when the night time average temperature was even - 25 deg. C. Also the reproductive forms had developed and the whole stone surface was covered with a biofilm caused by the microorganisms. Silicon, aluminum, calcium, potassium, titanium, magnesium, zinc, sulfur, iron, sodium, and niobium were found in the stones of the historical buildings with varying amounts through the SEM-EDS analysis. Some of these elements could be used as an energy resource for the microorganisms together with the air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particles on the stone surfaces. Of 21 isolates, 15 species from 6 bacterium genera and 5 species from 5 fungi genera plus 1 fungi genera were identified on the deteriorated stone surfaces even during the coldest months by microbial identification system (MIS) and these findings were tested by SEM investigations

  7. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey using environmental indices

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    Hakan Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the vertical distribution of heavy metals in a 72 cm-long core sample from Lake Tortum in order to shed light on the implications of potential ecological risks. Analysis was based on the use of environmental indices such as the Integrated Pollution Load Index (PLI and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PER. Results reveal that, except for Pb, Mn and Hg, the lowest concentrations of heavy metals occur at a core depth of between 2 cm and 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, As, Cd, Cr and Al. The highest concentration was found at sampling intervals of 36 cm and 50 cm, with the exception of Pb, Mn, Hg and Ni. The PLI values from bottom to top are less than 1 while the level with the nearest value to the background value lies at a depth between 24 cm and 26 cm. The PER index results suggest a low ecological risk level for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cr, and Al; however, Cd and Hg constitute an ecological threat to the lake ecosystem.

  8. Adolescent immunization rates and the effect of socio-demographic factors on immunization in a cosmopolitan city (ERZURUM) in the eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Handan; Altinkaynak, Sevin; Arikan, Duygu; Ozyazicioğlu, Nurcan

    2006-04-01

    Pediatric vaccinations have decreased the incidence and mortality from infectious diseases in children, but adolescents continue to be adversely affected by vaccine preventable disease. The present study was performed to determine the status of adolescents immunization and to investigate the effect of several socio-demographic factors on immunization. Using the cluster-sampling method, 817 adolescents were selected in 24 high schools (15,000 students) in central district of Erzurum (Turkey). Adolescents were categorized as completely vaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, unvaccinated or vaccination status unknown. Of the 817 adolescents, 6.9% were completely vaccinated, 24.4% were incompletely vaccinated and 64.1% were unvaccinated. The vaccination status of 4.6% of adolescents was unknown. A significantly correlation was seen between the number of siblings, the level of mother and father education, the level of parent's socio-economics status, health insurance and immunization status. Our findings indicated a small percentage of adolescents receive all of the recommended vaccine. In immunization programs in Turkey, priority should be given to increase adolescent immunization rate with a middle school and/or adolescents, vaccination.

  9. Prevalence of and risk factors for otitis media with effusion in primary school children: case control study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucur, Cüneyt; Şimşek, Eda; Kuduban, Ozan; Özbay, İsa

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1,021 children attending 2 primary schools in districts in Erzurum were enrolled in a study evaluating the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) and its relationship with various risk factors. The prevalence of OME in this study was 6.8% (69/1021). The difference in OME prevalence between age groups (9 years) was statistically significant (p0.05), consanguineous marriage (p>0.05) and history of hearing loss in the parents (p>0.05) were not statistically significant. Parents need to be informed about the symptoms of and risk factors for OME to avoid delayed diagnosis, which can lead to permanent hearing loss.

  10. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  11. Bacterial and fungal organisms in otitis externa patients without fungal infection risk factors in Erzurum, Turkey Organismos bacterianos e fúngicos em pacientes com otite externa sem fatores de risco para infecção fúngica em Erzurum, Turquia

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    Murat Enoz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To describe the bacterial and fungal organisms in otitis externa patients without other risk factors for fungal infections. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional cohort descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ear swabs were obtained from 362 patients aged 1 to 55 years old with clinically diagnosed otitis externa in Erzurum, Turkey, between January 2006 and April 2007, and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi, using EMB, 5% sheep's blood, chocolate agar, anaerobic blood agar plate, thioglycollate broth and sabaroud agar using standard microbiological technique to diagnose isolates. RESULTS: 219 cultures were positive and a total of 267 isolates were obtained. Of the isolates, 68.16% (n: 182 were aerobic or facultative bacteria, 1.12 % (3 were anaerobic bacteria, 30.71 % (82 were fungi and 17.5 % (38 were polymicrobial infections. CONCLUSION: Fungal organisms especially Candida species may be isolated from ears of otitis externa patients without fungal infection risk factors such as ear self-cleaning, local antimicrobial, antifungal or corticosteroid drops or systemic antimicrobial or antifungal agents within the preceding week. Bacterial and fungal cultures may be recommended, and anti-fungal agents may be added, to treatment regimens in patients with otitis externa.OBJETIVO: Descrever fungos e bactérias presentes em pacientes com otite externa sem fator de risco para infecções fúngicas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo descritivo de coorte transversal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Amostras por raspagem de cotonetes (swabs no ouvido foram obtidas de 362 pacientes com idades entre 1 e 55 anos, com diagnóstico clínico de otite externa em Erzurum, Turquia, entre janeiro de 2006 e abril de 2007. Essas amostras foram cultivadas em meio de cultura, 5% de sangue de ovelha, ágar chocolate, ágar sangue anaeróbio, banho em tioglicolato e ágar Saboroud, usando técnicas padrão de microbiologia para identificar os isolados. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos

  12. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  13. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on the storage of turkey semen

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    S. Passarella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance or improvement of sperm quality during storage could prevent the loss of fertilizing capacity associated with stored turkey semen. Therefore the optimization of stored turkey semen could be useful to breeder industry since the commercial production of this bird relies almost entirely on artificial insemination. Previous research have shown that He-Ne laser irradiation in mammalian sperm increased the motility (Stato, 1986, decreased the mortality, promoted the acrosome reaction, which have a pivotal role in assisted fecundating programmes as therapy for resolving infertility in domestic animals..........

  14. ÇOCUK OYUN ALANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA İSTANBUL, İSPARTA, ESKİŞEHİR, ERZURUM, KAYSERİ, ANKARA, ZONGULDAK VE TRABZON İLLERİ ÖRNEĞİ

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    Yıldız AKSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Çocukluk dönemi sonraki yaşlardaki kişilik ve zihinsel yeteneklerin gelişmesinin temelinin atıldığı dönemdir. Bu yeteneklerin gelişmesindeki en önemli alan şüphe yok ki özgürce kendilerini ifade ettikleri çocuk oyun alanlarıdır. Türkiye'de 8 ilde (Isparta, Eskişehir, Erzurum, Kayseri, Ankara, İstanbul, Trabzon ve Zonguldak yapılan araştırmaların yer aldığı bu çalışmada çocuk oyun alanlarının yetersizliğinden bahsedilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler sonucunda; Türkiye'de çocuk başına düşen metrekare alanın diğer ülkelere göre daha az olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Isparta, Eskişehir, Erzurum, Kayseri, Ankara, İstanbul illerindeki araştırmalarda çocuklarla birebir anket ve gözlem yapılarak sonuca ulaşılmıştır. Çocukların sosyal, duygusal ve zihinsel yönden gelişimlerinin olumsuz yönde etkilendiği gözlenmiş, gözlem sonucunda elde edilen veriler analiz edilip, öneriler sunulmuştur.

  15. Meteorological analysis of flash floods in Artvin (NE Turkey on 24 August 2015

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    H. Baltaci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2015 intense rainfall episodes generated flash floods and landslides on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey. As a consequence of the heavy rainstorm activity over Artvin and its surroundings (NE Turkey, 11 people died and economic losses totaled a million dollars. Over the 6 h of the event (from 05:00 to 11:00 UTC, total accumulated rainfall amounts of 136, 64, and 109 mm were measured in the Hopa, Arhavi, and Borçka settlements of Artvin city, respectively. This study comprehensively investigates the meteorological characteristics of those flash floods. In terms of synoptic mechanisms, the cutoff surface low from the summer Asian monsoon settled over the eastern Black Sea. After two days of quasistationary conditions of this cyclone, sea surface temperatures (SSTs reached 27.5 °C (1.5 °C higher than normal and low-level moisture convergence developed. In addition, transfer of moisture by warm northerly flows from the Black Sea and relatively cool southerly flows from the land coasts of the Artvin district exacerbated the unstable conditions and thus played a significant role in the development of deep convective cells. Severe rainstorms as well as the slope instability of the region triggered landslides and worsened flood damages in the Artvin area. This study supports conventional weather analysis, satellite images, and forecast model output to alert forecasters to the potential for heavy rainfall.

  16. Kilop Cretaceous Hardground (Kale, Gümüshane, NE Turkey):description and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Muhsin; Tasli, Kemal

    2002-06-01

    A hardground surface is well exposed in the Kilop area of Kale (Gümüshane, NE Turkey) which forms part of the Eastern Pontides. Here, the hardground is underlain by shallow water Lower Cretaceous limestones, and overlain by Upper Cretaceous red limestones/marls which contains a planktonic microfauna including Globotruncanidae. In the field, the recognition of the hardground is based on the presence of extensive burrows (especially vertical burrows), the encrusting rudistid bivalve Requienia, neptunian-dykes with infills of pelagic sediments and synsedimentary faults. Skolithos and Thalassinoides-type burrows are present. Some burrow walls show iron hydroxide-staining. The extensive burrowing occurred prior to lithification. On the other hand, the neptunian-dykes and synsedimentary faults, which cut the hard ground, occurred after the lithification. These features indicate the progressive hardening of the substrate. The burrowed limestone consists of an intrabioclastic peloidal grainstone which was deposited in an intertidal to shallow, subtidal, moderate to relatively high energy environment. The peloidal limestone shows little or no evidence of submarine cementation, characterized by only scarce relics of isopachous cement rims of bladed calcite spar. The grainstone cement is composed predominantly of blocky calcite and overgrowth calcite cements on the echinoid-fragments. The origin of this cement is controversial. Biostratigraphic analysis of the limestones demonstrates that there is a marked stratigraphic gap (hiatus), spanning the Aptian to the Santonian, in the Cretaceous of the Kilop area. The formation of the Kilop Hardground is related to the break-up and subsidence of the Eastern Pontides carbonate platform during the formation of the Black Sea backarc basin. Hardground development was initiated in a shallow marine environment of slow sedimentation and with moderate to high energy indicating slow subsidence. Later, the hardground subsided abruptly, as

  17. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

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    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  18. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  19. Alteration mineralogy, mineral chemistry and stable isotope geochemistry of the Eocene pillow lavas from the Trabzon area, NE Turkey

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    Abdioğlu Yazar, Emel

    2018-02-01

    The Eocene subaqueous volcanic units in NE Turkey developed as pillow, closely packed pillow, isolated pillow, pillow breccia, hyaloclastite breccia and rare peperitic facies with red micritic limestones. They are locally set on volcaniclastic sandstone and claystone alternations and gradually pass to tuffs and volcanic breccias. The pillow lava samples generally exhibit intersertal, intergranular, microlitic porphyritic, variolitic, vesicular and glomeroporphyritic and glassy textures with clinopyroxene (Wo47-52En40-45Fs6-8), plagioclase (An10 to An96), olivine (Fo79-87) and Fe-Ti oxides (Usp0-0.27). Saponite, interlayered chlorite/saponite, rare beidellite and calcite were determined after olivine, rarely after plagioclase as well as in the glassy groundmass. Illite was restricted to plagioclase and the glassy groundmass. Na-Ca zeolites, chlorites/saponites, beidellite, dolomite and calcite occur as void infillings and in the glassy groundmass. Mineralogical, lithochemical and isotopic interpretations as well as thermometric calculations reveal a low-temperature seawater alteration in a semi-closed environment for the alteration of primary minerals and volcanic glass in addition to sealed vesicles and open systems for crosscutting veins. Due to the short exposure time intervals of seawater to rocks, the total chemistry of the rocks is not fully changed and most of the elements seem to be immobile, remaining in the system as a result of precipitation in voids and cracks. Thermometric estimations indicate that, the temperature of heated seawater is approximately 160 °C at the highest point especially in the vesicles, and decreases to approximately 85 °C due to circulation, resulting in alterations of the primary phases and volcanic glass.

  20. Geochemical and Isotopic Features of Çaykara (Trabzon, NE Turkey) Intrusive Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Cuneyt; Aydınçakır, Emre; Aydin, Faruk; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Karslı, Orhan; Yılmazer, Sinan; Dündar, Buket

    2017-04-01

    peraluminous characteristics. The primitive mantle normalized multi-element variation diagrams of the studied samples show enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and also negative Nb, Ta, P, Ti and positive Pb anomalies. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns are [(La/Lu)N=8-10] and display negative Eu anomalies. When obtained initial data is plotted on tectonic discrimination diagram, as expected the tectonic setting of the plutons in subject was observed representing island arc environment. This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, grant 114Y219).

  1. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

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    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  2. Erzurum in the Turkmen Version of Koroglu Legend

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    Mustafa Serbes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Turkmen version of Koroglu Legend, there exist lots of country, city and place names belonging to the Turkish world and neighboring folks. The places in the legend are not only composed of Turkmen lands and neighbors, but there are other extraordinary places like Kaf Mountain as well. The hero of the legend, Koroglu, has connections with neighboring places because of various reasons. In the most of the sections, Koroglu organizes wars against the neighboring countries and cities. He imposes a tax on some of those countries and cities. Arzılum (Erzurum is also one of the cities in which Koroglu is interested. Although it’s far from Turkmen geography, Erzurum takes place in the Turkmen version of the legend. The city is described in details. In the most sections of the legend, the name and the characteristics of the city, particularly “Erhasan and Tellihan” take place. In this study, the materials related to Erzurum, which is located in twenty one sections of the Turkmen version of Koroglu Legend, have been analyzed. The information given about the city has been evaluated, particularly by moving from the section of “Erhasan and Tellihan”.

  3. Site characterization and evaluation of the stability of the Yesilyurt Landslide (Trabzon, NE Turkey) using back analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul Yahşi, Bilgehan; Ersoy, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the soil profile of the Yeşilyurt Landslide Area (NE Turkey) and to investigate the stability of the landslide area after the excavation planned by back analysis for support design. For these purposes, after the 1/1000 scaled engineering geological map was prepared, seismic refraction, electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar measurements were performed on different profiles to understand vertical and horizontal homogeneity of the landslide materials and undisturbed/disturbed soil samples were obtained from the test pits to determine the geotechnical properties of the soil. The results of the geophysical measurements showed that the landslide material was composed of two different soil zones. While the maximum thickness of the upper zone is 2.5, the thickness of the lower zone is about 5 m. The depth of dasidic rock mass is about 7 m. Residual cohesions of the soil samples obtained upper and lower zones were determined as 38 kPa and 44 kPa, and their residual friction angles were determined as 18° and 15° respectively. Unit weight values of the soil samples obtained from both zones were 16.9 kN m-3. The data obtained from laboratory tests showed that the landslide material is a uniform lithology. The geophysical measurements indicate that the wave velocity and resistivity values of these profiles differ from each other due to groundwater at a depth of 2.5 m. Limit equilibrium analysis were carried out with Slide v5.0 software using data obtained from the field measurements and laboratory tests to evaluate current and supported cases of the studied area. Because the safety factor of the slope obtained from the LE analyses is 0.99 and the studied soil environment is considered as unstable, the reliable and economical reinforcement was suggested using the retaining wall. The back-analysis method was evaluated to ensure the stability for a 1.5 safety factor and finally the lateral active forces for the

  4. A model from the First National Architecture Period in Ankara: Hotel Erzurum

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    Hasan Fevzi Çügen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As Ankara became the capital, the emerging problem of accommodation required a change in the function of some dwellings in the city. In the 1930s, the Hotel Erzurum was one of the buildings involved in this change. Hotel Erzurum was located in the Ulus district, right next to the Hotel Europe which was next door to the city’s wholesale produce market. In this study information is given about the construction and architectural features of Hotel Erzurum, which was built in the neo-classical style and was one of the examples with the salient features of the First National Architecture Period structures.

  5. Arc magmatism as a window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity: Example from the eastern Pontides belt, NE Turkey

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    Yener Eyuboglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Pontides orogenic belt in the Black Sea region of Turkey offers a critical window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity during the closure of the Paleotethys. Here we provide a brief synthesis on recent information from this belt. We infer a southward subduction for the origin of the Eastern Pontides orogenic belt and its associated late Mesozoic–Cenozoic magmatism based on clear spatial and temporal variations in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic arc magmatism, together with the existence of a prominent south-dipping reverse fault system along the entire southern coast of the Black Sea. Our model is at variance with some recent proposals favoring a northward subduction polarity, and illustrates the importance of arc magmatism in evaluating the geodynamic milieu associated with convergent margin processes.

  6. The nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting: A synthesis from the eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Eyuboglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Pontides orogenic belt provides a window into continental arc magmatism in the Alpine–Himalayan belt. The late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of this belt remains controversial. Here we focus on the nature of the transition from the adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in the Kale area of Gumushane region in NE Turkey where this transition is best preserved. The adakitic lithologies comprise porphyries and hyaloclastites. The porphyries are represented by biotite-rich andesites, hornblende-rich andesite and dacite. The hayaloclastites represent the final stage of adakitic activity and they were generated by eruption/intrusion of adakitic andesitic magma into soft carbonate mud. The non-adakitic lithologies include basaltic-andesitic volcanic and associated pyroclastic rocks. Both rock groups are cutting by basaltic dikes representing the final stage of the Cenozoic magmatism in the study area. We report zircon U-Pb ages of 48.71 ± 0.74 Ma for the adakitic rocks, and 44.68 ± 0.84 Ma for the non-adakitic type, suggesting that there is no significant time gap during the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism. We evaluate the origin, magma processes and tectonic setting of the magmatism in the southern part of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Our results have important bearing on the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region.

  7. Cordierite-bearing strongly peraluminous Cebre Rhyolite from the eastern Sakarya Zone, NE Turkey: Constraints on the Variscan Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Külekçi, Elif; Aydınçakır, Emre; Kandemir, Raif; Cihat Alçiçek, M.; Pecha, Mark E.; Sünnetçi, Kadir

    2017-05-01

    The Cebre Rhyolite with an outcropping area up to 12 km2 is one of the rare extrusions in the Variscan basement of the Sakarya Zone. The unit consists of high-K calc alkaline rhyolites (SiO2 = 74-82 wt.%). Abundant phenocrysts of quartz and K-feldspar are accompanied by subordinate cordierite phenocrysts, rare muscovite microphenocrysts and biotite microcrysts set in a fine-grained groundmass. Three types of rock fragments (xenoliths) have been recognized; (i) porphyritic, (ii) equigranular hypabyssal and (iii) hypocrystalline fragments. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Cebre Rhyolite was extruded at 332.8 ± 4.38 Ma, which post-dates the Variscan low temperature metamorphism and pre-dates the emplacement of I-type granitic intrusions (325-303 Ma).The samples are strongly peraluminous with A/CNK values ranging from 1.48 to 2.95 and A/NK from 1.49 to 2.99. They have very high K2O (3.72-7.42 wt.%) and Al2O3 (10.77-14.11 wt.%) contents, but very low CaO (0.02-0.21 wt.%), Na2O (0.05-0.78 wt.%) and MgO (0.3-0.21 wt.%) contents. The samples show geochemical affinity with the upper continental crust, e.g., enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; K, Rb, U, Th, Pb), depletion of high field strength elements (HFSEs; Nb, Ta, Ti), Sr, P and Eu, but ԐNd(t) values (- 3.06 to - 8.75) and isotope ratios of Sr(t)(87Sr/86Sr = 0.70499-0.70915) and Pb(t) (206Pb/204Pb = 16.41-17.570, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.59, 208Pb/204Pb = 36.20-37.22) are similar to those of the lower crust. Geochemical and isotope data indicate that the Cebre Rhyolite was generated by melting of metapelitic rocks with some addition of intermediate metaigneous derived magma. As a geodynamic model, we propose that the Variscan Orogeny in Turkey was occurred by collision of Gondwana with an arc/terrane separated from the southern margin of Laurussia. This collision was followed shortly after by splitting of oceanic lithosphere into two pieces and sinking down into asthenosphere. Rapid upwelling of

  8. Water Quality in Tortum Stream and its Tributaries (Erzurum/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine KÖKTÜRK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the effects of domestic waste and hydroelectric dams on water quality in the Tortum Stream and its tributaries. Water samples were taken monthly from nine sampling points of Tortum Stream and its tributaries between July 2012 and May 2013. Analyzed for temperature (°C, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total suspended solids (TSS, alkalinity, Ca, total hardness, sulfate (SO4, ammonia-nitrogen (N-NH3−, nitrite-nitrogen (N-NO2− and nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3− as well as total phosphorus (TP, total orthophosphate (TO, total iron and silica (SiO2 were carried out. Physical and chemical characteristics of Tortum Stream and its tributaries which were examined according to the Water Framework Directive and the Water Pollution Control Regulations. It can be said that the stream has a low water quality standard except for water temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate. The results showed that Tortum Stream and tributaries are under threat because of domestic waste, fertilizers and hydroelectric constructions.

  9. ERZURUM'DA SEBZE OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLEN YÖRESEL BAZI BİTKİLER / LOCAL VVILD PLANTS USED AS VEGETABLE IN ERZURUM

    OpenAIRE

    Güvenç, İsmail; Kaya, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    ÖZET 1 Bu çalışma, Erzurum vejetasyonunda doğal olarak yetişen ve sebze olarak kullanılan yöreselbitkileri belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirildi. Yöreden toplanan bitki örneklerinin tamtum teşhis edildi. Sebzeolarak değerlendirilen bu bitkilerin yöresel adları bağa yaprağı (Plantago majör), ısırgan (Urtica dioica), (Sinapis arvensis), kuzu kulağı (Rumex acetocella), çaşır (Prangos uechritzii), çir...

  10. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  11. Determination of the Factors Influencing Store Preference in Erzurum by a Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine factors influencing store preference of the store costumers in Erzurum in terms of some characteristics of the store and its product and costumers’ demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, level of education and their income level. In order to carry out this objective, Pearson chi-square test is applied to determine whether there is a relationship between the store preference and customer, stores, and some characteristics of products and a multinominal logit model is fitted by stepwise regression method to the cross-section data compiled from a questionnaire applied to 384 store costumers in the center of Erzurum province. According to the model estimation and test results, the variables of marital status (married, education (primary and cheapness (unimportant for Migros; education (middle for Özmar and marital status (married for the other stores are determined as statistically significant at the level of 5 percent

  12. SEARCHING THE FACTORS HAVING CREDIT CARD: A SURVEY STUDY IN ERZURUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN OKTAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors related with having credit card in Erzurum have been searched by a logit model. There are demographic, social, cultural, and economic variables in the model. The final model is statistically significant. According to the model, job, average household income per month, payment method at shopping, usefulness of credit card and increasing the shopping tendency are statistically significant on having credit card.

  13. ERZURUM'DA SEBZE OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLEN YÖRESEL BAZI BİTKİLER / LOCAL VVILD PLANTS USED AS VEGETABLE IN ERZURUM

    OpenAIRE

    Güvenç, İsmail; Kaya, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET 1 Bu çalışma, Erzurum vejetasyonunda doğal olarak yetişen ve sebze olarak kullanılan yöreselbitkileri belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirildi. Yöreden toplanan bitki örneklerinin tamtum teşhis edildi. Sebzeolarak değerlendirilen bu bitkilerin yöresel adları bağa yaprağı (Plantago majör), ısırgan (Urtica dioica), (Sinapis arvensis), kuzu kulağı (Rumex acetocella), çaşır (Prangos uechritzii), çiriş (Asphodelus ramosus), (Rheum ribes), ...

  14. Obsidian from volcanic sequences and rent alluvial deposits, Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia: Chemical characterisation and archaeological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, P.; Sagona, T.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Recent geoarchaeological research in the Erzurum district, north-eastern Anatolia, has revealed an abundance of obsidian at numerous neolithic and Bronze Age sites. Geochemical characterisation using neutron activation analysis indicates that the obsidian was obtained from several sources that are chemically distinct from the major sources already known from Central Anatolia an the Lake Van area. Multiple sources are represented in the samples collected from at least two of the sites, namely the sites of Sos and Pulur. The primary source of some of the obsidian utilised at the site of Sos has been located in the volcanic sequence outcropping tot he north-west of Pasinler. Field survey however has shown that the alluvial deposits along the main rivers and some of their tributaries were the main sources of the obsidian utilised at the sites near Erzurum. Trade or exchange of obsidian with sites outside the Erzurum area seems to have been limited

  15. Evaluation of human thermal comfort ranges in urban climate of winter cities on the example of Erzurum city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Süleyman; Kántor, Noémi

    2017-01-01

    Human thermal comfort conditions can be evaluated using various indices based on simple empirical approaches or more complex and reliable human-biometeorological approaches. The latter is based on the energy balance model of the human body, and their calculation is supplemented with computer software. Facilitating the interpretation of results, the generally applied indices express the effects of thermal environment in the well-known temperature unit, just like in the case of the widely used index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). Several studies adopting PET index for characterizing thermal components of climate preferred to organize the resulted PET values into thermal sensation categories in order to demonstrate the spatial and/or temporal characteristics of human thermal comfort conditions. The most general applied PET ranges were derived by Central European researchers, and they are valid for assumed values of internal heat production of light activity and thermal resistance of clothing representing a light business suit. Based on the example of Erzurum city, the present work demonstrates that in a city with harsh winter, the original PET ranges show almost purely discomfort and they seem to be less applicable regarding cold climate conditions. Taking into account 34-year climate data of Erzurum, the annual distribution of PET is presented together with the impact of application of different PET categorization systems, including 8°- and 7°-wide PET intervals. The demonstrated prior analyses lack any questionnaire filed surveys in Erzurum. Thus, as a next step, detailed field investigations would be required with the aim of definition of new PET categorization systems which are relevant for local residents who are adapted to this climatic background, and for tourists who may perform various kinds of winter activities in Erzurum and therefore may perceive the thermal environment more comfortable.

  16. Chemical and mineralogical changes of waste and tailings from the Murgul Cu deposit (Artvin, NE Turkey): implications for occurrence of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Emine Selva; Akçay, Miğraç

    2016-04-01

    Being one of the largest copper-producing resources in Turkey, the Murgul deposit has been a source of environmental pollution for very long time. Operated through four open pits with an annual production of about 3 million tons of ore at an average grade of about 0.5% Cu, the deposit to date has produced an enormous pile of waste (exceeding 100 million tons) with tailings composed of 36 % SiO2, 39% Fe2O3 and 32% S, mainly in the form of pyrite and quartz. Waters in the vicinity of the deposit vary from high acid-acid (2.71-3.85) and high-extremely metal rich (34.48-348.12 mg/l in total) in the open pits to near neutral (6.51-7.83) and low metal (14.39-973.52 μg/l in total) in downstream environments. Despite low metal contents and near neutral pH levels of the latter, their suspended particle loads are extremely high and composed mainly of quartz and clay minerals with highly elevated levels of Fe (3.5 to 24.5% Fe2O3; 11% on average) and S (0.5 to 20.6% S; 7% on average), showing that Fe is mainly in the form of pyrite and lesser hematite. They also contain high concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Waters collected along the course of polluted drainages are supersaturated with respect to Fe phases such as goethite, hematite, maghemite, magnetite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite. Secondary phases such as Fe-sulphates are only found near the pits, but not along the streams due to neutral pH conditions, where pebbles are covered and cemented by Fe-oxides and hydroxides indicating that oxidation of pyrite has taken place especially at times of low water load. It follows, then, that the pyrite-rich sediment load of streams fed by the waste of the Murgul deposit is currently a big threat to the aquatic life and environment and will continue to be so even after the closure of the deposit. In fact, the oxidation will be enhanced and acidity increased due to natural conditions, which necessitates strong remedial actions to be taken.

  17. ERZURUM/İSPİR YEDİGÖL KÖYÜNDE BULUNAN GELENEKSEL EVLER

    OpenAIRE

    KÖŞKLÜ, Zerrin

    2017-01-01

    İspir,Erzurum il merkezine 144 km. mesafede bulunan, Doğu Anadolu ile Doğu KaradenizBölgesi arasında geçiş özelliği gösteren bir ilçedir. İlçe merkezine bağlı 101köy (köyler 2014 Mahalli Seçimlerinin ardından mahalle olarak tanımlanmaktadır)ve köylere bağlı mezralarıyla oldukça geniş bir alanı kaplayan İspir’in 44 km.kuzeyinde Rize il sınırına en yakın köylerinden biri olan Yedigölbulunmaktadır. KaradenizBölgesine yakınlığı, iklim ve arazi koşulları ile Doğu Anadolu Bölgesindenayrılan Yedigöl...

  18. Mineral Chemistry and Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks in The North of Pasinler (Erzurum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay KILIÇ

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the north of Pasinler (Erzurum, Upper Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks crop out. These volcanites are composed of basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, rhyolite lavas and rhyolitic pyroclastics. The rocks show porphyritic, microlitic porphyritic, hyalo-microlitic porphyritic, vitrophyric, glomeroporphyritic, pilotaxitic and hyalopilitic textures. The investigated volcanites contain plagioclase (An29-80, olivine (Fo65-82, clinopyroxene (augite, orthopyroxene (enstatite, amphibole (Mg#: 0.57-0.71, biotite (phlogopite: 0.44-0.47, annite: 0.33-0.37, sanidine, quartz and opaque mineral (titano-magnetite and ilmenite. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkaline in character and have medium to high-K contents. Major oxide and trace element variations point out open-system magmatic differentiation in the evolution of rocks. Geochemical data indicate an important role of fractionation of phenocryst phases in the rocks during differentiation process. However, it is considered that assimilation±magma mixing might have accompanied to the process. High LILE (K, Rb, Ba, Th and relatively low HFSE (Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr contents of the rocks indicate that these rocks derived from parental magmas carrying subduction signature.

  19. Latest Cretaceous "A2-type" granites in the Sakarya Zone, NE Turkey: Partial melting of mafic lower crust in response to roll-back of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, Ibrahim; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kumral, Mustafa; Kandemir, Raif; Budakoglu, Murat; Ketenci, Murat

    2018-03-01

    An integrated study of comprehensive geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data was undertaken for the A-type Topcam pluton that intruded within the Sakarya Zone (NE Turkey) with the aims of elucidating its origin and tectonic significance and gaining new insights into the generation of aluminous A-type granites. New LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb crystallization ages of 72 and 73 Ma indicate emplacement in the Late Cretaceous time, just after extensive metaluminous I-type magmatism in the area. The pluton consists mainly of alkali feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, amphibole, and biotite with accessory minerals such as magnetite, apatite, and zircon. The outcrop is composed of granite, syenite, monzonite, and quartz monzonite and possesses a wide range of SiO2 content (57-70 wt%) with elevated Ga/Al ratios and low Mg# (mostly negative Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.31 to 0.86) anomalies on the chondrite-normalized REE diagram. The rocks are enriched in some large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Th and Ba), and spidergrams show a relative depletion in Nb, Ti, and Sr. The granitic rocks of the pluton have identical 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios ranging from 0.70518 to 0.70716, relatively low εNd (t) values varying from - 5.5 to - 0.4, and TDM ages (0.82-1.19 Ga). In situ zircon analyses show that the rocks have variable negative and positive εHf (t) values (- 5.5 to 5.9) and Hf two-stage model ages (742 to 1468 Ma), which are indicative of minor addition of juvenile material. Sr-Nd isotope modelling suggests mixing of 70-90% of lower crustal-derived melt with 10-30% of mantle-derived melt at lower crust depths. The heat source for partial melting is provided by upwelling of hot asthenosphere triggered by slab roll-back events. Geochemical and isotopic data reveal that metaluminous A2-type granites were derived from partial melting of the Paleozoic lower continental crust dominated by mafic rocks in amphibolitic composition, with minor input of subcontinental lithospheric mantle

  20. Camili (Macahel Havzasının (Artvin, KD Türkiye Heyelan Duyarlılık Analizi Landslide Susceptibility Analysis of Camili (Macahel Basin (Artvin, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ÖZŞAHİN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common natural disasters in Turkey and in theworld is landslides. Investigation of Turkey’s profile of the last 50 yearsshows that the landslides are the most commonly occurring naturaldisasters with a ratio of 45%.The current study investigated the landslide susceptibility analysisof Camili (Macahel which is one of the unique places on earth with itsspecific fauna and flora and which is the first Biosphere Reserve Area ofTurkey. The landslides which are among the most common naturaldisaster risks in the basin with international recognizance present crucialthreats both in terms of settlement and planning. In this context, thestudy examined the factors that cause landslides in the basin area, theirimpact levels, ratios of potential landslide zones and their geographicaldistributions.The study employed factor maps of various scales obtained fromdifferent resources. 17 parameter factors obtained with the help of thesemaps were evaluated separately and in connection with conditiondependent overlay method to identify landslide risk zones. The studybased on a topography plate with scaled 1/25.000 made use of maps ofvarious scales about different parameters as well as Landsat satelliteimages. Mapping and analysis phases of the study were based onGeographical Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RStechnology. In this context, ArcGIS/ArcMap 10 GIS and ERDAS 2012 RSsoftware was utilized.It was identified at the end of the landslide susceptibility study ofthe basin that medium level susceptible zones display the highestdistribution with 56 % ratio (14284 ha followed by high (6972 ha - 28 %and very high (611 ha – 2 % level susceptible zones with 30 % and low3288 ha – 13 % and very low (67 ha – 1 % level susceptible zones with14 %. It was determined that potential risk zones are concentratedaround slopes overlooking north where relief and precipitation values arehigh, mountain and slope morphology is dominant and vegetation

  1. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  2. ERZURUM'DA HANEHALKLARININ TÜKETİM KALIPLARININ YAPISI VE GELİR HİPOTEZLERİNİN ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÜSEYİN ÖZER

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with analyzing the consumption patterns of the households in Erzurum, providing efficient estimates for the models related to the income hypotheses, viz., absolute income, relative income, permanent income, and life cycle hypotheses, comparing parameter estimates implied by the different models, and choosing one of them as the best model which explaines the consumption tendency of the households by using the Household Survey Data conducted by the author for the year 1991. The major findings of the analysis reveal that Engel's law is also valid in Erzurum, that besides income, demographic characteristics of the households such as occupation, education are important factors affecting the consumption, that climate has a special importance in explaining the consumption, and that the linear model is the best. Furthermore, an attempt made to compare the present estimates with those generated in previous studies in Erzurum shows that the welfare level of the households was fairly low although it had been rising for the period of 1986-91.

  3. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48......) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C...

  4. "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." : [luuletused] / Marina Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." ; "Inogo mesta vstretshi v mire net..." ; "Moi put lezhit tsherez Moskvu..." ; "Osvoboditelnaja ossen - ..." ; Pjuhtitskim aistam ; "Vesjolõje svetshi kanona..." ; Vjuga ; Materi Bozhijei Pjuhtitskoi ; "Pustõnja moja, pustõnja..." ; "Odinnadtsat let v mojo serdtse gljadjat kupola..."

  5. M.FAHRETTİN KIRZIOĞLU’NUN “ERZURUM TARİHİNİ ARAŞTIRMA VE TANITMA DERNEĞİ” PROGRAMI TASARISI ÜZERİNDEKİ DEĞİŞTİRME VE EKLEMELERİ - Erzurum Tarihi Üzerine M.Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu’nun Önerdiği Metodu da İhtiva Eden Bir Belge

    OpenAIRE

    Kırzıoğlu, M. Cemal

    2010-01-01

    ÖZETMakale, Erzurum Tarihini Araştırma ve Tanıtma Derneği’nin “ Erzurum tarihini yeniden yazma” konusunda: biri Erzurumlu Tarih Hocası Tahsin (Akgün) Aşıroğlu(1911-1984), diğeri M. Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu(1917-2005)’na ait olmak üzere iki ayrı belgeyi ihtiva etmektedir. ABSTRACTThis study includes two separate documents belonged to a history teacher from Erzurum, Tahsin(Akgün) Aşıroğlu(1911-1984), and M. Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu(1917-2005 about rewritin...

  6. Determination of Mineral Contents of Some Legume and Cereal Forages Grown as Naturally in Pastures of Erzurum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra GÜRSOY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the mineral substances such as macro and micro minerals of legume and cereal forages grown as naturally in the pastures of Erzurum province. In present study, clover, (Medicago sativa, mountain hispanic sainfoin (Hedysarum elegans, bird vetch (Vicia cracca, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, mountain vetch (Vicia alpestris, mountain clover (Trifolium montanum, caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum, the three-headed clover (Trifolium trichocephalum, tawny grass crown (Coronilla varia, the crown of the eastern horn of grass (Coronilla orientatis and yellow flowers gazelle (Lotus corniculatus from legume forages; cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, red fescue (Festuca rubra, sheep ball (Festuca ovina, tawny bromine (Bromus variegatus, blue split (Agropyron intermedium, kelp tail grass (Phleum pratense, meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis from cereal forages were investigated. The obtained data were subjected to an analysis of variance by using SPSS 12.0 package program. Significant differences between means were tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Macro minerals such as Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg and Sulfur (S assigned for legume forages changed between 2.39- 3.30%, 1.16-1.28%, 0.70-2.69%, 0.56-1.61%, 0.11-0.51% and 0.16-0.27%, respectively. The amounts of micro mineral like Iron (Fe, Virgin (Cu, Zinc (Zn, Manganese (Mn and Boron (B of legume forages were determined to be 105.9-893.7 ppm, 2.22-12.36 ppm, 14.11-195 ppm, 18.18-66.58 ppm and 5.91-40.39 ppm, respectively. Instances of macro minerals of cereal forages were found for N 1.76-of 2.19%, P 1.10-1.19%, K 1.99-3.25%, Ca 0.09-1.15%, Mg 0.07-0.26% and S 0.22-0.36% in present study. Micro minerals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and B determined for cereal forages changed between 74.90-630.6 ppm, 4-9.84 ppm, 31.49-335.6 ppm, 24.63-94.51 ppm and 0.35-26.64 ppm, respectively. In conclusion

  7. Analysing workplace violence towards health care staff in public hospitals using alternative ordered response models: the case of north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ali Kemal; Oktay, Erkan; Çebi, Kübranur

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this article is to determine key factors that may have a significant effect on the verbal abuse, emotional abuse and physical assault of health care workers in north-eastern Turkey. A self-administered survey was completed by 450 health care workers in three well-established hospitals in Erzurum, Turkey. Because of the discrete and ordered nature of the dependent variable of the survey, the data were analysed using four distinctive ordered response models. Results revealed that several key variables were found to be a significant determinant of workplace violence, such as the type of health institution, occupational position, weekly working hours, weekly shift hours, number of daily patient contacts, age group of the respondents, experience in the health sector, training against workplace violence and current policies of the hospitals and the Turkish Ministry of Health.

  8. Turkey: A Geostrategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fanale, Rosalie A

    2001-01-01

    ...] America"s primary national security interest in Turkey is regional stability. U.S. strategy aims for Turkey to be a strong regional player, able to act in support of U.S. interests in a troubled region.

  9. Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team

  10. Photoionization of Ne8+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  11. Investigation of Self-Respect and Risk-Taking Level of Individuals doing Sport or not (The Example of Erzurum Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aktaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to analyse individuals’ level of self respect and risk-taking who both doing sport and not doing in respect of different socio-demographic aspects. The subjects in this study included 208 individuals who do sport and 102 individuals who do not sport, in respect of genders, 220 male and 90 female totally 310 individuals who live in Erzurum and subjects were chosen randomly. The data was collected by applying the individuals risk taking scale (DOSPERT which was developed by Weber, Blais and Betz and later shortened by Weber and Bias and self-respect scale developed by Arıcak. SPSS20 programme was used for assessment and analysis of the data and significance was determined as P<0,05. Shapiro-Wilk Normality test was applied in order to analyse whether the distribution of the data was normal or not and it was observed the data was not normally distributed. Mann Whitney U test was applied in order to find out whether there was difference between the level of self-respect and risk taking in respect of gender and doing sport and Kruskal- Wallis test was applied in respect of age and marital status. According to results it was found out that there were differences between the level of self- respect and risk taking in respect of the criterias such as age, gender, status of doing sport and marital status.

  12. KÜRESEL EKONOMİK KRİZİN SEYAHAT ACENTELERİNE ETKİLERİ VE TÜRKİYE’DE KRİZ YÖNETİMİ UYGULAMALARI (EFFECT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS ON TRAVEL AGENCIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün AVCI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Kriz yönetimi özellikle turizm sektöründeki işletmeler için bir gereklilik haline gelmiştir. Türkiye'de bu alanda yapılan sınırlı çalışmalara rağmen, turizm sektörünün bel kemiğini de oluşturan seyahat acentelerinde, konunun araştırılması önemli bulunmuştur. Bu bağlamda, kriz dönemlerinde seyahat acenteleri tarafından alınan önlemler ve uygulamaları belirlemek, kriz dönemlerinde bu önlemlerin ve uygulamaların kullanım sıklığını ölçmek, ekonomik krizin seyahat acentelerine olumlu ve olumsuz etkilerini analiz etmek amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada nicel yaklaşım benimsenmiş ve 357 geçerli veri analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular yeni pazarlama politikaları geliştirme uygulamalarının ilk faktör olarak ortaya çıktığını ve diğer uygulamalara göre daha sıklıkla uygulandığını göstermektedir. Çalışmada, kriz sürecine uyum ve örgütsel hazırlık çalışmalarının on plana çıktığı görülmektedir. Özellikle iş süreçlerinin yeni koşullara uyumlaştırılması ve yönetimin gözden geçirilerek yeni yaklaşımların benimsenmesi gerektiği, esnek ve yeni koşullara çabuk uyum sağlayan bir yönetim anlayışının benimsenmesi en önemli uygulamalar olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Elde edilen bulgular, seyahat acenteleri yöneticilerinin tehlikelere karşı önlem alma ihtiyacı ve potansiyel krizlere karşı hazırlıklı olma önerilerini içermektedir. Kriz öncesinde, seyahat acentelerinin kriz yönetimi planlamaları yapmaları, tepkisel uygulamalar yerine politikalar belirlemeleri önerilebilir. Ayrıca, seyahat acenteleri üzerinde yapılan bu araştırma, Türkiye'de kriz planlama ve yönetimi literatürüne katkıda bulunacaktır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Seyahat Acenteleri, Ekonomik Kriz, Kriz Yönetimi. ABSTRACT: Crisis management has become a requirement for businesses particularly in tourism industry. In spite of the limited studies carried out in this field in

  13. Food allergy knowledge and attitude of restaurant personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Kavut, Ayşe Baççıoğlu; Kartal, İbrahim; Beyhun, Ercument Nazim; Çayır, Atilla; Mutlu, Mehmet; Özkan, Behzat

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of food-induced allergic reactions is gradually increasing. Most of these allergic reactions occur in restaurants. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the awareness of restaurant personnel about food allergy. The training, knowledge levels on food allergy, and comfort level in providing safe food of 351 restaurant personnel in Erzurum Province, Turkey, were assessed through a face-to-face survey. Among the participants, 81.5% were male (mean age 28.5 ± 8.5 years). Among them, 17.1% were chefs, 11.1% managers, 5.7% owners, and 66.1% waiters. Food allergy training was reported by 17.1% of the participants. The rates of restaurant personnel who gave the correct answers to the 4 questionnaire items, "Customers with food allergies can safely consume a small amount of that food/Food allergic reaction can cause death/If a customer is having an allergic reaction, it is appropriate to immediately serve them water to 'dilute' the allergen/Removing an allergen from a finished meal (eg, taking off nuts) may be all that is necessary to provide a safe meal for an allergic customer," which measure food allergy knowledge levels, were 46.4%, 65.7%, 55.0%, and 65.7%, respectively. According to our study, there are gaps in the food allergy knowledge of restaurant personnel. Because preparing and serving safe meals to patients with food allergy in restaurants is important, the training of restaurant personnel in food allergy is necessary. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  15. Peer teaching experience of the first year medical students from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Cayir, Yasemin; Acemoglu, Hamit

    2015-02-01

    To document peer teaching activity performed by first-year medical students and their views on the teaching activity. Survey. Medical Education Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey, in the 2012 - 2013 academic year. Volunteer students were selected for peer teaching model by an academician from the Medical Education Department. Students were taught subjects selected from classes such as biochemistry and microbiology in the same way as the academicians do. Following each class activity, the teaching student was assessed by the other students on a 5-point rating scale. Written and verbal feedback was also obtained from both teaching students and participated students. Verbal feedbacks were noted by a faculty member and similar opinions were categorized. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 statistical program. Eleven students took part in the program. Feedback was received from students 171 times. The mean number of students participated was 24.4 ± 14.3 in each program. Statistical analysis revealed that mean value for teaching materials, peer instructors and teaching environment were 4.62 ± 0.49, 4.63 ± 0.47 and 3.88 ± 1. 27 respectively. Peer teaching method is a pretty good way of teaching for medical students. It is a practicable technique that can be used in medical training. Taking part in this program as a lecturer, student increased students' self-confidence in the learning and teaching activities. Quite positive feedbacks were received.

  16. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  17. ERZURUM ŞARTLARINDA DİKİM ZAMANI VE TEPE ALMANIN PATATESTE VERİM VE ÇEŞİTLİ ÖZELLİKLERİNE ETKİSİ /

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Sabahattin

    2010-01-01

    ÖZETErzurum Ekolojik şartlarında dikim ve tepe alma zamanmm patatesteverime ve diğer bazı agronomik karekterlere etkisini tesbitetmek için bu çalışma yapılmış, erkenci ve geç olgunlaşan 34/962 ve49/962 çeşitler bu denemeye alınmıştır. Neticede, en fazıa verim enerken dikim zamanı olarak tayin ediıen 13 Mayıs tarihinde a.ltlnmış,tepe aımanm· veya sürgün öıdürmenin önemli etkisi g&ou...

  18. An evaluation of knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, Emine; Dayapoglu, Nuray

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding epilepsy among individuals in eastern Turkey. This descriptive study involved 530 healthy individuals who came to the Research and Application Hospital of Ataturk University in Erzurum, Turkey. A questionnaire and the epilepsy knowledge and attitude scale were administered to collect data. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's correlation tests were used to analyze the data. The participants' epilepsy knowledge mean score was 6.34 (SD=3.71), and their attitude mean score was 50.22 (SD=11.17). There was a positive (r=0.404) correlation between the knowledge and the attitude scores (pattitude scores (pattitude scores were higher for the participants who were high school and university graduates, had expenses equal to income, and lived in nuclear families and in the city center (pattitude scores (pattitude mean scores were also found for those who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion (pattitudes toward it. Higher knowledge positively affected attitude, and younger individuals had greater knowledge and, thus, more positive attitudes. Women, civil servants, and housewives had higher knowledge, whereas singles and students had better attitudes. The participants who had high educational levels and expenses equal to income and lived in nuclear families and the city center had more knowledge and displayed more positive attitudes. Greater knowledge and more positive attitudes were also found among the participants who knew patients with epilepsy, had witnessed epileptic seizures, obtained the information from healthcare personnel, and did not believe that epilepsy was associated with religion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  20. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  1. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Mahyar Maali1 Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydin1 Merve Sağiroğlu2. Ataturk University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey; Erzurum Technical University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, 25200 Erzurum, Turkey ...

  2. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    Byzantium following Fatih Mehmet’s conquest of Istanbul in 1453, brought a new era of religious, political, social, econmic and cultural prosperity to the...radical decisions in order to force the liberal- econmic system towards a free market. Generally speaking, Turkey was a traditionally agricultural country

  3. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  4. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  5. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  6. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  7. NE2561 and NE2611A - are they different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Boas, J.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.; Stucki, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Evidence is mounting that the nominally identical ionization chamber types NE2561 and NE2611A have significantly different energy dependences. This is revealed by comparing the radiation quality correction factors k q . The factor k q is the ratio of the absorbed dose to water calibration factors (for a particular type of ionization chamber) at radiation quality Q to that for 60 Co. k q values for NE2561 and NE2611A chambers have been compared for various kV and MV X-ray beams at several standards laboratories. Measurements at ARPANSA (Australia) on six NE2561 and five NE2611A show a consistent difference in k q of 1-2% for 16 and 19 MV X-rays. Work at OFMET (Switzerland) has shown similar differences at 6 and 18 MV. No such differences are seen at NPL (UK) - this inconsistency is currently ascribed to differences in the radiation beams. Consistent differences of up to 3% between these two chamber types have been observed at both ARPANSA and NRC (Canada) at the BIPM medium energy X-ray intercomparison qualities between 50 kV and 250 kV. We conclude that the two types of chamber should not be regarded as identical. ARPANSA and several other laboratories in Europe and North America will shortly participate in a Euromet project to be coordinated by OFMET, to investigate high energy X-ray beam quality specifiers. This project will provide additional data that may lead to a better understanding of this anomaly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. Physics at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk, I will give a brief description of the φ factory DAΦNE at Frascati, explaining why a φ factory is an interesting place to do new physics, and then discuss the physics that can be done at DAΦNE. I will concentrate on CP violation as it can be studied at DAΦNE. This is, after all, the raison d'etre of DAΦNE. I start with a brief general introduction to CP violation in the KK system, and the distinction between mass-mixing CP violation (ε) and intrinsic CP violation (ε'/ε). After presenting a summary of ε'/ε measurements up to now, and briefly discussing the theory of ε'/ε (the so-called 'penguins'), I will cover the particularities of measuring ε'/ε at a φ factory, such as tagging and interferometry. Finally, I will say a few words about searching for CP violation in modes where it has never before been seen. I will end my talk with a list of other physics topics at DAΦNE, and rare decay branching ratio limits that can be achieved there, just to give a flavor of what else can be done. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  9. Türkiye İçin Gümrük Birliği’ne Alternatif Bir Pazar: İslam İşbirliği Teşkilatı / An Alternative Market to European Union for Turkey: The Organization of Islamic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Kesgingöz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing competition in the world by the help of globalization has directed countries to cooperation with other countries and interregional organizations. Nowadays competition in foreign trade is becoming more and more challenging due to globalization process and countries use the most important alternatives, economic integrations to export and import. The new idea of creating new regional alternatives to increase foreign trade for Turkey is becoming more important day by day. Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC which is being created under the leadership of Turkey has an important share on Turkish foreign trade after G20, OECD and Customs Union. Though OIC has occupied an important place in Turkish foreign trade it is least known and this study searches whether OIC can become an alternative in future. In order to answer this question, the performance analysis of foreign trade was conducted with the help of macroeconomic indicators while the analysis of foreign trade compliance was held with the help of international foreign trade indices. As a result of foreign trade compliance analysis it is concluded that importance of Organization of Islamic Cooperation is increasing every day. Though foreign trade between Turkey and Customs Union reduced, foreign trade between Turkey and OIC increased and that result shows that Turkey turns his face to markets of OIC. However foreign trade between Turkey and OIC can just be alternative to Custom union in further years.   Öz Küreselleşmeyle birlikte dünyada artan rekabet ortamı 2008 küresel ekonomik krizinden sonra dünya ülkelerini ülkeler ve bölgeler arası işbirliğine doğru yöneltmiştir. Küreselleşme sürecinde dış ticarette rekabetin her geçen gün zorlaştığı bir dönemde bugün ülkeler, dış ticareti gerçekleştirmek için en önemli seçenekleri olan ülkeler ve bölgesel arası ekonomik bütünleşmeleri kullanmaktadırlar. Yeni yeni bölgesel ekonomik b

  10. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  11. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  12. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  13. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  14. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Nuri; Kahya, Emin; Aras, Nil; Aras, Haydar

    2007-01-01

    The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this is not the case. Fuel consumption and operational costs are reduced by increasing the thickness of the external walls and roof (ceiling), despite an increase in the investment costs. According to Turkish Standard Number 825 (TS 825), there are four different degree-day (DD) regions, and the required heat loads for the buildings in these regions exhibit large differences. Therefore, a method based on costs is needed for the determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of different DD regions. In this study, optimum insulation thicknesses for different DD regions of Turkey, namely, Izmir (DD: 1450), Bursa (DD: 2203), Eskisehir (DD: 3215) and Erzurum (DD: 4856), have been determined for a lifetime of N years, maximizing the present worth value of annual energy savings for insulated external walls

  15. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  16. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  17. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...introducing free-market economics, privatization, export -promotion, a fully convertible currency, and a development philosophy of "build, operate, transfer Ŗ...to Ozal for the major export market it represented, s and he shared with the Turkish elite the symbolic importance of joining the premier politico

  18. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  19. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  1. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  2. Electricity restructuring in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkyvrak, Oezlem

    2005-01-01

    Turkey implemented the electricity sector reform by which the Electricity Market Law no. 4628 passed in February 2001. Recently, all segments of the Turkish electricity sector are dominated by a vertically integrated, public-owned monopoly - Tuerkiye Elektrik Kurumu - the Turkish electricity institution. The Turkish electricity reform involves vertical deintegration of generation, transmission and distribution, introduction of competition into generation and retail sale, establishment of an independent regulatory authority and privatization of public generation and distribution entities. This article provides an overview of the Turkish electricity sector reform and defines some problems that may affect the reform success

  3. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  4. Production of the Ne Auger electrons by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-07-01

    The authors have bombarded Mg and Al surfaces with Ne/sup +/ ions and in this letter present evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy.

  5. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  6. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  7. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  8. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  9. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  10. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko

    2016-04-01

    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  11. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE ν μ → ν e results, describe the first (bar ν) μ → (bar ν) e result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector

  12. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  13. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  14. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  15. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  16. Labour migration from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people.

  17. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  18. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  19. The NeXus data format

    OpenAIRE

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamlin...

  20. The MiniBooNE Detector

    OpenAIRE

    MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the mixing parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  1. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Korean War, when Turkey sent troops in support of the United Nations defense of South Korea. As a Muslim country, Turkey’s cooperation with the United...history of Turkish cinema : “Valley of the Wolves Iraq.” The United States military deemed the film and its viewers potentially dangerous enough that

  2. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  3. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  4. The Future of Secular Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    into the global trade market of “ franchises and brand-name import- export.”6 Through his power, Ozal sought to redefine Turkey along capitalist...entertainment along with access to theaters, bars and cafes . These fears were never realized. The Refah mayors have left well enough alone. They have

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  6. Biotechnology in Turkey: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Tunçer H

    2009-07-01

    The term biotechnology first appeared in the programs of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) in 1982. The State Planning Organization (SPO) in 1988 defined biotechnology and the scientific fields. Moreover, it put forward an institutional framework and suggested priority areas for research and development. Turkey has been researching and investing in biotechnology for almost four decades. This review covers the development of science and technology policy with its history, consensus and consequences, bio-industries in Turkey, and research activities in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. Details are provided by the research groups in response to a common request for information on their activities and major publications in the field. The information provided has been grouped under thematic topics within the broad theme of biotechnology, and summarized within these topics. Although many aspects of biotechnological research are being pursued in Turkey, it appears that the most common research activities of the field are in fermentation processes, environmental biotechnology, and biomedical engineering.

  7. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  8. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  9. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  10. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as 135 Cs, 137 Cs, and 129 I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs

  11. Physics Motivations of SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraide, K.

    2007-01-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment for measuring neutrino-nucleus cross sections around one GeV region, which is important for the interpretaion of neutrino oscillation experiments. Physics motivations of the experiment are described here

  12. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  13. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Hanguel, G.; Aksu, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  14. Fouling assemblage of benthic plastic debris collected from Mersin Bay, NE Levantine coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Sedat; Çevik, Cem; Karaca, Serkan

    2017-11-15

    The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km 2 ; 86,3kg/km 2 ) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics. 17 different fouling species belonging to 6 phylum (Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Mollusca) 7 class and 11 order were discovered on plastics. Spirobranchus triqueter, Hydroides sp. and Neopycnodonte cochlear were the most abundant species. In the end, the example of Mersin Bay shows that plastic debris as a substrate can contain a very high diversity of life just like natural substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relative contributions of crust and mantle to generation of Campanian high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids in a subduction setting, with special reference to the Harsit Pluton, Eastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsli, O.; Dokuz, A.; Uysal, I.; Aydin, F.; Chen, B.; Kandemir, R.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    We present elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for the magmatic suite (~79 Ma) of the Harşit pluton, from the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey), with the aim of determining its magma source and geodynamic evolution. The pluton comprises granite, granodiorite, tonalite and minor diorite (SiO

  16. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  17. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  18. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  19. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  20. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  1. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  2. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  3. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  4. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  5. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  6. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  7. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  8. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  9. Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Nedelcheva, Anely; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Drăgulescu, Constantin; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Maglajlić, Aida; Ferrier, Jonathan; Papp, Nora; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-04-03

    Sarma - cooked leaves rolled around a filling made from rice and/or minced meat, possibly vegetables and seasoning plants - represents one of the most widespread feasting dishes of the Middle Eastern and South-Eastern European cuisines. Although cabbage and grape vine sarma is well-known worldwide, the use of alternative plant leaves remains largely unexplored. The aim of this research was to document all of the botanical taxa whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the folk cuisines of Turkey and the Balkans. Field studies were conducted during broader ethnobotanical surveys, as well as during ad-hoc investigations between the years 2011 and 2014 that included diverse rural communities in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Primary ethnobotanical and folkloric literatures in each country were also considered. Eighty-seven botanical taxa, mainly wild, belonging to 50 genera and 27 families, were found to represent the bio-cultural heritage of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans. The greatest plant biodiversity in sarma was found in Turkey and, to less extent, in Bulgaria and Romania. The most commonly used leaves for preparing sarma were those of cabbage (both fresh and lacto-fermented), grape vine, beet, dock, sorrel, horseradish, lime tree, bean, and spinach. In a few cases, the leaves of endemic species (Centaurea haradjianii, Rumex gracilescens, and R. olympicus in Turkey) were recorded. Other uncommon sarma preparations were based on lightly toxic taxa, such as potato leaves in NE Albania, leaves of Arum, Convolvulus, and Smilax species in Turkey, of Phytolacca americana in Macedonia, and of Tussilago farfara in diverse countries. Moreover, the use of leaves of the introduced species Reynoutria japonica in Romania, Colocasia esculenta in Turkey, and Phytolacca americana in Macedonia shows the dynamic nature of folk cuisines. The rich ethnobotanical diversity of sarma confirms the urgent need to

  10. The present status of safeguards in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.

    2001-01-01

    Republic of Turkey signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in Vienna, Austria on January 28, 1969 and the Treaty was ratified by Turkish Parliament on March 29, 1979. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Republic of Turkey signed the Safeguards Agreement on June 30, 1981. Turkey accepted the international safeguards administered by IAEA and at the same time its subsidiary arrangements and Facility attachments were enforced for all nuclear facilities as an Non-Nuclear-Weapon State party to NPT. Regulation on Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control, which was prepared in accordance with Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and IAEA for the application of Safeguard in Connection with the Treaty on NPT, has been put into force since it was published in Official Gazette on September 10, 1997. This study presents the essential futures of national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Turkey

  11. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  12. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  13. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  14. Ne beam-Kr target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, V E; Kostin, V V; Vorob` ev, V S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center; Kulish, M I; Mintsev, V B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics; Hoffman, [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Energetic heavy ions of Ne - crystal Kr target interaction is investigated both experimentally and with the help of a 2-D computer code. The dynamics of the target matter heating, expansion, and destruction are described. A new equation of state for Kr was obtained and tested within a wide range of parameters. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs.

  15. The DAΦNE cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, M.

    1997-12-01

    The DAΦNE Project utilises superconductivity technology for a total of six superconducting magnets: the two Experiment magnets (KLOE and FINUDA) and the four Compensator Solenoid magnets needed to compensate the magnetic effect of the Experiment magnets on the electron and positron beams. This effect, on beams of 510 MeV (nominal DAΦNE Energy), is expected to be relevant, especially with the aim of achieving a very high luminosity, which is the main target of the Project. The KLOE superconducting magnet has two possible working positions: the first in the DAΦNE Hall, when the Experiment will be in operation, and the second one in the KLOE Assembly Hall. This second position is the first to be utilised for the KLOE magnet Acceptance Test and magnetic field mapping, prior to the mounting of all the experimental apparatus inside the magnet. This note intends to present the DAΦNE Cryogenic System and how the authors have converged to the definition of a common Cryogenic System compatible with all the six superconducting magnets

  16. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, H. Mete

    2006-01-01

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  17. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  18. Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Table 3. Frequency of β-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Mediterranean. Mutation. This study Turkey Cyprus Greece Syria Palestine Bulgaria Azerbaijan Iran Iraq. IVS 1.110 (G>A). 29.1. 39.3. 79.7. 42.1. 24.1. 17.6. 24.2. 20.2. 4.8 1.9. IVS 2.1 (G>A). 12.3. 4.7. -. 3.3. 4.2. 2.9. -. -. 33.9 18.3. IVS 1.1 (G>A).

  19. Cyber Security Analysis of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Hakan; Çil, Zaim; Sağıroğlu, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Considering the criticality of the cyber security threat in the 21st century, it is presumed that the nations are busy with series of activities in order to protect their security in the cyber space domain. In this paper, in light of the recent developments in the cyber security field, Turkey’s cyber security analysis is performed using a macro analysis model. We researched for the measures taken in Turkey with respect to those in the other countries, reviewed the posture, the activities and ...

  20. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  1. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  2. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  3. Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, H.; collaboration, for the MiniBooNE

    2004-01-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  4. Yrast and high spin states in 22Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, E.M.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1982-08-01

    High spin states in 22 Ne have been investigated by the reactions 11 B( 13 C,d) 22 Ne and 13 C( 11 B,d) 22 Ne up to E* approximately=19 MeV. Yrast states were observed at 11.02 MeV (8 + ) and 15.46 MeV (10 + ) excitation energy. A backbending in 22 Ne is observed around spin 8 + . The location of high spin states I [pt

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  6. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  7. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  8. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  9. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  10. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  11. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  12. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi; Daniel Leigh

    2002-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between exchange rate movements and domestic prices in Turkey, it is important to assess the impact of the exchange rate on domestic prices, in particular as Turkey moves to an inflation targeting regime. This paper uses a recursive vector autoregression model to investigate the impact of exchange rate movements on prices in Turkey. We find that (i) the impact of the exchange rate on prices is over after about a year, but is mostly felt in the first four mon...

  13. Collision-induced intramultiplet mixing for the Ne**[(2p)5(3p)] + He or Ne system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manders, M.P.I.

    1988-01-01

    For the Ne**-He case, experimental data are confronted with quantum mechanical calculations. Quantum mechanical coupled-channel calculations using model potentials as input are presented, followed by a semiclassical approach which provides more physical insight. Experimental results are presented for the Ne**-Ne system with a discussion of the general principles involved in symmetrization. 184 refs.; 93 figs.; 19 tabs

  14. UCB-NE-101 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig

  15. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  16. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  17. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  18. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  19. Geothermal Field Investigations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, N.; Özer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is a type of energy that are found in the accessible depth of the crust, in the reservoirs by way of the permeable rocks, specially in heated fluid. Geothermal system is made of 3 main components; heat source, reservoir, and fluid bearing heat. Geothermal system mechanism is comprise of fluid transmission. Convection current (heat transmission) is caused by heating and causes the fluid in the system to expand. Heated fluid with low density show tendency to rise in system. Geothermal system occurs with variable geophysics and geochemical properties. Geophysical methods can determine structural properties of shallow and deep reservoirs with temperature, mineralization, gas amount, fluid movement, faulting, and sudden change in lithostratigraphic strata. This study revealed possible reservoir structures and showed examples of geophysics and gas measuring results in Turkey which is wealthy in regard to Geothermal sources.

  20. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Dalgıç, Başak; Güven, Aytekin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, w...

  1. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  2. U.S.-Turkey Strategic Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2012-01-01

    FY 2012-2013. Project Leads: Clement, Victoria and Gingeras, Ryan The primary objectives of this effort are twofold: to better understand and identify solutions to the current and potential challenges to U.S. national security interests in the Middle East, and to enhance understanding of and cooperation with Turkey through a Track II dialogue. The dialogue will provide policymakers with accessible intelligence, informed by on the ground discussions with relevant stakeholders in Turkey. NA

  3. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  4. Past nuclear power project experiences of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutukcuoglu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, developments in the world for utilization of nuclear energy and, in parallel to these developments, works undertaken in Turkey are summarized. Besides this, future prospects in the field of nuclear energy in the world and in Turkey, and our opinion about the action to be taken in our county, in the light of past experiences of nuclear power projects that could not be succeeded, are presented

  5. GLOBAL SOURCING: A THEORETICAL STUDY ON TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sourcing is to source from the global market for goods and services across national boundaries in order to take advantage of the global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. Such efficiencies are consists of low cost skilled labor, low cost raw materials and other economic factors like tax breaks and deductions as well as low trade tariffs. When we assess the case regarding to Turkey, global sourcing is an effective device for some firms. The domestic firms in Turkey at various industries are inclined to global source finished or intermediate goods from the world markets, finish the production process in Turkey and export. Eventually, on the one hand the export volume of Turkey increases, but on the other hand the import of a considerable volume of finished or intermediate goods bring about a negative trade balance and loss of jobs in Turkey. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the concept of global sourcing transactions on Turkey resting on comprehensive publications.

  6. Oil and gas market developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey's strategic location makes it a natural 'energy bridge' between major oil and gas producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Oil consumption has increased in recent years in Turkey, and this trend is expected to continue, with growth of 2-3% annually in coming years. The annual oil consumption of the country is around 31.3 million tons, while 83% of total consumption is supplied from imports and only 17% is supplied from indigenous production. Oil provides around 43% of Turkey's total energy requirements, but its share is declining (as the share of natural gas rises). On the other hand, due to diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas was newly introduced into the Turkish economy in 1987 and has been growing rapidly. Turkey's natural gas reserves seem limited and current gas production in the country meets 2.8% of domestic consumption requirements. The annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is around 14.7 billion m 3 and is assumed to increase by 12% per annum. Turkish natural gas use is projected to increase dramatically in coming years, with the prime consumers expected to be industry and power plants. Turkey has chosen natural gas as the preferred fuel for the massive amount of new power plant capacity to be added in coming years. (Author)

  7. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  8. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  9. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  10. Thorium research and development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güngör, Görkem

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has a great potential regarding thorium resources. Thorium exploration activities have been done in the past mainly by state organizations for determining the thorium resources in Turkey. Thorium occurs as complex mineral together with barite, fluorite and rare earth elements (REE). The increase in global demand for REE creates the opportunity for REE production which will also produce thorium as a by-product. The development of nuclear energy program in Turkey provides the stimulus for research and development activities in nuclear technologies. The final declaration of the workshop emphasizes the importance of thorium reserves in Turkey and the necessity for thorium exploration and development activities in order to determine the feasibility of thorium mining and fuel cycle in Turkey. These activities should be conducted together with the development of technologies for separation of these complex minerals and purification of thorium, REE and other minerals to be utilized as commercial products. There are advanced academic research studies on thorium fuel cycle which should be supported by the industry in order to commercialize the results of these studies. Turkey should be integrated to international R and D activities on ADS which is expected to commercialize on medium term. The legislative framework should be developed in order to provide the industrial baseline for nuclear technologies independent from nuclear regulatory activities

  11. Splitter magnets for DAΦNE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanelli, C.; Hsieh, H.

    1992-01-01

    A 510 MeV electron positron colliding beam facility is under design and construction. The project consists of two storage rings, accumulator, electron/positron linac and transfer lines. The design of the splitter magnets which separate the circulating beams immediately after passing through the DAΦNE interaction point is presented. The results of 2-D and 3-D magnetic calculations is presented, and the electrical and mechanical design of the magnet are described. A 1/3 length prototype of this magnet is under construction. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  13. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  14. Metastable He (n=2) - Ne potential interaction calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, H.

    1983-10-01

    Diabatic potential terms corresponding to He (2 1 S)-Ne and He (2 3 S)-Ne interactions are calculated. These potentials reproduce the experimental results thermal metastable atom elastic scattering on Ne target. A model which reduces the interaction to a one-electron problem is proposed: the He excited electron. Its interaction with the He + center is reproduced by a ''l'' dependent potential model with a 1/2 behaviour at short range. The electron interaction facing the Ne is described by a l-dependent pseudopotential reproducing with accuracy the electron elastic scattering on a Ne atom. The importance of the corrective term related to the Ne polarizations by the electron and the He + ion is showed in this work. In the modelling problems, the accuracy cannot be better than 0.1 MeV [fr

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2008 as well radon activity concentrations measured in dwellings, and absorbed gamma dose rates in air obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and gross alpha/beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples are to be found as 26.0±0.9 Bq kg - 1, 31.6±1.2 Bq kg - 1 and438.5tively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs is to be found as 10.5±1.0 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor caused from the external exposure from natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated as 49.4 nGy h - 1 and 0.06 mSv y - 1, repectively. The activitity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples are lowere than the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide is not observed. The mean value of the activity concentration of 4 0K measured in food samples in seven categories is found as 129.8±11.3 Bq kg - 1. While the values of the activity concentration of 1 37Cs are below the MDA except mushroom and hazelnut. The mean activity concentration of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples is 0.61 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure due to radiation

  16. THE INTEREST OF UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA IN UNDERGROUND SOURCES OF TURKEY AND REPORTS PREPARED UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TURKISH MINING AMERİKA BİRLEŞİK DEVLETLERİ’NİN (ABD TÜRKİYE’DEKİ YERALTI KAYNAKLARI İLE İLGİLENMESİ VE TÜRK MADENCİLİĞİNİN GELİŞTİRİLMESİNE İLİŞKİN HAZIRLANAN RAPORLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut İLERİ

    2010-04-01

    ı Devleti’nin yeraltı kaynakları ile de ilgilenmeye başlamıştır. Onun bu ilgisi Cumhuriyet döneminde de devam etmiştir. Türk ekonomisine yön vermek ve katkı sağlamak amacıyla ABD’li uzmanlar tarafından değişik zamanlarda raporlar hazırlanmıştır. Bu raporlarda, ekonomik hayatın bütününe ilişkin öneriler yanında, ekonominin önemli bir ayağını oluşturan madencilik alanıyla ilgili olan öneriler de yer almıştır. Bunların içinde en önemlileri: Türk madenciliğinin geliştirilmesi için devletin bu alandan uzak tutulması, yabancı sermaye ve özel teşebbüse önemli ölçüde yer verilmesi ve yeni bir maden kanununun yapılmasıdır. Genel olarak Türk hükümetleri, önerilenler doğrultusunda hareket ederek ekonomi politikalarını oluşturmuşlardır.

  17. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  18. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  19. Prospects for Antineutrino Running at MiniBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Wascko, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like nuebar oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  20. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei

    2001-01-01

    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  1. Turkey-U.S. Defense Cooperation: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    to cultivate stability or to be unduly provocative to neighboring countries. • Arms sales and industrial cooperation: Turkey continues to seek... mushroomed and Kurdish secessionist sentiment within Turkey caused concerns in the 1990s following the establishment of an autonomous Kurdish zone...a member of NATO), and has counted on previously close Turkey-Israel military relations to cultivate U.S.-Turkey-Israel military cooperation

  2. Study of 19F and 19Ne mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Claude.

    1976-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the mirror nuclei 19 F and 19 Ne were studied using the 18 O(d,nγ) 19 F, 17 O( 3 He,nγ) 19 Ne and 19 F(p,nγ) 19 Ne reactions. Lifetimes of 8 levels in 19 F and 11 levels in 19 Ne have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. Weak and strong components of M 1 , E 1 and E 2 transition strengths are compared with shell model predictions. M 1 and E 2 transition strengths of conjugated nuclei (A=18 to A=34) are compiled and compared with wide configuration space shell models [fr

  3. The state of the NeXus data format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, Mark

    2006-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange format for neutron, muon and X-ray scattering. NeXus has six levels: a physical file format, a file structure, rules for storing individual data items in a file, a dictionary of names, instrument definitions and an application programming interface (API) to NeXus files. The authors will present the large steps forward which have been made both with instrument definitions and the NeXus-API

  4. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  5. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  6. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE NEET IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bilgen Susanli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, drawing on data from the Household Labor Force Surveys over the period 2004-2013, it examines the determinants of the NEET (Not in Employment, Education or Training status for the Turkish youth. This is particularly important for Turkey as it has the highest NEET rate among the OECD countries. Second, it describes the movement of the youth across four states: education, employment, unemployment and inactivity. Probit results indicate that gender and educational attainment are key factors for explaining the NEET status. Findings also show that a greater number of household members that are in employment is associated with a lower likelihood of NEET. Transition analyses reveal that the state of inactivity remains highly persistent despite the substantial fall over the sample period. In addition, the rise in the persistence of education between 2007 and 2009 underlines the choice of the youth to stay in education in response to the fall in labor market prospects.

  8. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  9. An Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Communication and Organizational Cynicism According to Teachers' Perceptions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayik, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relations between organizational communication and organizational cynicism have been analyzed. The sample of the study consists of 274 teachers working in state secondary schools in Palandöken County of Erzurum, in 2013-2014 academic year. "Organizational Cynicism Scale" and "Organizational Communication…

  10. Phase transition and angular momentum dependence of correlations in the rotational spectra of Ne20 and Ne22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.; Schmid, K.W.; Krewald, S.; Faessler, A.

    1974-01-01

    Multi-Configuration-Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations with angular momentum projection before the variation of the internal degree of freedom have been performed for the nuclei Ne 20 and Ne 22 . This procedure yields different correlated intrinsic states for the different members of a rotational band. Thus, the angular momentum dependence of correlations has been studied. Experimentally, the ground state spectra of Ne 20 and Ne 22 show properties similar to the phase transitions observed in some rare earth nuclei which have been well reproduced through the present calculations. The calculated spectra show a significant improvement compared to the ones obtained by variation before the angular momentum projection is effected. (author)

  11. DAΦNE magnet power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Stecchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The e + -e - , 1020 MeV at center of mass, Particle Accelerator Complex DAΦNE, consists of a linear accelerator (Linac), a damping ring (D.A.), nearly 180 m of transfer lines (T.L.) and two storage rings (S.R.), that intersect each other in two points (I.P.), for Φ particle production. The D.A., T.L. and S.R. magnets are powered by means of 462 power supplies, rating from 100 W to 1 MW. The very different output currents, from 10 A to 2300 A, and output voltages, from 8 V to 1300 V, imposed many different technical solution realized by the world industry. This paper describes the Power Supply System giving also a description of the different typologies, their characteristics and control systems. The paper reports also the power supply performances and gives information on their installation and first year operation period

  12. KN scattering at DA{Phi}NE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, A

    1995-06-01

    Existing measurements of the KN and K-bar N scattering lengths suffer from large uncertainties, particularly in the I=0 channel. The low energy kaons from {phi} decay available at DA{Phi}NE can be used to improve this situation. Three experimental approaches are discussed: a solid hydrogen target and silicon colorimeter surrounding the collision point. This would also use the magnet and tracking detectors of the FINUDA experiment; a hydrogen TPC is proposed as an active target in the magnetic field of the FINUDA magnet; the FINUDA detector with a CH{sub 2} target could be used to measure an important cross-section. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. Martin Szekely : ne plus dessiner

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Ce livret, publié à l’issue d’une exposition éponyme au Centre Pompidou en 2011-12, présente, sous la conduite de Françoise Guichon les « recherches » et les « projets industriels » du designer qui en 1996 avait déclaré « ne plus dessiner ». Un texte de Philippe-Alain Michaud explicite en deuxième partie de l’opuscule la rencontre de Martin Szekely avec l’artiste Mark Lewis qui réalisa un film à partir du miroir Soleil noir (2007) installé dans les salles de peinture hollandaise de la Nationa...

  14. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  15. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  16. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  17. Potential Prospects of Turkey in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre

    2010-01-01

    As the global crisis surrounds us, Turkey, as a country with huge prospects, needs to establish new political and commercial links with the rest of the world in order to lessen the effects of the global crisis. This can be a way to take the load off Turkey’s shoulders. These links can be found in the continent Africa. As the host of world’s several fastest growing economies, the continent offers new opportunities for Turkey. These opportunities can be utilized as either in the form of Foreign...

  18. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  20. Obesity prevalence in Gaziantep, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcirpici Birgul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. Environmental effects, especially feeding habits may cause hyperinsulinemia and obesity. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese to 15%. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1647 persons in a sample representing Gaziantep, Turkey. Over the selected 329 houses, 310 houses were reached (94.2% and data about 1315 related persons was collected. The body mass index (BMI shows the relationship between the weight and the height of people, calculated by the ratio of mass by kg over the square value of height measure. In statistical analyses chi-square, student′s t -test and logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The mean BMI increased with time for both sex, whereas decreased for 60+ age group. The fastest increase for both sex was seen while transition from 18 year to 19-29 age groups occurred. Another increase in women was in 30-39 age group; BMI=25.08±4.39 in 19-29 ages whilst BMI=29.02±5.79 in 30-39 ages. The increases in both sex in other age groups were not as much as in this group. Conclusion: Obesity is not only a problem in the Gaziantep but is also a major health concern in Europe and other regions of the world. As an accepted method against obesity, life-style changes should be put into use from childhood supported in school and family life.

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides, gross alpha/beta activities and air gamma dose rates in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2007 are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural ( 238 U, 232 Th, 2 26Ra, 4 :0K and 7 Be) and artificial ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, 238-239+240 Pu, 2 41Am) radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. Results show that 137 Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident in 1986 exist in some of samples even in low levels. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in the studied surface soil samples were found as 32.1 Bq kg -1 , 35.0 Bq kg -1 , 29.0 Bq kg -1 and 446.7 Bq kg -1 , respectively, while the mean activity concentrations of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 18.4 Bq kg -1 . While the activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the analyzed food samples are lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA), 134 Cs and 7 Be radionuclides are not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclides are 0.24 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. (Includes 4 tables and 7 figures)

  2. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  3. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E

    2010-01-01

    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, U.F.

    2009-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a cubic-kilometre scale neutrino telescope and nodes for associated sciences such as marine biology, oceanology and geophysics. The status of the KM3NeT project and the progress made in the EU-funded Design Study is reviewed. Some physics studies indicating the sensitivity of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope are highlighted and selected major technical design options to be further pursued are described. Finally, the remaining steps towards construction of KM3NeT will be discussed. This document reflects the status of the KM3NeT Conceptual Design Report (CDR), which has been presented to the public for the first time at the VLVnT08 Workshop.

  5. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  6. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources

  7. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  8. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  9. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  10. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  11. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  12. Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, M. Arif

    2008-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has a long history. Biomass, for instance, has been used for heating and cooking, while wind has been used in the irrigation of fields and to drive windmills for centuries. Although Turkey has many energy resources, all of these with the exception of coal and hydropower, cannot meet the total energy demand. Turkey has been importing resources to meet this deficit. These resources have become increasingly expensive and also have undesirably high emissions ratings. Turkey has an extensive shoreline and mountains and is rich in renewable energy potential. The share of renewables on total electricity generation is 29.63% while that of natural gas is 45% for the year 2006. The projection prepared for the period between 2006 and 2020 aims an annual growth of 8% for the total electricity generation. According to this projection, it is expected that renewables will have a share about 23.68% with a decrease of 5.95% while natural gas will have a share about 33.38% for 2020. This paper presents the present state of world renewable energy sources and then looks in detail at the potential resources available in Turkey. Energy politics are also considered. (author)

  13. Military Intervention, Kemalism, and Politics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    to inadequate or misdirected actions by the military during their tenure following the interventions. Despite the checkered history of democratic... ikeas .). AtaturK: Founder or a Modern State. London: C. Hurst.19. Hianeo. Anarew. "Turkey’s Ten Year Itch" in Tne wor!6 Today, 4oi 45 N’o. F. eb 1969

  14. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim

    2018-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  15. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  16. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    a higher level of attention being paid to the importance of Africa in the public statements of ... policy is based on equal partnership and includes investing in, bringing new .... country can be measured by its economic, cultural and diplomatic activism in ..... business circles also have a strong interest in Turkey's integration into.

  17. On a collection of Opisthobranchia from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1961-01-01

    This paper deals with the Opisthobranchia collected by the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey 1959. The collection is deposited in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. The material was chiefly collected in three areas, viz. the Bay of Antalya and the Bay of Mersin (formerly

  18. Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae Infection, Turkey, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ferit; Orkun, Omer; Ulu, Aslihan; Kurtaran, Behice; Komur, Suheyla; Inal, A Seza; Erdogan, Damla; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan S Z

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was diagnosed for a man in Turkey. He had been bitten by a Hyalomma marginatum tick, from which PCR detected rickettsial DNA. Sequence analysis of the DNA identified R. sibirica mongolitimonae. Immunofluorescence assay of patient serum indicated R. conorii, which cross-reacts. PCR is recommended for rickettsiosis diagnoses.

  19. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  20. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  1. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  2. Oscillatory behaviour of Rydberg state total cross sections in the collisions Ne+-He and He+-Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Veje, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Ne + -He and He + -Ne collisions have been studied by means of optical spectrometry in the projectile energy range 10-150 keV. Very similar and regular oscillations in the Rydberg state total cross sections are found for HeI in both collisions and for singlet as well as triplet excitation. These oscillations are well described by the Rosenthal model. The HeI 4d sup(1,3)D states display two superimposed oscillations for center-of-mass collision energies above 6.4 keV. This is interpreted as the opening of a third exit channel, believed to be the HeI 4f sup(1,3)F. No, or very little structure is found in the Rydberg state total cross sections for HeII, NeI, NeII and NeIII levels. (Auth.)

  3. Methods and Rates of Punishment Implemented by Families to Enuretic Children in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Karaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Nocturnal enuresis is a serious health problem affecting a significant portion of the population. In this study, we investigated the frequency of punishment methods in nocturnal enuresis (NE in Turkey and its relationship with other parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 501 children (301 boys and 200 girls who were admitted to our outpatient clinic due to nocturnal enuresis were included in the study. Mean age was 9.39 years (range 5-18. Prepared questionnaire form inquiring educational status of the family, frequency and implementation and duration of punishment methods was applied to patients and families. Results At least one punishment method was applied to 291 (58.1% of children with NE. Punishment methods of parents were detected as condemnation (257 patients, 51.3%, depriving desires of the child (120 patients, 23.9%, humiliating the child in the presence of other children (113 patients, 22.6%, reprimanding- threatening with punishment (203 patients, 40.5%. This application was found to continue for longer than 1 year in 52% of punished children. Families graduated of high school and above were found to use punishment methods significantly more than others. Conclusion According to the results of our study, a quite high proportion of enuretic children were detected to be exposed to punishment methods. Even, some parents consider that these methods are a part of nocturnal enuresis treatment. We, the doctors, should endeavor more for raising awareness of the community in order to diminish this worrisome behavior.

  4. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg - 1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg - 1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg - 1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 1 37Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg - 1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h - 1 and 0,07 mSv y - 1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 2 38U, 2 32Th and 2 26Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 1 34Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L - 1 and 0.05 Bq L - 1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 4 0K, l 37Cs and 9 0Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant

  6. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  7. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  8. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  9. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  10. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Y.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Aumann, T.; Panin, V.; Bertulani, C.A.; Borge, M.J.G.; Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Chartier, M.; Taylor, J.; Chulkov, L.V.; Egorova, I.A.; Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C.; Forssen, C.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Tengborn, E.; Zhukov, M.V.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.; Riisager, K.; Grigorenko, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Karakoc, M.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Mahata, K.; Muentz, C.; Stroth, J.; Parfenova, Y.L.; Paschalis, S.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500 MeV/u 17 Ne beams on a carbon target at the R 3 B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15 O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17 Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16 F momentum distribution resulted in an s 2 contribution in the 17 Ne ground state of about 40 %. (authors)

  11. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  12. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  13. The genesis of the slab window-related Arzular low-sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Akaryalı

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arzular mineralization is one of the best examples of epithermal gold deposits in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. The mineralization is hosted by the subduction-related basaltic andesites and is mainly controlled by E–W and NE–SW trending fracture zones. The main ore minerals are galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and gold. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions are between 130 and 295 °C for quartz and between 90 and 133 °C for sphalerite. Sulphur isotope values obtained from pyrite, galena and sphalerite vary between −1.2‰ and 3‰, indicating that sulphur belongs to magmatic origin and was derived from the Lutetian non-adakitic granitic intrusions in the region. Oxygen isotope values are between 15.0‰ and 16.7‰, and hydrogen isotope values are between −87‰ and −91‰. The sulphur isotope thermometer yielded temperatures in the range of 244–291 °C for the ore formation. Our results support the hypothesis that the Arzular mineralization is a low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit associated with non-adakitic subduction-related granitic magmas that were generated by slab window-related processes in a south-dipping subduction zone during the Lutetian.

  14. Reconciling the geological history of western Turkey with plate circuits and mantle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, N.; van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    We place the geological history since Cretaceous times in western Turkey in a context of convergence, subduction, collision and slab break-off. To this end, we compare the west Anatolian geological history with amounts of Africa-Europe convergence calculated from the Atlantic plate circuit, and the seismic tomography images of the west Anatolian mantle structure. Western Turkish geology reflects the convergence between the Sakarya continent (here treated as Eurasia) in the north and Africa in the south, with the Anatolide-Tauride Block (ATB) between two strands of the Neotethyan ocean. Convergence between the Sakarya and the ATB started at least ~95-90Myr ago, marked by ages of metamorphic soles of ophiolites that form the highest structural unit below Sakarya. These are underlain by high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Tavsanli and Afyon zones, and the Ören Unit, which in turn are underlain by the Menderes Massif derived from the ATB. Underthrusting of the ATB below Sakarya was since ~50Ma, associated with high-temperature metamorphism and widespread granitic magmatism. Thrusting in the Menderes Massif continued until 35 Ma, after which there is no record of accretion in western Turkey. Plate circuits show that since 90 Ma, ~1400 km of Africa-Europe convergence occurred, of which ~700 km since 50 Ma and ~450 km since 35Ma. Seismic tomography shows that the African slab under western Turkey is decoupled from the African Plate. This detached slab is a single, coherent body, representing the lithosphere consumed since 90 Ma. There was no subduction re-initiation after slab break-off. ATB collision with Europe therefore did not immediately lead to slab break-off but instead to delamination of subducting lithospheric mantle from accreting ATB crust, while staying attached to the African Plate. This led to asthenospheric inflow below the ATB crust, high-temperature metamorphism and felsic magmatism. Slab break-off in western Turkey probably occurred

  15. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  16. Electron-impact cross sections of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)

  17. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  18. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  19. Complementarity and completed trials: reforming the Ne bis in idem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper is concerned with the question whether article 20(3) of the Rome Statute is ... Rome Statute, Ne bis in idem, double jeopardy, International Criminal Court ...

  20. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  1. Quality of slaughter material ? BIG 6 heavy turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kryza; Marian Pietrzak; Ewa Gornowicz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a randomized assessment of slaughter material in the form of intensively farmed turkeys obtained by large poultry slaughter and meat processing plants. The assessment involved determining the slaughter value and physical characteristics of the meat. Samples (23 male and 12 female turkeys) were collected from the processing line of a large commercial poultry processing facility, and hybrid turkeys of a BIG 6 heavy breeding line came from different producers....

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy in Turkey: Public Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Emrah

    2018-01-01

    Turkey intends tobuild three nuclear power stations in the Akkuyu, Sinopand Igneada regions to meet its increasing energy demands. This policy,however, is still a highly controversial topic in Turkey as nuclear energy hasboth advantages and disadvantages. The related literature on this topic isdivided into two groups; supporters claim that nuclear energy may decreaseTurkey's energy dependency on other countries, as it already importsapproximately 70% of its total energy demand. In contra...

  3. Effects of confinement on the Rydberg molecule NeH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, J M H; Klobukowski, M; Bielinska-Waz, D; Diercksen, G H F; Schreiner, E W S

    2005-01-01

    Ab initio potential energy curves of the Rydberg NeH molecule in the presence of cylindrical spatial confinement were computed by the method of multi-reference configuration interaction with extended basis sets. The influence of the applied potential to the structures and spectra of the ground and excited states of NeH was analysed in terms of perturbation theory. In addition, the phenomenon of field-induced ionization was discussed

  4. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mobility of 35 S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35 S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  5. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-02-24

    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high-intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  6. Isolation of a highly pathogenic influenza virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Allan, G M; McCracken, R M; McParland, P J

    1985-01-01

    An influenza virus was isolated from turkeys with an acute disease causing 30% mortality. The virus was subtyped as H5 N8. The nomenclature A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5 N8) is proposed for this isolate. The virus had an ICPI of 1.80 to 1.85 for 1-day-old chicks and an IVPI of 2.74 for 6-week-old chickens. Following oronasal inoculation of juvenile and adult turkeys, chickens and ducks with the isolate, 100% mortality occurred in turkeys and chickens. No clinical signs were observed in inoculated ducks, but all developed serum antibody titres against the virus.

  7. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  8. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  9. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear energy in Turkey. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The global demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. There is growing uncertainty in regard to the supply and prices of oil and natural gas. These considerations have opened new prospects for the development of nuclear energy on a global state. Despite the negative impact of the Fukushima Daichi accident, still some countries are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes. As the country using nuclear technology is primarily responsible for safety and as operational safety cannot be out sourced, building of sound safety expertise and strong safety culture is an essential precondition for the country introducing nuclear technology. Turkey's energy policy is naturally focused on the security, sustainability and competitiveness of energy supply. It is designed to sustain targeted economic and social growth in the long run. Turkey remains resolutely committed to the goal of ensuring safe, secure and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy

  11. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  12. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.

  13. Contamination of fodder and radioactivity in turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Olszewska, K.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactivity was determined in mixed fodder (IB, IC, IE) and in turkeys which were given that feeding stuff. In animals (25 males and 25 females) fed with the above mixed fodder for 16-24 weeks radioactivity was assessed in internal organs and in their tissues. It was found that radioactivity ranged from 322.2 Bq/kg to 190.6 Bq/kg. In males the highest contamination was found in the spleen (average 0.108 Bq/g), in skeletal muscles (0.082 Bq/g), and in the liver (0.080 Bq/g), and the lowest in the skin (0.046 Bq per 1 g). The findings indicate that radioactivity of carcasses and internal organs in turkeys fed with contamined fodder was much lower than that in fodder. 6 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  14. Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)

  15. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  16. Determinants of Industrial Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA OZTURK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of emphasizing the importance of industrial production for the sustainable growth and development of Turkey has been a topic of discussion in political and academia circles. The growth in industrial production (output depends on the investment in manufacturing sectors and the demand for the products. Along with internal demand, Turkey tries to support its manufacturing base with export (incentives. Manufacturing items occupy the greatest share of products in export sales. The development of manufacturing capabilities of the country is clearly based on the demand from inside and out. The effect of Turkey’s export on its industrial production throughout 2000’s has been analyzed. For this purpose we developed a VAR model where industrial production index was the dependent variable and export, investment, and interest rate were independent variables. All independent variables were found to be significantly explaining industrial production.

  17. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margiotta, A

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed

  18. Comparison of electromagnetic and nuclear dissociation of 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lehr, C.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Riisager, K.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2018-03-01

    The Borromean drip-line nucleus 17Ne has been suggested to possess a two-proton halo structure in its ground state. In the astrophysical r p -process, where the two-proton capture reaction 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne plays an important role, the calculated reaction rate differs by several orders of magnitude between different theoretical approaches. To add to the understanding of the 17Ne structure we have studied nuclear and electromagnetic dissociation. A 500 MeV/u 17Ne beam was directed toward lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets. Oxygen isotopes in the final state were measured in coincidence with one or two protons. Different reaction branches in the dissociation of 17Ne were disentangled. The relative populations of s and d states in 16F were determined for light and heavy targets. The differential cross section for electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) shows a continuous internal energy spectrum in the three-body system 15O+2 p . The 17Ne EMD data were compared to current theoretical models. None of them, however, yields satisfactory agreement with the experimental data presented here. These new data may facilitate future development of adequate models for description of the fragmentation process.

  19. Employment services in Great Britain and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKANLI, Özlem

    2001-01-01

    This artiele criticaUy compares the institutions and procedures for the employment services of Great Britain (GB) and Turkey. The similarities and differences of two employment organisations, the Department for Education and Employment in GB and the Turkish Employment Organisation, are examined. Data is collected in field study from these organisations, based in London and Ankara, through interviews and observation techniques. Field study in London is financed by the World Bank. After briefly...

  20. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  1. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  2. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  3. ANALYSIS OF WAGE INEQUALITY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Acun, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    Discussion of the notion of wages has consistently taken place in economicliterature. The way in which wages come to exist and are defined, and what theequilibrium point is have been the center of this discussion. The significant share of wages in total income hasraised its importance further. According to Turkey income and livingconditions data for 2015, wages and salaries held the proportion with 52.5 % oftotal income. As a consequence of that, the effect of wage inequality on incomeinequal...

  4. Turkey and Copyleft Music Production : Reflectionson Bandista

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabov, Ilkin

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, amusic collective with strong oppositional stance formed in 2006 in Istanbul. Describing itsmusical performances as "situationist experiment of rage and rapture" Bandista becameimmensely popular in the Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De tefabula narratur in 2009 under the copyleft scheme. The article tries to look at the copyleft withthe notion of 'music as performance...

  5. Chronic toxicity of fumonisins in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J-D; Skiba, F; Métayer, J-P; Grosjean, F; Guerre, P

    2007-09-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide. They are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides during its development on corn. The main toxic effects of these molecules have been well characterized in poultry in the case of acute exposure, but the subclinical and economic effects of chronic exposure are less known. Whereas the latest European recommendations suggest that maximal levels of fumonisins in corn could reach 60 mg/kg and the maximal contamination of poultry feeds could reach 20 mg/kg, no study is available at this level in turkeys. The aim of the present work was thus to characterize the effects of exposure to fumonisins (concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2/kg of feed) on feed consumption and growth in turkeys over a period of 9 wk. Main biochemical parameters of the liver and alteration of sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in plasma, liver, and kidney. The main results showed no effect on feed consumption and growth in exposed turkeys. Moreover, no effect was observed on the weight of tissues and markers of liver injury. By contrast, a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism was clear at a level of exposure of 10 and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2 mg/kg of feed. Both hepatic and kidney concentrations of sphinganine increased gradually throughout the exposure period. These results reveal that disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an early and sensitive biomarker of fumonisins exposure in turkeys; the consequences on these alterations remain to be established.

  6. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  7. COMPARING MODERNIZATION IN IRAN AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  8. Issues of Teaching Tuvan Language in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita B. Kungaa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuvan language is taught and studied both in the Republic of Tuva and beyond its borders. Alongside with other Turkic languages, it is taught at a number of universities in Turkey – and like all languages belonging to the same group, it is taught to Turkish students not as a foreign, but as a cognate tongue. Speaking from her own experience as lecturer in Tuvan language and literature at the University of Ankara (1997-2003, the author shares her opinions on the issues language instructors frequently face when teaching Tuvan to Turkish students. Since all Turkic languages are understood to stem back to a single ancestor – Proto-Turkic language, the absolute majority of Turkologists see them as dialects of this ancestor tongue. Correspondingly, in their learning experience Turkish students distinguish between foreign languages and those cognate to their mother tongue. Overall, about 20 Turkish universities offer courses in various Turkic languages. At the moment, quite a lot of specialists in Tuvan – both researchers and educators – work in Turkey. However, there is a marked lack of student motivation to study Tuvan. Students see little incentives of professional career growth except becoming an academic linguist. Another notable issue is the absence of textbooks, study manuals, or Tuvan-Turkish and Turkish-Tuvan phrasebooks which could facilitate achieving the required level of command of Tuvan by Turkish students. This problem as yet remains unsolved. For Turkish students, learning Tuvan opens the prospect of becoming a Turkologist. For the Republic of Tuva, the presence of such specialists would help popularize Tuvan culture and enhance collaboration between Tuva and Turkey in the areas of science, culture and economy. This will also help develop the relations between Turkey and Russian Federation.

  9. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  10. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  11. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  12. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Diagnosis and Radiology Department at Ataturk University's Faculty of Dentistry in Erzurum, Turkey. ... surface of the cortical bone on a radiograph is generally ... lesions, and gives an improved depiction of periapical lesions.

  13. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  14. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  15. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 → 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R 2 value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R 2 =0.9998). The MAPE and R 2 for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely

  16. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  17. Sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol

    2007-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.

  18. Comments on Auger electron production by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S V; Ferrante, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1979-09-01

    In this letter, the authors first report rather conclusive experimental evidence showing that the Ne Auger signal is due to asymmetric Ne-metal collisions and not symmetric Ne-Ne collisions. Next it is shown that the Ne Auger signal is in fact observable by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Si and with signal strength comparable to that of the Si Auger signal for 3 keV incident ion energy. Finally, they comment on some trends in the relative amplitudes of the 21.9 and 25.1 eV Ne Auger signals as a function of incident ion energy and target species.

  19. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  20. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  1. Susceptibility of Duck and Turkey to servere hypercapnic hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with

  2. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  3. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  4. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  5. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  6. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  7. Growth performance of three commercial strains of turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 16 weeks of age correlation values for body parts against body weight were mostly negative across the treatment groups. It was evident from the results of this study that any of the turkey strains can be reared for meat without emphasis on plumage except at the discretion of the farmer. Keywords: Turkeys, Strains, Growth ...

  8. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from south-central Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Amara, Pterostichinae, Carabidae, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. This publication is the second part of a taxonomic and geographical treatment of the Pterostichinae of south- central Turkey, with a focus on sites in the province of. Kahramanmaraş and some of the geographically adjacent provinces.

  9. Image acts and visual communities: everyday nationalism in contemporary Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuryel, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the dissertation entitled "Image Acts and Visual Communities: Contemporary Nationalism in Turkey", I investigate the image politics of nationalist practices in everyday life by focusing on contemporary Turkey and tracking the way images of the nation travel through a variety of fields. I depart

  10. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  11. The role of hydropower in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksek, Omer; Komurcu, Murat Ihsan; Yuksel, Ibrahim; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    The inherent technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power, make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. These countries, such as Turkey, have a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. From the viewpoint of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, Turkey is not a rich country; but it has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing electricity demand for Turkey. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. The results of two case studies, whose results were not taken into consideration in calculating Turkey's hydro electric potential, are presented. Turkey's small hydro power potential is found to be an important energy source, especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The results of a study in which Turkey's long-term demand has been predicted are also presented. According to the results of this paper, Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed

  12. Sustainable tourism development: the case study of Antalya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif Gurkan Kaya; Richard Smardon

    2001-01-01

    This paper discuss ideas about how tourism can be made base for sustainable tourism development in Antalya, Turkey. The introduction is a general overview of sustainable tourism development in coastal areas. The paper also addresses the role of NGOs in the course of development. Information is given about coastal tourism facilities in Turkey. Finally, sustainable...

  13. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  14. Genetic control and variation in turkey: molecular insights in selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.

    2012-01-01


    The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat type bird as egg production of this species is very low. Turkey is the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production after chicken. Understanding the etiology and

  15. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  16. Flaking and blistering on He and Ne bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, K.; Naramoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    Large scale exfoliation formed by 300 keV He + bombardment of niobium without any preceding blistering is investigated, in comparison with the blistering due to 450 and 850 keV Ne + bombardments. In-situ observations of the erosion processes were performed in a scanning electron microscope connected to the Van de Graaff. Critical doses of 7.2 x 10 17 He + /cm 2 , 2.4 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 and 4.0 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 were obtained for the 300 keV He flaking, 450 keV Ne blistering and 850 keV Ne blistering, respectively. The He flaking was presumed to be due to brittle fashion peeling-off of the surface layer by the bending moment driven by the internal gas pressure. The blistering, on the other hand, was presumed to be the result of the ductile fashion spreading of the lenticular bubble in the sub-surface layer. The necessary pressure for the peeling-off of the cover was calculated, and was speculated to be able to work as the driving force for the flaking from its unexpectedly low values. Fractographies under the exfoliations were discussed for both flaking and blistering. (author)

  17. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  18. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  19. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  20. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of article is bilateral economical and foreign trade relations between Turkey, which has started to apply outward-oriented economic policies since globalization and Moldova, which has done market transition after breaking up with the Soviet Union. Within this frame, the subject of article has been searched in depth as follows: general overview of Turkey’s economic relations, overall picture of Moldovan-Turkish relations, short exposition of Moldovan economy and bilateral economic and foreign trade relations of Moldova and Turkey. The topic of article is a current issue. Because Moldova, which is closed to Turkey in terms of geography, culture and history always has been an attractive country politico-economically for Turkey since its independence. Bilateral economic relations starting with shuttle trade have formalized and further developed and Turkey became as one of top ten biggest economic and trade partner of Moldova. On this basis, the aim of study is to elucidate foreign trade of Turkey with Moldova and to compare performances of Turkey by years and by other countries, which have remarkable domination in Moldovan market. Within this scope, bilateral trade volume of Moldova and Turkey has increased year by year considering the past decade, which makes Turkey as the 7th largest import and 8th export partner of Moldova. Turkey aims to be one of the first three biggest economic partner of Moldova after entry into force of Free Trade Agreement (FTA, which was signed by both countries in 2014 to increase foreign trade volume up to 1 billion US dollars.

  1. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós

    2011-09-01

    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  2. DSA lifetime measurements in 21Ne at high recoil velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, H.; Heidinger, F.; Kaendler, K.

    1977-01-01

    States in 21 Ne up to 5 MeV excitation energy have been populated using the inverted reaction 2 H( 20 Ne,pγ). The Doppler shift attenuation (DSA) analysis of the pγ coincidence spectra taken in a Ge(Li) detector at 45 0 and 135 0 and an annular silicon surface barrier detector near 0 0 yielded the lifetimes of 8 states in 21 Ne. Due to the large recoil of vi/c approximately equal to 4% three new lifetimes were determined for the short lived levels at 2.80, 4.68 and 4.73 MeV, namely 10 +- 4 fs, 16 +- 4 fs and 10 +- 4 fs, respectively. The results are compared with rotational and shell model calculations. (orig.) [de

  3. Enhanced diffusion of Zn in Al under Ne irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion rate of Zn in Al has been enhanced by factors approximately 10 2 --10 4 under 80 keV Ne irradiation at 130 0 C. Diffusion couples were formed by ion implantation of Zn, and the concentration profiles were determined by ion backscattering. The data are analyzed by numerically solving the coupled diffusion equations for vacancies, interstitials and atoms, and by scaling the profiles of vacancy and interstitial production rates from the theoretical profile of Ne energy into atomic processes. The enhanced diffusion rate is linear in flux, indicating that the mobile point defects annihilate predominantly at fixed sinks. The average distance to annihilation is approximately 700 A, except for the first approximately 500 A of the solid where it is much less. Free vacancies and interstitials are found to be created by the Ne at a smaller rate than the atomic displacement rate, suggesting a high annihilation probability within the parent damage cascade

  4. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  5. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.

    1998-01-01

    The low energy kaons from the φ meson produced at DAΦNE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DAΦNE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DAΦNE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors

  6. Health and Roma People in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Elif Ekmekçi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research and published literatüre on Roma health in Turkey is much more limited than in other European countries. Among these, there are hardly any published literature focusing on the health status, health indicators and health behaviors. Aims: The aim of this research is to describe the perceptions of health-related concepts and access and the use of health services and social determinants of the health of Roma people in Turkey. Study Design: Descriptive qualitative survey. Methods: The participants were chosen by random sampling. The semi-structured interview topic guide was developed from sources such as advice from the Romani community leaders, published evidence and personal experience from previous work with Roma communities. Non-directive open ended questions allowed the exploration of their health status, how they conceptualize health and disease, their level of awareness on the impact of social determinants of health, on their health status and the access and use of health services. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Analysis proceeded in four steps: 1. Reading and examining the transcripts separately using open coding, 2. Extracting the key words and codes from the transcripts and sorting them into categories, 3. Rereading the transcripts by using selective coding, and 4. Examining the categories derived from the open coding systematically and determining the concepts summarizing the material. Results: The survey results are compatible with the existing literature on Roma health and reveal that 1 there is a tight link between the lack of social determinants of health and the poor health status of Roma people 2 socioeconomic factors and cultural norms of the ethnic minority are suspicious factors 3 comparative and systematic research is needed to illuminate the actual health gaps and causal factors for them. Conclusion: The research proves that the need for comparative and systematic research in Turkey to

  7. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Sadik; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2017-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important problem that threatens women’s health, very few studies focus on the victim—perpetrator relationship or examine this relationship across Turkey. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide victims and offenders. This study analysed 162 femicide cases that occurred in 12 cities in Turkey from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Eighty women were killed by their partners (classified as intimate partner femicide, IPF), and 81 women were killed by one of their relatives, friends, or strangers (classified as non-intimate partner femicide, non-IPF). According to our results, the typical IPF victim is of child-bearing age, does not have a paid job, is married or divorced, is killed in a domestic setting due to injuries to the thorax or abdomen produced by an edged/pointed weapon or firearm, and is possibly a victim of overkill. The typical IPF perpetrator is close to his victim’s age, has a paid job, has no mental disability, owns a gun, and has threatened his partner or ex-partner previously because of jealousy/infidelity/honour or separation. The typical non-IPF victim is very similar to the IPF victim; however, her marital status can be single, married or divorced, and she is commonly killed by a relative. The surveillance and screening of femicide and IPV is an important step when analysing and attempting to prevent femicide. Second, the training and sensitization of health professionals are important. Moreover, health staff should be encouraged to participate in advocacy interventions. Third, gun ownership must be brought under control. PMID:28832596

  8. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  9. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gülfem; Bakirtas, Arzu; Sackesen, Cansin; Reisli, Ismail; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2011-06-01

    Allergic diseases constitute a significant health problem in Turkey. According to a recent multicenter study, which used the ISAAC questionnaire, the mean prevalence of wheezing, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in 10-yr-old school children during the past year was 15.8%, 23.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. A healthcare level system, regulated by Ministry of Health, is available in Turkey. Pediatric allergists and pediatric immunologists provide patient care at the tertiary level. Currently, 48 centers deliver care for allergic and immunologic diseases in children. There are 136 pediatric and 61 adult allergists/immunologists. Although the number of allergy/clinical immunology specialists is limited, these centers are capable of delivering many of the procedures required for the proper management and diagnosis of allergy/immunology. Pediatric allergy and/or immunology is a subspecialty lasting 3 yr and follows a 4-yr pediatric specialist training. Fellow training involves gaining knowledge in basic and clinical allergy and immunology as well as the performance and interpretation of laboratory procedures in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (TNSACI) was officially established in 1989 and currently has 356 members. The society organizes a national congress annually and winter schools for fellowship training as well as training courses for patients and their relatives. TNSACI also has a strong representation in European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) through its participation in the executive committee, consensus reports, and initiatives in the diagnosis of allergic and immunologic diseases of children. The 30th Congress of the EAACI is also due to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, between June 11 and 15, 2011. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Mid-Eocene (Bartonian) larger benthic foraminifera from southeastern Turkey and northeastern Egypt: New evidence for the palaeobiogeography of the Tethyan carbonate platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Emad S.; Erdem, Nazire Özgen; Sinanoğlu, Derya; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2018-05-01

    Larger benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the mid-Eocene (Bartonian) sedimentary successions of the Tethyan carbonate platforms have been studied in southeastern Turkey and northeastern Egypt. In the Hazro-Diyarbakir section (SE Turkey), small-medium miliolids and textularinids are identified from the lower intervals of the Hoya Formation, whereas alveolinids and soritids (porcellaneous) and orbitolinids (agglutinated) increase in diversity and abundance in the upper intervals. The Dictyoconus aegyptiensis (Chapman) and Somalina stefaninii Silvestri are recorded for the first time from the Hoya Formation. The larger benthic foraminiferal assemblage from the Hoya Formation shows a significant similarity to those reported from the Observatory Formation (coeval with the Sannor Formation) in the Cairo-Suez district (NE Egypt). The studied foraminiferal assemblages imply restricted lagoonal-tidal flat palaeoenvironments. Palaeobiogeographically, the larger benthic foraminiferal assemblages recorded in southeastern Turkey and northeastern Egypt carbonate platforms display a strong affinity to the Arabian, Middle East and African platforms. The position of the global sea-level and the plate tectonic organization of the studied region during the Bartonian were the main factors that facilitated faunal exchange within the carbonate platforms.

  11. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  12. Basic design in architectural education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaklı Elif Süyük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative activity is one of the most significant parts of architectural education. In the architectural curriculum organisation ‘design studio’ is the unique and preeminent subject. Freshman students encounter ‘design’ first in basic design course, before they know what designing incorporates. The Basic Design is the starting point of initiating creativity in architecture education. It helps each student to understand architecture as a creative and innovative practice in the first year of education. This study analyzes the characteristics of basic design course, the topics of the course contents and its significance in the architectural curriculum in Turkey as well.

  13. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  14. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengyilmaz, Nese; Savruk, Nurettin

    1998-01-01

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  15. Evaluation of Honour Killings in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Celbis, Osman; Ozdemir, Bora; Oruc, Mucahit; Dogan, Mustafa; Egri, Mucahit

    2013-01-01

    Honour killings are still pervasive in many societies.  The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics of the victims of honour killings and honour killers in Malatya province between 2000 and 2004, and to review the concept of honour killings in Turkey.  Data are collected from the records of Malatya Higher Criminal Court.  The results are discussed in the light of the data obtained from Turkish Republic Ministry of Justice.  There were 36 honour killings in Malatya between 2000 and ...

  16. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    affected by humans (Sanderson et al., 2002; Braje&Erlandson, 2014). The area left in its natural state corresponds to only 15%. Due to population increase, agricultural areas shrinked, forests were destroyed, and pastures declined in size. More chemical fertilizers and agricultural pesticides were used in order to obtain more products. A greater number of machines were employed in agriculture, which led to a rise in the number of products. The human pressure on the environment in Anatolia dates back to thousands of years. Nomadic peoples on these lands have settled in the last 200 years due to settlement policies (Cürebal et al., 2015). This process saw the establishment of villages in higher and inclined areas as a result of the effects of the nomadic culture of Turkomans and other people in Anatolia. Forests in the inclined areas around these villages were destroyed and turned into agricultural areas. Machines, fertilizers, and pesticides were utilized in agricultural activities in order to produce more crops. This transformation led to an increased erosion effect, deterioration of soil, agricultural and environmental pollution (Chin et al., 2013; Hoang et al., 2014; Matteo et al., 2014). The change caused by industrialization gained ground in the 1950s in Turkey. In particular, migration from rural areas to cities gaining pace after the World War II brought about an increased human pressure in and around big cities. Areas around the cities became centers of attraction for many people. Plains around settlement areas were opened to settlement, and most industrial facilities were established there. As a consequence, first class agricultural areas were lost. Settlements and industrial areas generated large amounts of solid and liquid waste. Uncontrolled discharge of liquid waste and intensely stored solid waste caused the physical and chemical pollution of rivers, lakes, and seas to increase in Turkey and other parts of the world (Andersson et al., 2006; Steffen et al

  17. DAΦNE Control System status and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Milardi, C.; Sannibale, F.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.

    1998-01-01

    The DAΦNE Control System allowed the step by step commissioning of the major subsystems as they were installed, proving to be modular and extensible. Recently the guidelines of the Control System evolution concerned the development of machine operational procedures and the integration of diagnostic tools. Particular attention has been reserved to the problem of saving and restoring element data sts as well as to the DAΦNE general data handling. A system overview including installation status, features, and operation results is presented

  18. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Ne-N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, A.F.V.; Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Santos, F.P.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors, such as the ALICE TPC or in the NEXT experiment. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Ne-N 2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two peaks for different gas ratios of Ne-N 2 , low reduced electric fields, E / N , 10–20 Td (2.4–4.8 kV·cm −1 ·bar −1 ), low pressures 6–8 Torr (8–10.6 mbar) and at room temperature.

  19. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-11

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of {sup 40}K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  1. Seismotectonics of Western Turkey: A Synthesis of Source Parameters and Rupture Histories of Recent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymaz, T.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Aegean region, including western Turkey and Greece, is indeed one of the most seismically active and rapidly deforming continental domains in the Earth. The wide range of deformational processes occurring in this region means that the eastern Mediterranean provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the complex kinematics of continental collision, including strike-slip faulting and crustal extension, as well as associated seismicity and volcanism. The tectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region is dominated by effects of subduction along the Hellenic (Aegean) arc and of continental collision in eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus. Northward subduction of the African plate beneath western Anatolia and the Aegean region is causing crustal extension in the overlying Aegean province. The interplay between dynamic effects of the relative motions of adjoining plates thus controls large-scale crustal deformation and the associated earthquake activity in Turkey. The Aegean region has been subject to extension since Miocene time, and this extension has left a pronounced expression in the present-day topography. It is further widely accepted that the rapid extension observed in western Turkey is mainly accommodated by large active normal faults that control the geomorphology which is dominated by a series of E-W trending normal-fault-bounded horst and graben structures; the N-S extension inferred from these structures is consistent with regional earthquake focal mechanisms. The E-W trending Menderes graben, the NE-SW trending Burdur, Acigol and Baklan, and NW-SE trending Dinar and Sultandag-Aksehir basins all bounded by large faults form a system of half-graben whose orientation is evident in both the topography and the tilting of Neogene sediments adjacent to them. We have studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of ˜20 earthquakes using body-waveform modelling, and have compared the shapes and amplitudes of teleseismic long-period P

  2. Comparison of Ne and Ar seeded radiative divertor plasmas in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T., E-mail: nakano.tomohide@jaea.go.jp

    2015-08-15

    In H-mode plasmas with Ne, Ar and a mixture of Ne and Ar injection, the divertor radiation power fractions amongst these impurities in addition to an intrinsic impurity, C, are investigated. In plasmas with the inner divertor plasma attached, carbon is the biggest radiator, whichever impurity, Ne, Ar or a mixture of Ar and Ne is injected. In contrast, in plasmas with the inner divertor plasma detached, Ne is the biggest radiator due to a significantly high recombination radiation from Ne VIII. Ar is always a minor contributor in plasmas with the inner divertor both attached and detached.

  3. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalan, Cicek Bezir; Murat, Oeztuerk; Nuri, Oezek

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  4. Turkey's natural gas necessity, consumption and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the 'energy corridor' in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Furthermore, Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy consumption. Naturally, Turkish natural gas usage is projected to increase remarkably in coming years, with the prime consumers, expected to be industry and power plants. Energy demand of Turkey is growing by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. In addition, natural gas consumption is the fastest growing primary energy source in Turkey. Gas sales started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters), in 1987 and reached approximately 22 bcm in 2003. This article deals with energy policies and natural gas consumption of Turkey. Besides modernization of present lines and realization of capacity increase, new lines will also be needed. In this context, Turkey, due to its geographical location is, in an important position to vary European supply. Therefore, Turkey's role as a transitory area gains importance

  5. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2001-01-01

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  7. Cystic echinococcosis in Central Alaninate, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazar, Suleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Sahin, Izzet; Cetinkaya, F.

    2006-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with a larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a serious public health problem in Turkey. Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease; dogs and livestock are important hosts in transmission. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri Rural Area, Central Anatolia, Turkey. At the present study, we planned to evaluate the rate of CE in Kayseri rural area in Central Anatolia between 2000 and 2002. We investigated 2,242 subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA), and we examined the seropositivity by using Western blotting (WB). The seropositivity rate was 2.7% by ELISA and IFA. We retested seropositive serum samples and 200 seronegative sera by WB. Seropositive serum samples were studied using abdominal ultrasound and chest x-ray to confirmed the presence of hydatid cyst and we found 10 (0.5%) different localized cysts. The results of our study indicate that Kayseri rural area has a high endemicity of human CE. (author)

  8. The law enforcement agencies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aygun, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Turkey, the law enforcement agencies are gathered into two main authorities. These are as below. 1. Under the Ministry of Interior: General Commander of Gendarmarie; General Directorate of National Police; General Commandery of Coast Guard; 2. Within the Undersecretariat of Customs there are two main service units to combat smuggling. These are: General Directorate of Customs Enforcement (GDCE) and General Directorate of Customs. The responsible areas of these administrations are legally as below: The region of Gendarmarie: It covers rural areas. In that region, Gendarmarie is responsible, inter alia, combating smuggling; The region of police: General Directorate of National Police has performed its tasks, one of which is to combat smuggling in the city areas; The region of Territorial Waters: Coast Guard is related authority in territorial water for, among other things, fighting smuggling. The region of Customs: General Directorate of Customs Enforcement fulfills in these regions as the authority and responsible law enforcement agent. The main difference between GDCE and other law enforcement agencies are: GDCE is the only Administration whose main aim is to struggle against smuggling; Generally, all units conduct their operations in their responsible region, however, if it is necessary, depending on the case, an operation can be performed jointly only in another region in cooperation with the relevant agent. In that context, as far as General Directorate of Customs Enforcement is concerned, fulfilling an operation in other regions is not a legal necessity. Any units of GDCE can seize and do operation all over Turkey by itself, without any regional limitations from legislation. Organizational Structure of the Customs Administration in Turkey - The principle functions of the General Directorate of Customs are: implementation of customs policies, collection of customs taxes, inspection of passengers and goods, also, investigation of smuggling

  9. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  10. Is there a Housing Bubble in Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Yener

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There was a notable housing price inflation in aggregate/local levels in Turkey during the last few years. Although the country’s economic fundamentals remain strong, the probability of a housing bubble is a heated debate among market participants. This timely investigation brings greater clarity to whether the Turkish housing market is in a bubble. The study uses a multi-strand approach to dissect the bubble over the period of Jan. 2010 - Dec. 2014. First, monthly/annual price-to-income and monthly price-to-rent ratios are examined for the national Turkish as well as regional Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara housing markets. Second, an extended CASE and SHILLER (2003 model is applied assessing the interdependence between housing prices and a series of explanatory variables. Lastly, the Right Tail Augmented Dickey-Fuller (Rtadf test is performed to support the overall analysis. This study finds that neither affordability ratios nor regression estimates support the existence of the bubble in Turkey.

  11. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  12. Food loss and waste management in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Ucaroglu, Selnur; Banar, Mufide

    2018-01-01

    Food waste can be an environmental and economic problem if not managed properly but it can meet various demands of a country if it is considered as a resource. The purpose of this report is to review the existing state of the field in Turkey and identify the potential of food waste as a resource. Food loss and waste (FLW) was examined throughout the food supply chain (FSC) and quantified using the FAO model. Edible FLW was estimated to be approximately 26milliontons/year. The amount of biodegradable waste was estimated based on waste statistics and research conducted on household food waste in Turkey. The total amount of biodegradable waste was found to be approximately 20milliontons/year, where more than 8.6milliontons/year of this waste is FLW from distribution and consumption in the FSC. Options for the end-of-life management of biodegradable wastes are also discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  14. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  15. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-09

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.

  16. Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)

  17. Measurement of the response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Arnold, W.; Herdtweck, J.; Mertens, G.

    1986-01-01

    The response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons has been measured via elastic neutron-proton and neutron-deuteron scattering using the two mixtures of C 6 H 12 /C 6 D 12 and C 6 H 6 /C 6 D 6 and ''pure'' scintillators. The energy range covered for protons and deuterons was about 1-16 MeV. The light output relation Lsub(p)(E)=(1/2)Lsub(d) (2E) has been observed. (orig.)

  18. Collective effects in {sup 17}F and {sup 19}Ne; Effets collectifs dans {sup 17}F et {sup 19}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P; Leveque, A; Grjebine, T; Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The quadrupolar transition periods {sup 17}F1/2+ {yields} 5/2+ and {sup 19}Ne5/2+ {yields} 1/2+ have been measured, and are compatible with the model of a weak coupling between core and external nucleons. (author) [French] Les periodes des transitions quadrupolaires {sup 17}F1/2+ {yields} 5/2+ et {sup 19}Ne5/2+ {yields} 1/2+ ont ete mesurees et sont compatibles avec le modele d'un couplage faible entre coeur et nucleons exterieures. (auteur)

  19. Ceux-ci ne sont pas : [luuletused] / Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusa, Kalju, pseud., 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Ceux-ci ne sont pas ; Köögivahet ; "Taara..." ; "Pakane pistab pisikesi ..." ; "Meri on kaet mattklaasiga ; Pydemise päivil ; "Toas muusika mängib ..." ; "Jäin juustu imetlema ; "Mu elu on mustikas ..." ; Hingepidetus ; ŁNo me gusta la cocina

  20. Hygiëne en infectiepreventie, constant voortschrijdende inzichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Crielaard, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat het voor het orale microbioom niet altijd gunstig is om patiënten te behandelen met chloorhexidine. Daarnaast baart de groeiende groep bacteriën die resistent zijn tegen alle ontwikkelde antibiotica zorgen en kunnen 'te veel' hygiëne en infectiepreventie ook

  1. "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." : [luuletused] / Georgi Kirillov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirillov, Georgi, 1952-2016

    2002-01-01

    Autorist lk. 187. Sisu: "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." ; "Za molitvoi molitva..." ; "Zaklannõi prezhde veka Agnets..." ; "Ja zhdal tebja i tõ voshol..." ; "Nepodrazhajemoje solntse..." ; "Tshto obshtshego mezh mnoju i toboi..." ; "Pogruzhenije v odinotshestvo..." ; "Shag za shagom - k stupenjam svjatõm..." ; "Nedvizhnõ dveri sozertsanja..." ; "Vessenni vozduh..." ; "Jesli mozhno - bud miloserdnõm..."

  2. Stress tolerant plant species spread in the road-ne

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, Vol.14 (2011), s. 45-46 ISSN 1644-7298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : weed * invasive * road-ne * salinity * Poaceae Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  3. Half-life of the superallowed β+ emitter Ne18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, G. F.; Smith, M. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A. N.; Ball, G. C.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Daoud, J. J.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Williams, S. J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2007-08-01

    The half-life of Ne18 has been determined by detecting 1042-keV γ rays in the daughter F18 following the superallowed-Fermi β+ decay of samples implanted at the center of the 8πγ-ray spectrometer, a spherical array of 20 HPGe detectors. Radioactive Ne18 beams were produced on-line, mass-separated, and ionized using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ionization source at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. This is the first high-precision half-life measurement of a superallowed Fermi β decay to utilize both a large-scale HPGe spectrometer and the isotope separation on-line technique. The half-life of Ne18, 1.6656 ± 0.0019 s, deduced following a 1.4σ correction for detector pulse pile-up, is four times more precise than the previous world average. As part of an investigation into potential systematic effects, the half-life of the heavier isotope Ne23 was determined to be 37.11 ± 0.06 s, a factor of 2 improvement over the previous precision.

  4. LabVIEW Data Acquisition for NE213 Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2003-01-01

    A neutron spectroscopy system based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center measures neutron energies from a few MeV up to 800 MeV. The neutrons are produced from the electron beam and target interactions. The NE 213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into electric pulses for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. The processed pulses are then fed into a CAMAC analog to digital converter module (ADC). The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into one of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW version 7.0 acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy in MeVee is obtained, resulting in a calibration curve. This project is focused on the development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is also created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system

  5. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  6. Teorijske i praktične osnove TIG postupka zavarivanja

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko; Kondić, Veljko; Brezovački, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    TIG/GTAW postupak zavarivanja je elektrolučni postupak zavarivanja netaljivom elektrodom u zaštitnoj atmosferi inertnih plinova ili smjesa plinova. U radu je prikazana kratka povijest i teorijske osnove postupka, prednosti i nedostaci te osvrt na praktične osnove primjene postupka.

  7. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  8. Deformation effects in the 20Ne+12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Gupta, D.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present work has been performed with the aim to investigate the possible occurrence of highly deformed configurations of the 32 S di-nuclear systems which may be formed in the 20 Ne+ 12 C reaction by studying the properties of emitted light charged particles

  9. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  10. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  11. Turkey's EU Quest and Political Cleavages under AKP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi......) The overall political targets of political Islam in Turkey seems less compatible with the traditional Turkish EU quest than formerly (2) The Turkish political Islamic turnaround is contributing to a climate of increasing scepticism in Europe, and presents significant obstacles to EU accession. As a result...

  12. Hybrid War and Its Strategic Implications to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bingöl, Oktay

    2017-01-01

    Discussions on the hybrid threats and hybrid wars have begun to gain interest among the securitycommunities around the world since 2000s, and exponentially increased after Russian-Ukraine conflict in 2014. The political and military conflict between Russia and Turkey sinceNovember 2015 has carried the discussion to Turkey. Now it is believed that Turkey is infact in a multi-front hybrid war with some of its neighbors but not just Russia. In this articleit is aimed to fully explore hybrid war ...

  13. Saving and Social Security Wealth: A Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yigit Aydede

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt in the literature to investigate the effects of public social security on aggregate consumption in a time-series setting for a developing country, Turkey that has one of the most generous social security systems in the OECD region. In order to quantify the social security variable, the paper uses the social security wealth (SSW) series calculated for the first time for Turkey and shows that SSW is the largest part of the household wealth in Turkey and therefore...

  14. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  15. Turkey's energy efficiency assessment: White Certificates Systems and their applicability in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzgun, B.; Komurgoz, G.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the importance of energy efficiency and the sustainable use of energy resources due to their significant benefits for reducing a country's dependence on foreign energy resources and increasing awareness on environmental problems. Turkey aims to reduce its energy intensity by 20% up to 2023, and in order to accomplish this target, the country plans to use energy more effectively in various industries and develop financial mechanisms for energy efficiency. Although much effort has been made to improve energy efficiency, additional policies such as marked-based incentives are still necessary. This article deals with one of the many market-based energy efficiency policies, called Tradable White Certificates (WhC) or Energy Efficiency Obligations. The current situation of the energy field in Turkey and energy consumption by industries is presented first in this paper, followed by potentials for energy efficiency in each industry and energy efficiency policies. Furthermore, the theory and applicability of a WhC System is introduced and discussed in terms of market conditions, choice of obligated participants and market mechanisms and barriers for the Turkish electricity and natural gas market to benefit from the residential and industrial energy savings potential. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency is the most effective way to reduce foreign energy dependency. • Turkey aims reducing at least 20% of energy intensity in the year 2023. • Energy consumption of industry is 35% of total energy consumption in Turkey. • Marked based policy elements create new opportunities in environmental markets. • WhC System can be implemented in PMUM under the control of regulatory authority

  16. Microstructures of the Kirsehir Complex, Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISIK, V.; Caglayan, A.; Uysal, T.; Bolhar, R.

    2011-12-01

    Turkey is positioned on the boundary between the Eurasian and African/Arabian plates, providing an ideal natural laboratory for learning passive and active earth processes such as deformation, metamorphism, earthquakes and volcanism. Central Turkey historically has played an important role in evolution of the Alpine orogeny. The Kirsehir Complex is one of three Mesozoic-Early Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic mid-crustal basement units exposed in central Turkey. The most common lithology of the metamorphites are the banded gneisses, which are intercalated with layers of schists, amphibolites and quartzite, and marbles representing the structurally the highest metamorphites of the study area. The metamorphites are characterized by multiple folding episodes and overprinting faults (thrust, normal and strike-slip). These metamorphites reached peak metamorphic conditions of upper amphibolite facies, as indicated by local presence of clinopyroxene, sillimanite, hornblende, andalusite and garnet. Later, retrograde greenschist facies conditions were attained characterized by the alteration of feldspar and mafic minerals to muscovite and chlorite/actinolite, respectively. The microstructures of selected minerals can be used to bracket the metamorphic grade during which microstructure formed. Quartz displays undulose extinction, deformation bands, subgrains and deformation lamellae, and recrystallisation. The presence of lobate grain boundaries of quartz indicates that GBM recrystallisation occurred. Undulose extinction and recrystallisation are common in micas. Recrystallisation, core-mantle structures in feldspar, myrmekites in K-feldspars within the gneisses suggest that deformation occurred within the amphibolite facies. Garnet occurs as slightly elliptical porphroclats. Sillimanite is present as fibrolite growing near biotite and microboudinaged. Andalusite porphyroblast/porphroclats are elongate and microboudinaged. Kinematic indicators (asymmetric mantled grains, S

  17. Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O--20Ne scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.; Schneider, W.F.W.; Jahnke, U.; Hendrie, D.L.; Mahoney, J.; Maguire, C.F.; Scott, D.K.; Wolschin, G.

    1975-01-01

    The cluster structure of the ground state rotational band of 20 Ne was studied via the elastic and inelastic scattering of 50 MeV 20 Ne from 16 O. Angular distributions are compared with microscopic calculations

  18. Tandheelkunde in Turkije en Marokko [Dentistry in Turkey and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurs, A.H.B.; Verrips, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Some information is given on the number of dentists in Turkey and Morocco and the dental condition of the inhabitants. This information concerns prevention, caries, periodontic diseases as well as other dental diseases and diseases of the mouth.

  19. New records of truffle fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Turkoglu; Michael Angelo. Castellano

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus (Hawker) A.H.Sm., Hymenogaster griseus Vittad., Hymenogaster olivaceous Vittad., Hymenogaster thwaitesii Berk. & Broome, and Hymenogaster vulgaris Tul. & C.Tul. We also report a new...

  20. Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic relations between turkey and Africa: challenges and prospects. ... The incumbent Turkish government now attaches great importance to developing ... It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector.

  1. Pros and Cons: Compulsory 12 year education reform in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By CEYLAN

    2016-05-28

    Öztürk, 2005). ... compulsory, and education following primary school (middle school, high school and university) was ...... initially very popular in the mass media in 2012, ... in Turkey: opinions and concerns of elementary.

  2. Cultural Tourism Tours and Main Routes Towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the tourism has become a important industry. Certainly, the most important international actors af this industry are tour operators. The tour operators which realize about 75 percent of the total tourism activity to Turkey have taken a very important mission from the point of Turkey tourism. The, Germany, Netherlands, England and USA tour operators, which have made the important part of the tours to our country, have also an important position in organizating cultural tour. When the cultural tours, which have been planned to Turkey by this countries, have been studied it is seen that these tours have containied more mass tourism areas or near areas of these region. It can be said that Turkey’s not marketing its tourism correctly has be effective in this subject. With this research, it has been studied how the cultural attractions in Turkey have been perceived, consumed and marketed by abroad tour operators.

  3. The number and distribution of computerised tomography scanners in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, S.; Amato, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the number and distribution of CT scanners in Turkey. Our results show 173 CT scanners in Turkey in 1994, which equals 2.9 scanners per million people. All of the scanners are located in 45 cities, where 81 % of the population resides. The other 31 cities in Turkey have no scanners. Of the 173 scanners, 103 (59.6 %) are owned by the private sector and the other 70 are owned by the public sector. Of Turkey's CT scanners, 49.2 % are located in private health centres, 21.9 % in university hospitals, 16.7 % in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, 10.4 % in private hospitals and 1.8 % in social security hospitals. (orig.)

  4. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-08-15

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  5. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  6. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  7. Turkey's Role in NATO-European Union Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkali, Saltuk B

    2008-01-01

    ...) as its instrument for security and defense matters. The years 1995-1999 were especially fruitful, because Turkey was an associate member of the WEU and participated fully in relevant EU decision making...

  8. The Pragmatic Entente: Turkey's Growing Relations With Israel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Randy

    2000-01-01

    .... The post-Cold War era has allowed individual states more freedom of maneuver in implementing foreign policy initiatives and one of the most ambitious states in this regard has been the Republic of Turkey...

  9. NOVUS ORTUS: THE AWAKENING OF LAZ LANGUAGE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan KAVAKLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Laz (South Caucasian language, which is spoken primarily on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in Turkey, is being threatened by language endangerment. Having no official status, Laz language is considered to be an ethnic minority language in Turkey. All Laz people residing in Turkey are bilingual with the official language in the country, Turkish, and use Laz most frequently in intrafamilial conversations. In this article, Laz language is removed from the dusty pages of Turkish history as a response to the threat of language attrition in the world. Accordingly, language endangerment is viewed in terms of a sociolinguistic phenomenon within the boundaries of both language-internal and -external factors. Laz language revitalization acts have also been scrutinized. Having a dekko at the history of modern Turkey will enlighten whether those revitalization acts and/or movements can offer a novus ortus (new birth for the current situation of Laz language.

  10. In Search for a Pronatalist Population Policy for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf YÜKSEL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has witnessed high fertility rates and low mortality rates until 2000s. Young population structure, need for infrastructure for growing population and reproductive health issues were always on the agenda of policy makers throughout the history of Turkey. After the decline in total fertility rate below replacement level, vibrant discussions and search for a new policy framework began to be visible in the recent years. After the establishment of new Republic in Turkey in 1923 pronatalist policies were active until the beginning 1960s. After the First Development Plan in 1962, policy shift was towards an antinatalist direction until 2000. After a short period between 2000 and 2012 which can not be put any category in terms of fertility policy government clearly declared its position favouring pronatalist policies and mobilised bureaucracy for developing new policy options. This paper summarizes the fertility policies and demographic transition of Turkey and evaluates possible policy options

  11. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Gurpinar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  12. Natural gas transits and market power. The case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, Florian; Schulte, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is a key country in order to realize the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) due to its geographical location. However, as the main transit country within the SGC, Turkey could potentially exert market power with gas transits. Whether Turkey exerts market power or not, is crucial for an economic assessment of the SGC. Hence, the article investigates this issue quantitatively using a global partial equilibrium gas market model. An oligopolistic and a competitive supply structure in Europe in 2030 are considered in the model. If the European gas market in 2030 is characterized by an oligopolistic supply, Turkey is able to exert market power resulting in higher prices compared to competitive transits, in particular in South Eastern Europe. In a competitive market structure, however, the importance of the SGC and thus the potential of Turkish transit market power is limited.

  13. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  14. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  15. Integrated geophysical investigations in the Hisar geothermal field, Demirci, western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEzuerlan, Guelcin [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Mines, Geophysical Engineering Department; Sahin, M. Huedavendigar [Department of Geophysics, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-04-15

    The shallow, low-temperature geothermal field of Hisar, in western Turkey, was studied by means of vertical electrical sounding (VES), Wenner, self-potential (SP) and very low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) profiling surveys. The VES survey, conducted along the valley in an E-W direction, provided lithological and structural information that is in good agreement with the well data, and suggests that the field is characterized by low-resistivity values (=30Om). Because the resistivity structure in a N-S direction could not be investigated due to the rough topography towards the north, SP, Wenner and VLF-EM measurements were made to identify and characterize a possible hot-fluid carrying fault/fracture zone that forms one of the boundaries of the valley. There is a good correlation between the results of the SP, VLF-EM and Wenner surveys, which confirm the existence of the NE-SW striking fault zone that had been inferred from geologic information. Tensional fractures that developed perpendicular to the fault zone were also identified. Consistent with the results of the SP and Wenner profilings, the two-dimensional model derived from VLF-EM data and a Karous-Hjelt current density pseudo-section detected the conductive fault zones bearing the geothermal fluids. (author)

  16. Predisposing factors in childhood masturbation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, F

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this prospective, referral-based study was to assess demographical and developmental features associated with childhood masturbation in Turkey. A total of 61 children with childhood masturbation who were referred for the first time to the Department of Child Psychiatry were examined from demographical, psychosocial and medical aspects and compared with two control groups consisting of 61 age and gender matched children who were brought to the paediatric outpatient clinics and 43 children and adolescents who were the biological siblings of the study group. In children with masturbation, sleep difficulties were more frequent (P masturbation was often associated with a genito-urinary disorder or a stressful life event like weaning, the birth of a sibling, or separation from the parents. This is the first controlled study investigating the clinical and the developmental features of childhood masturbation. These findings may help identify children who could be at risk for this condition.

  17. Nursing satisfaction and job enrichment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Havva; Bahcecik, Nefise; Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    Survey research was conducted with the aim of better understanding nurses' perceptions of organizational factors which relate to their job satisfaction and motivation in Turkey. Nurses (N = 290) who were employed at a training and research hospital, part of the Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, were included. The questionnaire used was developed for this study based on Hackman and Oldman's job enrichment theory. The results showed that only one third of the nurse leaders and one in five of the staff nurses reported being satisfied with their job. The participants saw the five core job dimensions of Hackman and Oldman's work design model: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback as important for nurses. Nursing was described by the participants as hard and challenging, but they also found it meaningful and said that it gave them the opportunity to use their skills and abilities.

  18. Hydrogen is not an utopia for Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiktas, Melih Soner [EBILTEM, Ege University Science and Technology Research Center, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Kocar, Gunnur (Solar Energy Institute of Ege University, Izmir Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this study was to explore how the future of technological developments in hydrogen will be shaped in Turkey by using a two-round Delphi method undertaken to determine and measure the expectations of the sector representatives through online surveys where a total of 60 experts responded from 18 different locations. The article discusses not only the expert sights on hydrogen technologies but also all bibliometrical approaches. The results showed that the hydrogen economy will enhance innovations as well as economic prosperities with the support of appropriate policies. Formulating such policies requires a timely and detailed understanding of the latest R and D trends and developments in science and technology policy in all developed countries, and the comprehensive analysis of these developments to enable accurate predictions of future science and technology trends. Therefore, we hope that this study can shed a light on the future use of hydrogen technologies, especially for policy makers. (author)

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  20. STATUS OF PUMPKIN SEED PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed contains very valuable nutrients and may have some beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to overview status of pumpkin seed production in Turkey. The production has sharply risen from 11.500 tons in 2015 to 42.181 tons in 2016. The area has also indicated sharp increase from 172.580 da to 628.441 tons in the same period. The first section provides introduction of topics, and later nutrition value of pumpkin seed, taxonomy, production, bottlenecks and breeding efforts are summarized. They have several advantages such as their short vegetation time that just fits the Central Anatolia conditions where vegetation time available is too short for many other crop plants, net profit per de compared to the other crop plants, extended storability, etc.

  1. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  2. Team Leadership: Leadership Role Achievement in Supervision Teams in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sabanci; Izzet Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the views of team leaders and team members of supervision teams about the extent that team leaders achieve their team leadership roles in Turkey. This research was conducted as a survey. The population of the study consisted of approximately 2650 supervisors (inspectors) working in 81 provinces distributed to seven geographical regions in Turkey. The sample consisted of 563 supervisors which were selected out by random sampling. The data were gathered b...

  3. Misalignment under different exchange rate regimes: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dağdeviren, Sengül; Ogus Binatli, Ayla; Sohrabji, Niloufer

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines misalignment of the Turkish lira between 1998 to 2008. Misalignment, specifically overvaluation has been linked to fixed exchange rate regimes. By studying the case of Turkey during this period which covers both a fixed and floating exchange rate regime, we contribute to the literature on the relation between misalignment and exchange rate regimes. We first estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Turkey, then compute misalignment and finally test for structural brea...

  4. Dynamic Analysis of Money Demand Function: Case of Turkey*

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic determinants of money demand function and the long-run and short-run relationships between money demand, income and nominal interest rates are examined in Turkey for the time period 1980-2012. In particular we estimate a dynamic specification of a log money demand function based on Keynesian liquidity preference theory to ascertain the relevant elasticity of money demand. The empirical results of the study show that in Turkey inflation, exchange rate and money deman...

  5. Financial Condition Analysis In Municipalities: A Case Of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKUL, Fatma; ALKAN, Betül Şeyma

    2017-01-01

    This study included the analysis of prepared comprehensive financial statements with the transitionto accrual-based accounting system from cash-based accounting system in the public institutionsin 2006. In Turkey, there is no specific method developed to the goals of public institutions. GASB 1Reporting Model, which is a model developed in the USA, and is not yet used in Turkey, has been appliedby taking financial statements data of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The study was carrie...

  6. The European Union, the ESDP, and the question of Turkey /

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential contribution in terms of crude capabilities that Turkey could bring to the European Union’s ESDP security framework. The history of the European Union’s security aspirations and the security policy preferences of the major actors in European security will also be examined as a way of framing the question of Turkey's potential role within the emerging European security and defense framework. The second chapter will look at how European security has evolved fro...

  7. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  8. Turkey - Corporate Bond Market Development : Priorities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The study is in response to a request by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey to assist them in developing the corporate bond market in line with best practices globally. The objective of this study is to carry out an assessment of the status of the corporate bond market in Turkey. The study identifies key impediments and solutions to sustainable development, and it presents a roadmap to ad...

  9. Proton capture in the nuclei 21Ne and 22Ne and its influence on the solar hydrogen burning in the neon-sodium cyclus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to remove the uncertainties in the reaction rates of 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na and 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na in order to can make founded statements about the hydrogen burning in the NeNa cyclus. After the description of the experimental arrangement the search for resonances in the reaction 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na below Esub(p)=355 keV is reported. While the theory of the direct radiation capture is discussed the experimental results of the search for this transitions in 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na respectively 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na are presented. The astrophysical aspects of the results of this thesis are discussed and summarizingly presented. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 1997 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report highlights the rapid increase in Turkey`s energy consumption and the large investments needed to meet the demand growth. Turkey has sought to attract private inward investment in the energy sector, in particular in electricity, through build-own-operate and build-operate-transfer schemes and transfers of operating rights. Turkey needs to set up a stable legal framework to continue this policy. It needs to push forward with market reforms, as well as to create a level playing field for competition, with energy prices reflecting the true costs of various fuels. Natural gas consumption is also expected to continue to increase. The new regulatory framework should be designed to encourage more rapid increase in the use of gas and more corresponding investments. Turkey is situated near the Caspian Sea, where natural gas and oil production are expected to increase substantially. The report describes projects for oil and natural gas pipelines. 33 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps.

  11. Detection of antibodies against Turkey astrovirus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Kayali, Ghazi; Burnham, Andrew; Oshansky, Christine M; Thomas, Paul G; Gray, Gregory C; Beck, Melinda A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2). Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort's population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease.

  12. Detection of antibodies against Turkey astrovirus in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    Full Text Available Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2. Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort's population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease.

  13. Food and nutrition policies: what's being done in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekcan, Gülden

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the development of the National Plan of Action for Food and Nutrition (NPAFN) for Turkey. Access to a safe and healthy variety of food, a fundamental human right, was stressed by the International Conference on Nutrition and by the World Food Summit. In the International Conference on Nutrition in December 1992, one major commitment was the preparation of NPAFN. The NPAFN for Turkey was designed according to this commitment. Turkey. To this end, under the coordination of the State Planning Organization, a Working Committee Report for National Food and Nutrition Strategy of Turkey was prepared and published, with the participation of different sectors. The goal of the prepared National Food and Nutrition Strategy for Turkey is to protect and promote health through and healthy nutrition and reduce the burden of diseases, while contributing to socio-economic development and a sustainable food security. In Turkey the NPAFN was developed and implementation has initiated. Nearly for all the actions, related projects are being developed.

  14. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  15. Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toklu, E.; Gueney, M.S.; Isik, M.; Comakli, O.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability in Turkey are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  16. Energy production, consumption, policies and recent developments in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toklu, E.; Gueney, M.S.; Isik, M.; Comakli, O.; Kaygusuz, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt University, 69000 Bayburt (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Many factors to be appropriately addressed in moving towards energy sustainability in Turkey are examined. These include harnessing sustainable energy sources, utilizing sustainable energy carriers, increasing efficiency, reducing environmental impact and improving socioeconomic acceptability. The latter factor includes community involvement and social acceptability, economic affordability and equity, lifestyles, land use and aesthetics. On the other hand, Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the potential and utilization of the energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  17. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  18. Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksek, Omer

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

  19. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  20. (e, 2e) processes on Ne, Ar and Xe targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K K, E-mail: g_vpurohit@yahoo.co, E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.i [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur-313 601 (India)

    2010-06-01

    Recently, there have been several attempts to explain the features of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for the (e, 2e) processes on inert targets Ne, Ar and Xe but there are still certain discrepancies in theoretical results and measurements, which require more theoretical efforts to understand the collision dynamics of these targets. We present in this paper the results of our modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculation of TDCS for the ionization of Ne (2p), Ar (3p) and Xe (5p) targets. We modify the standard DWBA formalism by including the correlation-polarization potential (which is function of electron density) and compare our computed results with the available experimental and theoretical data. We observe that the polarization potential is able to improve the agreement with experimental results.

  1. MicroBooNE and its Cross Section Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yun-Tse [SLAC

    2017-05-22

    MicroBooNE (the Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment) is a short-baseline neutrino experiment based on the technology of a liquid-argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC), and has recently completed its first year of data-taking in the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. It aims to address the anomalous excess of events with an electromagnetic final state in MiniBooNE, to measure neutrino-argon interaction cross sections, and to provide relevant R\\&D for the future LArTPC experiments, such as DUNE. In these proceedings, we present the first reconstructed energy spectrum of Michel electrons from cosmic muon decays, the first kinematic distributions of the candidate muon tracks from $\

  2. Overview of DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivan, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R and D program planning. The PTRA program supports DOE-NE's goal of using risk information to inform R and D program planning. The FY12 PTRA program is focused on terrorism risk. The program includes a mix of innovative methods that support the general practice of risk assessments, and selected applications.

  3. Neutral bremsstrahlung radiation of Ne, Ar and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, R.T.V.; Chang, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral Bremsstrahlung cross-sections of Ne, Ar and atomic oxygen around the 3 and 10μ wavelength regions were measured in a high temperature plasma generated in a shock tube. The results were generally a factor of three higher than the theoretical values calculated by Geltman (Geltman, S., JQSRT vol.13, 601 (1973)). Agreement with the experimental results of Taylor and Caledonia (Taylor, R.L. and Caledonia, G., JQSRT vol.9, 657; 681, 1969) around 3μ was good except for the case of Ne. The cross-sections around 10μ are the first measurements in this wavelength region. Enhanced radiation due to atomic line emission on top of the Bremsstrahlung continuum, as predicted by Hyman (Hyman, H.A. and Von Rosenberg, C.W. Jr., JQSRT, vol.15, 919, 1975) was observed around 7.44μ. (author)

  4. Single electron capture in N^+ -(Ne, Kr, Xe) collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Pedro G.; Castillo, Fermin; Martinez, Horacio

    2001-05-01

    Total cross sections for single electron capture of N^+ ions impinging on Ne, Kr and Xe were measured in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.0 keV. The electron capture cross sections for all the targets studied are found to be in excellent agreement with previous data in the low-energy range. The present data together with previous measurements give a general shape of the whole curve of single electron capture cross sections for the N^+ - Ne system. For the cases of N^+ - (Kr, Xe) systems, semiempirical calculation using the two-state approximation are in very good agreement with present cross sections data. Research supported by DGAPA IN-100392 and CONACyT 32175-E

  5. A digital intensity stabilization system for HeNe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhimeng; Lu, Guangfeng; Yang, Kaiyong; Long, Xingwu; Huang, Yun

    2012-02-01

    A digital intensity stabilization system for HeNe laser is developed. Based on a switching power IC to design laser power supply and a general purpose microcontroller to realize digital PID control, the system constructs a closed loop to stabilize the laser intensity by regulating its discharge current. The laser tube is made of glass ceramics and its integrated structure is steady enough to eliminate intensity fluctuations at high frequency and attenuates all intensity fluctuations, and this makes it easy to tune the control loop. The control loop between discharge current and photodiode voltage eliminates the long-term drifts. The intensity stability of the HeNe laser with this system is 0.014% over 12 h.

  6. Toward Solution of the MiniBooNE-LSND Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiorgi, G.

    2012-01-01

    The LSND experiment has observed an anomalous excess of ν ¯ e events in a ν ¯ μ beam which can be interpreted as two-neutrino ν ¯ μ →ν ¯ e oscillations at Δm 2 ∼1 eV 2 , suggesting new physics. The MiniBooNE experiment has ruled out the LSND two-neutrino oscillation interpretation by looking for corresponding flavor oscillations in a neutrino beam, and assuming CP and CPT conservation. However, it has observed an anomalous excess of ν e events at low energy, which, to date, remains unexplained. The two excess signatures are discussed within the context of light sterile neutrino oscillations, and are further confronted with the latest results from a MiniBooNE search for ν ¯ μ →ν ¯ e oscillations in an antineutrino beam. Alternative interpretations are also referenced, along with possible future experimental tests.

  7. Cluster structure of 20Ne and 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2004-01-01

    A d-constraint for calculating the wave functions of various kinds of configurations of cluster structure and optimizing the inside wave functions of the cluster was developed. The wave functions of various kinds of cluster structures were calculated by constraining and energy variation of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics wave functions. The cluster structure of nucleus was reproduced by linear combination of the above wave functions by the generator coordinate method. By superposition of both wave functions calculated using d-constraint and β-constraint, K π =O 3 + rotation band of 20 Ne was reproduced. The excitation energies of 20 Ne were calculated. The result of calculation energies of α- 36 Ar structure of 40 Ca are higher values than expected them. Framework, AMD wave function, constraint, calculation results and discussions are stated. (S.Y.)

  8. 2He decay from excited states: the 18Ne case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raciti, G.; Sfienti, C.; De Napoli, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Cardella, G.; Giacoppo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Two-proton radioactivity studies have been performed on excited states of 18 Ne produced by 20 Ne fragmentation at the FRIBs facility of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. The study of the relative-momentum correlations of the two protons allowed to disentangle the diproton, democratic and sequential decay contributions to the 2p emission. In order to extend the study on two-proton decay to other light-masses nuclei, an upgrade of the FRIBs facility is planned. A new configuration of the Fragment Separator would be able to increase the acceptance of the beam line and therefore the yield of the produced radioactive beams. Also the present tagging setup will be modified in view of the gain intensity, in order to sustain the higher foreseen incoming rate. Status and perspectives of the facility will be presented. (author)

  9. Calibration of a NE213 detector for neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez Martinez, J.; Butragueno Casado, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    This work describes the experimental way followed for getting the calibration of a NE213 detector with a beam of neutrons from the J.E.N. 2 MeV Van de Graaff and using at once pulse shape discrimination. Detector has been used for measuring the spectrum of the fast reactor CORAL-1. There is also included an experimental method in order to get with precision where the Compton edge is placed on the electron spectrum. (Author) 9 refs

  10. 2136-IJBCS-Article-Cesar Bassène

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ... la flore des champs. REFERENCES. Bâ AT, Noba K. 2001. Science et changements planétaires. Sécheresse. 12(3) : 149-155. Bassène C. 2014. La flore adventice dans les cultures de maïs (Zea mays L.) dans le sud du Bassin Arachidier : structure, nuisibilité et mise au point d'un itinéraire de désherbage. Thèse Unique.

  11. Investigation of the parity forbidden alpha decay of 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disque, M.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis the alpha decay of excited states in 20 Ne is investigated. The excited neon states are formed by proton bombardment of 19 F at proton energie of 340 and 670 kev. The ratio E of the parity forbidden alpha decays leading to the ground state of 160 to the allowed decays is determined. The results are E = 7.4 x 10 -5 resonance at 340 kev, E = 4.2 x 10 -3 resonance at 670 kev. (FKS)

  12. LabVIEW DAQ for NE213 Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Adeeb, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    A neutron spectroscopy system, based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector, to be placed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to measure neutron spectra from a few MeV up to 800 MeV, beyond shielding. The NE213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into current for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. CAMAC is a computer automated data acquisition and handling system. Pulses are properly prepared and fed into an analog to digital converter (ADC), a standard CAMAC module. The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into 1 of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW, version 7.0, acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy [units of MeVee] is obtained. A complete calibration curve results (at a given applied voltage to the PMT and pre-amplification gain) when the Compton edge and reference energy for each source is plotted. This project is focused to development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system. Future high-energy neutron measurements can be referenced and normalized according to this calibration curve

  13. Modeling Ne-21 NMR parameters for carbon nanosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupka, T.; Nieradka, M.; Kaminský, Jakub; Stobinski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2013), s. 676-681 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ne-21 NMR * GIAO NMR * molecular modeling * carbon nanostructures Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2013

  14. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and doub...... of the complexes, providing valuable results for future experimental investigations. Comparing our results to those previously available for other phosgene complexes, we suggest that the results for Cl2-phosgene should be revised....

  15. U,Th-21Ne dating and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Murty, S.V.S.; Anil Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The potential of radiogenic and fissiogenic noble gas isotopes as dating tools has been well exploited. U, Th- 4 He , K- 40 Ar and U- fission Xe pairs as well as their variants like 39 Ar- 40 Ar and induced fission Xe- spontaneous fission Xe pairs have been extensively used as geochronological tools. A new dating method that utilizes the nucleogenic isotope 21 Ne and demonstrate its application for an apatite separate from a carbonatite is proposed

  16. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Khakhalin, S.Ya.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l', 2s 2 2p 5 3l4l', 2s2p 6 3l3l' and 2s2p 6 3l4l' levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l'3l '' and 2s2p 6 3l3l'3l '' levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution λ/Δλ∼3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with λ/Δλ>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.)

  17. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ne III

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, A K; Landi, E

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s sup 2 2p sup 4 , 2s2p sup 5 , 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3s, and 2s sup 2 2p sup 3 3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT sub e (K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensi...

  18. Estimation of the effective population size (Ne) and its application in the management of small populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez Mena, Belen

    2016-01-01

    Effective population size (Ne) is an important concept to understand the evolution of a population. In conservation, Ne is used to assess the threat status of a population, evaluate its genetic viability in the future and set conservation priorities. An accurate estimation of Ne is thus essential....... The main objective of this thesis was to better understand how the estimation of Ne using molecular markers can be improved for use in conservation genetics. As a first step, we undertook a simulation study where three different methods to estimate Ne were investigated. We explored how well these three...... methods performed under different scenarios. This study showed that all three methods performed better when the number of unlinked loci used to make the estimation increased and the minimum number of loci need for an accurate estimation of Ne was 100 SNPs. A general assumption in the estimation of Ne...

  19. Calibration of a NE213 detector for neutron spectroscopy; Calibracion de un detector de NE213 para espectroscopia de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Martinez, J; Butragueno Casado, J L

    1974-07-01

    This work describes the experimental way followed for getting the calibration of a NE213 detector with a beam of neutrons from the J.E.N. 2 MeV Van de Graaff and using at once pulse shape discrimination. Detector has been used for measuring the spectrum of the fast reactor CORAL-1. There is also included an experimental method in order to get with precision where the Compton edge is placed on the electron spectrum. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: Turkey 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Turkey including recommendations by the IEA on future policy developments. Recently, Turkey has taken steps to implement energy market reforms which have resulted in clear and significant benefits. Now, continued action is needed to see the process through to a successful conclusion. It is necessary to restructure the state-owned enterprises to operate in a competitive market, to create independent electricity and gas operators and to remove cross-subsidies from electricity and gas prices. Turkey has been very active in international co-operation in the energy sector. Some important oil and gas pipeline projects are underway or almost completed. This will improve the security of supply in Turkey and maintain its role as an important 'energy corridor' between East and West, while avoiding overuse of the Turkish Straits. Synchronisation of Turkey's electricity networks with the European UCTE grid is planned for 2006. Furthermore, the country already has transposed most EU energy laws and standards into national legislation. Turkey's general approach to energy policy has been highly supply-oriented. However, recent efforts have begun to focus more on energy efficiency and conservation. Nevertheless, stronger energy efficiency policies are needed, particularly in the transport sector. Turkey ratified the Framework Convention on Climate Change in February 2004 and is developing its climate change strategy. The government should strive to monitor the cost-effectiveness of its policies, consider defining an emissions target and ensure coordination among the various government bodies. Despite past progress, work remains to be done to achieve further reductions in air pollution. 28 figs., 23 tabs., 3 annexes

  1. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  2. Insurance in Turkey and main problems of the sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaattin Firat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by handling private insurance sector in Turkey and the problems of the sector as a whole, the last stage that the insurance business in Turkey has reached has been evaluated. Basically, because of the fact that the most of the people had fatalistic understanding, religious leaders approached the concept of insurance negatively and adequate information hadn’t been gotten about insurance, the settlement of the idea of insurance in Turkey came true after 150 years later, at the end of 19. Century compared with Europe. As a result of changing conditions, Turkey is in 63rd in accordance with the insurance density on the world countries’ rank, and is in 39th rank in accordance with the primary production. In spite of this, when we examine the studies according to per person criteria, it is seen that the premium rate per person in Turkey is fortieth level among developed countries. The top reason of the fact that insurance business in Turkey hasn’t risen to the requested level is that there is still fatalistic society understanding; and also, the fact that insurance understanding hasn’t been settled, and hitching and late payment on damage payments of insurance firms, and not having an effective promotion and marketing understanding are seen as the primary reasons. Despite of these negative factors, in Turkey being an developing country, the insurance sector has a potential to show at least a threefold improvement from todays’ position in a short time in case of precautions to be taken by state and applying these precautions by seriousness.

  3. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’énergie en Turquie est aujourd’hui fournie par l’énergie fossile. De plus, la Turquie est dépendante de l’extérieur en matière d’énergie pour son économie et les secteurs divers qui en ont besoin. En Turquie, parallèlement aux informations ci-dessus, 83% de l’électricité de l’an 2008 provient des sources d’énergie fossile. Les perspectives d'avenir prévoient que la demande d’énergie de la Turquie augmentera et l’effet naturel de cette croissance sera l’augmentation du taux de dépendance énergétique à l'égard des autres pays. Les travaux effectués démontrent que, parmi les sources d’énergies renouvelables de la Turquie, le pouvoir hydraulique et le potentiel d’énergie éolienne sont les plus importants et que chacune de ces deux sources ont des potentiels techniques pour la production de l’électricité. La multiplication des centrales éoliennes au cours de ces dernières années est à relier à des facteurs comme la préparation de l’Atlas d’Energie Eolienne Turc, la disposition des lois afin d’aider les entrepreneurs du secteur privé et l’augmentation des prix du pétrole. Les centrales éoliennes fonctionneront dans la région de Marmara, la région d’Egée et dans la partie de méditerranée orientale de la Turquie où se manifestent plus souvent les vents violents. Il est probable que quelques autres centrales seront construites dans d'autres régions que celles citées précédemment.Covering its energy requirement from fossil energy sources for the most part, Turkey relies on outside sources to procure energy required for its economy and different sectors. Similarly, Turkey had produced 83 pct of the overall electricity in 2008 out of fossil energy sources. Future projectors indicate that the energy requirement of our country would augment and foreign-dependency in energy would thus increase accordingly.  The on-going studies state that especially hydraulic power and wind

  4. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. Sporadic tularemia cases have been increasingly reported particularly from provinces located at northwest and central regions of Turkey especially during last two decades, as well as waterborne outbreaks reported from almost all regions. Transmission most often occurs through consumption of contaminated water and food, thus, oropharyngeal form is the most common clinical presentation in our country. The aim of this study was to present a small outbreak experience in Afsin, country of Kahramanmaras province located at southern part of Turkey. A total of 10 patients (5 male, 5 female; age range 2-68 years; mean age 25 years) who were admitted to Afsin State Hospital with the complaints of swollen neck between 21 October 2013-22 January 2014, were evaluated considering their clinical findings and treatment outcomes. Following the diagnosis of the first tularemia case coming from Nadir village, a field investigation was performed. All villagers were informed about the disease and water samples from the possible sources of outbreak were collected by provincial health authorities. Lymph node aspirate and serum samples were sent for culture and serologic investigation and the environmental water samples were sent for molecular analysis to the National Tularemia Reference Laboratory at Public Health Institution of Turkey. Six out of 10 patients' sera were found positive in terms of F.tularensis antibodies between the titers of 1/320-1/1280 by microagglutination test (MAT) and diagnosis of oropharyngeal tularemia was based on the clinical and serological findings. One of the patients also presented with oculoglandular form accompanying oropharyngeal form. Cultures from aspirate samples that could be obtained from only two patients yielded negative results. Three out of six patients' lymph nodes were drained surgically and one was drained by ultrasound-guided needle. In one case lymph node suppuration occured

  5. A Re-Run in Turkey: A Coup in the Near Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foust, Shawn J

    2007-01-01

    ... of coup activity in the near future, as has been seen in Turkey's history. Turkey has a proven status of importance to the United States by virtue of its strategic location, democratic pursuits, cultural status, and economic potential...

  6. Defense Expenditure and Economic Growth: Empirical Study on Case of Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tekeoglu, Ertugrul

    2008-01-01

    .... Since Turkey has one of the largest defense budgets within the Middle East and also NATO, this question has important implications for Turkey's future economic well-being and political stability...

  7. Every Now And Then: Journalists and Twitter Use in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Akdenizli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on Lasorsa, Lewis & Holton’s (2012 work, and on a studyby the Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (PEW Journalism, HowMainstream Media Outlets Use Twitter (2012; and focuses on how journalists in Turkey behave on Twitter. It aims to explore what kind of information Turkish journalists share online and how they share it, if and how they engage with fellow users; and how their overall Twitter practice influences, and in some cases, redefines their role as professional journalists. To answer these research questions a list of the 20 most-read Turkish journalists and their 1715 tweets between March 5, 2012 and March 19, 2012 were analyzed. The study revealed that the journalists observed varied widely in how frequently they posted, and on what topics they posted. Data showed that journalists in some cases used the retweet function to share information mainstream media was perhaps not able to cover live or with people on site. In terms of retweeting there was a fair share of selfpromotion going on in terms of publicizing one’s own story and also other stories from the journalist’s news organization. Journalists also answered specific questions about their work or were asked to elaborate on certain matters. There was also a fair share of satire and lighthearted commentary on popular culture, food, travel and aging. This study representsa first-of-a-kind content analysis of Twitter use by journalists in Turkey. As Twitter becomes more mainstream its use patterns are likely to evolve as well, yet at this point the study suggests that, generally speaking, Twitter use by journalists for reporting purposes is in its infancy in 2012. The study provides a snapshot of a certain period and can serve as a benchmark for further studies of Twitter use among journalists in Turkey. Cette étude s’appuie sur le travail de Lasorsa, Lewis & Holton (2012 et sur une étude du Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (PEW Journalism

  8. Bringing EU-Turkey trade and investment relations up to date?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala; Sübidey, Togan

    2016-01-01

    The case is made that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, the objecti...

  9. neXtA5: accelerating annotation of articles via automated approaches in neXtProt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottin, Luc; Gobeill, Julien; Pasche, Emilie; Michel, Pierre-André; Cusin, Isabelle; Gaudet, Pascale; Ruch, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of published articles poses a challenge for curated databases to remain up-to-date. To help the scientific community and database curators deal with this issue, we have developed an application, neXtA5, which prioritizes the literature for specific curation requirements. Our system, neXtA5, is a curation service composed of three main elements. The first component is a named-entity recognition module, which annotates MEDLINE over some predefined axes. This report focuses on three axes: Diseases, the Molecular Function and Biological Process sub-ontologies of the Gene Ontology (GO). The automatic annotations are then stored in a local database, BioMed, for each annotation axis. Additional entities such as species and chemical compounds are also identified. The second component is an existing search engine, which retrieves the most relevant MEDLINE records for any given query. The third component uses the content of BioMed to generate an axis-specific ranking, which takes into account the density of named-entities as stored in the Biomed database. The two ranked lists are ultimately merged using a linear combination, which has been specifically tuned to support the annotation of each axis. The fine-tuning of the coefficients is formally reported for each axis-driven search. Compared with PubMed, which is the system used by most curators, the improvement is the following: +231% for Diseases, +236% for Molecular Functions and +3153% for Biological Process when measuring the precision of the top-returned PMID (P0 or mean reciprocal rank). The current search methods significantly improve the search effectiveness of curators for three important curation axes. Further experiments are being performed to extend the curation types, in particular protein-protein interactions, which require specific relationship extraction capabilities. In parallel, user-friendly interfaces powered with a set of JSON web services are currently being

  10. Discrete choice modeling of season choice for Minnesota turkey hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Merchant, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Recreational turkey hunting exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of modern wildlife management. Turkey populations in Minnesota have reached social or biological carrying capacities in many areas, and changes to turkey hunting regulations have been proposed by stakeholders and wildlife managers. This study employed discrete stated choice modeling to enhance understanding of turkey hunter preferences about regulatory alternatives. We distributed mail surveys to 2,500 resident turkey hunters. Results suggest that, compared to season structure and lotteries, additional permits and level of potential interference from other hunters most influenced hunter preferences for regulatory alternatives. Low hunter interference was preferred to moderate or high interference. A second permit issued only to unsuccessful hunters was preferred to no second permit or permits for all hunters. Results suggest that utility is not strictly defined by harvest or an individual's material gain but can involve preference for other outcomes that on the surface do not materially benefit an individual. Discrete stated choice modeling offers wildlife managers an effective way to assess constituent preferences related to new regulations before implementing them. 

  11. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  12. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  13. Some forest trees for honeydew honey production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ünal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Honey is an important source of nutrients and energy and an effective remedy against various human diseases. Honeydew honey is produced from honeydew of phloem-feeders that honeybees gather. In this study, we focused on honeydew producers and diversity of host tree species which are involved in honeydew production in Turkey. A total of 24 honeydew producers by host tree species are identified in Turkey. Of these, 13 coniferous trees and 11 deciduous trees. The main honeydew producer in Turkey is a scale insect, Marchalina hellenica Gennadius (Hemiptera: Margarodidae living mainly on pines (Turkish red pine, Aleppo pine, and rarely on stone pine, Anatolian black pine and Scots pine. Honeydew producer insects can be treated as serious pests of conifer and broadleaf trees. The aphids and the scale insects such as Ceroplastes floridensis, Cinara cedri, C. laportei, Eulachnus rileyi, Icerya purchase, Kermes vermilio, Lichtensia viburni and Saissetia oleae are known as pests in several European, Asian and African countries. Despite their potential harm to their host plants, insect species producing honeydew play an important role in honey production in Turkey. Turkish honey production is exported to EU countries and, furthermore beekeeping is an important part of agricultural sector in Turkey.

  14. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 501-514

  15. Health Manpower Planning and Employment Policies for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kilic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health manpower planning in health care should be done strategically while considering the following factors: health care needs and demands for community, health care organizations' objectives, goals and resources, goal of a high quality health workforce of sufficient size which has been appropriately distributed, their full employment realized within the appropriate time frame. A good health manpower planning consists of eight components: quantity (size, quality (skill, distribution, timing, employment, necessity, goals and resources. According to the calculations in this article, it must be 1515 people per general practitioner (GP and 1333 people per midwife. There must be 44.755 GP and 50.866 midwife for primary level in Turkey. However there are 51.530 GP and 41.513 midwife in Turkey in 2002. In this situation there is no more need for GP but there is a big need for 10.000 midwife as totally and actually 30.000 midwife for working at health centres for Turkey. As a result, this article discusses the shortcomings of Health Ministry's employment policies in Turkey. It is suggested that in the short run concepts such as physician unemployment, under-employment and flexible work hours will become frequently discussed in Turkey health care public discourse. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 501-514

  16. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  17. 78 FR 60831 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-819] Steel Concrete Reinforcing... concrete reinforcing bar (``rebar'') from the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper form on... of Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from the Republic of Turkey, dated September 4, 2013. \\2...

  18. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ..., the Republic of the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, the Republic of Turkey, Ukraine, and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-817] Certain Oil Country Tubular... provided to producers and exporters of certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey...

  19. Turkey's Progress toward Meeting Refugee Education Needs the Example of Syrian Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltekin, Nurettin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Historically, Turkey is an immigrant country. It has experienced various migration waves from Asia, Awrupa and Africa. Recently, Turkey has confronted a huge wave of migration. Turkey tries to meet many needs besides the educational needs of refugees, but there is not enough study on refugees in the field of educational sciences…

  20. Teaching Human Rights in Turkey: Commentaries on a Single Lesson from Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Alper; Schur, Joan Brodsky; Gürsoy, Kudret

    2014-01-01

    This group of commentaries on teaching human rights in Turkey includes: (1) Reflection on Turkish Human Rights Lesson from Turkey (Alper Kesten)--A lesson on human rights in Turkey is analyzed for its representativity and methodology within the Turkish teaching culture from the viewpoint of a Turkish researcher; (2) Commentary on a Turkish Lesson…

  1. Heat stress and diet utilization in male turkeys : the role of dietary energy and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: turkeys, heat stress, energy, amino acids.

    The commercial turkey industry has changed during the last two or three decades from one that marketed predominantly fresh whole dressed turkeys to one that now markets a large variety of mostly further processed

  2. 77 FR 69792 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review; 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey... review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey for the period January 1, 2010... subject merchandise during the period of review. See Certain Pasta From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  3. Progressive Education in Turkey: Reports of John Dewey and His Successors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    John Dewey, the well-known figure in progressive education, visited Turkey in 1924. Through his visit, Turkey was introduced to progressive education. Although his visit was short, the reports he prepared influenced the shape of the Turkish education system. After Dewey's visit, many foreign educators were invited to Turkey, particularly through…

  4. Selected Research in Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching in Turkey: 2010-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinli, Julie; Ortaçtepe, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    In this state-of-the-art review, we aim to build on Alptekin & Tatar's (2011) article covering research conducted in Turkey between 2005 and 2009, and survey published research in 31 Turkey-based journals between 2010 and 2016. As the second review paper on Turkey's English language teaching (ELT) agenda, our goal is twofold: first, to…

  5. Empirical evidence for gender differences in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CELIK Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitude surveys classified as leading economic indicators aim at extracting information from respondents regarding their perceptions of economic outlook. A typical consumer confidence index includes questions designed to measure the changes in the past-current and current-future pairs of economic outlook perceptions of the participants as well as a question that examines the consumer’s view on the current stage of economic activity. These surveys use equal amount of male and female participants. This paper checks the existence of perceptional difference of genders using CNBC-e consumer confidence index for Turkey. First, we calculate monthly consumer confidence indices for men and women for January 2003 – March 2011. Then, employing this data set, we use the recently developed frequency domain analysis of Breitung and Candelon (2006 and wavelet comovement analysis of Rua (2010 to assess whether these indices follow similar patterns before and after the recent global crisis in time and frequency domain. Our results show that women consistently diverge from men and seem to be on the pessimistic side-due probably to lower levels of wealth in terms of expectation formation. Moreover, this difference is increasing when purchasing durable goods is considered.

  6. An evaluation of inflation expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Soybilgen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of inflation play a critical role in the process of price setting in the market. Central banks closely follow developments in inflation expectations to implement a successful monetary policy. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT conducts a survey of experts and decision makers in the financial and real sectors to reveal market expectations and predictions of current and future inflation. The survey is conducted every month. This paper examines the accuracy of these survey predictions using forecast evaluation techniques. We focus on both point and sign accuracy of the predictions. Although point predictions from CBRT surveys are compared with those of autoregressive models, sign predictions are evaluated on their value to a user. We also test the predictions for bias. Unlike the empirical evidence from other economies, our results show that autoregressive models outperform most of inflation expectations in forecasting inflation. This indicates that inflation expectations have poor point forecast accuracies. However, we show that sign predictions for all inflation expectations have value to a user.

  7. Estimating light-vehicle sales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Demiroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the surprising rapid growth of new light-vehicle sales in Turkey in 2015. Domestic sales grew 25%, dramatically surpassing the industry estimates of around 8%. Our approach is to inform the sales trend estimate with the information obtained from the light-vehicle stock (the number of cars and light trucks officially registered in the country, and the scrappage data. More specifically, we improve the sales trend estimate by estimating the trend of its stock. Using household data, we show that an important reason for the rapid sales growth is that an increasing share of household budgets is spent on automobile purchases. The elasticity of light-vehicle sales to cyclical changes in aggregate demand is high and robust; its estimates are around 6 with a standard deviation of about 0.5. The price elasticity of light-vehicle sales is estimated to be about 0.8, but the estimates are imprecise and not robust. We estimate the trend level of light-vehicle sales to be roughly 7 percent of the existing stock. A remarkable out-of-sample forecast performance is obtained for horizons up to nearly a decade by a regression equation using only a cyclical gap measure, the time trend and obvious policy dummies. Various specifications suggest that the strong 2015 growth of light-vehicle sales was predictable in late 2014.

  8. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  9. Art of Wrought Copper in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran KAYABAŞI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the handicraft, art of being a coppersmith has been occurred intensively in the past. The fast developing socio - economic structure diminished the value and the place of the copper vessels. Heavy and beautiful vessels made by beating left their places to thin, light aluminum, pl astic, glass and steel vessels made by machinery. The demand for copper is diminished. Therefore being a coppersmith has become less and less important every day. However, in the last few years, copper vessels becoming a touristic souvenir became a source of hope for the traditional coppersmith art to live on. Copperworking is applied in our country in some regions and there are people who live off it. Souvenirs, daily used vessels, and requirements of the rural areas are produced in centers such as İstanb ul, Ankara, Tokat, Çorum, Erzincan, Diyarbakır, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep, Bursa, Kastamonu, Çankırı, Giresun and Trabzon. The situation of being a coppersmith in Turkey is explained, examples are given from souvenir copper items produced in Ankara, and sug gestions are made to keep this craft alive.

  10. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  11. Mobbing Exposure of Anaesthesiology Residents in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut, Gülnihal; Efe, Esra Mercanoğlu; Bayraktar, Selcan; Şentürk, Sinem; Başeğmez, İrem; Özkumit, Özlem; Kabak, Elmas; Yavaşçaoğlu, Belgin; Bilgin, Hülya

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, psychological problems that are caused by working conditions, like burn out syndrome, are more commonly observed. In our study, we aimed to evaluate mobbing exposure, factors causing mobbing and precautions for mobbing in residency students who are educated in anaesthesiology and reanimation clinics in Turkey. After obtaining consent from the ethics committee, we sent our questionnaires to the secretariats of the departments by postal mail. Completed questionnaires were collected in our department's secretariat blindly and randomly mixed. One hundred and one participants were returned the questionnaires. Data was statistically analysed in SPSS 21.0 software programme. During residency programme, sated to have experienced mobbing one or more time. Interestingly, 5.9% participants complained of physical mobbing. Mobbing exposure was more common in females. The most serious new onset psychosomatic symptoms stated during residency were committing suicide (2%), addiction (16%), severe depression (18%), panic attack (8%), more accidents (7%) and tendency of violence (15%). In mobbing group there was statistically significant dissatisfaction rate. In professions where mobbing is common, incidences of psychiatric diseases and suicide attempts are high are increased. Who are under risk for experiencing mobbing should be noticed carefully to ensure good judgement and problems should be inspected objectively in a detailed manner. Anesthesiology societies and other medical professional societies should establish mobbing committees. Thus, mobbing problems can be resolved and healthy career oppurtunities can be presented to residents.

  12. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM LANDFILL GAS IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2018-05-08

    Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy plants in Turkey were investigated, and the LFG-to-energy plant of a metropolitan municipal landfill was monitored for 3 years. Installed capacities and actual gas engine working hours were determined. An equation was developed to estimate the power capacity for LFG-to-energy plants for a given amount of landfilled waste. Monitoring the actual gas generation rates enabled determination of LFG generation factors for Turkish municipal waste. A significant relationship (R = 0.524, p kitchen waste generation behaviors influenced by the ambient temperature. However, no significant correlation was found between the ambient temperature and the generated LFG. A temperature buffering capacity was inferred to exist within the landfill, which enables the anaerobic reactions to continue functioning even during cold seasons. The average LFG and energy generation rates were 45 m 3 LFG/ton waste landfilled and 0.08 MWh/ton waste landfilled, respectively. The mean specific LFG consumption for electricity generation was 529 ± 28 m 3 /MWh.

  13. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit HELVACI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The geometry, stratigraphy, tectonics and volcanic components of the borate bearing Neogene basins in western Anatolia offer some important insights into on the relationship between basin evolution, borate formation and mode of extension in western Anatolia. Some of the borate deposits in NE-SW trending basins developed along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ (e.g. Bigadiç, Sultançayır and Kestelek basins, and other deposits in the NE-SW trending basins which occur on the northern side of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC are the Selendi and Emet basins. The Kırka borate deposit occurs further to the east and is located in a completely different geological setting and volcanostratigraphic succession. Boron is widely distributed; including in soil and water, plants and animals. The element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, but rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Approximately 280 boron-bearing minerals have been identified, the most common being sodium, calcium and magnesium salts. Four main continental metallogenic borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey, California (USA, Central Andes (South America and Tibet (Central Asia. The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey, USA and Argentina. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Datolite and szaibelyite are confined to Russia and Chinese sources. Four Main borax (tincal deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka, California (Boron, and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca. Kırka, Boron and Loma Blanca have similarities with regard to their chemical and mineralogical composition of the borate minerals. Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and

  14. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterheld, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Khakhalin, S.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Faenov, A.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.

    1996-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l4l`, 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l` and 2s2p{sup 6}3l4l` levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`3l{sup ``} and 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l`3l{sup ``} levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.).

  15. Neutron spectrometry with the NE-213 organic scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.A. da.

    1980-12-01

    A neutron spectrometer with the NE-213 organic scintillator detector (5,08cm x 5,08cm) was mounted, tested, and calibrated at the Argonaut Reactor Laboratory of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, to measure and study spectra of available fast neutron sources. The time zero-crossover technique was employed to discriminate the pulse of neutrons and gammas. The neutron spectrum from a 241 Am-Be source was determined experimentally in the range 1,0 MeV to 12,0 MeV and good agreement with other researchers was obtained. (Author) [pt

  16. Testing quantum mechanics at Da{phi}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Domenica, A. [Rome Univ. 2 (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-12-31

    After a brief introduction to EPR-paradox and Bell`s inequality, it is shown that a Bell-like inequality can be formulated for the neutral kaon system at a {Phi}-factory using the Pauli spin formalism, in our case called K-spin, and taking into account CP violation. Experimental methods to reveal tiny violations of this inequality by quantum mechanics are discussed. The statistical accuracy achievable at DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-factory, seems adequate to successfully perform such a test. (author) 13 refs.

  17. Testing quantum mechanics at DaφNe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenica, A.

    1997-01-01

    After a brief introduction to EPR-paradox and Bell's inequality, it is shown that a Bell-like inequality can be formulated for the neutral kaon system at a Φ-factory using the Pauli spin formalism, in our case called K-spin, and taking into account CP violation. Experimental methods to reveal tiny violations of this inequality by quantum mechanics are discussed. The statistical accuracy achievable at DAΦNE, the Frascati Φ-factory, seems adequate to successfully perform such a test. (author)

  18. PLESNA VZGOJA IN RAZLIČNE GLASBENE ZVRSTI

    OpenAIRE

    Trstenjak, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Namen diplomskega dela Plesna vzgoja in različne glasbene zvrsti je s pomočjo teoretičnih izhodišč, ob opazovanju plesnega izražanja otrok, ugotoviti vpliv posamezne glasbene zvrsti na otroka pri plesni vzgoji. Diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz dveh delov, teoretičnega in empiričnega. V teoretičnem delu smo predstavili teorijo plesne vzgoje v predšolskem obdobju, kjer smo podrobneje opisali sam pomen in vpliv plesne vzgoje na predšolskega otroka, vsebine, cilje in načela ter metode plesne vzgo...

  19. Installation and alignment of the DAΦNE accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, C.; Sgamma, F.

    1998-01-01

    Installation, alignment and survey of the magnetic elements and vacuum chambers of DAΦNE are described. The networks of the Damping Ring and two Main Rings are described, focusing the techniques chosen to obtain the required precision. A description of the mechanical measurements, coupled to the magnetic ones, to refer the magnetic axis of quadrupoles and sextupoles to their fiducial is underlined: emPHIasis is put on the strategy to couple precision with quickness. The results of first PHIase alignment job and its refinement are analyzed using the orbit measurement

  20. [p,q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J P

    1995-05-22

    In this short note, it is argued that [p, q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}, contrary to the oiginal claims of Born and Jordan, and Dirac. Rather, [p, q] is equal to something that is infinitesimally different from i{Dirac_h}. While this difference is usually harmless, it does provide the solution of the Born-Jordan `trace paradox` of [p, q]. More recently, subtleties of a very similar form have been found to be of fundamental importance in quantum field theory. 3 refs.

  1. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  2. A transportable methane stabilized He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Yoshiaki

    1987-06-01

    The performance of a transportable methane stabilized He-Ne laser system, developed for a wavelength-optical frequency standard according to the 1983 Comite Consultatif pour la Definition du Metier, is discussed. An offset-locked laser system using a phase comparison technique is described which is used to evaluate the stabilized laser system. A frequency stability of 2.5 x 10 to the -12th tau exp -1/2, and a resettability of 1 x 10 to the -11th, are estimated for the stabilized laser system.

  3. Accurate Ne-heavier rare gas interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candori, R.; Pirani, F.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    1983-01-01

    Accurate interatomic potential curves for Ne-heavier rare gas systems are obtained by a multiproperty analysis. The curves are given via a parametric function which consists of a modified Dunham expansion connected at long range with the van der Waals expansion. The experimental properties considered in the analysis are the differential scattering cross sections at two different collision energies, the integral cross sections in the glory energy range and the second virial coefficients. The transport properties are considered indirectly by using the potential energy values recently obtained by inversion of the transport coefficients. (author)

  4. European Energy Law Seminar 2005. Report of NeVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom, A.R.; Boumans, L.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the lectures and presentations at the title seminar, which was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 30-31 May 2005. The seminar was organized by the Dutch Association for Energy Law (NeVER), the Scandinavian Institute for Maritime Law of the University of Oslo, and the Groningen University. The subjects presented concerned recent developments with regard to the internal (European) energy market, LNG, developments in the North Sea area, supply security and quality in a competitive market, reorganization of the European market for natural gas in the light of the liberalization process and privatization of the energy sector [nl

  5. Mass distribution in 20Ne+232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Mass distribution was measured in 20 Ne+ 232 Th reaction at E lab =145 MeV using recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Significant contribution from transfer fission was observed in the yield of comparatively neutron rich fission products. The variance of mass distribution for complete fusion fission, obtained by excluding neutron rich fission products, was observed to be consistent with the values reported in literature for similar reaction systems which showed a deviation from the systematics obtained using random neck rupture and liquid drop model. (author)

  6. Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported

  7. Mise en scène ja kertova lavastus

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tutkii mise en scèneä ja lavastuksen kerronnallista vaikutusta elokuvassa. Työ on toteutettu toiminnallisena ja koostuu kirjallisesta osasta ja teososasta. Teososa on vuonna 2012 ensi-iltansa saanut fiktiivinen lyhytelokuva Varjelus. Toimin elokuvassa lavastajana ja rekvisitöörinä. Kirjallinen osuus alkaa käsittelemällä mise en scènen, eli ’näyttämöllepanon’ määritelmää ja sen syntyä elokuvalliseksi konseptiksi. Työ etenee esittelemään ja tarkastelemaan käsitteen eri vis...

  8. Recent results from KLOE at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report in the following, latest results from the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. KLOE has collected 2.5 fb -1 of e + e - collisions at center of mass energy around the φ mass. We are completing the analyses of the 2001–2002 data sample of 450 pb -1 and we present selected results based on the complete data sample. KLOE results could be divided into two categories kaonic and hadronic physics. We present last results on both topics describing the impact of the KLOE physics. (author)

  9. Syrian Refugees, Health and Migration Legislation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2017-12-01

    This paper discusses the crucial effects of Turkish health and migration laws on Syrian refugees' access to public health services and social determinants of health. Key aspects of current Turkish laws affect the health of both refugees and Turkish citizens in many ways. The huge influx of refugees is increasing communicable disease risks, overcrowding hospitals, and more generally straining financial and health resources. Turkey's United Nations membership and its candidacy for European Union (EU) have led to increased alignment of Turkey's refugee and migration policies with international law. Major differences remain, however, and Turkey's remaining noncompliance with international refugee laws is a major force driving Syrian refugee's flight to EU countries, as refugees desperately seek the right to better health and social services.

  10. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  11. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Birol, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Turkey, the national competent authority for regulating activities involving radioactive sources is the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, which implements the responsibility for the safety and security of radiation sources through its Radiation Health and Safety Department. The report describes the organization of the regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Turkey and, after a brief explanation of the current legal framework for such purpose, it refers to how the management of radiation sources is carried out and to the new provisions regarding radiation sources, including inspections of licensees and training on source safety. Finally, the report provides information on the Ikitelli radiological accident in Turkey and the current public concern about radiation sources after it happened. (author)

  12. Avian chlamydiosis in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šatrović E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis is a contagious disease of birds, mammals, reptiles and humans. So far it was demonstrated in 469 species of birds and among them, turkeys are the most susceptible domestic poultry species. The disease appears in epizootic form in intensive turkey farming. Since commercial poultry rearing is under-developed in Bosnia and Herzegovina, our investigation was based on extensively reared turkeys. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 26 birds and infection was proven by common chlamydial LPS antigen detection tests (IDEIA and CW. We have used rRT-PCR technique targeting chlamydial ompA gene region in order to prove Chlamydia species. Five birds, (19.2% were found positive as judged by IDEIA and CW tests. Among them one was positive Cp. psittaci speciesspecific rRT-PCR, ompA gene.

  13. Views on Turkey's impending ESCO market: Is it promising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okay, Esin; Okay, Nesrin; Konukman, Alp Er S.; Akman, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    Turkey's Energy Efficiency Law (EEL) came into force in May 2007. The EEL will transform energy policies implemented in the government and private sectors. The law and upcoming regulations will offer opportunities for the impending Energy Service Company (ESCO) market in Turkey. In this work, we briefly review the ESCO literature and its financing mechanisms in the world, and present our views with regard to the funding and related risks that are likely to be associated with the forthcoming Turkish ESCO market. These views are backed up with Turkish credit and banking market performance and the lessons learned from implementation of some EU-related projects involving the banking sector and small-and-medium-sized firms. We conclude that in order to create a promising competitive ESCO market, Turkey's policy must be to sustain its average 5% growth rate achieved lately for the coming decade, finish the structural reforms which will invite necessary capital inflows to ensure an economic stability and financing

  14. mobile nuclear energy power plants for Turkey and III. world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezden, H.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that if there is no alternative energy source, there will be increase in building nuclear energy power plants. This source of energy and know how along with technology must be put into the possession of Turkey. Since almost all of Turkey is 1 st degree earthquake region and in view of the regional political instability, the requirement of ample amount of water for prolonged times, the density of settlement, environmental problems, high cost of building nuclear energy power plants it becomes necessary to think about their application techniques. In this study, mobile nuclear energy power plants having a wide area of use in conditions prevailing in Turkey , their draft drawings for making them by using metal/steel are shown. The positive-negative aspects of the topic is presented for discussions

  15. Social and legal dimensions discussion of conscientious refusal in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz ANBARLI BOZATAY

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the discussion of conscientious objection, the refusal of military service due to individual’s moral values or religious beliefs, is new in Turkey, the subject has become the focus of intense interest. The discussion of conscientious objection in Turkey has come the to the fore with the heated debates between the glorification of the dynamics of Turkish social structure towards military service and the critique of militarism and conscientious objection’s legal dimensions, as well. Since the reduction of discussions in this context in Turkey to the legal dimension is the ignorance of social reality constituting basis to the legal dimension, the subject is examined with reference to the social and historical outlook on this issue and the study is built on dimensions.

  16. A Pelagic Paleocene Seouence in the Biga Peninsula Northwest Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burak YIKILMAZ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of pelagic limestone, calciturbidite, debris flow, greywacke, basalt and limestone blocks. up to several hundred metres across, occur west of the town of Biga in northwest Turkey. The pelagic limestones in this sequence, named as the Ballıkaya formation, comprise pelagic foraminifera of Palaeocene age. Neritic limestone of Mid-Eocene age lies unconformably over the Ballıkaya formation. The age and the sedimentary environment of the Ballıkaya formation indicate the presence of a tectonically active deep-sea environment in northwest Turkey during the Palaeocene, and constrain the main Alpide deformation in northwest Turkey to the Late Palaeocene - Early Eocene interval.

  17. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  18. The emergence of think tanks and mediator intellectuals in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fındıklı, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Tezin basılısı İstanbul Şehir Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'ndedir. This study examines the rise and development of think tanks in Turkey over the past five decades from a field-analytical perspective. In spite of the rapid growth and increasing effects of think tanks, few case studies have been conducted on the historical and current influences of these institutions in Turkey. Based on fourteen in-depth interviews with staff members of various think tanks, first hand observations, secondary re...

  19. Open Access in Turkey and Comparison with Other Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Karasözen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of open access journals and institutional repositories, as a product of open access movement has grown rapidly in recent years. Open access research articles remove the barriers in accessing scientific research results and accelerate the communication among the scientist worldwide. In many countries the number of institutional archives and open access journal are increasing. In this article, the recent developments in open access journals, institutional repositories and open courseware in Turkey are summarized and compared with some countries. A sample mandatory institutional repository policy document is given with some suggestion for establishing open access in Turkey.

  20. The gender wage GAP ın Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2017-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages. Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. We concentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Although women earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entire wage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distr...

  1. Geothermal district heating in Turkey: The Gonen case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Zuhal; Aslan, Asiye

    2007-01-01

    The status of geothermal district heating in Turkey and its future prospects are reviewed. A description is given of the Gonen project in Balikesir province, the first system to begin citywide operation in the country. The geology and geothermal resources of the area, the history of the project's development, the problems encountered, its economic aspects and environmental contributions are all discussed. The results of this and other such systems installed in Turkey have confirmed that, in this country, heating an entire city based on geothermal energy is a significantly cleaner, cheaper option than using fossil fuels or other renewable energy resources. (author)

  2. A case of biliary Fascioliasis by Fasciola gigantica in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Vedat; Senturk, Senem; Mete, Omer; Cicek, Mutallib; Ebik, Berat; Kaya, Beşir

    2011-03-01

    A case of Fasciola gigantica-induced biliary obstruction and cholestasis is reported in Turkey. The patient was a 37- year-old woman, and suffered from icterus, ascites, and pain in her right upper abdominal region. A total of 7 living adult flukes were recovered during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A single dose of triclabendazole was administered to treat possible remaining worms. She was living in a village of southeast of Anatolia region and had sheeps and cows. She had the history of eating lettuce, mallow, dill, and parsley without washing. This is the first case of fascioliasis which was treated via endoscopic biliary extraction during ERCP in Turkey.

  3. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  4. A Model of Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Aytac

    2008-01-01

    The literature on the exchange-rate-based stabilization has focused almost exclusively in Latin America. Many other countries however, such as Egypt, Lebanon and Turkey; have undertaken this sort of programs in the last 10-15 years. I depart from the existing literature by developing a model specifically for the 2000-2001 heterodox exchange-rate-based stabilization program in Turkey: When the government lowers the rate of crawl, the rate of domestic credit creation is set equal to the lower r...

  5. Political Globalization and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Doğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of political globalization on foreign direct investment inflows to Turkey. Existence of foreign missions in a country, membership in international organizations, participation in U.N. Security Council Missions, and International Treaties are all seen as indicators political globalization. Using different econometric techniques, this study aims to find out whether any empirical relationship between political globalization and FDI exists. The analysis in this article covers the period in Turkey between 1970-2012. The results of cointegration analysis provide no an evidence of a long-run or short run any relationship political globalization and FDI.

  6. Health and social inequities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, N

    1990-01-01

    Social and economic policies of governments directly influence the health of the people. These policies, in turn, are determined by the national and foreign controllers of power. Economic and social factors in Turkey during the late 1970s led to a new modelling of the economic system, from a Keynesian to a market-oriented and monetarist model. The state mechanism was also altered to form a centralized, authoritarian regime in order to enforce the requirements of the economy. As a result, the middle class diminished in size, inequalities in income distribution increased, unemployment climbed, the purchasing power of wage earners decreased, government spending for education and health was cut and new oppressive laws were enacted. Health services were already urban-biased and hospital-oriented, but new free-market measures were instituted which promoted private health institutions and attempted to transform state-owned and financed hospitals into self-supporting, independent business enterprises. The only school of public health was closed down; preventive medicine expenditures were lowered while hospital rates and drug prices were increased. All these changes affected the health status of the population. Mortality and morbidity inequalities had already existed between the rich and the poor, men and women, urban and rural settlements, educated and illiterate, West and East, always in favour of the former. However, the new policies exacerbated the inequities. Infectious diseases including tuberculosis increased, nutrition worsened, occupational diseases and work accidents rose to be the highest in Europe. The power-holding minority is not interested in the health of populations and is committed to pursue its social and economic policies. Ad hoc research, especially cross-sectional mortality studies repeated at regular intervals can provide data on the most vulnerable groups as no other valid information exists. There is little hope of these data being used for

  7. Neoosmanism: Turkey between yesterday and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galijašević Dževad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geostrategic integrity of the Balkans and the Danube region and the strategic ambitions of powerful countries that were inherited from previous centuries define the start points of European streams in XX century. German 'drang nach osten', Russian spread to south and an ambition of primate in struggle for the Turkish heredity, Turkish strivings to bring its Empire out of death with reforms, and remain right-sided to Sava-Danube river basin, preserving it as its natural border, and the strivings of Balkan peoples for liberation, shaped geopolitical, strategic and state-legal traits of the phenomenon called 'Eastern question'. The conquests form south east towards north and northwest and vice versa pointed that geostrategic traits of Balkans were not separation and geographic in-connectivity, but connection and permeation, which open strategic ways to domination over the Eurasian knot and warm seas of Mediterranean and Middle East. The fact that Balkans aren't the only connection between Europe and Asia does not lessen their geostrategic and geopolitical importance. On the contrary. This question, that was an eastern one for powerful countries, and one of a life importance for the people of southeast Europe, goes back into deep past. It was formed and a geostrategic position of a whole area that it related to by conflicted interest of people, religions and whole civilizations that faced each others there. However, if looking for a more narrow historical sense of the term Eastern question, we will find it in a collision of Europe and Islamic world, which was brought by Turkish penetration into Europe. During the rise of the Ottoman Empire, it was a matter of survival of European countries that were struck by Ottoman conquest, and after the decline of the Ottoman power it turned into a struggle for Turkish heredity. Today, the Struggle form Ottoman heredity strongly includes Turkey as well. Turkish engagement in a struggle for its own historical

  8. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U; Damla, N; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using γ-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and a fission product 137 Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg -1 for 40 K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l -1 , respectively. The concentrations of gross α and β radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross α and β activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l -1 and 1.0 Bq l -1 gross α and β radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m -3 and the average value was 56 Bq m -3 . The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  9. The Approach to Bioterrorism Incidents in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenar, L.; Karayilanoglu, T.; Ortatatli, M

    2007-01-01

    Achieving an adequate level of planning and preparedness for terrorist events involving unconventional weapons, such as the intentional release of nuclear, radiological, biological, and/or chemical agents is a great challenge for Turkey. However, since bioterror agents possess different properties than other conventional attacks like the need for decontamination and the need for personal protective equipment, etc., special plannings should be made where various governmental organizations should be involved. First response against a bioterror attack is commonly given by local or regional organizations. Some of the following reactions include quick notification of authorities, establishment of a local crisis management center, information to public, medical management and decontamination, quarantine measures, evacuation to hospitals for suspected cases, forensic measures, social aids to victims Laboratory management is essential for bioterror attacks, so that the treatment or prophylaxis of injured cases with the organism can be performed properly. Therefore, an accredited reference laboratory should be set up for final diagnosis. Although much progress has been made in this regards, much work remains be to done in terms of ensuring adequate level via bioterror drills, adequate hospital-based decontamination unit and negative pressure isolation bed capacities, and adequate hospital-based stockpiles of personal protective equipment, drugs, vaccines and ventilators. From this point of view, potential organizations which are supposed to be assigned in this event must have task-oriented official departments and the roles should be outlined in detailed. Within this connection, a scenario simulating a bioterrorist attack and describing the response and coordination developed is schematised. (author)

  10. UNMET NEED IN TURKEY: HOME CARE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket SUBASI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Home care services can be provided as an alternative to institutional care to people, in case of their demand, who need care because of aging and chronic diseases. Structured home care service in health system does not exist in Turkey. Relatives try to provide care at home to those people. In this cross-sectional study, household was selected as a sampling unit, determining prevalence of home care at the households and gathering some information about home care in Cankaya district of Ankara was intended. It was found that in one-month period before this study was carried out, home care services were provided at 8.7% of the households in Cankaya district. 62.5% of people who received home care service were women, 15.3% of them were belonging to 65-74 age group; 31.7% of those were illiterate and 12.5% had no social and health insurance. Among people, 15.4% were receiving home care after surgical operation, 15.4% were receiving care because of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases and 9.6% were cancer patients. 81.7% of adults who were taken care at home were found to be dependent at different levels while performing daily living activities, the most common treatment method was detected as oral medication (81.4%. These people were in need of preventive, curative and rehabilitative and supportive services. A home care service model, which takes into consideration the social characteristics of the country, should be developed at this district where there is a large elderly population. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 19-31

  11. National Soil Information System in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrah Erdogan, Hakki; Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Yuksel

    2013-04-01

    Land consolidation (LC) represents complexity if management, legal, economic and technical procedures realized in order to adjust the land structure according to actual human preferences and needs. It includes changes in ownership rights to land and other real estate property, exchange of parcels among owners, changes in parcel borders, parcel size and shape, joining and dividing of parcels, changes in land use, construction works as roads, bridges, water changes etc.. Since the subject of LC is agricultural lands, the quality of consolidation depends on the quality of soil data. General Directorate of Agrarian Reform (GDAR) is the responsible institution on land consolidation whole of Turkey. Under GDAR, National Soil Information System (NSIS) has been build up with base soil data in relevant scale (1:5000). NSIS contain detailed information on soil chemical and physical properties, current land use, parent material, land capability class, Storie Index Values. SI were used on land consolidation, land use planning and farm development services. LCC was used for land distribution, rental land; define of village settlement, consolidation, expropriation, reconstruction, reclamation, non-agricultural usage. LCC were also specified to subclasses in four different limited factors as i) flow and erosion risk ii) requirement of drainage and soil moisture iii) Limits of soil tillage and root (shallow soils, low water retention capacity, stony, salty .etc) iv) climatic limits. In this study, digital soil survey and mapping project located in Yumurtalik, Adana is presented as an example of NSIS data structure. The project cover an area of 45709 ha that include crop lands as an area of 28528 ha and other land use (urban, roads..etc) as an area of 17181 ha. Soil profiles were described in 45 different points and totally 1279 soil samples were collected in field study and the check bore hole were made in 3170 points.

  12. Separation of the 1+ /1- parity doublet in 20Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, J.; Stumpf, C.; Scheck, M.; Pietralla, N.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D. M.; Glodariu, T.; Haxton, W.; Idini, A.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Raut, R.; Romig, C.; Roth, R.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wagner, J.; Weller, H. R.; Zamfir, N.-V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-02-01

    The (J , T) = (1 , 1) parity doublet in 20Ne at 11.26 MeV is a good candidate to study parity violation in nuclei. However, its energy splitting is known with insufficient accuracy for quantitative estimates of parity violating effects. To improve on this unsatisfactory situation, nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using linearly and circularly polarized γ-ray beams were used to determine the energy difference of the parity doublet ΔE = E (1-) - E (1+) = - 3.2(± 0.7) stat(-1.2+0.6)sys keV and the ratio of their integrated cross sections Is,0(+) /Is,0(-) = 29(± 3) stat(-7+14)sys. Shell-model calculations predict a parity-violating matrix element having a value in the range 0.46-0.83 eV for the parity doublet. The small energy difference of the parity doublet makes 20Ne an excellent candidate to study parity violation in nuclear excitations.

  13. Beta-delayed particle decay of 17Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, A.C.; Chow, J.C.; King, J.D.; Boyd, R.N.; Bateman, N.P.T.; Buchmann, L.; D'Auria, J.M.; Davinson, T.; Dombsky, M.; Galster, W.; Gete, E.; Giesen, U.; Iliadis, C.; Jackson, K.P.; Powell, J.; Roy, G.; Shotter, A.

    2002-01-01

    The β-delayed particle decay of 17 Ne has been studied via proton-γ coincidences, time-of-flight measurements and the ''ratio-cut technique'', allowing cleanly-separated proton and α-particle spectra to be obtained. A complete set of proton and α branching ratios for the decay of 14 excited states in 17 F to the ground and excited states of 16 O and 13 N has been determined and branching ratios for the β decay of 17 Ne to these states have been deduced. From the branching ratios, f A t values and reduced Gamow-Teller matrix elements were calculated; no indication of isospin mixing in the isobaric analog state in 17 F was observed. From the measurement of proton-γ angular correlations, combined with the selection rules for an allowed β decay, we obtain J π =((1)/(2)) - for states at 8.436 and 9.450 MeV and ((3)/(2)) - for the state at 10.030 MeV in 17 F. Probabilities for the β-delayed pα decay to 12 C through the tails of the subthreshold 7.117 and 6.917 MeV states in 16 O have been calculated and the feasibility of using such decays to provide information about the rates for the E1 and E2 components of the 12 C(α,γ) 16 O reaction is discussed

  14. Response of zircon to electron and Ne+ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Weber, W.J.; Boatner, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) is an actinide host phase in vitreous ceramic nuclear waste forms and a potential host phase for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. In the present work, the effects of 800 and 900 keV electron and 1 MeV Ne + irradiations on the structure of single crystals of ZrSiO 4 have been investigated. The microstructural evolution during the irradiations was studied in situ using a high-voltage electron microscope interfaced to an ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The results indicate that electron irradiation at 15 K cannot amorphize ZrSiO 4 even at fluences an order of magnitude higher than that required for amorphization by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions. However, the material is readily amorphized by 1 MeV Ne + irradiation at 15 K. The temperature dependence of this amorphization is discussed in light of previous studies of radiation damage in ZrSiO 4

  15. Absorbed dose to water comparison between NE 2561 and NE 2671 chambers using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols for gamma ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Noriah Mod Ali; Taiman Kadni

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study to evaluate the performance of NE 2571 chamber in comparison with NE 2561 chamber in determination of the absorbed dose to water in gamma ray beam. In this study NE 2561 is taking as a reference standard chamber while NE 2571 as a working standard. Irradiation of chamber (alternately) was performed at a reference depth, 5 cm, inside the IAEA water phantom. Both chambers were exposed to 13 difference exposures of gamma rays. The values of absorbed dose to water were then determined using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols. Deviations of absorbed dose determined by NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calculated for each protocol. result obtained in terms of [protocol, μ (mean deviation) ± σ s e (standard error)] were (IAEA, 1.12 ± 0.04], [HPA, 0.09 ± 0.04], and [NCP, 0.09 ± 0.04]. It can be concluded that NE 2571 shown acceptable performance as it is within acceptable limit ± 3%. (Author)

  16. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP aastal 2004

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tabelid: Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete TOP 50; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 20. Vt. samas: Viktor Sepp, Merike Lees. Lääne-Virumaal üllatavad uued tegijad

  17. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  18. Overview of Turkey's coal necessity, reserves and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Ahmet Mahmut; Kilic, Ozen

    2006-10-15

    This article deals with overview of Turkey's coal necessity, reserves and utilization. Turkey is rapidly growing in terms of both its economy and its population. In parallel, its demand for energy, particularly for electricity, is increasing. Turkey possesses fossil fuel resources of hard coal (HC) and lignite (LG) have the greatest importance in energy production and for the national economy. The hard coal and lignite reserves of Turkey are 1.126 and 8.375 millions tons(Mt), respectively. Coal, the major fuel source for Turkey utilized mainly for electric power, steel manufacturing and cement production, amounts to 31% of total energy consumption in Turkey. To sum up, providing the total consumption is taken into account in the Middle East, the coal consumption rate of Turkey is approximately 90% of the consumption in this region.

  19. A Study of Milk Support Policies in the European Union and in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Toplu YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of milk support policy in the European Union and in Turkey. Turkey’s adaptation of its milk policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union is on the agenda since Turkey has been a candidate country in 1999. Regarding that the Common Agricultural Policy has been reformed many times, Turkey has to adapt its milk sector to a changing policy. Turkey, on the other hand, pursues different support policy in the milk sector. The producers, who are registered in the Farming Registration System, receive milk incentive premiums. There are no similarities between Turkish milk support policy and European Union’s milk support policy. According to the last progress reports, Turkey has to improve Farming Registration System. Turkey has to adjust milk production process to the European Union standards. Furthermore, in the accession process, Turkey plans to increase consumption and also needs to promote milk and milk products producers’ organizations.

  20. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.