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Sample records for eryngii species-complex isolates

  1. Preliminary studies on productivity of white Pleurotus eryngii isolates in protected cultivation

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    Gian Luigi Rana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Four isolates of Pleurotus eryngii species-complex, originating from different basidiomata growing in a mountainous area of the Basilicata region (southern Italy and characterized by white pileus cuticle (Wh A, Wh B, Wh C, and Wh D were compared, in artificial cultivation conditions, to other isolates of the same mushroom with beige (Be 3, Be 5 or brown cap (Br 1, Br 2 originating from the same area of the former or selected among the commercial ones (Com 142 and Com 164 in order to evaluate their productivity and morphological features. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse belonging to the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bari Aldo Moro, in autumn winter 2010-2011, using substrate bags well colonized by P. eryngii mycelium and kept at 4-6°C for 5 months. Wh A and Wh D and, less significantly, Wh C, Be 5 and Com 142, produced a fresh basidioma yield significantly higher than the five other tested isolates (Wh B, Be 3, Br 1, Br 2 and Com 164. Only Com 142 produced the basidiomata of medium and maximum size significantly heavier and with larger pileus diameter than other tested isolates. Com 142 also resulted significantly different, for the basidiomata number/substrate bag, from the white pileus cuticle isolates except for Wh B. All tested isolates concentrated almost all (90-95% of the sporophore yield in the first basidioma flush. No significant differences were found among all tested P. eryngii isolates in terms of yield earliness.

  2. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red.

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    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U

    2015-06-07

    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater.

  3. Rifampin Enhances the Activity of Amphotericin B against Fusarium solani Species Complex and Aspergillus flavus Species Complex Isolates from Keratitis Patients.

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    He, Yi; Zhou, Lutan; Gao, Chuanwen; Han, Lei; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro activities of amphotericin B in combination with rifampin were assessed against 95 ocular fungal isolates. The interactions between amphotericin B and rifampin at 4, 8, 16, and 32 μg/ml were synergistic for 11.8%, 51.0%, 90.2%, and 94.1%, respectively, of Fusarium solani species complex isolates and for 13.6%, 45.5%, 93.2%, and 95.5%, respectively, of Aspergillus flavus species complex isolates. Antagonism was never observed for the amphotericin B-rifampin combinations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gribble, Kristin E; Mark Welch, David B

    2012-01-01

    .... plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Isolates of the B...

  5. Notes on a New Productive Strain of King Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (Higher Basidiomycetes), a Prized Italian Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom.

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    Venturella, Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Eristanna; Saiano, Filippo; Gargano, Maria Letizia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide data on a culinary-medicinal, host-specific variety of P. eryngii species-complex that is known in Italy as "cardoncello". A species description, the techniques of isolation of a new strain (C-142-c), and the preparation of the substratum are illustrated. Data on the productivity of substratum inoculated with C-142-c strain and the nutritional value of cultivated "cardoncello" mushrooms are also provided.

  6. Species composition of and fumonisin production by the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex isolated from Korean cereals.

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    Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Seolhee; Nah, Ju-Young; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Paek, Ji-Seon; Lee, Soohyung; Ham, Hyeonheui; Hong, Sung Kee; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Theresa

    2018-02-21

    To assess the risk of fumonisin contamination in Korean cereals, we isolated colonies of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) from barley, maize, rice and soybean samples from 2011 to 2015. A total of 878 FFSC strains were isolated mostly from maize and rice, and species identity of the isolates were determined using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes. Fusaria recovered from Korean cereals included F. fujikuroi (317 isolates and a frequency of 36%), F. proliferatum (212 isolates and 24.1%), F. verticillioides (170 isolates and 19.4%), F. concentricum (86 strains and 9.8%), F. andiyazi (56 isolates and 6.4%), F. subglutinans (28 isolates and 3.2%), F. thapsinum (5 isolates and 0.6%), and F. circinatum (2 isolates and 0.2%). The rice samples were dominated by F. fujikuroi (47.4%), F. proliferatum (27.3%), and F. concentricum (15.1%), whereas maize samples were dominated by F. verticillioides (33.9%), F. fujikuroi (25.3%), and F. proliferatum (21.1%). A phylogenetic analysis of 70 representative isolates demonstrated that each species was resolved as genealogically exclusive in the ML tree. Fumonisin production potential was evaluated using a PCR assay for the fumonisin biosynthesis gene, FUM1 in all of the isolates. Most of the isolates tested (94%) were positive for FUM1. All of the isolates assigned to F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. thapsinum were positive for FUM1 irrespective of their host origin. Seventy-seven representative isolates positive for FUM1 were examined for fumonisin production in rice medium. The majority of F. proliferatum (26/27, 96.3%), F. verticillioides (16/17, 94.1%) and F. fujikuroi (19/25, 76.0%) produced both FB 1 and FB 2 . Notably, 16 of 19 fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi produced >1000μg/g of fumonisins (FB 1 +FB 2 ) in rice medium, which is higher than that in previous reports. These results suggest that F. fujikuroi can produce

  7. Molecular typing of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex isolates from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

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    Alves, Gleica Soyan Barbosa; Freire, Ana Karla Lima; Bentes, Amaury Dos Santos; Pinheiro, José Felipe de Souza; de Souza, João Vicente Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Matsuura, Takeshi; Jackisch-Matsuura, Ani Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main causative agents of cryptococcosis, a systemic fungal disease that affects internal organs and skin, and which is acquired by inhalation of spores or encapsulated yeasts. It is currently known that the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex has a worldwide distribution, however, some molecular types seem to prevail in certain regions. Few environmental studies of Cryptococcus have been conducted in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first ecological study of the pathogenic fungi C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 506 samples from pigeon droppings (n = 191), captive bird droppings (n = 60) and tree hollows (n = 255) were collected from June 2012 to January 2014 at schools and public buildings, squares, pet shops, households, the zoo and the bus station. Samples were plated on niger seed agar (NSA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25°C for 5 days. Dark-brown colonies were isolated and tested for thermotolerance at 37°C, cycloheximide resistance and growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. Molecular typing was done by PCR-RFLP. Susceptibility to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was tested using Etest(®) strips. In total, 13 positive samples were obtained: one tree hollow (C. gattiiVGII), nine pigeon droppings (C. neoformansVNI) and three captive bird droppings (C. neoformansVNI). The environmental cryptococcal isolates found in this study were of the same molecular types as those responsible for infections in Manaus. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Genetic variation in isolates of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex recovered from cereals

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    The Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) includes mycotoxigenic species associated with several diseases of cereals and other crops. These species are considered moderately aggressive and are reported to produce multiple mycotoxins, including beauvericin, zearalenone, equisetin, fusa...

  9. Development of a new MLST scheme for differentiation of Fusarium solani Species Complex (FSSC) isolates

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    Debourgogne, A.; Gueidan, C.; Hennequin, C.; Contet-Audonneau, N.; de Hoog, S.; Machouart, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the Fusarium solani Species Complex (FSSC) are well known plant pathogens. In addition to being the causative agent of some superficial infections, FSSC has recently emerged as a group of common opportunistic moulds, mainly in patients with haematological malignancies. Molecular

  10. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

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    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  11. [Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of blood isolates of the Candida parapsilosis species complex in Venezuela].

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    Moreno, Xiomara; Reviakina, Vera; Panizo, María M; Ferrara, Giusseppe; García, Nataly; Alarcón, Víctor; Garcés, María F; Dolande, Maribel

    Candida parapsilosis is a species complex consisting of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Studies worldwide have described its epidemiology and susceptibility to antifungal agents. The aims of this study were to carry out the molecular identification of blood isolates belonging to the Candida parapsilosis species complex, and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to antifungals of systemic use. A study of 86 strains of C. parapsilosis species complex collected in 2008-2011 and obtained from the Candidaemia Surveillance Network of Mycology Department of the Rafael Rangel National Institute of Hygiene, was made. Secondary alcohol-dehydrogenase gene amplification was performed using polymerase chain reaction, and the products were analysed by restriction fragments length polymorphisms using the enzyme BanI. Susceptibility tests were performed using Etest(®), following the manufacturer's instructions with modifications. Of the 86 isolates studied, 81 (94.2%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (4.6%) C. orthopsilosis, and one (1.2%) C. metapsilosis. C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, showing low rates of resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole. C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to all the antifungals tested. The results obtained in Venezuela provide for the first time important information about the distribution of C. parapsilosis species complex in cases of candidaemia, and support the need for continuing surveillance programs, including molecular discrimination of species and antifungal susceptibility tests, which may guide specific therapy. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of reproductive isolation among sympatric broadcast-spawning corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex.

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    Levitan, Don R; Fukami, Hironobu; Jara, Javier; Kline, David; McGovern, Tamara M; McGhee, Katie E; Swanson, Cheryl A; Knowlton, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    Many coral species spawn simultaneously and have compatible gametes, leading to controversy over the nature of species boundaries and the frequency with which hybridization occurs. Three western Atlantic corals, Montastraea annularis, M. faveolata, and M. franksi, typify this controversy; they all spawn sympatrically on the same evenings after the fall full moons. Here we show, in both Panama and the Bahamas for multiple years, how a variety of mechanisms may act in concert to reproductively isolate all three species. Field studies indicate that M. franksi spawns two hours earlier than the other two species, and the eggs released during this earlier period disperse an average of 500 m by the time the other species spawn. Field measures of fertilization indicate that peak fertilization occurs when spawning synchrony is high and that corals that spawn at the tails of the spawning distributions have greatly reduced fertilization success. Laboratory studies indicate that there is a gametic incompatibility between M. faveolata and the other two species. There are regional differences in the gametic compatibility of M. franksi and M. annularis. In Panama, the two species are completely compatible, whereas in the Bahamas, M. franksi sperm can fertilize M. annularis eggs but the reciprocal cross often fails. Gamete age influences patterns of fertilization, such that very young eggs seem resistant to fertilization and old sperm lose viability after two hours. In sum, the combination of temporal differences in spawning, sperm aging, gamete dispersal and dilution, and gametic incompatibility act in various combinations among the three species, making it unlikely that hybrid fertilization would occur.

  13. Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes

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    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 is among the most common mycotoxins found in maize kernels and maize products worldwide. The microbiological process of detoxification and transformation of toxic organic pollutants is a promising method for foodstuffs decontamination. Some basidiomycetes, such as the Pleurotus eryngii species complex, include several important commercial edible varieties that can detoxify polycyclic organic compounds and a range of wastes and pollutants. We investigated the potential role of P. eryngii, one of the most consumed mushrooms, in the decontamination of FB1 in maize. In addition, selected antioxidant enzymes, (soluble peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase, primarily involved in control of cell hydrogen peroxide levels, and lignin degradation, were analyzed, to evaluate their contributions to the molecular mechanisms of FB1 by P. eryngii. FB1 decontamination by P. eryngii and involvement of CAT and POD enzymes in the control of toxic decontamination levels of H2O2 were demonstrated. A consistent reduction of FB1 was observed at different incubation times. The average decrease levels of FB1, with respect to the control cultures, ranged from 45 to 61% (RSD < 15%. This study is a possible eco-friendly approach to reducing this mycotoxin in the feed supply chains.

  14. Fungal Peritonitis Due to Fusarium solani Species Complex Sequential Isolates Identified with DNA Sequencing in a Kidney Transplant Recipient in Brazil.

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    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Zuza-Alves, Diana Luzia; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-12-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare serious complication most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients under peritoneal dialysis. Nevertheless, this clinical condition is more difficult to treat than bacterial peritonitis. Bacterial peritonitis followed by the use of antibiotics is the main risk factor for developing fungal peritonitis. Candida spp. are more frequently isolated, and the isolation of filamentous fungi is only occasional. Here we describe a case of Fusarium solani species complex peritonitis associated with bacterial peritonitis in a female kidney transplant recipient with previous history of nephrotic syndrome. The patient has had Enterobacter sp. endocarditis and was hypertensive and diabetic. Two sequential isolates of F. solani were recovered from cultures and identified with different molecular techniques. She was successfully treated with 50 mg daily amphotericin B for 4 weeks.

  15. A dark strain in the Fusarium solani species complex isolated from primary subcutaneous sporotrichioid lesions associated with traumatic inoculation via a rose bush thorn.

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    Kantarcioglu, A Serda; Summerbell, Richard C; Sutton, Deanna A; Yücell, Ayhan; Sarikaya, Ebru; Kaner, Gültekin; Iscimen, Aydin; Altas, Kemal

    2010-02-01

    Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes widely distributed in nature and documented agents of both superficial and systemic infections in humans. In this paper, we report a darkly-pigmented and initially non-sporulating isolate in the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) causing a post-traumatic sporotrichoid infection in an otherwise healthy, male patient. Sequencing of multiple loci showed that the isolate represented an otherwise unknown lineage, possibly corresponding to a separate species, within the multi-species F. solani complex. In prolonged culture, the non-sporulating isolate produced revertant wild-type subcultures with typical Fusarium conidiation. This suggests that the original dense, dark, non-sporulating isolate was a host-adapted form selected in vivo for characters compatible with human pathogenicity. The production of such forms by Fusarium species is increasingly recognized now that sequencing has allowed the identification of highly atypical isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was investigated against seven conventional and two newly approved antifungal agents. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to amphotericin B, but appeared susceptible to itraconazole and terbinafine. A cure was ultimately achieved with combined terbinafine/itraconazole therapy with prolonged itraconazole follow-up therapy.

  16. Genotyping of Fusarium Isolates from Onychomycoses in Colombia: Detection of Two New Species Within the Fusarium solani Species Complex and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing.

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    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Cano-Lira, José Francisco; de García, María Caridad Cepero; Sopo, Leticia; De Bedout, Catalina; Cano, Luz Elena; García, Ana María; Motta, Adriana; Amézquita, Adolfo; Cárdenas, Martha; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Guarro, Josep; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana

    2016-04-01

    Fusariosis have been increasing in Colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. We have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín. Using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (Tef-1α) and of the RNA-dependent polymerase subunit II (Rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulating haplotypes. Since most of the isolates studied were from onychomycoses (nearly 90 %), we carried out an epidemiological study to determine the risk factors associated with such infections. Five phylogenetic species of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), i.e., F. falciforme, F. keratoplasticum, F. lichenicola, F. petroliphilum, and FSSC 6 as well as two of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), i.e., FOSC 3 and FOSC 4, were identified. The most prevalent species were FOSC 3 (38.2%) followed by F. keratoplasticum (33.7%). In addition, our isolates were distributed into 23 haplotypes (14 into FOSC and nine into FSSC). Two of the FSSC phylogenetic species and two haplotypes of FSSC were not described before. Our results demonstrate that recipients of pedicure treatments have a lower probability of acquiring onychomycosis than those not receiving such treatments. The antifungal susceptibility of all the isolates to five clinically available agents showed that amphotericin B was the most active drug, while the azoles exhibited lower in vitro activity.

  17. Genetic variability and population structure of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

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    Mengran Zhao

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted. At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei's gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei's gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei's gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794 was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively, which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus.

  18. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation.

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    Juárez, M Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E A; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations.

  19. The genetic architecture of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry within the Mimulus guttatus species complex.

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    Ferris, Kathleen G; Barnett, Laryssa L; Blackman, Benjamin K; Willis, John H

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of local adaptation has been of central interest to evolutionary biologists since the modern synthesis. In addition to classic theory on the effect size of adaptive mutations by Fisher, Kimura and Orr, recent theory addresses the genetic architecture of local adaptation in the face of ongoing gene flow. This theory predicts that with substantial gene flow between populations local adaptation should proceed primarily through mutations of large effect or tightly linked clusters of smaller effect loci. In this study, we investigate the genetic architecture of divergence in flowering time, mating system-related traits, and leaf shape between Mimulus laciniatus and a sympatric population of its close relative M. guttatus. These three traits are probably involved in M. laciniatus' adaptation to a dry, exposed granite outcrop environment. Flowering time and mating system differences are also reproductive isolating barriers making them 'magic traits'. Phenotypic hybrids in this population provide evidence of recent gene flow. Using next-generation sequencing, we generate dense SNP markers across the genome and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in flowering time, flower size and leaf shape. We find that interspecific divergence in all three traits is due to few QTL of large effect including a highly pleiotropic QTL on chromosome 8. This QTL region contains the pleiotropic candidate gene TCP4 and is involved in ecologically important phenotypes in other Mimulus species. Our results are consistent with theory, indicating that local adaptation and reproductive isolation with gene flow should be due to few loci with large and pleiotropic effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

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    Branà, Maria Teresa; Cimmarusti, Maria Teresa; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Altomare, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL) by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA) was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v) maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w) of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.

  1. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

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    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  2. Candida vulturna pro tempore sp. nov., a dimorphic yeast species related to the Candida haemulonis species complex isolated from flowers and clinical sample.

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    Sipiczki, Matthias; Tap, Ratna Mohd

    2016-10-01

    In a taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from flowers in Cagayan de Oro, Mindenao Island, The Philippines, strains were identified as representing Kabatiella microsticta, Metschnikowia koreensis and a hitherto undescribed dimorphic species. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU 26S rRNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the SSU 18S rRNA genes were identical in the strains of the last-named group and differed from the corresponding sequences of the type strain of the closest related species, Candida duobushaemulonii, by 4 % (D1/D2), 7 % (ITS) and 1 % (SSU). In an independent study, a strain with D1/D2 and ITS sequences very similar to those of the Philippine strains was isolated in Malaysia from the blood of a patient dying of aspiration pneumonia. Both groups of isolates were moderately sensitive to anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole but resistant to amphotericin B. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the sequences placed the Philippine and Malaysian isolates close to the Candida haemulonis complex of Candida species. To reflect the geographical location of the sites of sample collection, the novel species name Candida vulturna pro tempore sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is 11-1170T (=CBS 14366T=CCY 094-001-001T=NCAIM-Y02177T) isolated in Cagayan de Oro, The Philippines. Mycobank: MB 817222.

  3. The Colletotrichum gigasporum species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Damm, U.

    2014-01-01

    In a preliminary analysis, 21 Colletotrichum strains with large conidia preserved in the CBS culture collection clustered with a recently described species, C. gigasporum, forming a clade distinct from other currently known Colletotrichum species complexes. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS,

  4. Comparative Population Genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi Species Complex Reveals High Degree of Genetic Isolation among Species and Underscores Benefits and Constraints to Studying Intra-Specific Epidemiological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, Maude; Gonnet, Mathieu; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Abrial, David; Claude, Alexandre; Gasqui, Patrick; Choumet, Valérie; Charras-Garrido, Myriam; Garnier, Martine; Faure, Benjamin; Sertour, Natacha; Dorr, Nelly; De Goër, Jocelyn; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis, one of the most frequently contracted zoonotic diseases in the Northern Hemisphere, is caused by bacteria belonging to different genetic groups within the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which are transmitted by ticks among various wildlife reservoirs, such as small mammals and birds. These features make the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex an attractive biological model that can be used to study the diversification and the epidemiology of endemic bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of population genomic approaches to study these processes. Sixty-three strains belonging to three species within the Borrelia burgdorferi complex were isolated from questing ticks in Alsace (France), a region where Lyme disease is highly endemic. We first aimed to characterize the degree of genetic isolation among the species sampled. Phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses revealed clear delineations: there was a ∼50 fold difference between intra-specific and inter-specific recombination rates. We then investigated whether the population genomic data contained information of epidemiological relevance. In phylogenies inferred using most of the genome, conspecific strains did not cluster in clades. These results raise questions about the relevance of different strategies when investigating pathogen epidemiology. For instance, here, both classical analytic approaches and phylodynamic simulations suggested that population sizes and migration rates were higher in B. garinii populations, which are normally associated with birds, than in B. burgdorferi s.s. populations. The phylogenetic analyses of the infection-related ospC gene and its flanking region provided additional support for this finding. Traces of recombination among the B. burgdorferi s.s. lineages and lineages associated with small mammals were found, suggesting that they shared the same hosts. Altogether, these results provide baseline evidence that can be used to formulate

  5. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously identified as C. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series of novel taxa. Thirty-one species are accepted, of which 21 have not previously been recognised. Colletotrichum orchidophilum clusters basal to the C. acutatum species complex. There is a high phenotypic diversity within this complex, and some of the species appear to have preferences to specific hosts or geographical regions. Others appear to be plurivorous and are present in multiple regions. In this study, only C. salicis and C. rhombiforme formed sexual morphs in culture, although sexual morphs have been described from other taxa (especially as laboratory crosses), and there is evidence of hybridisation between different species. One species with similar morphology to C. acutatum but not belonging to this species complex was also described here as new, namely C. pseudoacutatum. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Colletotrichum limetticola (R.E. Clausen) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. lupini (Bondar) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. salicis (Fuckel) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. acerbum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. australe Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brisbanense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cosmi Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. costaricense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cuscutae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. guajavae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. indonesiense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. johnstonii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. kinghornii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. laticiphilum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. melonis Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C

  6. The Colletotrichum boninense species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Shivas, R.G.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. Taxonomic novelties: New combination - Colletotrichum phyllanthi (H. Surendranath Pai) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Name replacement - C. petchii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. annellatum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. beeveri Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. brassicicola Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brasiliense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous & Massola, C. colombiense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, C. constrictum Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. cymbidiicola Damm, P.F. Cannon

  7. Antihyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activities of acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis exopolysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii SI-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Juan; Wang, Jing; Song, Xingling; Zhang, Jianjun; Wu, Shang; Hu, Chunlong; Gong, Zhiyuan; Jia, Le

    2017-08-14

    Hyperlipidaemia is the major risk factor contributing to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, fatty liver and cerebrovascular disease. Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) is rich in biologically active components, especially polysaccharides that exhibit various biological activities, including reducing blood lipids. In the present study, three novel polysaccharide types, including exopolysaccharides (EPS), enzymatic EPS (EEPS) and acidic EPS (AEPS) were isolated, and the hypolipidaemic and hepatoprotective effects were investigated to better understand possible hypolipidaemic mechanisms and their hepatoprotective effects. The EPS was hydrolysed by snailase (dissolved in 1% acetic acid, pH = 6) and H2SO4 (1 M) to obtain EEPS and AEPS, respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by investigating the reducing power and the scavenging effects on radicals of hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion. The hyperlipidaemic mice were induced by perfusing a high-fat emulsion. In addition to the hepatic histopathology, the following biochemical analyses were performed to investigate the antioxidative effects, including the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured in serum and liver homogenate. Supplementation of EPS, EEPS and AEPS could significantly improve blood lipid levels (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C), hepatic lipid levels (TC and TG), hepatic enzyme activities (ALP, ALT, and AST) and antioxidant status (GSH-Px, SOD, T-AOC, MDA, and LPO). In addition, histopathological observations indicated that these polysaccharides had potential effects in attenuating

  8. Mycelial growth observation of Pleurotus eryngii (Higher Basidiomycota In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Five agro-substrates including date palm fibers (fibrillum, wheat straw, white sawdust and their combinations were investigated to grow Pleurotus eryngii. The longer mycelium complete time within bags was 20 days on sawdust (S4, in contrast, the shorter time for mycelium overgrew was completed after 15 days on date palm fiber (S5. In significant (p<0.05, S5 showed the higher growth intensity level (vigorous growth than other substrates. Thus use of date palm wastes (S5 medium may be useful for successfully cultivation king oyster mushroom in farm.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.1-10

  9. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B.S.; Johnston, P.R.; Damm, U.

    2012-01-01

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  10. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). –. (c) Details of the laboratory stocks of D. malerkotliana ..... Bock I. R. 1971a Taxonomy of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Univ. Tex. Publ. 6, 273–280. Bock I. R. 1971b Intra and interspecific chromosomal inversions in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Chromosoma 34,.

  11. Effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobei; Feng, Tao; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Li, Wen; Ye, Ran; Yang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii, a common commercial edible fungus. In order to maximally maintain the taste of P. eryngii, several different drying methods, including hot air, vacuum, microwave, freeze drying and naturally air-drying, were compared. Results showed that freeze drying and hot air were capable of the conservation of the taste compounds maximally in P. eryngii, followed by natural air drying and vacuum, while microwave drying was not suitable for P. eryngii due to the loss of taste compounds. Moreover, concentrations of free amino acids in freeze drying were significantly reduced, so as to 5'-nucleotides in hot air drying. In addition, the umami concentration of the sample using hot air dry was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that using microwave. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  13. Study on optimization of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii by response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii, with fresh fruiting of Pleurotus eryngii as raw material, the influence of extraction time, solid-liquid ratio, and temperature, etc. on the extraction efficiency is analyzed using the hot water extraction method. Box-behnken design(BBD is used for response surface analysis, and the optimal condition is as follows: extraction temperature of 47 ℃, extraction time of 4.9 h and solid-liquid ratio of 1∶19 (g/mL. Among the factors,the heating temperature has the greatest influence on the extraction rate, then the material liquid ratio, and at last the extraction time. Under this condition, the extraction rate of crude polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii reaches the maximum of 5.66% which is close to the actual verification value. Therefore, the optimization of the extraction condition of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii by using response surface method is reasonable and feasible, and it provides a theoretical basis for the industrial application of crude polysaccharide extraction from Pleurotus eryngii using hot water.

  14. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Making interspecific hybridizations, where possible remains an unparalleled option for studying the intricacies of speciation. In the Drosophila bipectinata species complex comprising of four species, namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae, interspecific hybrids can be obtained ...

  15. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL BANERJEE

    [Banerjee P. and Singh B. N. 2017 The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations. ... understanding the intricacies of speciation (Yang et al. 1972;. Bock 1978 .... tures more number of larvae needs to be checked to confirm homozygosity.

  16. Interaction of trace elements and ligninolytic enzymes in Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena

    2011-11-01

    Considering the fact that some trace elements have influence on the growth and physiological processes in the fungi, the aim of this study was to resolve the question of whether Fe, Zn, and Se, added to the medium in the different forms, affect activity of selected Pleurotus eryngii ligninolytic enzymes participating in mandarine peels submerged fermentation. Compared with the control, Fe and Zn showed stimulatory effect on laccase activity. Reduction in the activity was emphasized with cultivation time, but it was slower in the presence of Zn than in the presence of Fe. Among studied Se forms, SeO2 was the most unfavorable Se source for laccase activity. All tested trace elements, independent on form, showed stimulatory effect on the activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases on the seventh day of cultivation. Based on the results, it could be concluded that the presence of the tested trace elements can advance various biotechnological processes among which is biodegradation of agricultural wastes, potential environmental pollutants.

  17. Mecanismo catalítico de la aril-alcohol oxidasa de "Pleurotus eryngii"

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Ortega, Aitor

    2012-01-01

    Durante la degradación de la lignina por Pleurotus eryngii la enzima extracelular aril-alcohol oxidasa (AAO) genera el H2O2 que actúa como sustrato oxidante de las peroxidasas ligninolíticas y para la formación del radical hidroxilo. El poder reductor para la activación del O2 a H2O2 proviene de la oxidación de alcoholes aromáticos a los correspondientes aldehídos, siendo el alcohol p-metoxibencílico el sustrato natural de la AAO de P. eryngii. Esta oxidasa es una flavoenzima que contiene com...

  18. Sequencing the Black Aspergilli species complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf; Zhou, Kemin; Otillar, Robert; Baker, Scott; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The ~15 members of the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex (the "Black Aspergilli") are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as food processing and spoilage agents and agricultural toxigens. Despite their utility and ubiquity, the morphological and metabolic distinctiveness of the complex's members, and thus their taxonomy, is poorly defined. We are using short read pyrosequencing technology (Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa) to rapidly scale up genomic and transcriptomic analysis of this species complex. To date we predict 11197 genes in Aspergillus niger, 11624 genes in A. carbonarius, and 10845 genes in A. aculeatus. A. aculeatus is our most recent genome, and was assembled primarily from 454-sequenced reads and annotated with the aid of >2 million 454 ESTs and >300 million Solexa ESTs. To most effectively deploy these very large numbers of ESTs we developed 2 novel methods for clustering the ESTs into assemblies. We have also developed a pipeline to propose orthologies and paralogies among genes in the species complex. In the near future we will apply these methods to additional species of Black Aspergilli that are currently in our sequencing pipeline.

  19. Influence of calcinated starfish powder on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K; Lee, Nan-Hee

    2009-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the calcium absorption efficacy of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) in sawdust medium supplemented with starfish powder and to determine the effect of starfish powder as calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial germination of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of starfish powder was achieved at the temperature ranging from 560.1 to 649.5 degrees C. A 1% supplementation of starfish powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 1% calcinated starfish powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 256.0+/-16.3 in the fruiting body of P. eryngii without extension of spawn run period and the retardation of the days to primordial germination.

  20. Effects of Different Substrates on Lignocellulosic Enzyme Expression, Enzyme Activity, Substrate Utilization and Biological Efficiency of Pleurotus Eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunliang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most valued and delicious mushrooms which are commercially cultivated on various agro-wastes. How different substrates affect lignocellulosic biomass degradation, lignocellulosic enzyme production and biological efficiency in Pleurotus eryngii was unclear. Methods and Results: In this report, Pleurotus eryngii was cultivated in substrates including ramie stalks, kenaf stalks, cottonseed hulls and bulrush stalks. The results showed that ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were found to best suitable to cultivate Pleurotus eryngii with the biological efficiency achieved at 55% and 57%, respectively. In order to establish correlations between different substrates and lignocellulosic enzymes expression, the extracellular proteins from four substrates were profiled with high throughput TMT-based quantitative proteomic approach. 241 non-redundant proteins were identified and 74 high confidence lignocellulosic enzymes were quantified. Most of the cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were highly up-regulated when ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were used as carbon sources. The enzyme activities results suggested cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were significantly induced by ramie stalks and kenaf stalks. Conclusion: The lignocelluloses degradation, most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities of Pleurotus eryngii had positive correlation with the biological efficiency, which depend on the nature of lignocellulosic substrates. In addition, the lignocellulosic enzymes expression profiles during Pleurotus eryngii growth in different substrates were obtained. The present study suggested that most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities can be used as tools for selecting better performing substrates for commercial mushroom cultivation.

  1. Systematics of the Cosmospora viliuscula species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cesar S; Rossman, Amy Y; Samuels, Gary J; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Chaverri, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cosmospora includes nectrioid fungi that grow on polypores and xylariaceous fungi. The collections growing on xylariaceous fungi have been identified recently as Cosmospora viliuscula. In this paper the phylogeny and taxonomy of C. viliuscula are investigated. A phylogeny was generated with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods applied to a three-partition dataset (ITS, 28S, MCM7-RPB1-TUB2). Based on these results, we demonstrate that Cosmospora viliuscula represents a diverse species complex comprising more than 10 species. Seven new species are described, including three single-strain lineages, and the sexual states of C. arxii and C. khandalensis are described for the first time. The sexual states of these fungi tend to have a high degree of morphological homoplasy, making it difficult to differentiate among them based on morphological characters alone. However, the apparent host specificity of species in this complex aide in the diagnosis of these fungi. In addition, the RPB1 marker provides sufficient resolution to distinguish these fungi. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Identifikacija i opredeluvanje na flavonoidi vo Eryngii herba (Eryngium campestre L., Apiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Flurim Nebija; Svetlana Kulevanova; Marina Stefova

    2006-01-01

    Ispituvani se flavonoidni komponenti vo primeroci od Eryngii herba, Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae) sobrani od tri razlicni lokaliteti vo Kosovo. Vospostaveni se TLC i HPLC metodi za identifikacija, i metodi za kvantificiranje na sodrzina na vkupni flavonoidi (spektrofotometriski metod) i sodrzina na vkupni flavonoli (HPLC metod). Vo ekstrakti dobieni posle hidroliza na heterozidnite formi, utvrdeno e prisustvo na nekolku flavonoli od koi se identifikuvani kvarcetin i kemferol. Kvantitati...

  3. Mycoextraction of radiolabeled cesium and strontium by Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the presence of alumina nanoparticles: Sorption and accumulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztemborska, Monika; Jakubiak, Małgorzata; Rykaczewska, Magdalena; Bembenek, Marcin; Stęborowski, Romuald; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grażyna

    2016-11-01

    Widespread use of products based on nanomaterials results in the release of nanoparticles into the environment. Nanoparticles can be taken up by organisms, but they can also coexist with other substances such as radionuclides, thus affecting their uptake or toxicity. In contrast, the sorption capacity of nanoparticles is exploited in water purification. The aim of the study was to investigate: (i) bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by Pleurotus eryngii mycelia in the presence of alumina nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs); and (ii) sorption of radionuclides on the surface of nanoparticles. For the experiments, living and dried mycelia were used to permit distinguishing between active uptake and passive sorption of the NPs by P. eryngii. The results are discussed from the perspective of the use of P. eryngii in the mycoextraction of radionuclides. The sorption capacity of Al2O3 NPs and the accumulation by P. eryngii mycelia differ for the applied radioisotopes. The efficiency of Cs and Sr sorption by alumina nanoparticles is 20% and 40%, respectively. Mycelia of P. eryngii have the ability to accumulate 30% of both radioisotopes from the medium. More than 60% of strontium can be removed accumulated from water by P. eryngii mycelia in coexistence with Al2O3 NPs, while the efficiency of cesium removal accumulation is negligible. It was found that alumina nanoparticles do not enhance uptake of radionuclides by P. eryngii mycelia; mycoextraction of radionuclides by mycelia and sorption by Al2O3 NPs are concurrent processes. There was no difference between live or dried mycelia uptake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide by Pleurotus eryngii SI-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction parameters for Pleurotus eryngii SI-02 exopolysaccharide (EPS produced during submerged culture were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions for EPS extraction were predicted to be, precipitation time 20.24 h, ethanol concentration 89.62% and pH 8.17, and EPS production was estimated at 7.27 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 7.21 g/L. The in vitro antioxidant results of the EPS showed that the inhibition effects of EPS at a dosage of 400 mg/L on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals were 59.63 ± 3.72%, 38.69 ± 2.59%, and 66.36 ± 4.42%, respectively, which were 12.74 ± 1.03%, 8.01 ± 0.56%, and 12.19 ± 1.05% higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, respectively. The reducing power of EPS of P. eryngii SI-02 was 0.98 ± 0.05, 60.66 ± 5.14% higher than that of BHT. The results provide a reference for large-scale production of EPS by P. eryngii SI-02 in industrial fermentation and the EPS can be used as a potential antioxidant which enhances adaptive immune responses.

  5. The Drosophila ananassae species complex: Evolutionary relationships among different members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic structure and historical demography of natural populations is central to understanding how natural selection changes genomes. Drosophila ananassae is a widespread species occurring in geographically isolated or partially isolated populations and provides a unique opportunity to investigate population structure and molecular variation. D. ananassae and its closely related species serve as a widely used model in population and evolutionary genetics. The ananassae subgroup belongs to the melanogaster species group. This subgroup contains 22 described species distributed mainly throughout Southeast Asia, with some species expanding into northeastern Australia, South Pacific and Indian subcontinent and Africa. Within the ananassae subgroup, three species complexes-ananassae, bipectinata and ercepeae have been recognized based on male genital morphology. D. ananassae and its relatives have many advantages as a model of genetic differentiation and speciation. In this review, distribution, phylogenies, hybridization, sexual isolation among D. ananassae complex have been discussed. The complex of several cryptic island species provides a useful model for evolutionary studies dealing with the mechanisms of speciation.

  6. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.; Coassin, S.; Haun, M.; Binder, U.; Kronenberg, F.; Haas, H. de; Jank, M.; Maurer, E.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Lass-Florl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem

  7. Elucidating the Ramularia eucalypti species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videira, S.I.R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Kolecka, A.; Haren, van L.; Boekhout, T.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ramularia includes numerous phytopathogenic species, several of which are economically important. Ramularia eucalypti is currently the only species of this genus known to infect Eucalyptus by causing severe leaf-spotting symptoms on this host. However, several isolates identified as R.

  8. Diversity of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovers, M.; Hagen, F.; Boekhout, T.

    2008-01-01

    More than 110 years of study of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex has resulted in an enormous accumulation of fundamental and applied biological and clinical knowledge. Recent developments in our understanding of the diversity within the species complex are

  9. Identifikacija i opredeluvanje na flavonoidi vo Eryngii herba (Eryngium campestre L., Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurim Nebija

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ispituvani se flavonoidni komponenti vo primeroci od Eryngii herba, Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae sobrani od tri razlicni lokaliteti vo Kosovo. Vospostaveni se TLC i HPLC metodi za identifikacija, i metodi za kvantificiranje na sodrzina na vkupni flavonoidi (spektrofotometriski metod i sodrzina na vkupni flavonoli (HPLC metod. Vo ekstrakti dobieni posle hidroliza na heterozidnite formi, utvrdeno e prisustvo na nekolku flavonoli od koi se identifikuvani kvarcetin i kemferol. Kvantitativna analiza pokaza deka dominanten aglikon e kemferol. Sodrzinata na vkupnite flavonoidi se dvizi vo granici od 0,12-0,14%, a na vkupnite flavonoli od 0,04-0,13 %, opredeleni so spektrofotometriski i so HPLC metod, soodvetno.

  10. Origin of Boundary Populations in Medaka (Oryzias latipes Species Complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehana, Yusuke; Sakai, Masato; Narita, Takanori; Sato, Tadashi; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-01

    The Japanese wild population of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes species complex) comprises two genetically distinct groups, the Northern and the Southern Populations, with boundary populations having a unique genotype. It is thought that the boundary populations have been formed through introgressive hybridization between the two groups, because they are fixed with the Northern alleles at two allozymic loci, with the Southern alleles at two other loci, and have a unique allele at one locus. In this study, we examined the genetic population structure of the boundary populations using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Most SNPs of the Toyooka population, a typical boundary population, were shared with the Northern Population, some were shared with the Southern Population, and the remaining SNPs were unique to this population, suggesting that the boundary populations originated and diverged from the Northern Population. Further analyses of different populations using SNPs at eight genomic loci indicated that the boundary populations at different locations share similar genomic constitutions, and can be genetically distinguished from typical Northern Populations by unique SNPs. In addition, the boundary populations in the Maruyama River Basin had Northern mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), while others, from the Fukuda and Kishida River Basins and from the Kumihama Bay area, had Southern mtDNA. These findings suggested that the boundary populations originated from the Northern Population, and then their genomes diverged as a result of geographical isolation, followed by mtDNA introgression from the Southern Population that occurred independently in some populations.

  11. Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman

    2010-10-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production.

  12. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  13. Biosorption of aquatic copper (II) by mushroom biomass Pleurotus eryngii: kinetic and isotherm studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shi-Hong; Sun, Bai-Ye; Xu, Fang; Song, Qi-Xue; Zhang, Sui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption is an effective method for removing heavy metals from effluent. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the adsorption performance of the widely cultivated novel mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, for the removal of Cu(II) from single aqueous solutions. Kinetics and equilibria were obtained using a batch technique. The sorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the adsorption equilibria are best described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption process is exothermic because both the Langmuir-estimated biosorption capacity and the heat of adsorption estimated from the Temkin model decreased with increasing tested temperature. Based on the adsorption intensity estimated by the Freundlich model and the mean adsorption free energy estimated by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model, the type of adsorption is defined as physical adsorption. The biomass of the macro-fungus P. eryngii has the potential to remove Cu(II) from a large-scale wastewater contaminated by heavy metals, because of its favorable adsorption, short biosorption equilibrium time of 20 min and remarkable biosorption capacity (15.19 mg g⁻¹ as calculated by the Langmuir model). The adsorbed metal-enriched mushroom is a high-quality bio-ore by the virtue of its high metal content of industrial mining grade and easy metal extractability.

  14. Ligninolytic enzyme production in Pleurotus eryngii depending on the medium composition and cultivation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Mirjana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii produced laccase (Lac both under conditions of submerged fermentation (SF and solid-state fermentation (SSF using all of the investigated carbon and nitrogen sources, while significant peroxidases production occurred only under SSF conditions. The highest levels of Lac activity were found under SF conditions of dry ground mandarine peels (999.5 U/l. After purification of extracellular crude enzyme mixture of P. eryngii which was grown under SF conditions with dry ground mandarine peels it was revealed two peaks of Lac activity and one peak of activity against phenol red in absence of external Mn2+ which was very low (1.4 U/l. Results obtained by purification also showed that the levels of phenol red oxidation in absence of external Mn2+ were higher than phenol red oxidation levels in presence of external Mn2+. In the medium with the best carbon source for Lac production (dry ground mandarine peels, (NH42SO4, with a nitrogen concentration of 20 mM, was the most optimum nitrogen source among 8 investigated sources.

  15. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: the cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter; Riss, Simone; Stadler, Peter

    2011-04-07

    Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg). Most of this variation (67%) could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32%) at lower taxonomic levels--within and among genealogical species--and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  16. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: The cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riss Simone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg. Most of this variation (67% could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32% at lower taxonomic levels - within and among genealogical species - and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Conclusions Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  17. Biodegradation of toxic chemicals by Pleurotus eryngii in submerged fermentation and solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bea-Ven; Chang, Yi-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The toxic chemicals bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), nonylphenol (NP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have consequently drawn much concern regarding their effect on the environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the degradation of BPA, BPF, NP, and TBBPA by enzymes from Pleurotus eryngii in submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF), and also to assess the removal of toxic chemicals in spent mushroom compost (SMC). BPA and BPF were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography; NP and TBBPA were analyzed by gas chromatography. NP degradation was enhanced by adding CuSO4 (1 mM), MnSO4 (0.5 mM), gallic acid (1 mM), tartaric acid (20 mM), citric acid (20 mM), guaiacol (1 mM), or 2,2'-azino-bis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; 1 mM), with the last yielding a higher NP degradation rate than the other additives from SmF. The optimal conditions for enzyme activity from SSF were a sawdust/wheat bran ratio of 1:4 and a moisture content of 5 mL/g. The enzyme activities were higher with sawdust/wheat bran than with sawdust/rice bran. The optimal conditions for the extraction of enzyme from SMC required using sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, solid/solution ratio 1:5), and extraction over 3 hours. The removal rates of toxic chemicals by P. eryngii, in descending order of magnitude, were SSF > SmF > SMC. The removal rates were BPF > BPA > NP > TBBPA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Fusarium keratitis in South India: causative agents, their antifungal susceptibilities and a rapid identification method for the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Mónika; Shobana, Coimbatore S; Singh, Yendrembam R B; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Selvam, Kanesan P; Kredics, László; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2013-09-01

    Seventy Fusarium isolates derived from human keratomycosis were identified based on partial sequences of the β-tubulin (β-TUB) and translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) genes. Most of the isolates were confirmed as members of the F. solani species complex (75.71%), followed by the F. dimerum species complex (8.57%), the F. fujikuroi species complex (8.57%), the F. oxysporum species complex (4.29%) and the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (2.86%). A combined phylogenetic tree was estimated including all the 70 isolates. Isolates belonging to different species complexes formed separate clades. In this study, we also report the first isolation of F. napiforme from human keratomycosis. A new method based on a specific EcoRI restriction site in the EF-1α gene was developed for the rapid identification of F. solani. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates to seven antifungals were determined by broth microdilution method. Terbinafine, natamycin and amphotericin B proved to be the most effective drugs, followed by voriconazole. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole, econazole and itraconazole were generally high (≥64 μg ml(-1) ). The interactions between the two most effective antifungals (natamycin and terbinafine) were determined by checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism (71.8%) or no interaction (28.2%) was revealed between the two compounds. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Phylogeny of the Sepia officinalis species complex in the eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate species identification and biogeographic characterisation are fundamental for appropriate management of expanding cephalopod fisheries. This study addresses this topic within the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis species complex (S. officinalis, S. hierredda and S. vermiculata), with an emphasis on occurrence ...

  20. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interspecific hybridization; dystrophied ovaries; female sterility; Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Author Affiliations. Parul Banerjee1 Bashisth N. Singh1. Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 7 May 2015; Manuscript revised: 12 ...

  1. Reticulate evolution in the Crepidomanes minutum species complex (Hymenophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Joel H; Ebihara, Atsushi; Ito, Motomi

    2011-11-01

    Hybridization is an important mechanism of speciation in plants and often results in complexes that comprise multiple sexual diploids and their hybrid offspring. However, the intricacy of these systems has prevented a thorough understanding of many groups. The Crepidomanes minutum species complex (Hymenophyllaceae) is a widely distributed, morphologically variable fern species complex. Although prior reports of apogamy and polyploidy suggest hybridization, it has never been the focus of a phylogenetic study. Morphology, nuclear (gapCp), and chloroplast (rbcL) DNA sequences, cytology, field observation, and spore counts were used to infer phylogeny and trace hybrid origins. The C. minutum species complex is composed of at least three major clades: the African clade, clade 1 (East Asia and the Pacific), and clade 2 (Southeast Asia and the South Pacific). Clades 1 and 2 differ strikingly in morphological variation (uniform in clade 1 vs. highly variable in clade 2) and occurrence of hybrids (rare in clade 1 vs. frequent in clade 2). Apogamy and polyploidy were confirmed as likely mechanisms of hybrid stabilization in clade 2. Despite the large genetic distance between clades 1 and 2, several specimens were observed with gapCp sequences from both; diploid genome size and sexual reproduction indicate maintenance of genetic diversity via introgression or incomplete lineage sorting, rather than ongoing hybridization, in these specimens. The C. minutum species complex is a reticulate network including multiple diploid lineages and their stabilized hybrid crosses. Additional sampling focused on reproductive mode and ploidy level is needed to delimit diploid species and hybrids.

  2. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetica 140, 75–81. Banerjee P. and Singh B. N. 2015 Interspecific hybridization does not affect the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the. Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Genetica 143, 459–471. Barbash B. A., Awadalla P. and Parone A. M. 2004 Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of ...

  3. Multi-cereal molecular surveys suggest host preference among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex from southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) associated with cereals grown in southern Brazil between 2009 and 2012. The total collection comprised 1,127 isolates, which were divided into four collections obtained from: 1) disea...

  4. Oogenesis in the Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Wan, Fang-Hao; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 species complex has invaded several parts of the world in the past 30 years and replaced native whitefly populations in the invaded regions, including certain areas of China. One of the possible reasons for the invasion is that MEAM1 whiteflies are more fecund than native species. However, the factors that affect the reproduction of the B. tabaci cryptic species are not clearly known. The regulation of oogenesis is thought to be one of the essential processes for egg formation and ovary development and could affect its population dynamics. In this study, the ovariole structure and oogenesis of the MEAM1 species complex was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy. Telotrophic ovarioles were observed in the MEAM1 species complex. Each ovariole had two well defined regions: the tropharium and the vitellarium. The tropharium always had more than ten trophocytes. The development of a single oocyte in the vitellarium has four phases: oocyte formation, previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. Two arrested oocytes, follicular cells and uncompleted oocytes were separated from the tropharium by microtubule and microfilaments. Early previtellogenesis oocytes absorbed nutrients and endosymbiont bacteria through a nutritive cord. However, the vitellogenesis of oocytes transmitted Vg through both the nutritive cord and the space between follicular cells. Each mature oocyte with deposited yolk proteins had only one bacteriocyte and was surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. The oogenesis in the B. tabaci MEAM1 species complex concluded with the differentiation of oocytes, the transport of yolk and endosymbionts as well as the development and maturation of oocytes. This result provides important information that further defines the regulation of oogenesis in the B. tabaci complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the west-palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, J; Litvinchuk, S N; Crochet, P A; Romano, A; Geniez, P H; Lo-Valvo, M; Lymberakis, P; Carranza, S

    2012-04-01

    In most pan-Eurasiatic species complexes, two phenomena have been traditionally considered key processes of their cladogenesis and biogeography. First, it is hypothesized that the origin and development of the Central Asian Deserts generated a biogeographic barrier that fragmented past continuous distributions in Eastern and Western domains. Second, Pleistocene glaciations have been proposed as the main process driving the regional diversification within each of these domains. The European common toad and its closest relatives provide an interesting opportunity to examine the relative contributions of these paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events to the phylogeny and biogeography of a widespread Eurasiatic group. We investigate this issue by applying a multiproxy approach combining information from molecular phylogenies, a multiple correspondence analysis of allozyme data and species distribution models. Our study includes 304 specimens from 164 populations, covering most of the distributional range of the Bufo bufo species complex in the Western Palearctic. The phylogenies (ML and Bayesian analyses) were based on a total of 1988 bp of mitochondrial DNA encompassing three genes (tRNAval, 16S and ND1). A dataset with 173 species of the family Bufonidae was assembled to estimate the separation of the two pan-Eurasiatic species complexes of Bufo and to date the main biogeographic events within the Bufo bufo species complex. The allozyme study included sixteen protein systems, corresponding to 21 presumptive loci. Finally, the distribution models were based on maximum entropy. Our distribution models show that Eastern and Western species complexes are greatly isolated by the Central Asian Deserts, and our dating estimates place this divergence during the Middle Miocene, a moment in which different sources of evidence document a major upturn of the aridification rate of Central Asia. This climate-driven process likely separated the Eastern and Western species. At the

  6. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii Mushroom β-Glucan on Quality Characteristics of Common Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SunHee; Lee, Jo-Won; Heo, Yena; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-glucan-rich fractions (BGRFs) from Pleurotus eryngii mushroom powder on the quality, textural properties, and sensory evaluation of common wheat pasta. Pasta was prepared from semolina flour and common wheat flour by replacing common wheat flour at 2%, 4%, and 6% with BGRFs. Semolina flour showed significantly higher viscosities than common wheat flour samples. However, all viscosities, except the breakdown viscosity, were reduced with increasing percentages of BGRFs. Replacement of the common wheat flour with BGRFs resulted in a reddish brown colored pasta with a lower L* value and a higher a* value. The common wheat pastas containing up to 4% BGRFs were not significantly different from semolina pasta with regard to cooking loss. Addition of up to 2% BGRFs had no significant impact on swelling index and water absorption. The addition of BGRFs in common wheat flour had a positive effect on the quality of common wheat pasta and resulted in hardness values similar to those of semolina pasta. In a sensory evaluation, cooked pasta with 2% BGRFs had the highest overall acceptability score. In summary, the results showed that common wheat flour containing 4% BGRFs could be used to produce pasta with an improved quality and texture properties similar to semolina pasta. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Systematics of the Trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Priscila; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Jaklitsch, Walter; Gazis, Romina; Degenkolb, Thomas; Samuels, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. It is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving Trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. While various studies have suggested that T. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. In the present study the taxonomy of the T. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. Previously named species included in the complex are T. guizhouense, T. harzianum, and T. inhamatum. Two new combinations are proposed, T. lentiforme and T. lixii. Nine species are described as new, T. afarasin, T. afroharzianum, T. atrobrunneum, T. camerunense, T. endophyticum, T. neotropicale, T. pyramidale, T. rifaii and T. simmonsii. We isolated Trichoderma cultures from four commercial biocontrol products reported to contain T. harzianum. None of the biocontrol strains were identified as T. harzianum s. str. In addition, the widely applied culture 'T. harzianum T22' was determined to be T. afroharzianum. Some species in the T. harzianum complex appear to be exclusively endophytic, while others were only isolated from soil. Sexual states are rare. Descriptions and illustrations are provided. A secondary barcode, nuc translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) is needed to identify species in this complex. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. Identification of Fusarium solani species complex from infected zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoli; Lu, Maixin; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-11-01

    Although Fusarium sp. infections have been reported in aquatic invertebrates, studies of Fusarium spp. as fish pathogens remain very limited. In our study, a fungus was isolated from diseased zebrafish (Danio rerio). DNA sequence analysis of the fungus, based on a partial region of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α), the internal transcribed spacer region and domains D1 and D2 of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS plus LSU), and the RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB2), showed 99.9-100% homology to Fusarium solani species complex sequences. Multilocus sequence typing analysis based on 3-locus haplotypes (EF-1α, ITS plus LSU, and RPB2) suggests that the isolated strain was type 3+4-P. Challenge experiments showed that this organism could be pathogenic to zebrafish, but usually does not infect healthy subjects under normal circumstances. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenant, Benoît; Coupat-Goutaland, Bénédicte; Guidot, Alice; Cellier, Gilles; Wicker, Emmanuel; Allen, Caitilyn; Fegan, Mark; Pruvost, Olivier; Elbaz, Mounira; Calteau, Alexandra; Salvignol, Gregory; Mornico, Damien; Mangenot, Sophie; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Prior, Philippe

    2010-06-15

    The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype I), the Americas (phylotype IIA and IIB), Africa (phylotype III) and Indonesia (phylotype IV). Comparison of genome sequences strains representative of this phylogenetic diversity can help determine which traits allow this bacterium to be such a pathogen of so many different plant species and how the bacteria survive in many different habitats. The genomes of three tomato bacterial wilt pathogens, CFBP2957 (phy. IIA), CMR15 (phy. III) and PSI07 (phy. IV) were sequenced and manually annotated. These genomes were compared with those of three previously sequenced R. solanacearum strains: GMI1000 (tomato, phy. I), IPO1609 (potato, phy. IIB), and Molk2 (banana, phy. IIB). The major genomic features (size, G+C content, number of genes) were conserved across all of the six sequenced strains. Despite relatively high genetic distances (calculated from average nucleotide identity) and many genomic rearrangements, more than 60% of the genes of the megaplasmid and 70% of those on the chromosome are syntenic. The three new genomic sequences revealed the presence of several previously unknown traits, probably acquired by horizontal transfers, within the genomes of R. solanacearum, including a type IV secretion system, a rhi-type anti-mitotic toxin and two small plasmids. Genes involved in virulence appear to be evolving at a faster rate than the genome as a whole. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and gene content confirmed the differentiation of R. solanacearum species complex strains into four phylotypes. Genetic distances between strains, in

  10. Genomes of three tomato pathogens within the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex reveal significant evolutionary divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbe Valérie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes thousands of strains pathogenic to an unusually wide range of plant species. These globally dispersed and heterogeneous strains cause bacterial wilt diseases, which have major socio-economic impacts. Pathogenicity is an ancestral trait in R. solanacearum and strains with high genetic variation can be subdivided into four phylotypes, correlating to isolates from Asia (phylotype I, the Americas (phylotype IIA and IIB, Africa (phylotype III and Indonesia (phylotype IV. Comparison of genome sequences strains representative of this phylogenetic diversity can help determine which traits allow this bacterium to be such a pathogen of so many different plant species and how the bacteria survive in many different habitats. Results The genomes of three tomato bacterial wilt pathogens, CFBP2957 (phy. IIA, CMR15 (phy. III and PSI07 (phy. IV were sequenced and manually annotated. These genomes were compared with those of three previously sequenced R. solanacearum strains: GMI1000 (tomato, phy. I, IPO1609 (potato, phy. IIB, and Molk2 (banana, phy. IIB. The major genomic features (size, G+C content, number of genes were conserved across all of the six sequenced strains. Despite relatively high genetic distances (calculated from average nucleotide identity and many genomic rearrangements, more than 60% of the genes of the megaplasmid and 70% of those on the chromosome are syntenic. The three new genomic sequences revealed the presence of several previously unknown traits, probably acquired by horizontal transfers, within the genomes of R. solanacearum, including a type IV secretion system, a rhi-type anti-mitotic toxin and two small plasmids. Genes involved in virulence appear to be evolving at a faster rate than the genome as a whole. Conclusions Comparative analysis of genome sequences and gene content confirmed the differentiation of R. solanacearum species complex strains into four

  11. Speciation in ancient cryptic species complexes: evidence from the molecular phylogeny of Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Africa; Serra, Manuel; Carvalho, Gary R; Lunt, David H

    2002-07-01

    Continental lake-dwelling zooplanktonic organisms have long been considered cosmopolitan species with little geographic variation in spite of the isolation of their habitats. Evidence of morphological cohesiveness and high dispersal capabilities support this interpretation. However, this view has been challenged recently as many such species have been shown either to comprise cryptic species complexes or to exhibit marked population genetic differentiation and strong phylogeographic structuring at a regional scale. Here we investigate the molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan passively dispersing rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera: Monogononta) species complex using nucleotide sequence variation from both nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS1) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI) genes. Analysis of rotifer resting eggs from 27 salt lakes in the Iberian Peninsula plus lakes from four continents revealed nine genetically divergent lineages. The high level of sequence divergence, absence of hybridization, and extensive sympatry observed support the specific status of these lineages. Sequence divergence estimates indicate that the B. plicatilis complex began diversifying many millions of years ago, yet has showed relatively high levels of morphological stasis. We discuss these results in relation to the ecology and genetics of aquatic invertebrates possessing dispersive resting propagules and address the apparent contradiction between zooplanktonic population structure and their morphological stasis.

  12. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  13. Allopatric Speciation within a Cryptic Species Complex of Australasian Octopuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Michael D.; Norman, Mark D.; Cameron, Hayley E.; Strugnell, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive revisions over recent decades, the taxonomy of benthic octopuses (Family Octopodidae) remains in a considerable flux. Among groups of unresolved status is a species complex of morphologically similar shallow-water octopods from subtropical Australasia, including: Allopatric populations of Octopus tetricus on the eastern and western coasts of Australia, of which the Western Australian form is speculated to be a distinct or sub-species; and Octopus gibbsi from New Zealand, a proposed synonym of Australian forms. This study employed a combination of molecular and morphological techniques to resolve the taxonomic status of the ‘tetricus complex’. Phylogenetic analyses (based on five mitochondrial genes: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, COIII and Cytb) and Generalised Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis (based on COI, COIII and Cytb) distinguished eastern and Western Australian O. tetricus as distinct species, while O. gibbsi was found to be synonymous with the east Australian form (BS = >97, PP = 1; GMYC p = 0.01). Discrete morphological differences in mature male octopuses (based on sixteen morphological traits) provided further evidence of cryptic speciation between east (including New Zealand) and west coast populations; although females proved less useful in morphological distinction among members of the tetricus complex. In addition, phylogenetic analyses suggested populations of octopuses currently treated under the name Octopus vulgaris are paraphyletic; providing evidence of cryptic speciation among global populations of O. vulgaris, the most commercially valuable octopus species worldwide. PMID:24964133

  14. The Fusarium solani species complex: ubiquitous pathogens of agricultural importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are capable of causing disease in many agriculturally important crops. The genomes of some of these fungi include supernumerary chromosomes that are dispensable and encode host-specific virulence factors. In addition to genomics, this review summarizes the known molecular mechanisms utilized by members of the FSSC in establishing disease. Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Sordariomycetes; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; Genus Fusarium. Members of the FSSC collectively have a very broad host range, and have been subdivided previously into formae speciales. Recent phylogenetic analysis has revealed that formae speciales correspond to biologically and phylogenetically distinct species. Typically, FSSC causes foot and/or root rot of the infected host plant, and the degree of necrosis correlates with the severity of the disease. Symptoms on above-ground portions of the plant can vary greatly depending on the specific FSSC pathogen and host plant, and the disease may manifest as wilting, stunting and chlorosis or lesions on the stem and/or leaves. Implementation of agricultural management practices, such as crop rotation and timing of planting, can reduce the risk of crop loss caused by FSSC. If available, the use of resistant varieties is another means to control disease in the field. http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Necha2/Necha2.home.html. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Fusarium dimerum Species Complex (Fusarium penzigii) Keratitis After Corneal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Anália; Costa, Esmeralda; Marques, Marco; Quadrado, Maria João; Tomé, Rui

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a keratitis associated with a Fusarium penzigii-a Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC)-in a 81-year-old woman after a corneal trauma with a tree branch. At patient admittance, slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed an exuberant chemosis, an inferior corneal ulcer with an associated inflammatory infiltrate, a central corneal abscess, bullous keratopathy and posterior synechiae. Corneal scrapes were obtained for identification of bacteria and fungi, and the patient started antibiotic treatment on empirical basis. Few days later, the situation worsened with the development of hypopyon. By that time, Fusarium was identified in cultures obtained from corneal scrapes and the patient started topical amphotericin B 0.15 %. Upon the morphological identification of the Fusarium as a FDSC, and since there was no clinical improvement, the treatment with amphotericin B was suspended and the patient started voriconazole 10 mg/ml, eye drops, hourly and voriconazole 200 mg iv, every 12 h for 1 month. The hypopyon resolved and the inflammatory infiltrate improved, but the abscess persisted at the last follow-up visit. The molecular identification revealed that the FDSC was a F. penzigii.

  16. Mosaic genome architecture of the Anopheles gambiae species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang-Sattler

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission.We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary relationships of four species in the A. gambiae complex, the two major malaria vectors A. gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis, as well as two minor vectors, A. merus and A. melas.We identify six taxonomic units, including a clear separation of West and East Africa A. gambiae s.s. S molecular forms. We show that the phylogenetic relationships vary widely between different genomic regions, thus demonstrating the mosaic nature of the genome of these species. The two major malaria vectors are closely related and closer to A. merus than to A. melas at the genome-wide level, which is also true if only autosomes are considered. However, within the Xag inversion region of the X chromosome, the M and two S molecular forms are most similar to A. merus. Near the X centromere, outside the Xag region, the two S forms are highly dissimilar to the other taxa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the centromeric region of chromosome 3 is a strong discriminator between the major and minor malaria vectors.Although further studies are needed to elucidate the basis of the phylogenetic variation among the different regions of the genome, the preponderance of sympatric admixtures among taxa strongly favor introgression of different genomic regions between species, rather than lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism, as a possible mechanism.

  17. Comparison of two DNA sequence-based typing schemes for the Fusarium solani Species Complex and proposal of a new consensus method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debourgogne, A.; Gueidan, C.; de Hoog, S.; Lozniewski, A.; Machouart, M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely used approach for differentiating microbial isolates presenting many advantages such as easy access through online databases and straightforward interpretation. For the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), three gene regions have been widely used to

  18. Comparison of two DNA sequence-based typing schemes for the Fusarium solani Species Complex and proposal of a new consensus method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debourgogne, A.; Gueidan, C.; de Hoog, S.; Lozniewski, A.; Machouart, M.

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a widely used approach for differentiating microbial isolates presenting many advantages such as easy access through online databases and straightforward interpretation. For the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). three gene regions have been widely used to

  19. Influence of alkali and alkaline earth elements on the uptake of radionuclides by Pleurototus eryngii fruit bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.es [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Baeza, A.; Salas, A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    In the literature, there are many data available on radionuclide contents and their transfer to different species of mushrooms. There are some variables, however, which affect the transfer but are very difficult to observe in collected wild mushrooms. An example is the effect of different concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth elements in the soil. Modification of these concentrations in the soil solution has traditionally been used as a countermeasure to deal with radioactively contaminated areas. In the present work, fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii, a saprophytic mushroom, were grown under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the content of alkali (potassium and caesium) and alkaline earth (calcium and strontium) elements. The transfer of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 60}Co (added to the cultures) and of natural {sup 210}Pb was analysed by increasing the content of each stable element considered. A significant, but nonlinear, enhancement of stable caesium and {sup 134}Cs was observed with increasing content of stable caesium in the substrate/mycelium. The transfer of {sup 85}Sr decreased with the addition of each stable cation, whereas the {sup 60}Co and {sup 210}Pb transfers were unaffected. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of stable potassium did not affect the uptake of radiocaesium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of stable caesium increased the stable caesium and {sup 134}Cs content in the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of calcium reduced the content of calcium and {sup 85}Sr in the fruiting bodies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These countermeasures did not work properly in the case of {sup 60}Co and {sup 210}Pb, no effect was observed.

  20. Antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, and fermented products of the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes), with high ergothioneine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Ho, Kung-Jui; Huang, Ling-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii is known to contain ergothioneine, and its products, including fruiting bodies, mycelia, and solid-state fermented products (adlay and buckwheat), were prepared to study their antioxidant properties. Fruiting bodies, regular and Hi-Ergo mycelia, and fermented products contained 2.05, 1.68, 5.76, 0.79-0.80 mg/g of ergothioneine, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained, P. eryngii products had effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. Hi-Ergo mycelia was the most effective in the first 3 antioxidant properties in addition to its ergothioneine content. In addition, fruiting bodies were more effective in all antioxidant properties than regular mycelia. For ethanolic and hot water extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies, the correlation coefficients between total phenol contents and each antioxidant attribute were 0.483-0.921. Overall, P. eryngii products with high amounts of ergothioneine could be used beneficially as a functional food.

  1. Phylogeny and Haplotype Analysis of Fungi Within the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdial, H; Latchoo, R K; Hosein, F N; Rampersad, S N

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium spp. are ranked among the top 10 most economically and scientifically important plant-pathogenic fungi in the world and are associated with plant diseases that include fruit decay of a number of crops. Fusarium isolates infecting bell pepper in Trinidad were identified based on sequence comparisons of the translation elongation factor gene (EF-1a) with sequences of Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) verified in the FUSARIUM-ID database. Eighty-two isolates were identified as belonging to one of four phylogenetic species within the subclades FIESC-1, FIESC-15, FIESC-16, and FIESC-26, with the majority of isolates belonging to FIESC-15. A comparison of the level of DNA polymorphism and phylogenetic inference for sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and EF-1a sequences for Trinidad and FUSARIUM-ID type species was carried out. The ITS sequences were less informative, had lower haplotype diversity and restricted haplotype distribution, and resulted in poor resolution and taxa placement in the consensus maximum-likelihood tree. EF-1a sequences enabled strongly supported phylogenetic inference with highly resolved branching patterns of the 30 phylogenetic species within the FIESC and placement of representative Trinidad isolates. Therefore, global phylogeny was inferred from EF-1a sequences representing 11 countries, and separation into distinct Incarnatum and Equiseti clades was again evident. In total, 42 haplotypes were identified: 12 were shared and the remaining were unique haplotypes. The most diverse haplotype was represented by sequences from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Trinidad and consisted exclusively of F. incarnatum isolates. Spain had the highest haplotype diversity, perhaps because both F. equiseti and F. incarnatum sequences were represented; followed by the United States, which contributed both F. equiseti and F. incarnatum sequences to the data set; then by countries representing Southeast

  2. Molecular phylogenetic and pathogenetic characterization of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), the cause of dry rot on potato in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Ghasempour, Hamid Reza; Karimi, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Members of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are common pathogens of potato, causing dry rot in the west of Iran which involved Hamedan, Kermanshah, Eilam and Kurdistan provinces. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing FSSC from infected potato tubers based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. Forty-five isolates of Fusarium were obtained from potato tubers collected from the wet market in different regions of the west of Iran and identified as FSSC through morphological characters. All of the isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy potato tubers in the planthouse. The tubers rot symptoms were observed on the 21st day after inoculation of Fusarium isolates on the tubers tested. In the tubers inoculation tests, lesion sizes were quite variable; therefore, the measurement was done to compare the depth and width of lesion expansion among the isolates. Based on the sequence data from translation elongation factor (EF-lα) gene and internal transcript spacer (ITS) regions analysis, all of the selected FSSC isolates were divided into two major groups. This is the first report on molecular identification of FSSC strains isolated from potato tubers in Iran and Fusarium falciforme was reported for the first time in Iran. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the Afroedura nivaria (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) species complex in South Africa provides insight on cryptic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhubo, Buyisile G; Tolley, Krystal A; Bates, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The Afroedura nivaria species complex (A. nivaria, A. karroica, A. amatolica, A. tembulica and A. halli) is a morphologically conservative group of medium-sized flat geckos endemic to South Africa and Lesotho. Species are allopatric, as are some populations within species that are separated by large expanses of unsuitable habitat. Because of this isolation of populations we hypothesised that several cryptic species may be present. To investigate this hypothesis we constructed a molecular phylogeny using multiple markers, and included representatives of other Afroedura species. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses (439bp 16S, 593bp ND4, 948bp RAG1) strongly supported the genetic distinctiveness of the five described species. However, the A. nivaria species complex as currently described is not monophyletic, as A. karroica was positioned outside a clade containing all other Afroedura species, and A. pondolia (which was presumed to belong to a different species complex) was recovered within the A. nivaria complex. Several distinct clades within A. halli and A. nivaria were also recovered, and the narrowly-distributed A. amatolica consisted of two highly divergent clades. We also conducted a multivariate analysis using 19 morphological characters to investigate whether the clades recovered by the phylogeny were distinct in terms of head, body and limb shape. The analysis showed some variation between clades in terms of locomotor apparatus (forelimbs and feet), head and body dimensions, but overall the morphological differences were minor. This morphological conservatism in the A. nivaria complex may be a result of adaptation to similar microhabitats. Exclusive of A. karroica, the results suggest that there are at least nine species in this complex, of which four are cryptic and undescribed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathotypes in the Entomophaga grylli species complex of grasshopper pathogens differentiated with random amplification of polymorphic DNA and cloned-DNA probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bidochka, M J; Walsh, S R; Ramos, M E; Leger, R J; Silver, J C; Roberts, D W

    1995-01-01

    The zygomycetous fungus Entomophaga grylli is a pathogen that shows host-specific variance to grasshopper subfamilies. Three pathotypes of the E. grylli species complex were differentiated by three molecular techniques. In the first method, the three pathotypes showed different fragment patterns generated by random amplifica- tion of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). There was little or no interisolate variability in RAPD fragment patterns within each pathotype. Passage of an isolate of pathotype 3, or...

  6. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rosa Alicia; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA) supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1) A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2) A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America); and (3) A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses found evidence

  7. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alicia Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1 A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2 A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America; and (3 A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses

  8. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Alberto; Maccari, Giuseppe; Congiu, Terenzio; Basso, Petra; Baj, Andreina; Toniolo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC), indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins) yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi. PMID:23935636

  9. Colonization of a Central Venous Catheter by the Hyaline Fungus Fusarium solani Species Complex: A Case Report and SEM Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Colombo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of opportunistic infections by filamentous fungi is increasing partly due to the widespread use of central venous catheters (CVC, indwelling medical devices, and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. The case of a 13-year-old boy under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. The boy was readmitted to the Pediatric Ward for intermittent fever of unknown origin. Results of blood cultures drawn from peripheral venous sites or through the CVC were compared. CVC-derived bottles (but not those from peripheral veins yielded hyaline fungi that, based on morphology, were identified as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Gene amplification and direct sequencing of the fungal ITS1 rRNA region and the EF-1alpha gene confirmed the isolate as belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex. Portions of the CVC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Fungi mycelia with long protruding hyphae were seen into the lumen. The firm adhesion of the fungal formation to the inner surface of the catheter was evident. In the absence of systemic infection, catheter removal and prophylactic voriconazole therapy were followed by disappearance of febrile events and recovery. Thus, indwelling catheters are prone to contamination by environmental fungi.

  10. Learned vocal variation is associated with abrupt cryptic genetic change in a parrot species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul F H Ribot

    Full Text Available Contact zones between subspecies or closely related species offer valuable insights into speciation processes. A typical feature of such zones is the presence of clinal variation in multiple traits. The nature of these traits and the concordance among clines are expected to influence whether and how quickly speciation will proceed. Learned signals, such as vocalizations in species having vocal learning (e.g. humans, many birds, bats and cetaceans, can exhibit rapid change and may accelerate reproductive isolation between populations. Therefore, particularly strong concordance among clines in learned signals and population genetic structure may be expected, even among continuous populations in the early stages of speciation. However, empirical evidence for this pattern is often limited because differences in vocalisations between populations are driven by habitat differences or have evolved in allopatry. We tested for this pattern in a unique system where we may be able to separate effects of habitat and evolutionary history. We studied geographic variation in the vocalizations of the crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans parrot species complex. Parrots are well known for their life-long vocal learning and cognitive abilities. We analysed contact calls across a ca 1300 km transect encompassing populations that differed in neutral genetic markers and plumage colour. We found steep clinal changes in two acoustic variables (fundamental frequency and peak frequency position. The positions of the two clines in vocal traits were concordant with a steep cline in microsatellite-based genetic variation, but were discordant with the steep clines in mtDNA, plumage and habitat. Our study provides new evidence that vocal variation, in a species with vocal learning, can coincide with areas of restricted gene flow across geographically continuous populations. Our results suggest that traits that evolve culturally can be strongly associated with reduced gene flow

  11. Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex

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    Cristescu Melania E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for historical, demographic and selective factors affecting enzyme evolution can be obtained by examining nucleotide sequence variation in candidate genes such as Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh. Two closely related Daphnia species can be distinguished by their electrophoretic Ldh genotype and habitat. Daphnia pulex populations are fixed for the S allele and inhabit temporary ponds, while D. pulicaria populations are fixed for the F allele and inhabit large stratified lakes. One locus is detected in most allozyme surveys, but genome sequencing has revealed two genes, LdhA and LdhB. Results We sequenced both Ldh genes from 70 isolates of these two species from North America to determine if the association between Ldh genotype and habitat shows evidence for selection, and to elucidate the evolutionary history of the two genes. We found that alleles in the pond-dwelling D. pulex and in the lake-dwelling D. pulicaria form distinct groups at both loci, and the substitution of Glutamine (S for Glutamic acid (F at amino acid 229 likely causes the electrophoretic mobility shift in the LDHA protein. Nucleotide diversity in both Ldh genes is much lower in D. pulicaria than in D. pulex. Moreover, the lack of spatial structuring of the variation in both genes over a wide geographic area is consistent with a recent demographic expansion of lake populations. Neutrality tests indicate that both genes are under purifying selection, but the intensity is much stronger on LdhA. Conclusions Although lake-dwelling D. pulicaria hybridizes with the other lineages in the pulex species complex, it remains distinct ecologically and genetically. This ecological divergence, coupled with the intensity of purifying selection on LdhA and the strong association between its genotype and habitat, suggests that experimental studies would be useful to determine if variation in molecular function provides evidence that LDHA variants are adaptive.

  12. Species complexes within epiphytic diatoms and their relevance for the bioindication of trophic status.

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    Poulíčková, Aloisie; Letáková, Markéta; Hašler, Petr; Cox, Eileen; Duchoslav, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The popularity of aquatic bioassessments has increased in Europe and worldwide, with a considerable number of methods being based on benthic diatoms. Recent evidence from molecular data and mating experiments has shown that some traditional diatom morphospecies represent species complexes, containing several to many cryptic species. This case study is based on epiphytic diatom and environmental data from shallow fishponds, investigating whether the recognition and use of fine taxonomic resolution (cryptic species) can improve assessment of community response to environmental drivers and increase sharpness of classification, compared to coarse taxonomic resolution (genus level and species level with unresolved species complexes). Secondly, trophy bioindication based on a species matrix divided into two compartments (species complexes and remaining species) was evaluated against the expectation that species complexes would be poor trophy indicators, due to their expected wide ecological amplitude. Finally, the response of species complexes and their members (cryptic species) to a trophic gradient (phosphorus) were compared. Multivariate analyses showed similar efficiency of all three taxonomic resolutions in depicting community patterns and their environmental correlates, suggesting that even genus level resolution is sufficient for routine bioassessment of shallow fishponds with a wide trophic range. However, after controlling for coarse taxonomic matrices, fine taxonomic resolution (with resolved cryptic species) still showed sufficient variance related to the environmental variable (habitat groups), and increased the sharpness of classification, number of indicator species for habitat categories, and gave better separation of habitat categories in the ordination space. Regression analysis of trophic bioindication and phosphorus concentration showed a weak relationship for species complexes but a close relationship for the remaining taxa. GLM models also showed

  13. Strong Genomic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in the Aeromonas sobria Species Complex

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    Jeff Gauthier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas sobria is a mesophilic motile aeromonad currently depicted as an opportunistic pathogen, despite increasing evidence of mutualistic interactions in salmonid fish. However, the determinants of its host-microbe associations, either mutualistic or pathogenic, remain less understood than for other aeromonad species. On one side, there is an over-representation of pathogenic interactions in the A. sobria literature, of which only three articles to date report mutualistic interactions; on the other side, genomic characterization of this species is still fairly incomplete as only two draft genomes were published prior to the present work. Consequently, no study specifically investigated the biodiversity of A. sobria. In fact, the investigation of A. sobria as a species complex may have been clouded by: (i confusion with A. veronii biovar sobria because of their similar biochemical profiles, and (ii the intrinsic low resolution of previous studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence typing. So far, the only high-resolution, phylogenomic studies of the genus Aeromonas included one A. sobria strain (CECT 4245 / Popoff 208, making it impossible to robustly conclude on the phylogenetic intra-species diversity and the positioning among other Aeromonas species. To further understand the biodiversity and the spectrum of host-microbe interactions in A. sobria as well as its potential genomic diversity, we assessed the genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity among five A. sobria strains: two clinical isolates recovered from infected fish (JF2635 and CECT 4245, one from an infected amphibian (08005 and two recently isolated brook charr probionts (TM12 and TM18 which inhibit in vitro growth of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (a salmonid fish pathogen. A phylogenomic assessment including 2,154 softcore genes corresponding to 946,687 variable sites from 33 Aeromonas genomes confirms the status of A. sobria as a distinct species divided

  14. Molecular and pathological characterization of Fusarium solani species complex infection in the head and lateral line system of Sphyrna lewini.

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    Pirarat, Nopadon; Sahatrakul, Komsil; Lacharoje, Sitthichok; Lombardini, Eric; Chansue, Nantarika; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2016-08-09

    A severe fungal infection affecting the head and lateral line system was diagnosed in 7 captive scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini in an aquarium in Thailand. Extensive and severe necrotizing cellulitis was consistently observed microscopically along the cephalic and lateral line canals in conjunction with positive fungal cultures for Fusarium sp. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed from 3 isolates based on the nucleotide sequences containing internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and a portion of 5.8S and 28S rDNA. The fungus was highly homologous (100%) and closely related to F. solani species complex 2 (FSSC 2), which belongs to Clade 3 of the FSSC. Our results illustrate the histopathological findings and expand upon our knowledge of the prevalence of invasive fusariosis in the head and lateral line system of hammerhead sharks.

  15. Speciation on the rocks: integrated systematics of the Heteronotia spelea species complex (Gekkota; Reptilia from Western and Central Australia.

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    Mitzy Pepper

    Full Text Available The isolated uplands of the Australian arid zone are known to provide mesic refuges in an otherwise xeric landscape, and divergent lineages of largely arid zone taxa have persisted in these regions following the onset of Miocene aridification. Geckos of the genus Heteronotia are one such group, and have been the subject of many genetic studies, including H. spelea, a strongly banded form that occurs in the uplands of the Pilbara and Central Ranges regions of the Australian arid zone. Here we assess the systematics of these geckos based on detailed examination of morphological and genetic variation. The H. spelea species complex is a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of the H. binoei and H. planiceps species complexes. Within the H. spelea complex, our previous studies based on mtDNA and nine nDNA loci found populations from the Central Ranges to be genetically divergent from Pilbara populations. Here we supplement our published molecular data with additional data gathered from central Australian samples. In the spirit of integrative species delimitation, we combine multi-locus, coalescent-based lineage delimitation with extensive morphological analyses to test species boundaries, and we describe the central populations as a new species, H. fasciolatus sp. nov. In addition, within the Pilbara there is strong genetic evidence for three lineages corresponding to northeastern (type, southern, and a large-bodied melanic population isolated in the northwest. Due to its genetic distinctiveness and extreme morphological divergence from all other Heteronotia, we describe the melanic form as a new species, H. atra sp. nov. The northeastern and southern Pilbara populations are morphologically indistinguishable with the exception of a morpho-type in the southeast that has a banding pattern resembling H. planiceps from the northern monsoonal tropics. Pending more extensive analyses, we therefore treat Pilbara H. spelea as a single species with

  16. Preparation of culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii-fermented products with high ergothioneine content and their taste quality.

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    Chen, Shih-Yu; Ho, Kung-Jui; Liang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Huang, Ling-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC. : Fr.) Ouel. was used in solid-state fermentation to develop novel mushroom products with a high amount of ergothioneine. The correlation coefficients between ergothioneine content and biomass were 0.8878 and 0.9206 for fermented adlay and buckwheat, respectively. Using optimal conditions, Pleurotus-fermented adlay and buckwheat (PFA and PFB) with the ergothioneine contents of 795.5 and 786.1 mg/ kg, respectively, were prepared. However, mycelia contained the highest ergothioneine content of 1514.6 mg/kg. As a result of SSF by P. eryngii, PFA and PFB contained more taste components than adlay and buckwheat, as evidenced by higher contents of total sugars and polyols, total free amino acids and monosodium glutamate-like components, and total and flavor 5'-nucleotides. In addition, PFB and buckwheat showed comparable equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values, whereas PFA showed a higher EUC value than adlay. Overall, Pleurotus-fermented products with a high amount of ergothioneine will be a novel functional food.

  17. Sulfation of the Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced by the King Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (Agaricomycetes), and Its Antioxidant Properties In Vitro.

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    Jia, Xuewei; Wang, Chong; Bai, Yanhong; Yu, Jinwei; Xu, Chunping

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii was sulfated; the optimum reaction conditions used pyridine as the reaction solvent, a temperature of 80°C, and a reaction time of 90 minutes. The structure and antioxidant activity of the sulfated and original polysaccharides (designated as SF-1 and Fr-1, respectively) were investigated. The main functional groups of polysaccharides were determined by Fourier transform infrared, and the chain conformation was determined by size-exclusion chromatography with laser light scattering and viscometry. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that the sulfated group was linked to the polymer. The molecular weight of SF-1 was much lighter than that of Fr-1, which suggested that degradation occurred during sulfation. The stable globular shape conformation of Fr-1 was changed to the random coil conformation of SF-1 in the aqueous solution. Moreover, the sulfated derivative SF-1 was found to have a better scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and DPPH free radicals than Fr-1. It seems that the chemical modification of P. eryngii polysaccharides by sulfation effectively enhances their antioxidant activity.

  18. Fusarium paranaense sp. nov., a member of the Fusarium solani species complex causes root rot on soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sarah S; Matos, Kedma S; Tessmann, Dauri J; Seixas, Claudine D S; Pfenning, Ludwig H

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium obtained from soybean plants showing symptoms of root rot collected in subtropical southern and tropical central Brazil were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses, sexual crossing, morphology, and pathogenicity tests. A novel species within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) causing soybean root rot is formally described herein as Fusarium paranaense. This species can be distinguished from the other soybean root rot pathogens in the FSSC, which are commonly associated with soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) based on analyses of the combined DNA sequences of translation elongation factor 1-α and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and on interspecies mating compatibility. Bayesian and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses showed that isolates of F. paranaense formed a distinct group in clade 3 of the FSSC in contrast to the pathogens currently known to cause SDS, which are in clade 2. Female fertile tester strains were developed that can be used for the identification of this new species in the FSSC based on sexual crosses. All isolates were heterothallic and belonged to a distinct mating population. Fusarium tucumaniae, a known SDS pathogen, was found in the subtropical southern region of the country. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative “Omics” of the Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Highlights Differences in Genetic Potential and Metabolite Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Münsterkötter, Martin; Proctor, Robert H.; Brown, Daren W.; Sharon, Amir; Idan, Yifat; Oren-Young, Liat; Sieber, Christian M.; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Tarkowská, Danuše; Hromadová, Kristýna; Freeman, Stanley; Maymon, Marcel; Elazar, Meirav; Youssef, Sahar A.; El-Shabrawy, El Said M.; Shalaby, Abdel Baset A.; Houterman, Petra; Brock, Nelson L.; Burkhardt, Immo; Tsavkelova, Elena A.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Galuszka, Petr; Güldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins. The spectrum of SMs produced can differ among closely related species, suggesting that SMs might be determinants of host specificity. To date, genomes of only a limited number of FFC species have been sequenced. Here, we provide draft genome sequences of three more members of the FFC: a single isolate of F. mangiferae, the cause of mango malformation, and two isolates of F. proliferatum, one a pathogen of maize and the other an orchid endophyte. We compared these genomes to publicly available genome sequences of three other FFC species. The comparisons revealed species-specific and isolate-specific differences in the composition and expression (in vitro and in planta) of genes involved in SM production including those for phytohormome biosynthesis. Such differences have the potential to impact host specificity and, as in the case of F. proliferatum, the pathogenic versus endophytic life style. PMID:28040774

  20. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Rego, C.; Oliveira, H.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Ilyonectria radicicola and its Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph represent a species complex that is commonly associated with root rot disease symptoms on a range of hosts. During the course of this study, several species could be distinguished from I. radicicola sensu stricto based on morphological and

  1. Clinical Manifestations of Punta Toro Virus Species Complex Infections, Panama, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundacker, Nathan D; Carrera, Jean-Paul; Castillo, Marlene; Díaz, Yamilka; Valenzuela, Jose; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Moreno, Brechla; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Tesh, Robert B; López-Vergès, Sandra

    2017-05-01

    An investigation in Panama found that Punta Toro virus species complex (PTVs) may contribute to febrile illnesses with symptoms mirroring those of dengue fever. However, further studies are needed to determine if PTV infection causes only a mild disease or if it can have more serious manifestations in some patients.

  2. Differential triazole sensitivity among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex infecting barley grains in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grains and is caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). Barley growers in Brazil rely on fungicides, especially triazoles, to suppress the disease and limit mycotoxin contamination of grain. Information on...

  3. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  4. Comparative "Omics" of the Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Highlights Differences in Genetic Potential and Metabolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, E.-M.; Münsterkötter, M.; Proctor, R.H.; Brown, D.W.; Sharon, A.; Idan, Y.; Oren-Young, L.; Sieber, C.M.; Novák, O.; Pěnčík, A.; Tarkowská, D.; Hromadová, K.; Freeman, S.; Maymon, M.; Elazar, M.; Youssef, S.A.; El-Shabrawy, E.S.M.; Shalaby, A.B.A.; Houterman, P.; Brock, N.L.; Burkhardt, I.; Tsavkelova, E.A.; Dickschat, J.S.; Galuszka, P.; Güldener, U.; Tudzynski, B.

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share

  5. Molecular evidence for long distance dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Buchanan, Peter K

    2008-04-01

    We examined phylogeographic relationships in the cosmopolitan polypore fungus Ganoderma applanatum and allies, and conservatively infer a possible age of origin for these fungi. Results indicate that it is very unlikely that members of this species complex diversified before the break-up of Gondwana from Laurasia ca 120M years ago, and also before the final separation of the Gondwanan landmasses from each other that was achieved about 66M years ago. An earliest possible age of origin of 30M years was estimated from nucleotide substitution rates in the 18S rDNA gene. Phylogenetic reconstruction of a worldwide sampling of ITS rDNA sequences reveals at least eight distinct clades that are strongly correlated with the geographic origin of the strains, and also correspond to mating groups. These include one Southern Hemisphere clade, one Southern Hemisphere-Eastern Asia clade, two temperate Northern Hemisphere clades, three Asian clades, and one neotropical clade. Geographically distant collections from the Southern Hemisphere shared identical ITS haplotypes, and an ITS recombinant was noted. Nested clade analysis of a parsimony network among isolates of the Southern Hemisphere clade indicated restricted gene flow with isolation-by-distance among the New Zealand, Australia-Tasmania, Chile-Argentine, and South Africa populations, suggesting episodic events of long-distance dispersal within the Southern Hemisphere. This study indicates that dispersal bias plays a more important role than generally admitted to explain the Southern Hemisphere distribution of many taxa, at least for saprobic fungi.

  6. Systematics and Population Genetics of a Phylogenetic Species Within the Fusarium solani Species Complex Associated with Human Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a monophyletic group comprising dozens of phylogenetic and biological species, and represents the most common species complex associated with fusarial infections of mammals, particularly mycotic keratitis. Previous work found that approximately 75% of k...

  7. Gibberella xylarioides sensu lato from Coffea canephora: a new mating population in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoint, Pascale C E; Munaut, Françoise T J; Maraite, Henri M M

    2005-12-01

    Gibberella xylarioides Heim & Saccas (presumed anamorph, Fusarium xylarioides Steyaert) is the causal agent of coffee wilt disease, an economically important tracheomycosis in Africa. In vitro crosses carried out with Congolese, Ugandan, and Tanzanian single-ascospore/conidial isolates originating from diseased Coffea canephora/excelsa demonstrated a heterothallic mating system, controlled by a single locus with two alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2. Compatible isolates produced fertile perithecia within 2 to 8 weeks after mating. Mating type (MAT) was characterized by PCR with primer pairs previously developed for the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFC) and for Fusarium oxysporum. All strains analyzed were morphologically identical and corresponded to Booth's description of the "female" F. xylarioides strain. Based on crossing results and MAT-2/translation elongation 1-alpha (tef) sequence data, G. xylarioides, as currently understood, is demonstrated to encompass at least three "groups": G. xylarioides sensu strictu Ia, defined hitherto by two "historical" West African strains originating from the severe 1930s to 1950s epidemic (CBS 25852 and CBS 74979); G. xylarioides sensu strictu Ib, defined by two "historical" Central African lowland strains (DSMZ 62457 and ATCC 15664); and G. xylarioides sensu lato II, containing Congolese, Ugandan, and Tanzanian C. canephora/excelsa isolates. Infertility of crosses between the coffee wilt pathogen and known GFC mating populations demonstrates that G. xylarioides sensu lato constitutes a new biological species within the G. fujikuroi complex. MUCL 44532/MUCL 43887 and MUCL 35223/MUCL 44549 are proposed as G. xylarioides sensu lato II MAT-1/MAT-2 reference mating type tester strains.

  8. Species-specific detection and identification of fusarium species complex, the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China.

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    Zhenyue Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. METHODS: A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. RESULT: Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng.

  9. Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

    2004-01-01

    A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and β-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens.

  10. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Ørstad, Kari; Jensen, Birgit; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Stensvand, Arne

    2015-08-01

    Herbaria collections containing plants with disease symptoms are highly valuable, and they are often the only way to investigate outbreaks and epidemics from the past as the number of viable isolates in culture collections is often limited. Species belonging to the Colletotrichum acutatum complex infect a range of important crops. As members of the C. acutatum complex are easily confused with other Colletotrichum species, molecular methods are central for the correct identification. We performed molecular analyses on 21 herbaria specimens, displaying anthracnose symptoms, collected in Norway and Denmark before the first confirmed findings of C. acutatum complex members in this region. Sequencing parts of the fungal ITS regions showed that members of the species complex were present in 13 of the 21 specimens collected in different parts of Norway and Denmark between 1948 and 1991, representing seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well-established population. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Asymmetric conspecific sperm precedence in relation to spawning times in the Montastraea annularis species complex (Cnidaria: Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, N D; Lowenberg, M; Ojima, M N; Knowlton, N; Levitan, D R

    2012-12-01

    In broadcast spawners, prezygotic reproductive isolation depends on differences in the spatial and temporal patterns of gamete release and gametic incompatibility. Typically, gametic incompatibility is measured in no-choice crosses, but conspecific sperm precedence (CSP) can prevent hybridization in gametes that are compatible in the absence of sperm competition. Broadcast spawning corals in the Montastraea annularis species complex spawn annually on the same few evenings. Montastraea franksi spawns an average of 110 min before M. annularis, with a minimum gap of approximately 40 min. Gametes are compatible in no-choice heterospecific assays, but it is unknown whether eggs exhibit choice when in competition. Hybridization depends on either M. franksi eggs remaining unfertilized and in proximity to M. annularis when the latter species spawns or M. franksi sperm remaining in sufficient viable concentrations when M. annularis spawns. We found that the eggs of the early spawning M. franksi demonstrate strong CSP, whereas CSP appears to be lacking for M. annularis eggs. This study provides evidence of diverging gamete affinities between these recently separated species and suggests for the first time that selection may favour CSP in earlier spawning species when conspecific sperm is diluted and aged and is otherwise at a numeric and viability disadvantage with heterospecific sperm. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L

    2016-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Character release following extinction in a Caribbean reef coral species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, John M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Budd, Ann F

    2002-03-01

    The Pleistocene extinction of the widespread organ-pipe Montastraea coral had measurable morphological and ecological effects on surviving lineages of the Montastraea "annularis" species complex. Extinction of the organ-pipe Montastraea occurred after more than 500,000 years of dominance in the shallow-water reef habitat of Barbados. Extinction resulted in a morphological shift of the columnar Montastraea lineage from thick to thin columns in modern reef environments. Pleistocene colonies of the columnar morphotype sympatric with organ-pipe Montastraea showed greater column widths than those in allopatry. We subjected our data to a number of criteria for interpreting the morphological shift as character release following lifting of competitive pressure after extinction. The morphological differences do not appear to be due either to chance or to physical properties of the marine environment. Differential local extinction and recolonization of four members of the species complex did not occur on Barbados, so that the species coexisted and appear to have coevolved between more than 600,000 and 82,000 years ago. The morphological shift is related to coral growth form and growth rate, and thus reflects the acquisition of a primary resource in corals--light. Character release occurred at the same oceanic Caribbean island (Barbados) where environments have fluctuated with similar variance throughout the period of coexistence. Not only has competition among living members of the Montastraea "annularis" species complex been convincingly demonstrated, but trends in relative abundance among fossil members of the species complex strongly suggest that a competitive hierarchy was operating during their Pleistocene coexistence on Barbados. We also observed an ecological analogue to character release on another Caribbean island. Curaçao. The distribution and abundance of living columnar M. annularis s.s. and massive M. faveolata from the leeward reef crest in Curaçao is greater

  14. Identification of species D, a new member of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus species complex: a biochemical key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, S K; Kaiser, P E; Seawright, J A

    1989-09-01

    Sibling species D, a new member of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus species complex was identified in collections from Pickwick Lake, Tishomingo County, Mississippi and Choctawhatchee, Bay County, in West Florida. This species occurred sympatrically with the previously described species, A, B and C. Evidence for identification of species D includes diagnostic allozymes, a lack of polytene chromosomes in the ovarian nurse cells, and inviability of F1 progeny and lack of sperm transfer in hybridization crosses. An electrophoretic taxonomic key for distinguishing species D from A, B and C is presented.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Jagannathan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia, and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Madhav; Warsinger-Pepe, Natalie; Watase, George J; Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2017-02-09

    Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia) using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia), and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species. Copyright © 2017 Jagannathan et al.

  17. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  18. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Iftikhar

    Full Text Available Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27% at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%. BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci, and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  19. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae from Ecuador and Peru

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    Santiago Ron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1 a basal position of O. taurinus + O. oophagus, (2 a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3 a clade that corresponds to the O. buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, O. buckleyi. Individuals assignable to O. buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to O. verruciger and O. cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is O. buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (O. vilmae sp. n. and O. cannatellai sp. n. and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (O. germani sp. n.. We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them.

  20. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  1. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

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    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  2. Molecular diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid: comparison of primer sets for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex

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    Marilena dos Anjos Martins

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that the CN4/CN5 primer set was highly sensitive for the identification of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis.

  3. Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov., a widely distributed member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex in North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margos, Gabriele; Piesman, Joseph; Lane, Robert S; Ogden, Nicholas H; Sing, Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker

    .... Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter, B. burgdorferi) was described in the north-eastern USA during the early 1980s, an increasing diversity has been noted within the species complex...

  4. Colletotrichum truncatum species complex: Treatment considerations and review of the literature for an unusual pathogen causing fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis

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    Victoria Squissato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Colletotrichum truncatum species complex fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in an 87-year-old immunocompetent male in whom oral triazole antifungals were contraindicated. The patient had recently returned from 4 months in Jamaica with a one month history of progressively increasing pain and inflammation in his left eye. Corneal samples grew a filamentous fungus and internal transcribed spacer sequencing polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of C. truncatum species complex. Samples showed no microbial growth.

  5. Pleurotus eryngii immobilized Amberlite XAD-16 as a solid-phase biosorbent for preconcentrations of Cd2+ and Co2+ and their determination by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Sadin; Okumuş, Veysi; Kılınç, Ersin; Bilgetekin, Havin; Dündar, Abdurrahman; Ziyadanogˇulları, Berrin

    2012-09-15

    This article reports a method that is used for the preconcentration and determination of Cd(2+) and Co(2+) in vegetables, using Pleurotus eryngii immobilized Amberlite XAD-16 as a solid-phase biosorbent. The concentrations of metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical spectrometry (ICP-OES). Critical parameters, such as the pH of the solution, flow rate, the amount of biosorbent, type and volume of eluent, and the sample volume, that affect the solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were optimized. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as being a pH of 6.0 for Cd(2+) and of 5.0 for Co(2+); a sample flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1); 200.0mg of biosorbent; and 5.0 mL of 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl as eluent. The capacities of the biosorbent for metal uptake were found to be 11.3 and 9.8 mg g(-1) for Cd(2+) and Co(2+) ions, respectively. Limit of quantitations (LOQs) were found to be 0.67 and 0.82 ng mL(-1), respectively, for Cd(2+) and Co(2+). The linear working curves were observed to be in the linear range from 1.0 to 50.0 ng mL(-1), and possessed high correlation coefficients. The use of the SPE method showed 50.7- and 35.7-fold improvements in the sensitivities of ICP-OES. The developed method was successfully applied to NCS ZC-73014 (a certified reference tea sample). Relative standard deviations (RSD) were lower than 5.0%. The Cd(2+) and Co(2+) concentrations in the different parts (leave, root, stem, and fruit) of purslane, onion, rocket, okra, and aubergine were determined after microwave digestion and solid-phase extraction by P. eryngii immobilized on Amberlite XAD-16. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy S.; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S.; Levin, Michael L.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2017-01-01

    Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092

  7. Taxonomic revision of the ornate skink (Oligosoma ornatum; Reptilia: Scincidae) species complex from northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Geoff B; Hitchmough, Rod A; Chapple, David G

    2013-11-11

    Although the New Zealand skink fauna is known to be highly diverse, a substantial proportion of the recognised species remain undescribed. We completed a taxonomic revision of the ornate skink (Oligosoma ornatum (Gray, 1843)) as a previous molecular study indicated that it represented a species complex. As part of this work we have resolved some nomenclatural issues involving this species and a similar species, O. aeneum (Girard, 1857). A new skink species, Oligosoma roimata sp. nov., is described from the Poor Knights Islands, off the northeast coast of the North Island of New Zealand. This species is diagnosed by a range of morphological characters and genetic differentiation from O. ornatum. The conservation status of the new taxon appears to be of concern as it is endemic to the Poor Knights Islands and has rarely been seen over the past two decades.

  8. New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes: Characidae with comments on the Moenkhausia oligolepis species complex

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    Ricardo C. Benine

    Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.

  9. Not all spotted cats are leopards: evidence for a Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

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    Alexander E. Fedosov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The small conoidean Hemilienardia ocellata is one of the easily recognizable Indo-Pacific “turrids”, primarily because of its remarkable eyespot colour pattern. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed four species that share this “characteristic” colour pattern but demonstrate consistent differences in size and shell proportions. Three new species – Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. from the Philippines, H. lynx sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and H. pardus sp. nov. from the Society and Loyalty Islands – are described based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Although the H. ocellata species complex clade falls in a monophyletic Hemilienardia, H. ocellata and H. acinonyx sp. nov. possess a radula with semi-enrolled or notably flattened triangular marginal teeth, a condition that diverges substantially from the standard radular morphology of Hemilienardia and other raphitomids.

  10. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

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    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  11. Pheromones of three ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex: ratios and preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossé, Allard A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Carrillo, Daniel; Cleary, Kaitlin; Canlas, Isaiah; Stouthamer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Three cryptic species in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex were reared in laboratory colonies and investigated for the presence of pheromones. Collections of volatiles from combinations of diet, fungus, beetles, and galleries from polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #1) revealed the presence of 2-heneicosanone and 2-tricosanone only in the presence of beetles, regardless of sex. Subsequent examination of volatiles from the other two species, tea shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #2) and Kuroshio shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #5), revealed these two ketones were present in all three species but in different ratios. In dual choice olfactometer behavioral bioassays, mature mated females were strongly attracted to a synthetic binary blend of ketones matching their own natural ratios. However, females in each species were repelled by ketone blends in ratios corresponding to the other two species. Males of each species responded similarly to females when presented with ratios matching their own or the other two species. The presence of these compounds in the three beetle species, in ratios unique to each species, and their strong species-specific attraction and repellency, suggests they are pheromones. The ecological function of these pheromones is discussed. In addition to the pheromones, the previously known attractant (1S,4R)-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (also known as quercivorol) was discovered in the presence of the fungal symbionts, but not in association with the beetles. Quercivorol was tested in a dual-choice olfactometer and was strongly attractive to all three species. This evidence suggests quercivorol functions as a kairomone for members of the E. fornicatus species complex, likely produced by the symbiotic fungi. PMID:29085754

  12. The Syllis gracilis species complex: A molecular approach to a difficult taxonomic problem (Annelida, Syllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitochondrial sequence data expose the putative cosmopolitan polychaete Scoloplos armiger (Annelida, Orbiniidae as a species complex

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    Albrecht Sylvia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychaetes assigned as Scoloplos armiger (Orbiniidae show a cosmopolitan distribution and have been encountered in all zoogeographic regions. Sibling S. armiger-like species have been revealed by recent studies using RAPDs and AFLP genetic data. We sequenced a ~12 kb fragment of the Scoloplos cf. armiger mitochondrial genome and developed primers for variable regions including the 3' end of the cox3 gene, trnQ, and most of nad6. A phylogenetic analysis of this 528-nucleotide fragment was carried out for S. armiger-like individuals from the Eastern North Atlantic as well as Pacific regions. The aim of this study is to test the cosmopolitan status, as well as to clarify the systematics of this species complex in the Eastern North Atlantic, while using a few specimens from the Pacific Ocean for comparision. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the cox3-trnQ-nad6 data set recovered five different clades of Scoloplos cf. armiger. The fragment of the mitochondrial genome of Scoloplos cf. armiger is 12,042 bp long and contains 13 protein coding genes, 15 of the 22 expected tRNAs, and the large ribosomal subunit (rrnl. Conclusion The sequenced cox3-trnQ-nad6 fragment proved to be very useful in phylogenetic analyses of Scoloplos cf. armiger. Due to its larger sampling scale this study goes beyond previous analyses which used RAPD and AFLP markers. The results of this study clearly supports that Scoloplos armiger represents a species complex and not a cosmopolitan species. We find at least two S. armiger-like species within the Pacific region and three different S. armiger-like species in the North Atlantic. Implications for the taxonomy and the impact on ecological studies are discussed.

  14. The integrative taxonomic approach reveals host specific species in an encyrtid parasitoid species complex.

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    Douglas Chesters

    Full Text Available Integrated taxonomy uses evidence from a number of different character types to delimit species and other natural groupings. While this approach has been advocated recently, and should be of particular utility in the case of diminutive insect parasitoids, there are relatively few examples of its application in these taxa. Here, we use an integrated framework to delimit independent lineages in Encyrtus sasakii (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid morphospecies previously considered a host generalist. Sequence variation at the DNA barcode (cytochrome c oxidase I, COI and nuclear 28S rDNA loci were compared to morphometric recordings and mating compatibility tests, among samples of this species complex collected from its four scale insect hosts, covering a broad geographic range of northern and central China. Our results reveal that Encyrtus sasakii comprises three lineages that, while sharing a similar morphology, are highly divergent at the molecular level. At the barcode locus, the median K2P molecular distance between individuals from three primary populations was found to be 11.3%, well outside the divergence usually observed between Chalcidoidea conspecifics (0.5%. Corroborative evidence that the genetic lineages represent independent species was found from mating tests, where compatibility was observed only within populations, and morphometric analysis, which found that despite apparent morphological homogeneity, populations clustered according to forewing shape. The independent lineages defined by the integrated analysis correspond to the three scale insect hosts, suggesting the presence of host specific cryptic species. The finding of hidden host specificity in this species complex demonstrates the critical role that DNA barcoding will increasingly play in revealing hidden biodiversity in taxa that present difficulties for traditional taxonomic approaches.

  15. Pheromones of three ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex: ratios and preferences

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    Miriam F. Cooperband

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three cryptic species in the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex were reared in laboratory colonies and investigated for the presence of pheromones. Collections of volatiles from combinations of diet, fungus, beetles, and galleries from polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #1 revealed the presence of 2-heneicosanone and 2-tricosanone only in the presence of beetles, regardless of sex. Subsequent examination of volatiles from the other two species, tea shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #2 and Kuroshio shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp. #5, revealed these two ketones were present in all three species but in different ratios. In dual choice olfactometer behavioral bioassays, mature mated females were strongly attracted to a synthetic binary blend of ketones matching their own natural ratios. However, females in each species were repelled by ketone blends in ratios corresponding to the other two species. Males of each species responded similarly to females when presented with ratios matching their own or the other two species. The presence of these compounds in the three beetle species, in ratios unique to each species, and their strong species-specific attraction and repellency, suggests they are pheromones. The ecological function of these pheromones is discussed. In addition to the pheromones, the previously known attractant (1S,4R-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (also known as quercivorol was discovered in the presence of the fungal symbionts, but not in association with the beetles. Quercivorol was tested in a dual-choice olfactometer and was strongly attractive to all three species. This evidence suggests quercivorol functions as a kairomone for members of the E. fornicatus species complex, likely produced by the symbiotic fungi.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Fusarium solani species complex in human infections and the descriptions of F. keratoplasticum sp. nov. and F. petroliphilum stat. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Thrane, Ulf; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2013-04-01

    Fusarium species are frequently associated with mycotic keratitis and, to a lesser extent, cases of localized and disseminated infections. The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with human infectious diseases. Several studies to date have revealed dozens of strongly supported phylogenetic species within this important evolutionary clade, though little work has been done to improve the taxonomy and understanding of the reproductive mode and phenotypes of the predominant clinically relevant species. Here we described Fusarium keratoplasticum sp. nov., and Fusarium petroliphilum stat. nov., two phylogenetic species that are among the most frequently isolated fusaria in plumbing drain biofilms and outbreaks of contact lens-associated mycotic keratitis. F. keratoplasticum isolates were highly variable and showed a range of morphological characteristics typical for most classical concepts of 'F. solani.' Many isolates failed to produce sporodochia and macroconidia. Although most attempts to sexually cross F. keratoplasticum isolates failed, a heterothallic sexual stage typical for the FSSC was discovered by pairing isolates of opposite mating type on V-8 agar, the ascospores of which showed molecular evidence of recombination. Secondary metabolite profiles of FSSC species defined through molecular data were compared for the first time and revealed the production of bioactive compounds including cyclosporines and several novel compounds of unknown function. We speculate that the inferred phenotypic variability in these species is the result of the almost entirely anthropogenic sources from which they are derived, including biofilms on plumbing systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new Eastern Central Atlantic skate Raja parva sp. nov. (Rajoidei: Rajidae) belonging to the Raja miraletus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Peter R; Séret, Bernard

    2016-08-05

    An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa). Two species occur off tropical West Africa, including Raja parva sp. nov. (Senegal, Liberia and Angola but is probably more widespread within the region), and another unidentified species needing further investigation. Raja cf. miraletus, confirmed from Mauritania and Senegal, appears to be a larger skate with a broader disc, more broadly pointed snout, larger spiracles, and a slightly longer and broader tail. Raja parva sp. nov. differs from nominal members of the complex in having an unusually long procaudal tail (exceeding 22% TL), as well as a combination of other external characters. Past investigators observed morphological and anatomical differences between these forms but these were thought to be due to intraspecific variability. They postulated that an upwelling at Cape Blanco (21°N) may have isolated the Mediterranean form (R. miraletus) from Mauritania-Senegal form (now known to be two species). Similarly, the Benguela Current and upwelling off Cape Frio (18°S) were thought to be responsible for separating the Angolan form (R. parva) and South African form (R. ocellifera).

  18. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  19. Gene Network Polymorphism Illuminates Loss and Retention of Novel RNAi Silencing Components in the Cryptococcus Pathogenic Species Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Feretzaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RNAi is a ubiquitous pathway that serves central functions throughout eukaryotes, including maintenance of genome stability and repression of transposon expression and movement. However, a number of organisms have lost their RNAi pathways, including the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, the human pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii, and some human parasite pathogens, suggesting there may be adaptive benefits associated with both retention and loss of RNAi. By comparing the RNAi-deficient genome of the Pacific Northwest Outbreak C. deuterogattii strain R265 with the RNAi-proficient genomes of the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex, we identified a set of conserved genes that were lost in R265 and all other C. deuterogattii isolates examined. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal several of these lost genes play roles in RNAi pathways. Four novel components were examined further. Znf3 (a zinc finger protein and Qip1 (a homolog of N. crassa Qip were found to be essential for RNAi, while Cpr2 (a constitutive pheromone receptor and Fzc28 (a transcription factor are involved in sex-induced but not mitosis-induced silencing. Our results demonstrate that the mitotic and sex-induced RNAi pathways rely on the same core components, but sex-induced silencing may be a more specific, highly induced variant that involves additional specialized or regulatory components. Our studies further illustrate how gene network polymorphisms involving known components of key cellular pathways can inform identification of novel elements and suggest that RNAi loss may have been a core event in the speciation of C. deuterogattii and possibly contributed to its pathogenic trajectory.

  20. Fusarium solani species complex associated with carapace lesions and branchitis in captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuxbury, Kathryn A; Shaw, Gillian C; Montali, Richard J; Clayton, Leigh Ann; Kwiatkowski, Nicole P; Dykstra, Michael J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2014-07-03

    Captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus housed at the National Aquarium presented with a variety of shell and gill lesions over a 3 yr period. Carapace lesions were located on both the dorsal and ventral prosoma and opisthosoma and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, ulcerations, and/or pitting lesions, extending from superficial to full thickness. Gill lesions involved both the book gill cover (operculum) and individual book gill leaflets and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, tan to off-white opaque proliferative lesions, and/or areas of black discoloration. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae, with variable morphology throughout the thickened and irregular cuticle of the carapace and occasionally penetrating into subcuticular tissues, with associated amebocytic inflammation. Book gill leaflets were infiltrated by fungal hyphae and contained necrotic debris and amebocytes. Thirty-eight of 39 animals (97%) evaluated via histopathological examination had intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal cultures of carapace and gill lesions were attempted in 26 tissue samples from 15 individuals and were positive in 13 samples (50%), with 10 cultures (77%) yielding identification to genus. Fusarium sp. was identified in 8 of the 10 cultures (80%) via culture morphology. The Fusarium solani species complex was confirmed in 6 of these 8 (75%) via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 2 different ribosomal-specific sequences of isolated fungal DNA. Ante-mortem systemic and topical treatments were performed on some affected individuals, but no appreciable change in lesions was observed. Mycotic dermatitis and branchitis are serious health issues for captive American horseshoe crabs.

  1. The southwestern Carpathians as an ancient centre of diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the Gammarus fossarum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copilaş-Ciocianu, Denis; Petrusek, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout Europe. Due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. Here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains, which comprises two areas that are geographically isolated from its main European distribution area as well as from each other. Given the Tertiary age of many freshwater Gammarus species, we hypothesize that the southwestern Carpathian populations reflect a relict distribution pattern. We used two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers from 32 localities to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate the timings of divergence among southwestern Carpathian and non-Carpathian lineages. Cryptic diversity was evaluated from mitochondrial markers by employing phylogenetic and distance-based methods. We distinguished at least 16 cryptic microendemic taxa, some of them coexisting, distributed in the southwestern Carpathians in a mosaic-like pattern. These lineages form a monophyletic group together with several lineages from southeastern Europe. Estimated divergence times indicate a Middle Miocene origin of this clade, with many deep splits dating back to more than 10 Ma. This time frame corresponds with a period of intense geological subsidence in the region that gave birth to the Pannonian Basin. We conclude that subsidence could have been an important driver of diversification in freshwater Gammarus and that the southwestern Carpathians represent an ancient centre of diversity for these crustaceans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Existence of species complex largely reduced barcoding success for invasive species of Tephritidae: a case study in Bactrocera spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Jin, Q; Liang, L; Zhang, A B; Li, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Fruit flies in the family Tephritidae are the economically important pests that have many species complexes. DNA barcoding has gradually been verified as an effective tool for identifying species in a wide range of taxonomic groups, and there are several publications on rapid and accurate identification of fruit flies based on this technique; however, comprehensive analyses of large and new taxa for the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for fruit flies identification have been rare. In this study, we evaluated the COI barcode sequences for the diagnosis of fruit flies using 1426 sequences for 73 species of Bactrocera distributed worldwide. Tree-based [neighbour-joining (NJ)]; distance-based, such as Best Match (BM), Best Close Match (BCM) and Minimum Distance (MD); and character-based methods were used to evaluate the barcoding success rates obtained with maintaining the species complex in the data set, treating a species complex as a single taxon unit, and removing the species complex. Our results indicate that the average divergence between species was 14.04% (0.00-25.16%), whereas within a species this was 0.81% (0.00-9.71%); the existence of species complexes largely reduced the barcoding success for Tephritidae, for example relatively low success rates (74.4% based on BM and BCM and 84.8% based on MD) were obtained when the sequences from species complexes were included in the analysis, whereas significantly higher success rates were achieved if the species complexes were treated as a single taxon or removed from the data set - BM (98.9%), BCM (98.5%) and MD (97.5%), or BM (98.1%), BCM (97.4%) and MD (98.2%). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Submerged cultivation of mycelium with high ergothioneine content from the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes) and its composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Ling-Yi; Ho, Kung-Jui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, was used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content using a one-factor-at-a-time method. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 14 were 25°C, 10% inoculation rate, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and no adjustment to the initial pH value. With histidine or amino acid mix added, biomasses and the ergothioneine content of mycelia were higher than those of the control. The ergothioneine content of mycelia harvested at days 16-20 were higher than that of mycelia harvested at day 14. In addition, the ergothioneine content of mycelia from the fermentor (5.84-5.76 mg/g) was much higher than that of mycelia from the shaken flask (4.93-5.04 mg/g). Mycelia with high ergothioneine content showed a profile of proximate composition similar to that of regular mycelia but lost its characteristic umami taste. Overall, mycelia high in ergothioneine could be prepared by optimal culture conditions, the addition of precursors, prolonged harvest, and aeration in the fermentor.

  4. Production of versatile peroxidase from Pleurotus eryngii by solid-state fermentation using agricultural residues and evaluation of its catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, C; Lloret, L; Sepúlveda, L; Contreras, E

    2016-01-01

    Interest in production of ligninolytic enzymes has been growing over recent years for their use in various applications such as recalcitrant pollutants bioremediation; specifically, versatile peroxidase (VP) presents a great potential due to its catalytic versatility. The proper selection of the fermentation mode and the culture medium should be an imperative to ensure a successful production by an economic and available medium that favors the process viability. VP was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Pleurotus eryngii, using the agricultural residue banana peel as growth medium; an enzymatic activity of 10,800 U L(-1) (36 U g(-1) of substrate) was detected after 18 days, whereas only 1800 U L(-1) was reached by conventional submerged fermentation (SF) with glucose-based medium. The kinetic parameters were determined by evaluating the H2O2 and Mn(2+) concentration effects on the Mn(3+)-tartrate complex formation. The results indicated that although the H2O2 inhibitory effect was observed for the enzyme produced by both media, the reaction rates for VP obtained by SSF were less impacted. This outcome suggests the presence of substances released from banana peel during the fermentation, which might exhibit a protective effect resulting in an improved kinetic behavior of the enzyme.

  5. Sulphonated modification of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii and Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 and antioxidant activities investigation using CCD and Caco-2 cell line models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-06-15

    Polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus eryngii (PEPS) and Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (EPS) were sulphonated and their composition determined. Antioxidant activities of crude and sulphonated polysaccharides (S.PEPS and S.EPS) were investigated using the ABTS radical scavenging test and CCD and Caco-2 cell models. Degrees of sulphonation for S.PEPS and S.EPS were 0.73 and 0.37, respectively. Results showed that S.PEPS and S.EPS had significantly higher scavenging capacities than PEPS and EPS in the ABTS radical scavenging test. Reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in H2O2 treated CCD 841 CoN (CCD) and Caco-2 cells were significantly inhibited by PEPS, EPS, S.PEPS and S.EPS compared to the control group. Additionally, S.PEPS and S.EPS significantly improved superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in H2O2 treated CCD and Caco-2 cells compared to PEPS, EPS and control groups. Results indicated that sulphonation was effective in improving antioxidant activities of both PEPS and EPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variability in foliar essential oils among different morphotypes of Lantana species complexes, and its taxonomic and ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Amit; Naik, Dattatraya; Basak, Sandip K; Babu, Suresh; Pathak, Namrata; Babu, Cherukuri R

    2009-12-01

    The genus Lantana has many species complexes, and L. camara is one of the aggressive alien weedy species complexes; species delimitation in these complexes is a nightmare for taxonomists. We examined the diversity in the chemical composition of foliar essential oils among morphotypes of Lantana species complexes inhabiting the same ecological gradient, and its taxonomic and ecological significance. The yields of essential oils varied from 0.1 to 0.79% in foliar hydrodistillates of eleven morphotypes, and a total of 39 chemical constituents were detected by GC/MS. The quantitative and qualitative variability in the composition of essential oils among morphotypes was very high, and hence they represent chemotypes. The diversity observed in the composition of essential oils appears to be of genetic origin and thus of taxonomic value. The formation of distinct clusters and sub-clusters at high distance cluster combine values also substantiates that the patterns of distribution of chemical constituents among morphotypes can be used in delimiting species and infraspecific taxa within the species complexes. The presence of beta-caryophyllene and other such compounds, which are known to prevent herbivory, in morphotypes of Lantana species complexes suggest that these compounds may provide selective advantage to Lantana over native species in the invasion of new and disturbed habitats.

  7. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Dickey

    Full Text Available Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts.

  8. The influence of climatic niche preferences on the population genetic structure of a mistletoe species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barahona, Santiago; González, Clementina; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2017-06-01

    The prevalent view on genetic structuring in parasitic plants is that host-race formation is caused by varying degrees of host specificity. However, the relative importance of ecological niche divergence and host specificity to population differentiation remains poorly understood. We evaluated the factors associated with population differentiation in mistletoes of the Psittacanthus schiedeanus complex (Loranthaceae) in Mexico. We used genetic data from chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites to study population genetic structure and tested its association with host preferences and climatic niche variables. Pairwise genetic differentiation was associated with environmental and host preferences, independent of geography. However, environmental predictors appeared to be more important than host preferences to explain genetic structure, supporting the hypothesis that the occurrence of the parasite is largely determined by its own climatic niche and, to a lesser degree, by host specificity. Genetic structure is significant within this mistletoe species complex, but the processes associated with this structure appear to be more complex than previously thought. Although host specificity was not supported as the major determinant of population differentiation, we consider this to be part of a more comprehensive ecological model of mistletoe host-race formation that incorporates the effects of climatic niche evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Origin and Dispersal History of Two Colonial Ascidian Clades in the Botryllus schlosseri Species Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L Nydam

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E. Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species. Nucleotide diversity and Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses support a Pacific origin for Clade A, with two likely dispersal scenarios that both show the northwestern Atlantic populations establishing early in the history of the species. Both Discrete Phylogeographic Analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation support an origin of Clade E on the French side of the English Channel. An unsampled lineage evolved from the French lineage, which reflects the conclusion from the median joining network that not all Clade E lineages have been sampled. This unsampled lineage gave rise to the haplotypes on the English side of the English Channel, which were the ancestors to the Mediterranean and Bay of Biscay populations. Clade E has a wider geographic range than previously thought, and shows evidence of recent range expansion. Both Clade A and Clade E should be considered widespread species: Clade A globally and Clade E within Europe.

  10. Diversity and distribution of cryptic species within the Mugil cephalus species complex in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet Tran, Thanh Thi; Ke Phan, Long; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2017-07-01

    Mugil cephalus sensu lato is a globally distributed complex of cryptic species whose distribution range and evolutionary history remains largely unknown. In the North West (NW) Pacific three species have been identified genetically among fish described morphologically as M. cephalus. Their distribution ranges are largely parapatric and has been proposed to mirror different thermal preferences. To date, few samples have been analyzed from South China Sea, which limits inferences on the evolutionary history of the species complex. We sampled fish identified morphologically as M. cephalus along Vietnamese shores and characterized them using the sequence polymorphism of two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b. This demonstrated that all three species described in the NW Pacific are present in both northern and southern Vietnamese waters. Although the difference in species abundance reflects those observed in the NW Pacific, no phylogeographic pattern was revealed. In addition, no population structure was observed whatever the species or the distribution range considered, which indicates a significant level of gene flow that maintains genetic homogeneity of the three species. It is also conceivable that each species experienced a recent population expansion from a single ancestral population. Finally we suggest that if the cold waters of the NW Pacific present a physiologic challenge leading to the almost parapatric distribution of the three species, then it is likely that the warm surface temperatures of the South China Sea negate this barrier.

  11. No evidence for niche segregation in a North American Cattail (Typha) species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie-Gopsill, Andrew; Kirk, Heather; Drunen, Wendy Van; Freeland, Joanna R; Dorken, Marcel E

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization can lead to a breakdown of species boundaries, and is of particular concern in cases in which one of the parental species is invasive. Cattails (Typha spp.) have increased their abundance in the Great Lakes region of North America over the past 150 years. This increase in the distribution of cattails is associated with hybridization between broad-leaved (Typha latifolia) and narrow-leaved cattails (T. angustifolia). The resulting hybrids occur predominantly as F1s, which are known as T. × glauca, although later-generation hybrids have also been documented. It has been proposed that in sympatric populations, the parental species and hybrids are often spatially segregated according to growth in contrasting water depths, and that this should promote the maintenance of parental species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the two species and their hybrids segregate along a water-depth gradient at sites where they are sympatric. We identified the two parental species and their hybrids using molecular genetic markers (SSR), and measured shoot elevations (a proxy for water depth) at 18 sites in Southern Ontario, Canada. We found no evidence for niche segregation among species based on elevation. Our data indicate that all three lineages compete for similar habitat where they co-occur suggesting that there is potential for an overall loss of biodiversity in the species complex, particularly if the hybrid lineage is more vigorous compared to the parental species, as has been suggested by other authors. PMID:22837840

  12. Testing plant barcoding in a sister species complex of pantropical Acacia (Mimosoideae, Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G, Newmaster; Subramanyam, Ragupathy

    2009-05-01

    Acacia species are quite difficult to differentiate using morphological characters. Routine identification of Acacia samples is important in order to distinguish invasive species from rare species or those of economic importance, particularly in the forest industry. The genus Acacia is quite abundant and diverse comprising approximately 1355 species, which is currently divided into three subgenera: subg. Acacia (c. 161 species), subg. Aculiferum (c. 235 species), and subg. Phyllodineae (c. 960 species). It would be prudent to utilize DNA barcoding in the accurate and efficient identification of acacias. The objective of this research is to test barcoding in discriminating multiple populations among a sister-species complex in pantropical Acacia subg. Acacia, across three continents. Based on previous research, we chose three cpDNA regions (rbcL, trnH-psbA and matK). Our results show that all three regions (rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA) can distinguish and support the newly proposed genera of Vachellia Wight & Arn. from Acacia Mill., discriminate sister species within either genera and differentiate biogeographical patterns among populations from India, Africa and Australia. A morphometric analysis confirmed the cryptic nature of these sister species and the limitations of a classification based on phenetic data. These results support the claim that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for taxonomy and biogeography with utility for identifying cryptic species, biogeograhic patterns and resolving classifications at the rank of genera and species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Extreme genetic diversity in the lizard Atlantolacerta andreanskyi (Werner, 1929: A montane cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata Mafalda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantolacerta andreanskyi is an enigmatic lacertid lizard that, according to the most recent molecular analyses, belongs to the tribe Eremiadini, family Lacertidae. It is a mountain specialist, restricted to areas above 2400 m of the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco with apparently no connection between the different populations. In order to investigate its phylogeography, 92 specimens of A. andreanskyi were analyzed from eight different populations across the distribution range of the species for up to 1108 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (12S, ND4 and flanking tRNA-His and 2585 base pairs of nuclear DNA including five loci (PDC, ACM4, C-MOS, RAG1, MC1R. Results The results obtained with both concatenated and coalescent approaches and clustering methods, clearly show that all the populations analyzed present a very high level of genetic differentiation for the mitochondrial markers used and are also generally differentiated at the nuclear level. Conclusions These results indicate that A. andreanskyi is an additional example of a montane species complex.

  14. Origin and Dispersal History of Two Colonial Ascidian Clades in the Botryllus schlosseri Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydam, Marie L; Giesbrecht, Kirsten B; Stephenson, Emily E

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea) are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E). Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species. Nucleotide diversity and Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses support a Pacific origin for Clade A, with two likely dispersal scenarios that both show the northwestern Atlantic populations establishing early in the history of the species. Both Discrete Phylogeographic Analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation support an origin of Clade E on the French side of the English Channel. An unsampled lineage evolved from the French lineage, which reflects the conclusion from the median joining network that not all Clade E lineages have been sampled. This unsampled lineage gave rise to the haplotypes on the English side of the English Channel, which were the ancestors to the Mediterranean and Bay of Biscay populations. Clade E has a wider geographic range than previously thought, and shows evidence of recent range expansion. Both Clade A and Clade E should be considered widespread species: Clade A globally and Clade E within Europe.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of air sac catfishes of the Heteropneustes fossilis species complex (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratmuangkhwang, Sahat; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2014-10-01

    The air sac catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae), is widely distributed in freshwaters of the Indian subcontinent and mainland southeast Asia. No comprehensive molecular studies that cover the broad distributional areas have been carried out to date. Here, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences to suggest that the Heteropneustes fossilis species complex consists of three clades that may potentially be separate species with distinct geographical distribution (southeast Asia, northeastern India, and southwestern India). The first and second clades are more closely related to each other than they are to the third clade. Within the first clade there is a basal divergence of a subclade consisting of individuals from the Upper Irrawaddy River basin of Myanmar, which share some morphological traits with members of the Indian clades. Our molecular and morphological data are congruent with hypotheses that the Early-Middle Miocene disconnection between the paleo-Tsangpo River and the Irrawaddy River caused the vicariant divergence between southeast Asian and northeastern Indian clades, and that the southeast Asian Heteropneustes originated from the Upper Irrawaddy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epicuticular chemistry reinforces the new taxonomic classification of the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Nagy, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Kalinová, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, have been recently synonymized under the name Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The closely related Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock remains as a discrete taxonomic entity. Although the synonymizations have been accepted by most researchers, debate about the species limits remains. Because of the economic importance of this group of taxa, any new information available to support or deny the synonymizations is valuable. We investigated the chemical epicuticle composition of males and females of B. dorsalis, B. invadens, B. papayae, B. philippinensis, and B. carambolae by means of one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by multiple factor analyses and principal component analysis. Clear segregation of complex cuticule profiles of both B. carambolae sexes from B. dorsalis (Hendel) was observed. In addition to cuticular hydrocarbons, abundant complex mixtures of sex-specific oxygenated lipids (three fatty acids and 22 fatty acid esters) with so far unknown function were identified in epicuticle extracts from females of all species. The data obtained supports both taxonomic synonymization of B. invadens, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis with B. dorsalis, as well as the exclusion of B. carambolae from B. dorsalis.

  17. Mating compatibility among four pest members of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Ul-Haq, I; Vreysen, M J B; Wornoayporn, V; Vera, M T; Clarke, A R

    2013-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock are pest members within the B. dorsalis species complex of tropical fruit flies. The species status of these taxa is unclear and this confounds quarantine, pest management, and general research. Mating studies carried out under uniform experimental conditions are required as part of resolving their species limits. These four taxa were collected from the wild and established as laboratory cultures for which we subsequently determined levels of prezygotic compatibility, assessed by field cage mating trials for all pair-wise combinations. We demonstrate random mating among all pair-wise combinations involving B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis. B. carambolae was relatively incompatible with each of these species as evidenced by nonrandom mating for all crosses. Reasons for incompatibility involving B. carambolae remain unclear; however, we observed differences in the location of couples in the field cage for some comparisons. Alongside other factors such as pheromone composition or other courtship signals, this may lead to reduced interspecific mating compatibility with B. carambolae. These data add to evidence that B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis represent the same biological species, while B. carambolae remains sufficiently different to maintain its current taxonomic identity. This poses significant implications for this group's systematics, impacting on pest management, and international trade.

  18. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Carissimo

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O'nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuda, Shayle B.

    2017-03-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (Chromodorididae) are brightly coloured sea slugs that live in some of the most biodiverse and threatened coral reefs on the planet. However, the evolutionary relationships within this family have not been well understood, especially in the genus Glossodoris. Members of Glossodoris have experienced large-scale taxonomic instability over the last century and have been the subject of repeated taxonomic changes, in part due to morphological characters being the sole traditional taxonomic sources of data. Changing concepts of traditional generic boundaries based on morphology also have contributed to this instability. Despite recent advances in molecular systematics, many aspects of chromodorid taxonomy remain poorly understood, particularly at the traditional species and generic levels. In this study, 77 individuals comprising 32 previously defined species were used to build the most robust phylogenetic tree of Glossodoris and related genera using mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses verify the most recent hypothesized evolutionary relationships within Glossodoris. Additionally, a pseudocryptic and cryptic species complex within Glossodoris cincta and a pseudocryptic complex within Glossodoris pallida emerged, and three new species of Doriprismatica are identified.

  20. No evidence for niche segregation in a North American Cattail (Typha) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie-Gopsill, Andrew; Kirk, Heather; Drunen, Wendy Van; Freeland, Joanna R; Dorken, Marcel E

    2012-05-01

    Interspecific hybridization can lead to a breakdown of species boundaries, and is of particular concern in cases in which one of the parental species is invasive. Cattails (Typha spp.) have increased their abundance in the Great Lakes region of North America over the past 150 years. This increase in the distribution of cattails is associated with hybridization between broad-leaved (Typha latifolia) and narrow-leaved cattails (T. angustifolia). The resulting hybrids occur predominantly as F(1)s, which are known as T. × glauca, although later-generation hybrids have also been documented. It has been proposed that in sympatric populations, the parental species and hybrids are often spatially segregated according to growth in contrasting water depths, and that this should promote the maintenance of parental species. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the two species and their hybrids segregate along a water-depth gradient at sites where they are sympatric. We identified the two parental species and their hybrids using molecular genetic markers (SSR), and measured shoot elevations (a proxy for water depth) at 18 sites in Southern Ontario, Canada. We found no evidence for niche segregation among species based on elevation. Our data indicate that all three lineages compete for similar habitat where they co-occur suggesting that there is potential for an overall loss of biodiversity in the species complex, particularly if the hybrid lineage is more vigorous compared to the parental species, as has been suggested by other authors.

  1. Fatal Fusarium solani species complex infections in elasmobranchs: the first case report for black spotted stingray (Taeniura melanopsila) and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nimal; Hui, Suk-Wai; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Leung, Shui-Yee; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Leung, Raymond W W; Groff, Joseph M; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium species are environmental saprophytic fungi. Among the many Fusarium species, members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are the most prevalent and virulent in causing human and animal infections. In this study, we describe the first case of fatal FSSC infection in a black spotted stingray and three concomitant infections in scalloped hammerhead sharks. In the stingray, cutaneous lesions were characterised by ulcers and haemorrhage of the ventral pectoral fin, or 'ray', especially around the head; while cutaneous lesions in the sharks were characterised by ulcers, haemorrhage, as well as white and purulent exudates at the cephalic canals of the cephalofoil and lateral line. Histological sections of the cutaneous lesions revealed slender (1-4 μm in diameter), branching, septate fungal hyphae. Internal transcribed spacer region and 28S nrDNA sequencing of the fungal isolates from the fish showed two isolates were F. keratoplasticum (FSSC 2) and the other two were FSSC 12. Environmental investigation revealed the FSSC strains isolated from water and biofilms in tanks that housed the elasmobranchs were also F. keratoplasticum and FSSC 12. Fusarium is associated with major infections in elasmobranchs and FSSC 12 is an emerging cause of infections in marine animals. DNA sequencing is so far the most reliable method for accurate identification of Fusarium species. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Lutzomyia umbratilis, the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis, represents a novel species complex?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lutzomyia umbratilis is an important Leishmania guyanensis vector in South America. Previous studies have suggested differences in the vector competence between L. umbratilis populations situated on opposite banks of the Amazonas and Negro Rivers in the central Amazonian Brazil region, likely indicating a species complex. However, few studies have been performed on these populations and the taxonomic status of L. umbratilis remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogeographic structure was estimated for six L. umbratilis samples from the central Amazonian region in Brazil by analyzing mtDNA using 1181 bp of the COI gene to assess whether the populations on opposite banks of these rivers consist of incipient or distinct species. The genetic diversity was fairly high and the results revealed two distinct clades ( = lineages with 1% sequence divergence. Clade I consisted of four samples from the left bank of the Amazonas and Negro Rivers, whereas clade II comprised two samples from the right bank of Negro River. No haplotypes were shared between samples of two clades. Samples within clades exhibited low to moderate genetic differentiation (F(ST = -0.0390-0.1841, whereas samples between clades exhibited very high differentiation (F(ST = 0.7100-0.8497 and fixed differences. These lineages have diverged approximately 0.22 Mya in the middle Pleistocene. Demographic expansion was detected for the lineages I and II approximately 30,448 and 15,859 years ago, respectively, in the late Pleistocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The two genetic lineages may represent an advanced speciation stage suggestive of incipient or distinct species within L. umbratilis. These findings suggest that the Amazonas and Negro Rivers may be acting as effective barriers, thus preventing gene flow between populations on opposite sides. Such findings have important implications for epidemiological studies, especially those related to vector

  3. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

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    Paul De Barro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A challenge within the context of cryptic species is the delimitation of individual species within the complex. Statistical parsimony network analytics offers the opportunity to explore limits in situations where there are insufficient species-specific morphological characters to separate taxa. The results also enable us to explore the spread in taxa that have invaded globally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 657 bp portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 from 352 unique haplotypes belonging to the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, the analysis revealed 28 networks plus 7 unconnected individual haplotypes. Of the networks, 24 corresponded to the putative species identified using the rule set devised by Dinsdale et al. (2010. Only two species proposed in Dinsdale et al. (2010 departed substantially from the structure suggested by the analysis. The analysis of the two invasive members of the complex, Mediterranean (MED and Middle East - Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, showed that in both cases only a small number of haplotypes represent the majority that have spread beyond the home range; one MEAM1 and three MED haplotypes account for >80% of the GenBank records. Israel is a possible source of the globally invasive MEAM1 whereas MED has two possible sources. The first is the eastern Mediterranean which has invaded only the USA, primarily Florida and to a lesser extent California. The second are western Mediterranean haplotypes that have spread to the USA, Asia and South America. The structure for MED supports two home range distributions, a Sub-Saharan range and a Mediterranean range. The MEAM1 network supports the Middle East - Asia Minor region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The network analyses show a high level of congruence with the species identified in a previous phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the two globally invasive members of the complex support the view that global invasion often involve very small portions of

  4. The Colletotrichum acutatum Species Complex as a Model System to Study Evolution and Host Specialization in Plant Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Talhinhas, Pedro; Pensec, Flora; Sukno, Serenella A.; Le Floch, Gaetan; Thon, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum spp. infect a wide diversity of hosts, causing plant diseases on many economically important crops worldwide. The genus contains approximately 189 species organized into at least 11 major phylogenetic lineages, also known as species complexes. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex is a diverse yet relatively closely related group of plant pathogenic fungi within this genus. Within the species complex we find a wide diversity of important traits such as host range and host preference, mode of reproduction and differences in the strategy used to infect their hosts. Research on fungal comparative genomics have attempted to find correlations in these traits and patterns of gene family evolution but such studies typically compare fungi from different genera or even different fungal Orders. The C. acutatum species complex contains most of this diversity within a group of relatively closely related species. This Perspective article presents a review of the current knowledge on C. acutatum phylogeny, biology, and pathology. It also demonstrates the suitability of C. acutatum for the study of gene family evolution on a fine scale to uncover evolutionary events in the genome that are associated with the evolution of phenotypic characters important for host interactions. PMID:29075253

  5. Molecular phylogenetic diversity, multilocus haplotype nomenclature, and in vitro antifungal resistance within the Fusarium solani species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the species-rich Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are responsible for approximately two-thirds all fusarioses of humans and other animals. In addition, many economically important phytopathogenic species are nested within this complex. Due to their increasing clinical relevance an...

  6. New species from the Fusarium solani species complex derived from perithecia and soil in the Old World tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a highly diverse, cosmopolitan group of fungi that occur in soil and on living and dead plant tissue and can cause both human and plant infections. This monophyletic group was previously divided into three clades with some biogeographic structure, terme...

  7. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B.

    2015-01-01

    and Denmark before the first confirmed findings of C. acutatum complex members in this region. Sequencing parts of the fungal ITS regions showed that members of the species complex were present in 13 of the 21 specimens collected in different parts of Norway and Denmark between 1948 and 1991, representing...

  8. The Colletotrichum acutatum Species Complex as a Model System to Study Evolution and Host Specialization in Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Baroncelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum spp. infect a wide diversity of hosts, causing plant diseases on many economically important crops worldwide. The genus contains approximately 189 species organized into at least 11 major phylogenetic lineages, also known as species complexes. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex is a diverse yet relatively closely related group of plant pathogenic fungi within this genus. Within the species complex we find a wide diversity of important traits such as host range and host preference, mode of reproduction and differences in the strategy used to infect their hosts. Research on fungal comparative genomics have attempted to find correlations in these traits and patterns of gene family evolution but such studies typically compare fungi from different genera or even different fungal Orders. The C. acutatum species complex contains most of this diversity within a group of relatively closely related species. This Perspective article presents a review of the current knowledge on C. acutatum phylogeny, biology, and pathology. It also demonstrates the suitability of C. acutatum for the study of gene family evolution on a fine scale to uncover evolutionary events in the genome that are associated with the evolution of phenotypic characters important for host interactions.

  9. Glucans from fruit bodies of cultivated mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii: Structure and potential prebiotic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, Andriy.; Míčková, K.; Synytsya, A.; Jablonský, I.; Spěváček, Jiří; Erban, V.; Kováříková, E.; Čopíková, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 4 (2009), s. 548-556 ISSN 0144-8617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : glucans * oyster mushroom Pleurotus * isolation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.167, year: 2009

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant and In Vivo Hypolipidemic Effects of the King Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae DDL01 (Agaricomycetes), in Rats with High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver and Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae DDL01 on oxidative damage in the liver and brain and a high-fat/high-cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic model. In in vitro studies, the water extracts of the fruiting bodies showed strong scavenging activities of DPPH (139.46 ± 3.2 μg) and hydroxyl (139.46 ± 3.2 μg) radicals. Moreover, the extracts showed Fe2+ chelating and reducing abilities, as well as a large amount of polyphenols and an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation in the liver and brain tissues. The rats were fed a pellet diet (7.5 g/rat/day) containing P. eryngii var. ferulae DDL01 (PD) for 3 weeks. In the high-fat/high-cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic rat model, administration of PD caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the levels of serum triacylglycerols, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PD administration significantly decreased high-fat/high-cholesterol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Treatment with the extracts (up to 500 μg/mL) did not significantly affect the viability of HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Our findings suggest that this mushroom has potential as an antiatherogenic dietary source in the development of therapeutic agents and functional foods.

  11. Using hand proportions to test taxonomic boundaries within the Tupaia glis species complex (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargos, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    Treeshrews (order Scandentia) comprise 2 families of squirrel-sized terrestrial, arboreal, and scansorial mammals distributed throughout much of tropical South and Southeast Asia. The last comprehensive taxonomic revision of treeshrews was published in 1913, and a well-supported phylogeny clarifying relationships among all currently recognized extant species within the order has only recently been published. Within the family Tupaiidae, 2 widely distributed species, the northern treeshrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner, 1841), and the common treeshrew, T. glis (Diard, 1820), represent a particularly vexing taxonomic complex. These 2 species are currently distinguished primarily based on their respective distributions north and south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and on their different mammae counts. This problematic species complex includes 54 published synonyms, many of which represent putative island endemics. The widespread T. glis and T. belangeri collectively comprise a monophyletic assemblage representing the sister lineage to a clade composed of the golden-bellied treeshrew, T. chrysogaster Miller, 1903 (Mentawai Islands), and the long-footed treeshrew, T. longipes (Thomas, 1893) (Borneo). As part of a morphological investigation of the T. glis–T. belangeri complex, we studied the proportions of hand bones, which have previously been shown to be useful in discriminating species of soricids (true shrews). We measured 38 variables from digital X-ray images of 148 museum study skins representing several subspecies of T. glis, T. belangeri, T. chrysogaster, and T. longipes and analyzed these data using principal components and cluster analyses. Manus proportions among these 4 species readily distinguish them, particularly in the cases of T. chrysogaster and T. longipes. We then tested the distinctiveness of several of the populations comprising T. glis and T. longipes. T. longipes longipes and T. l. salatana Lyon, 1913, are distinguishable from each

  12. Pathotypes in the Entomophaga grylli species complex of grasshopper pathogens differentiated with random amplification of polymorphic DNA and cloned-DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidochka, M J; Walsh, S R; Ramos, M E; Leger, R J; Silver, J C; Roberts, D W

    1995-01-01

    The zygomycetous fungus Entomophaga grylli is a pathogen that shows host-specific variance to grasshopper subfamilies. Three pathotypes of the E. grylli species complex were differentiated by three molecular techniques. In the first method, the three pathotypes showed different fragment patterns generated by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). There was little or no interisolate variability in RAPD fragment patterns within each pathotype. Passage of an isolate of pathotype 3, originally from an Australian grasshopper (Praxibulus sp.), through a North America grasshopper resulted in no differences in the resultant RAPD fragment patterns. In the second method, polymorphic RAPD fragments were used to probe the genomic DNA from the three pathotypes, and pathotype-specific fragments were found. In the third method, restriction fragments from genomic DNA of the three pathotypes were cloned and screened for pathotype specificity. A genomic probe specific for each pathotype was isolated. These probes did not hybridize to DNA from Entomophaga aulicae or from grasshoppers. To facilitate the use of RAPD analysis and other molecular tools to identify pathotypes, a method for extracting DNA from resting spores from infected grasshoppers was developed. The DNA from the fractured resting spores was of sufficient integrity to be blotted and probed with the pathotype-specific DNA probes, thus validating the use of these probes for pathotype identification in field-collected grasshoppers. PMID:7574596

  13. Draft genome sequences of seven 4-Formylaminooxyvinylglycine producers belonging to the Pseudomonas fluorescens species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinylglycines are non-proteinogenic amino acids that inhibit amino acid metabolism and ethylene production. In this report, we describe the draft genome sequences of seven isolates of Pseudomonas that produce 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, a compound known to inhibit the germination of grasses and t...

  14. The Mugil curema species complex (Pisces, Mugilidae): a new karyotype for the Pacific white mullet mitochondrial lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, Mauro; Oliveira, Claudio; Siccha-Ramirez, Zoila R.; de Sene, Viviani F.; Sola, Luciana; Milana, Valentina; Rossi, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that the Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 species complex includes M. incilis Hancock, 1830, M. thoburni (Jordan & Starks, 1896) and at least four “M. curema” mitochondrial lineages, considered as cryptic species. The cytogenetic data on some representatives of the species complex have shown a high cytogenetic diversity. This research reports the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses of white mullet collected in Ecuador. The analyzed specimens were molecularly assigned to the Mugil sp. O, the putative cryptic species present in the Pacific Ocean and showed a 2n = 46 karyotype, which is composed of 2 metacentric and 44 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes. This karyotype is different from the one described for M. incilis (2n = 48) and from those of the two western Atlantic lineages Mugil curema (2n = 28), and Mugil margaritae (2n = 24). Data suggest the need for a morphological analysis to assign a species name to this Pacific lineage. PMID:28919961

  15. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: The cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Riss Simone; Stelzer Claus-Peter; Stadler Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variati...

  16. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Aguilar Rosas, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to...

  17. The Colletotrichum destructivum species complex – hemibiotrophic pathogens of forage and field crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U.; O'Connell, R.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Colletotrichum destructivum is an important plant pathogen, mainly of forage and grain legumes including clover, alfalfa, cowpea and lentil, but has also been reported as an anthracnose pathogen of many other plants worldwide. Several Colletotrichum isolates, previously reported as closely related to C. destructivum, are known to establish hemibiotrophic infections in different hosts. The inconsistent application of names to those isolates based on outdated species concepts has caused much taxonomic confusion, particularly in the plant pathology literature. A multilocus DNA sequence analysis (ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, TUB2) of 83 isolates of C. destructivum and related species revealed 16 clades that are recognised as separate species in the C. destructivum complex, which includes C. destructivum, C. fuscum, C. higginsianum, C. lini and C. tabacum. Each of these species is lecto-, epi- or neotypified in this study. Additionally, eight species, namely C. americae-borealis, C. antirrhinicola, C. bryoniicola, C. lentis, C. ocimi, C. pisicola, C. utrechtense and C. vignae are newly described. PMID:25492986

  18. Molecular analysis and mating behaviour of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symoens, Françoise; Jousson, Olivier; Planard, Chantal; Fratti, Marina; Staib, Peter; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2011-03-01

    Isolates of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex vary phenotypically. Whether the closely related zoophilic and anthropophilic anamorphs currently associated with Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii have to be considered as members of the same biological species remains an open question. In order to better delineate species in the T. mentagrophytes complex, we performed a mating analysis of freshly collected isolates from humans and animals with A. benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii reference strains, in comparison to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S rDNA sequencing. Mating experiments as well as ITS and 28S sequencing unambiguously allowed the distinction of A. benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii. We have also shown that all the isolates from tinea pedis and tinea unguium identified as T. interdigitale based on ITS sequences mated with A. vanbreuseghemii tester strains, but had lost their ability to give fertile cleistothecia. Therefore, T. interdigitale has to be considered as a humanized species derived from the sexual relative A. vanbreuseghemii. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Widespread host-dependent hybrid unfitness in the pea aphid species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; de la Huerta, Manon; Bonhomme, Joël; Laurence, Cindy; Outreman, Yannick; Smadja, Carole M; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Linking adaptive divergence to hybrid unfitness is necessary to understand the ecological factors contributing to reproductive isolation and speciation. To date, this link has been demonstrated in few model systems, most of which encompass ecotypes that occupy relatively early stages in the speciation process. Here we extend these studies by assessing how host-plant adaptation conditions hybrid fitness in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We made crosses between and within five pea aphid biotypes adapted to different host plants and representing various stages of divergence within the complex. Performance of F1 hybrids and nonhybrids was assessed on a "universal" host that is favorable to all pea aphid biotypes in laboratory conditions. Although hybrids performed equally well as nonhybrids on the universal host, their performance was much lower than nonhybrids on the natural hosts of their parental populations. Hence, hybrids, rather than being intrinsically deficient, are maladapted to their parents' hosts. Interestingly, the impact of this maladaptation was stronger in certain hybrids from crosses involving the most divergent biotype, suggesting that host-dependent postzygotic isolation has continued to evolve late in divergence. Even though host-independent deficiencies are not excluded, hybrid maladaptation to parental hosts supports the hypothesis of ecological speciation in this complex. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Tom J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are the primary vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Many host genes have been shown to affect Plasmodium development in the mosquito, and so are expected to engage in an evolutionary arms race with the pathogen. However, there is little conclusive evidence that any of these mosquito genes evolve rapidly, or show other signatures of adaptive evolution. Methods Three serine protease inhibitors have previously been identified as candidate immune system genes mediating mosquito-Plasmodium interaction, and serine protease inhibitors have been identified as hot-spots of adaptive evolution in other taxa. Population-genetic tests for selection, including a recent multi-gene extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, were applied to 16 serine protease inhibitors and 16 other genes sampled from the An. gambiae species complex in both East and West Africa. Results Serine protease inhibitors were found to show a marginally significant trend towards higher levels of amino acid diversity than other genes, and display extensive genetic structuring associated with the 2La chromosomal inversion. However, although serpins are candidate targets for strong parasite-mediated selection, no evidence was found for rapid adaptive evolution in these genes. Conclusion It is well known that phylogenetic and population history in the An. gambiae complex can present special problems for the application of standard population-genetic tests for selection, and this may explain the failure of this study to detect selection acting on serine protease inhibitors. The pitfalls of uncritically applying these tests in this species complex are highlighted, and the future prospects for detecting selection acting on the An. gambiae genome are discussed.

  1. Phylogenetic assessment of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

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    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Ricoy, Maigualida; Marshall, Jonathon C; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex includes the most abundant earthworms in grasslands and agricultural ecosystems of the Paleartic region. Historically this complex consisted of the following taxa: A. caliginosa s.s.Savigny, 1826, A. trapezoides Dugés (1828), A. tuberculata (Eisen, 1874), and A. nocturna Evans (1946). These four taxa are morphologically very similar and difficult to differentiate because of their morphological variability. Consequently, their taxonomic status and their phylogenetic relationships have been a matter of discussion for more than a century. To study these questions, we sequenced the COII (686 bp), 12S (362 bp), 16S (1200 bp), ND1 (917 bp), and tRNAs(Asn-Asp-Val-Leu-Ala-Ser-Leu) (402 bp) mitochondrial and 28S (809 bp) nuclear gene regions for 85 European earthworms from 27 different localities belonging to the A. caliginosa species complex and four outgroup taxa. DNA sequences were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches of phylogenetic inference. The resulting trees were combined with morphological, ecological, and genomic evidence to test species boundaries (i.e., integrative approach). Our molecular analyses showed that A. caliginosa s.s. and A. tuberculata form a sister clade to A. trapezoides, A. longa, and A. nocturna, which indicates that A. longa is part of the A. caliginosa species complex. We confirm the species status of all these taxa and identify two hitherto unrecognized Aporrectodea species in Corsica (France). Moreover our analyses also showed the presence of highly divergent lineages within A. caliginosa, A. trapezoides, and A. longa, suggesting the existence of cryptic diversity within these taxa.

  2. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp. in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

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    Meyer Axel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites. We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The

  3. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

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    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  4. Ogataea haglerorum sp. nov., a novel member of the species complex, Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha.

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    Naumov, Gennadi I; Naumova, Elena S; Lee, Ching-Fu

    2017-07-01

    Three strains representing a novel species of the Ogataea clade were isolated by W. T. Starmer and H. J. Phaff from rotting tissue of Opuntia phaeacantha in Arizona, USA. Analyses of the sequences of the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1 α) showed that this novel species belongs to the Ogataea polymorpha complex formed by Ogataea angusta, Ogataea parapolymorpha and Ogataea polymorpha. The novel species differs from these species by 4-5 nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 domain, by 28-29 nucleotide substitutions in the EF-α gene and by 18-24 nucleotide substitutions and 2-5 indels in the ITS-5.8S region. The name Ogataea haglerorum sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species. The type strain is VKPM Y-2583T (=CBS 14645T=UCDFST 17-101T). The Mycobank number is MB 819772.

  5. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

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    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  6. Insights into the life cycle of yeasts from the CTG clade revealed by the analysis of the Millerozyma (Pichia) farinosa species complex.

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    Mallet, Sandrine; Weiss, Stéphanie; Jacques, Noémie; Leh-Louis, Véronique; Sacerdot, Christine; Casaregola, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Among ascomycetous yeasts, the CTG clade is so-called because its constituent species translate CTG as serine instead of leucine. Though the biology of certain pathogenic species such as Candida albicans has been much studied, little is known about the life cycles of non-pathogen species of the CTG clade. Taking advantage of the recently obtained sequence of the biotechnological Millerozyma (Pichiasorbitophila) farinosa strain CBS 7064, we used MLST to better define phylogenic relationships between most of the Millerozyma farinosa strains available in public collections. This led to the constitution of four phylogenetic clades diverging from 8% to 15% at the DNA level and possibly constituting a species complex (M. farinosa) and to the proposal of two new species:Millerozyma miso sp. nov. CBS 2004(T) ( = CLIB 1230(T)) and Candida pseudofarinosa sp. nov.NCYC 386(T)( = CLIB 1231(T)). Further analysis showed that M. farinosa isolates exist as haploid and inter-clade hybrids. Despite the sequence divergence between the clades, secondary contacts after reproductive isolation were evidenced, as revealed by both introgression and mitochondria transfer between clades. We also showed that the inter-clade hybrids do sporulate to generate mainly viable vegetative diploid spores that are not the result of meiosis, and very rarely aneuploid spores possibly through the loss of heterozygosity during sporulation. Taken together, these results show that in this part of the CTG clade, non-Mendelian genetic exchanges occur at high rates through hybridization between divergent strains from distinct clades and subsequent massive loss of heterozygosity. This combination of mechanisms could constitute an alternative sexuality leading to an unsuspected biodiversity.

  7. Diversification in species complexes: tests of species origin and delimitation in the Bursera simaruba clade of tropical trees (Burseraceae).

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    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Weeks, Andrea; De-Nova, J Arturo; Lemos, Rosalinda Medina; Camacho, Jacqueline Pérez; Feria, Teresa P; Gómez-Bermejo, Roberto; Montero, Juan C; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-11-01

    Molecular phylogenies are invaluable for testing morphology-based species delimitation in species complexes, as well as for examining hypotheses regarding the origination of species in these groups. Using five nucleotide markers, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Bursera simaruba species complex of neotropical trees to test the notion that four "satellite" species originated from populations of the most widely distributed member of the genus, B. simaruba, which the satellites strongly resemble. In addition to molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, we tested species delimitation of B. simaruba and the satellites using multivariate analyses of morphological and ecological characters. The analyses evaluated the taxonomic value of these traditional characters and pinpointed those in need of further study, such as the expression of pubescence. Phylogenetic data rejected the origin of three satellite species from their purported ancestor, B. simaruba, and we ascribe their morphological similarity to convergence or parallelism. The fourth satellite species likely represents one end of a spectrum of inflorescence length variation within B. simaruba and is conspecific. Despite its marked morphological variability, we recovered B. simaruba as a single valid species, which implies that it maintains genetic cohesion among distant populations throughout its vast range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal niche evolution and geographical range expansion in a species complex of western Mediterranean diving beetles.

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    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Sánchez-Fernández, David; Bilton, David T; Cieslak, Alexandra; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-09-04

    Species thermal requirements are one of the principal determinants of their ecology and biogeography, although our understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited by the paucity of integrative empirical studies. Here we use empirically collected thermal tolerance data in combination with molecular phylogenetics/phylogeography and ecological niche modelling to study the evolution of a clade of three western Mediterranean diving beetles, the Agabus brunneus complex. The preferred mitochondrial DNA topology recovered A. ramblae (North Africa, east Iberia and Balearic islands) as paraphyletic, with A. brunneus (widespread in the southwestern Mediterranean) and A. rufulus (Corsica and Sardinia) nested within it, with an estimated origin between 0.60-0.25 Ma. All three species were, however, recovered as monophyletic using nuclear DNA markers. A Bayesian skyline plot suggested demographic expansion in the clade at the onset of the last glacial cycle. The species thermal tolerances differ significantly, with A. brunneus able to tolerate lower temperatures than the other taxa. The climatic niche of the three species also differs, with A. ramblae occupying more arid and seasonal areas, with a higher minimum temperature in the coldest month. The estimated potential distribution for both A. brunneus and A. ramblae was most restricted in the last interglacial, becoming increasingly wider through the last glacial and the Holocene. The A. brunneus complex diversified in the late Pleistocene, most likely in south Iberia after colonization from Morocco. Insular forms did not differentiate substantially in morphology or ecology, but A. brunneus evolved a wider tolerance to cold, which appeared to have facilitated its geographic expansion. Both A. brunneus and A. ramblae expanded their ranges during the last glacial, although they have not occupied areas beyond their LGM potential distribution except for isolated populations of A. brunneus in France and England. On

  9. Insight into genome variability in the Fusarium Incarnatum-equiseti species complex through comparative analysis of secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Fusarium comprises 22 species complexes that together include approximately 300 phylogenetically distinct species. A major focus in Fusarium literature is to understand the genetic basis of niche specialization, secondary metabolites (SM) production, and host interactions in closely relate...

  10. Distribution of Karyotypes of the Cryptocercus punctulatus Species Complex (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keisuke; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Luykx, Peter

    2017-01-01

    During the period between 1999 and 2006, wood-feeding cockroaches in the Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder species complex were collected throughout Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. The chromosome numbers of insects from 59 sites were determined, and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial COII and nuclear ITS2 DNA. The distribution of the three male karyotypes found in the park (2n = 37, 39, and 45) is mapped and discussed in relation to recent disturbances and glacial history. Clades of the three karyotype groups meet near the ridgeline separating North Carolina from Tennessee in the center of the park, suggesting that these may have originated from separate lower elevation refugia after the last glacial maximum. The timing of divergence and a significant correlation between elevation difference and genetic distance in two of the clades supports this hypothesis. The ecological role of the cockroaches in the park is discussed. PMID:28475683

  11. Unveiling Members of Colletotrichum acutatum Species Complex Causing Colletotrichum Leaf Disease of Hevea brasiliensis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunupolagama, D M; Chandrasekharan, N V; Wijesundera, W S S; Kathriarachchi, H S; Fernando, T H P S; Wijesundera, R L C

    2017-06-01

    Colletotrichum is an important fungal genus with great diversity, which causes anthracnose of a variety of crop plants including rubber trees. Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides have been identified as the major causative agents of Colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber trees in Sri Lanka based on morphology, pathogenicity, and the analysis of internally transcribed spacer sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. This study has been conducted to investigate the members of the C. acutatum species complex causing rubber leaf disease using a morphological and multi gene approach. For the first time in Sri Lanka, Colletotrichum simmondsii, Colletotrichum laticiphilum, Colletotrichum nymphaeae, and Colletotrichum citri have been identified as causative agents of Colletotrichum leaf disease in addition to C. acutatum s. str. Among them, C. simmondsii has been recognized as the major causative agent.

  12. Revision of the Ambrysus hybridus Montandon species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the description of a new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-09-19

    The Ambrysus hybridus Montandon species complex is revised and includes A. convexus Usinger, A. fuscus Usinger stat. rev., A. hybridus Montandon, A. lattini La Rivers, A. plautus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. spiculus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. thermarum La Rivers, and A. ultimus La Rivers. Ambrysus lariversi n. sp. is the ninth species in this complex and is described from Mexico. A. tridentatus La Rivers and A. woodburyi Usinger are proposed as junior synonyms of A. hybridus Montandon and for which a lectotype is designated. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. thermarum is known only from the United States and A. hybridus occurs from the southwestern United States to southern Mexico and has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with the male and female genitalia.

  13. Vicariance and Its Impact on the Molecular Ecology of a Chinese Ranid Frog Species-Complex (Odorrana schmackeri, Ranidae.

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    Yongmin Li

    Full Text Available Paleogeological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had profound influences on the genetic patterns and phylogeographic structure of species in southern China. In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and Phylogeography of the Odorrana schmackeri species complex, mountain stream-dwelling odorous frogs, endemic to southern China. We obtained mitochondrial sequences (1,151bp of the complete ND2 gene and two flanking tRNAs of 511 individuals from 25 sites for phylogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed seven divergent evolutionary lineages, with mean pairwise (K2P sequence distances from 7.8% to 21.1%, except for a closer ND2 distance (3.4%. The complex geological history of southern China drove matrilineal divergence in the O. schmackeri species complex into highly structured geographical units. The first divergence between lineage A+B and other lineages (C-G had likely been influenced by the uplift of coastal mountains of Southeast China during the Mio-Pliocene period. The subsequent divergences between the lineages C-G may have followed the formation of the Three Gorges and the intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Demographic analyses indicated that major lineages A and C have been experienced recent population expansion (c. 0.045-0.245 Ma from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Molecular analysis suggest that these seven lineages may represent seven different species, three described species and four cryptic species and should at least be separated into seven management units corresponding to these seven geographic lineages for conservation.

  14. Multilocus phylogeny reveals an association of agriculturally important Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) 11, and clinically important FSSC 5 and FSSC 3 + 4 with soybean roots in the north central United States.

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    Chitrampalam, P; Nelson, B

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) includes important root pathogens of soybean in the United States, but the evolutionary lineages associated with soybean root rot are unknown. A multilocus phylogeny based on 93 isolates from soybean and pea roots from North Dakota and Minnesota revealed that root rot was associated with three known phylogenetic species, FSSC 3 + 4 (=Fusarium falciforme) (3 % of isolates), FSSC 5 (60 %), FSSC 11 (34 %), and one unknown species, FSSC X (2 %). Of these species FSSC 5 and FSSC 3 + 4 are clinically important while FSSC 11 is a plant pathogen. Isolates from FSSC 11 were pathogenic on soybean, dry bean, pea and lentil, and did not grow at 37 °C. However, isolates from FSSC 5 were weakly to non-pathogenic, but grew at 37 °C. Isolates from both FSSC 5 and FSSC 11 were highly resistant to fludioxonil in vitro. This is the first study revealing the pathogenic robustness of FSSC 11 in causing root rot among Fabaceae crops and also the association of clinically important members of the FSSC with roots of a widely grown field crop in the United States.

  15. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae: Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period.

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    Diushi Keri Corona-Santiago

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the complex. The species complex shows minimal genetic differentiation. The separation of A. diazi and A. meeki was dated to 400-7000 years ago, explained by geological and climate events. A bottleneck and reduction of genetic diversity in Allotoca diazi was detected, attributed to recent climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activity. The isolation of A. catarinae occurred ~1900 years ago. No geological events are documented in the area during this period, but the date is contemporary with P'urhépecha culture settlements. This founder effect represents the first evidence of fish species translocation by a pre-Hispanic culture of Mexico. The response of the complex to climate fluctuation, geological changes and human activity in the past and the future according to the ecological niches predictions indicates areas of vulnerability and important information for conservation. The new genetic information showed that the Allotoca diazi complex consist of two genetic groups with an incomplete lineage sorting pattern: Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes, and an introduced population in the Cupatitzio River.

  16. Development of cycling probe-based real-time PCR system to detect Fusarium species and Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Schreiber, Angelica Zaninelli; Trabasso, Plínio; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Taguchi, Hideaki; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Mikami, Yuzuru; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, we developed a new real-time PCR system based on the cycling probe technology (CPT), which is composed of two single tube real-time PCR assays: the Fusarium genus-specific assay and the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC)-specific assay with primers targeting the 28s ribosomal RNA gene. The Fusarium genus-specific assay was shown to be highly specific, detecting all reference Fusarium strains with no cross-reaction with other reference fungal strains, such as Aspergillus spp. and human DNA. The FSSC-specific assay also reacted very specifically with FSSC, except for a cross-reaction with Fusarium lunatum. To validate the real-time PCR system, we tested 87 clinical isolates of Fusarium spp. Identification results from the real-time PCR system were found to be 100% concordant with those from DNA sequencing of EF-1α gene. The sensitivity testing also demonstrated high sensitivity, enabling detection of one copy of standard DNA with good reproducibility. Furthermore, both assays were shown to be extremely sensitive even when fungal cells were mixed with human cells, detecting 3 germinated conidia spiked in 3mL of human blood. To apply our new real-time PCR system to the molecular diagnosis of fusariosis, we evaluated its efficacy using a mouse model of invasive F. solani infection. Plasma and whole blood samples of infected mice were tested using the real-time PCR system. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR system was found to be 100% (n=4) in plasma samples. In contrast, no amplification signal was detected in whole blood samples. This system could provide a rapid and precise diagnostic tool for early diagnosis, which is necessary for appropriate treatment and improvement of prognosis of disseminated fusariosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speciation traits of paramere, paraproct and aedeagus were applied to find initial split criteria with fine structure analysis in order to prepare diverged trait matrices for delimiting phylogenetic incipient species of unsettled limnephilid taxa in the early stages of reproductive isolation. A brief history is presented how this phenotypic taxonomic tool of the speciation traits was discovered and applied in caddisfly taxonomy. The theoretical basis was elaborated for the phenotypic speciation trait by reviewing several relevant topics in the sciences of taxonomy, molecular genetics and phylogenetics. Perspectives of integrative taxonomy is discussed in context of phenotype versus genotype, immensely complex phenotype versus phenomic challenge, taxonomic impediment versus genetic expedient, taxonomic adaptation of genetic vocabulary versus genetic sophistication and virtualization, New Systematics of Huxley and Mayr versus New Taxonomy of Wheeler. Debates on magic trait, speciation phenotype, speciation trait and super traits are discussed concluding that evolution works with phenotype and why the cryptic species concept is irrelevant. Briefly summarized how speciation traits evolve in sexual selection, through accelerated reproductive isolation with genital evolution through sex-limited speciation traits, including minor sex chromosomes. Why neutral molecular markers are blind compared to the adaptive speciation traits sensitized by fine structure analysis and backed by the potential of high-tech and high-throughput phenotyping and cyber-infrastructure broadly accessible and fed by computable phenotype descriptions. What sort of genetics could really help taxonomy to describe biodiversity of the over 100 million unknown taxa? Collecting new and re-examining old type materials deposited in various collections, the following taxonomic actions were elaborated by speciation traits. Drusus bolivari new species complex has been erected with

  18. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Pita, Sebastián; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Panzera, Francisco; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    2016-05-02

    Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T. bahiensis and to infer the phylogenetic relationships between T. lenti, T. bahiensis and the other members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The identities of the species in concern were confirmed by comparisons with high resolution photos of the respective type materials; lectotypes are designated for T. pessoai and T. bahiensis. Morphological, morphometric, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches as well as experimental crosses were used. The low viability of experimental crosses combined with morphological and morphometric data allow the differentiation of T. bahiensis and T. lenti. Pairwise cyt b sequence divergence between T. lenti and T. bahiensis was 2.5%. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses grouped T. lenti and T. bahiensis as members of the T. brasiliensis complex. These results revalidate the specific status of T. bahiensis.

  19. Interspecific hybridization does not affect the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

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    Banerjee, Parul; Singh, B N

    2015-08-01

    The Drosophila bipectinata species complex comprises of four very closely related species namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae. It was found that irrespective of the evolutionary divergence among the species, FA which is reflective of the developmental precision remains nearly same in four species. During the present study, the level of FA in different morphological traits was studied in interspecific hybrids and compared with that of parental species with the view that it would throw light on the degree of divergence between the parental species. If they have not diverged much, the interspecific hybrids may have a similar FA level, incompatibilities between their genomes being negligible. On the other hand, if there is substantial divergence, the level of FA may be higher due to incompatibility between the genomes of the parental species. The morphological traits taken were sternopleural bristle number and wing length in both males and females and ovariole number and sex-comb tooth number in females and males respectively. However, except in a few cases, we could not detect any significant differences in the level of FA in hybrids as compared to pure species. On the other hand, a number of abnormalities like poor viability, dystrophied ovaries, asymmetrical eyes etc., could be detected in hybrids from crosses involving D. pseudoananassae as one of the parents. Therefore, we conclude that specific developmental pathways are more susceptible to developmental disturbances due to genomic incompatibilities than the large complex system bringing about developmental stability.

  20. [Craniometrical study of the species complex of Meriones shawii-grandis (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Morocco, in Algeria and in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelaila, Yassine; Denys, Christiane; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Adamou-Djerbaoui, Malika; Boukhemza, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    In North Africa, the rodents of the species complex Meriones shawii-grandis have a considerable ecological, economic and epidemiological importance. Until now, the systematics of these species was subject to discussion due to the presence of populations displaying high morphological variability. By means of an approach of traditional morphometrics based on cranial distances and by using the method of the log shape-ratio, we attempt to characterize morphologically these two taxa. The results show significant differences in size and shape between the specimens of Morocco, on the one hand, and those of Algeria and Tunisia, on the other hand. The samples of Morocco that have been molecularly typed and attributed to M. grandis have larger tooth rows and narrower skulls, as well as relatively small tympanic bullae. On the other hand, those of Algeria and Tunisia assigned to M. shawii are characterized by small tooth rows and wide skulls with well-developed tympanic bullae. The morphological distance is relatively strong between both clades (79.5%), which corresponds to the molecular distance. However, the discriminant analysis performed after molecularly-typed specimens allows the correct classification of only 91.8% of the individuals. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple origins of pyrethroid insecticide resistance across the species complex of a nontarget aquatic crustacean, Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Donald P; Poynton, Helen C; Wellborn, Gary A; Lydy, Michael J; Blalock, Bonnie J; Sepulveda, Maria S; Colbourne, John K

    2013-10-08

    Use of pesticides can have substantial nonlethal impacts on nontarget species, including driving evolutionary change, often with unknown consequences for species, ecosystems, and society. Hyalella azteca, a species complex of North American freshwater amphipods, is widely used for toxicity testing of water and sediment and has frequently shown toxicity due to pyrethroid pesticides. We demonstrate that 10 populations, 3 from laboratory cultures and 7 from California water bodies, differed by at least 550-fold in sensitivity to pyrethroids. The populations sorted into four phylogenetic groups consistent with species-level divergence. By sequencing the primary pyrethroid target site, the voltage-gated sodium channel, we show that point mutations and their spread in natural populations were responsible for differences in pyrethroid sensitivity. At least one population had both mutant and WT alleles, suggesting ongoing evolution of resistance. Although nonresistant H. azteca were susceptible to the typical neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids, gene expression analysis suggests the mode of action in resistant H. azteca was not neurotoxicity but was oxidative stress sustained only at considerably higher pyrethroid concentrations. The finding that a nontarget aquatic species has acquired resistance to pesticides used only on terrestrial pests is troubling evidence of the impact of chronic pesticide transport from land-based applications into aquatic systems. Our findings have far-reaching implications for continued uncritical use of H. azteca as a principal species for monitoring and environmental policy decisions.

  2. Systematics of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species complex (Anura: Hylidae): Cryptic diversity and the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A; Milá, Borja; Jansen, Martin; Fouquet, Antoine; Venegas, Pablo J; Chávez, Germán; Lougheed, Stephen C; Ron, Santiago R

    2017-01-01

    Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. This means that real species richness may be significantly higher than current estimates. Here we combine genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data to assess the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of two Amazonian species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group: D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum. Our results uncovered the existence of five confirmed and four unconfirmed candidate species. Among the confirmed candidate species, three have available names: Dendropsophus leucophyllatus, Dendropsophus triangulum, and Dendropsophus reticulatus, this last being removed from the synonymy of D. triangulum. A neotype of D. leucophyllatus is designated. We describe the remaining two confirmed candidate species, one from Bolivia and another from Peru. All confirmed candidate species are morphologically distinct and have much smaller geographic ranges than those previously reported for D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum sensu lato. Dendropsophus leucophyllatus sensu stricto occurs in the Guianan region. Dendropsophus reticulatus comb. nov. corresponds to populations in the Amazon basin of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru previously referred to as D. triangulum. Dendropsophus triangulum sensu stricto is the most widely distributed species; it occurs in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and Brazil, reaching the state of Pará. We provide accounts for all described species including an assessment of their conservation status.

  3. Thermotolerance and regeneration in the brittle star species complex Ophioderma longicauda: a preliminary study comparing lineages and Mediterranean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexandra Anh-Thu; Dupont, Sam; Chenuil, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to change marine species distributions; it is thus critical to understand species current thermotolerance. The brittle star species complex Ophioderma longicauda comprises a broadcast spawning lineage L1 and a brooding lineage L3. We collected L1 specimens from Marseilles and Crete, and L3 specimens from Crete. We monitored survival, autotomy and arm regeneration at 17, 26 and 30°C during 14 weeks. Globally O. longicauda showed good resistance to elevated temperatures compared to other published studies on ophiuroids. The L3 sample displayed a better thermotolerance than L1 samples. Yet, more research is needed to establish whether these differences are due to lineages, geographic origin, or random effects. We provided for the first time individual regeneration trajectories, and showed that regeneration followed a growth curve and was highly influenced by temperature in both lineages. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the presence of cryptic species when studying the potential effects of global warming. © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Systematics of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species complex (Anura: Hylidae): Cryptic diversity and the description of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A.; Milá, Borja; Jansen, Martin; Fouquet, Antoine; Venegas, Pablo J.; Chávez, Germán; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic data in studies of systematics of Amazonian amphibians frequently reveal that purportedly widespread single species in reality comprise species complexes. This means that real species richness may be significantly higher than current estimates. Here we combine genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data to assess the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of two Amazonian species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus species group: D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum. Our results uncovered the existence of five confirmed and four unconfirmed candidate species. Among the confirmed candidate species, three have available names: Dendropsophus leucophyllatus, Dendropsophus triangulum, and Dendropsophus reticulatus, this last being removed from the synonymy of D. triangulum. A neotype of D. leucophyllatus is designated. We describe the remaining two confirmed candidate species, one from Bolivia and another from Peru. All confirmed candidate species are morphologically distinct and have much smaller geographic ranges than those previously reported for D. leucophyllatus and D. triangulum sensu lato. Dendropsophus leucophyllatus sensu stricto occurs in the Guianan region. Dendropsophus reticulatus comb. nov. corresponds to populations in the Amazon basin of Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru previously referred to as D. triangulum. Dendropsophus triangulum sensu stricto is the most widely distributed species; it occurs in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru and Brazil, reaching the state of Pará. We provide accounts for all described species including an assessment of their conservation status. PMID:28248998

  5. Melanization of Fusarium keratoplasticum (F. solani Species Complex) During Disseminated Fusariosis in a Patient with Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiewchanvit, Siri; Chongkae, Siriporn; Mahanupab, Pongsak; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Pornsuwan, Soraya; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Youngchim, Sirida

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium spp. are recognized as the second most frequently filamentous fungi causing opportunistic infections and particularly important due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. F. keratoplasticum (a member of F. solani species complex) is one of the Fusarium species commonly associated with human infection, and therefore, studies on the virulence of this fungus are needed. This study aimed to confirm the presence of melanin in F. keratoplasticum from a patient with systemic fusariosis. Immunofluorescence labeling with anti-melanin monoclonal antibody (MAb) was used to examine an expression of melanin in F. keratoplasticum in vitro and during infection. Electron spin resonance identified the particles extracted from F. keratoplasticum as stable free radical consistent with melanin. Lesional skin from the sites with fusariosis contained hyphal structures that could be labeled by melanin-binding MAb, while digestion of the tissue yielded dark particles that were reactive. These findings suggest that F. keratoplasticum hyphae and chlamydospores can produce melanin in vitro and that hyphae can synthesize pigment in vivo. Given the potential role of melanin in virulence of other fungi, this pigment in F. keratoplasticum may play a role in the pathogenesis of fusariosis.

  6. The microgeographical patterns of morphological and molecular variation of a mixed ploidy population in the species complex Actinidia chinensis.

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    Yifei Liu

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and hybridization are thought to have significant impacts on both the evolution and diversification of the genus Actinidia, but the structure and patterns of morphology and molecular diversity relating to ploidy variation of wild Actinidia plants remain much less understood. Here, we examine the distribution of morphological variation and ploidy levels along geographic and environmental variables of a large mixed-ploidy population of the A. chinensis species complex. We then characterize the extent of both genetic and epigenetic diversity and differentiation exhibited between individuals of different ploidy levels. Our results showed that while there are three ploidy levels in this population, hexaploids were constituted the majority (70.3%. Individuals with different ploidy levels were microgeographically structured in relation to elevation and extent of niche disturbance. The morphological characters examined revealed clear difference between diploids and hexaploids, however tetraploids exhibited intermediate forms. Both genetic and epigenetic diversity were high but the differentiation among cytotypes was weak, suggesting extensive gene flow and/or shared ancestral variation occurred in this population even across ploidy levels. Epigenetic variation was clearly correlated with changes in altitudes, a trend of continuous genetic variation and gradual increase of epigenomic heterogeneities of individuals was also observed. Our results show that complex interactions between the locally microgeographical environment, ploidy and gene flow impact A. chinensis genetic and epigenetic variation. We posit that an increase in ploidy does not broaden the species habitat range, but rather permits A. chinensis adaptation to specific niches.

  7. Distribution of Karyotypes of the Cryptocercus punctulatus Species Complex (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Christine A; Shimada, Keisuke; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Luykx, Peter

    2017-03-01

    During the period between 1999 and 2006, wood-feeding cockroaches in the Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder species complex were collected throughout Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. The chromosome numbers of insects from 59 sites were determined, and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial COII and nuclear ITS2 DNA. The distribution of the three male karyotypes found in the park (2n = 37, 39, and 45) is mapped and discussed in relation to recent disturbances and glacial history. Clades of the three karyotype groups meet near the ridgeline separating North Carolina from Tennessee in the center of the park, suggesting that these may have originated from separate lower elevation refugia after the last glacial maximum. The timing of divergence and a significant correlation between elevation difference and genetic distance in two of the clades supports this hypothesis. The ecological role of the cockroaches in the park is discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K W; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome.

  9. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  10. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  11. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Lindstrom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Py. montereyensis sp. nov., Py. columbiensis sp. nov., and Py. protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Py. columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Py. lanceolata or Py. pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Py. nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Py. lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  12. Comparison of tick-borne microorganism communities in Ixodes spp. of the Ixodes ricinus species complex at distinct geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movila, Alexandru; Dubinina, Helen V; Sitnicova, Natalia; Bespyatova, Liubov; Uspenskaia, Inga; Efremova, Galina; Toderas, Ion; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the tick-borne microorganism communities of Ixodes ricinus (sheep tick) and Ixodes persulcatus (taiga tick) from the I. ricinus species complex in distinct geographical regions of Eastern Europe and European Russia, we demonstrated differences between the two ticks. Taiga ticks were more frequently mono- and co-infected than sheep ticks: 24.4 % (45/184 tested ticks) versus 17.5 % (52/297) and 4.3 % (8/184) versus 3.4 % (10/297), respectively. Ginsberg co-infection index values were significant at the various sites. Diversity of the tick-borne microorganism communities was estimated by the Shannon index, reaching values of 1.71 ± 0.46 and 1.20 ± 0.15 at the sheep-tick and the taiga-tick harbored sites, respectively. Richness of the tick-borne microorganism community in the sheep tick collection sites was about twice the value of the taiga tick collection sites. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the peculiarities of the tick-borne microorganism communities among the ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex.

  13. Evolutionary relationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici isolates inferred from mating type, elongation factor-1α and exopolygalacturonase sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; van Baarlen, P.; Verreth, C.; Van Kerckhove, S.; Rep, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous species complex of soilborne plant pathogens that comprises many different formae speciales, each characterized by a high degree of host specificity. In this study, the evolutionary relationships between different isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex have

  14. Evolutionary relationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici isolates inferred from mating type, elongation factor-1a exopolygalacturonase sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Baarlen, van P.; Verreth, C.; Kerckhove, van S.; Rep, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a ubiquitous species complex of soilborne plant pathogens that comprises many different formae speciales, each characterized by a high degree of host specificity. In this study, the evolutionary relationships between different isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex have

  15. Revision of the Grillotia erinaceus (van Beneden, 1858) species complex (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha), with the description of G. brayi n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, I; Campbell, R A

    2007-09-01

    Members of the trypanorhynch cestode genus Grillotia Guiart, 1927 belonging to the Grillotia erinaceus (van Beneden, 1858) species complex are redescribed. The type-species of the genus, G. erinaceus, is redescribed from Raja spp. in the eastern and western north Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The redescription establishes the presence of: an hermaphroditic sac; internal and external seminal vesicles (but absence of an accessory seminal vesicle); a uterine pore; and the attachment of the retractor muscle in the mid-region of the tentacular bulb. G. pseuderinaceus Dollfus, 1969 and G. recurvispinis Dollfus, 1969 from Raja spp. in the Mediterranean are considered to be synonyms of G. erinaceus, following Palm (2004). G. dollfusi Carvajal, 1971 from R. chilensis Guichenot off Chile is redescribed from the paratypes and features of the terminal genitalia, consistent with those of G. erinaceus, are described for the first time. G. musculara (Hart, 1936) is redescribed from new material collected from the type-host, R. rhina (Jordan & Gilbert), off Nanaimo on the western coast of Canada. The features of the terminal genitalia of G. musculara are similar to those of the G. erinaceus group. The morphological features of G. borealis Keeney & Campbell, 2001 from Bathyraja spp. in the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk are summarised and illustrations of this species provided. G. brayi n. sp. is described from Amblyraja radiata from the coasts of Iceland and Britain. The new species differs from other members of the complex in lacking modified hooks 1 and 1' at the base of the tentacle (differentiating it from G. erinaceus), a long pars vaginalis (differentiating it from G. dollfusi) and uncinate hooks in the band on the external surface of the tentacle (differentiating it from G. musculara). Brief descriptions are provided of two apparently new species of Grillotia currently represented in collections by single specimens.

  16. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Collyer, Michael L; Douglas, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively). The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks) were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions). Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA), regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data). Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation.

  17. Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génier, François; Moretto, Philippe

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy and systematics of the genus Digitonthophagus Balthasar (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Onthophagini) is revised. A detailed study of the male genitalia combined with external morphology suggests that the variability, previously recognized, for D. gazella is hiding a species complex within the Afrotropical region and the Arabian Peninsula. The current study recognizes 16 species; 13 from the Afrotropical region and Arabian Peninsula and three from the eastern portion of the Saharo-Arabian region and the continental Indomalayan region. Species are organized into six species groups based on the results of the morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. The following 12 species are described as new: D. aksumensis Génier new species; D. biflagellatus Génier new species; D. dilatatus Génier new species; D. eucatta Génier new species; D. falciger Génier new species; D. fimator Génier new species; D. namaquensis Génier new species; D. petilus Génier new species; D. sahelicus Moretto new species; D. uks Génier new species; D. ulcerosus Génier new species; and D. viridicollis Génier new species. In order to stabilize nomenclature, lectotypes are designated for Scarabaeus bonasus Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeus catta Fabricius, 1787, and Onthophagus gazella lusinganus d'Orbigny. A neotype is designated for Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier, 1789 whose status and synonymy need to be altered in order to clarify the status of Scarabaeus gazella auctorum, the widely introduced species with economic importance. A naming scheme is presented for the sclerites of the internal sac. External and male genitalia are illustrated and distribution maps are provided for each species.

  18. Identification of a New Mullet Species Complex Based on an Integrative Molecular and Cytogenetic Investigation of Mugil hospes (Mugilidae: Mugiliformes

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mullets are very common fishes included in the family Mugilidae, (Mugiliformes, which are characterized by both a remarkably uniform external morphology and internal anatomy. Recently, within this family, different species complexes were molecularly identified within Mugil, a genus which is characterized by lineages that sometimes show very different karyotypes. Here we report the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses conducted on Mugil hospes, commonly known as the hospe mullet, from Ecuador. The study aims to verify whether the original described species from the Pacific Ocean corresponds to that identified in the Atlantic Ocean, and to identify species-specific chromosome markers that can add new comparative data about Mugilidae karyotype evolution. The karyotype of M. hospes from Ecuador is composed of 48 acrocentric chromosomes and shows two active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs. In situ hybridization, using different types of repetitive sequences (rDNAs, U1 snDNA, telomeric repeats as probes, identified species-specific chromosome markers that have been compared with those of other species of the genus Mugil. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequence analysis shows only 92–93% similarity with sequences previously deposited under this species name in GenBank, all of which were from the Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate the presence of three well-supported hospe mullet lineages whose molecular divergence is compatible with the presence of distinct species. Indeed, the first lineage includes samples from Ecuador, whereas the other two lineages include the Atlantic samples and correspond to M. brevirostris from Brazil and Mugil sp. R from Belize/Venezuela. Results here provided reiterate the pivotal importance of an integrative molecular and cytogenetic approach in the reconstruction of the relationships within Mugilidae.

  19. Molecular species delimitation in the Racomitrium canescens complex (Grimmiaceae and implications for DNA barcoding of species complexes in mosses.

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    Michael Stech

    Full Text Available In bryophytes a morphological species concept is still most commonly employed, but delimitation of closely related species based on morphological characters is often difficult. Here we test morphological species circumscriptions in a species complex of the moss genus Racomitrium, the R. canescens complex, based on variable DNA sequence markers from the plastid (rps4-trnT-trnL region and nuclear (nrITS genomes. The extensive morphological variability within the complex has led to different opinions about the number of species and intraspecific taxa to be distinguished. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions allowed to clearly distinguish all eight currently recognised species of the complex plus a ninth species that was inferred to belong to the complex in earlier molecular analyses. The taxonomic significance of intraspecific sequence variation is discussed. The present molecular data do not support the division of the R. canescens complex into two groups of species (subsections or sections. Most morphological characters, albeit being in part difficult to apply, are reliable for species identification in the R. canescens complex. However, misidentification of collections that were morphologically intermediate between species questioned the suitability of leaf shape as diagnostic character. Four partitions of the molecular markers (rps4-trnT, trnT-trnL, ITS1, ITS2 that could potentially be used for molecular species identification (DNA barcoding performed almost equally well concerning amplification and sequencing success. Of these, ITS1 provided the highest species discrimination capacity and should be considered as a DNA barcoding marker for mosses, especially in complexes of closely related species. Molecular species identification should be complemented by redefining morphological characters, to develop a set of easy-to-use molecular and non-molecular identification tools for improving biodiversity assessments and ecological research

  20. Epitypification of Fusisporium (Fusarium) solani and its assignment to a common phylogenetic species in the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Hans-Josef; Samuels, Gary J; Zhang, Ning; Short, Dylan P G; Juba, Jean; Geiser, David M

    2016-01-01

    Fusisporium solani was described as the causal agent of a dry rot of potato in Germany in the mid 19th century. As Fusarium solani, the species became known as a plurivorous plant pathogen, endophyte, decomposer, and opportunistic pathogen of humans and nutritional symbiont of insects. In parallel, it became evident that the morphologically defined species F. solani represents a phylogenetically and biologically complex group of often morphologically cryptic species that has come to be known in part as the F. solani species complex (FSSC), accommodating several formae speciales and mating populations/biological species. The FSSC currently includes more than 60 phylogenetic species. Several of these have been named, but the majority remains unnamed and the identity of F. solani sensu stricto is unclear. To promote further taxonomic developments in the FSSC, lectoand epitypification is proposed for Fusisporium solani Although no type material for F. solani is known to exist, the species was abundantly illustrated in the protologue. Thus, a relevant illustration provided by von Martius is selected as the lectotype. The epitype selected here originates from a rotting potato collected in a field in Slovenia. This strain causes a dry rot of artificially inoculated potatoes. It groups in the heretofore unnamed phylogenetic species 5, which is nested within clade 3 of the FSSC (FSSC 5). Members of this phylogenetic species have a wide geographic distribution and include soil saprotrophs and plant and opportunistic human pathogens. This typification is consistent with the original description of Fusisporium solani and the concept of F. solani as a widely distributed soil inhabitant and pathogen. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Davis

    Full Text Available Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mtDNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively. The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions. Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA, regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data. Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation.

  2. Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of partially sympatric species complex Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and R. stylosa Griff. using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Alison K S; Takayama, Koji; Chua, Jasher L; Asakawa, Takeshi; Meenakshisundaram, Sankararamasubramanian H; Onrizal; Adjie, Bayu; Ardli, Erwin Riyanto; Sungkaew, Sarawood; Malekal, Norhaslinda Binti; Tung, Nguyen Xuan; Salmo, Severino G; Yllano, Orlex Baylen; Saleh, M Nazre; Soe, Khin Khin; Tateishi, Yoichi; Watano, Yasuyuki; Baba, Shigeyuki; Webb, Edward L; Kajita, Tadashi

    2015-03-29

    Mangrove forests are ecologically important but globally threatened intertidal plant communities. Effective mangrove conservation requires the determination of species identity, management units, and genetic structure. Here, we investigate the genetic distinctiveness and genetic structure of an iconic but yet taxonomically confusing species complex Rhizophora mucronata and R. stylosa across their distributional range, by employing a suite of 20 informative nuclear SSR markers. Our results demonstrated the general genetic distinctiveness of R. mucronata and R. stylosa, and potential hybridization or introgression between them. We investigated the population genetics of each species without the putative hybrids, and found strong genetic structure between oceanic regions in both R. mucronata and R. stylosa. In R. mucronata, a strong divergence was detected between populations from the Indian Ocean region (Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea) and the Pacific Ocean region (Malacca Strait, South China Sea and Northwest Pacific Ocean). In R. stylosa, the genetic break was located more eastward, between populations from South and East China Sea and populations from the Southwest Pacific Ocean. The location of these genetic breaks coincided with the boundaries of oceanic currents, thus suggesting that oceanic circulation patterns might have acted as a cryptic barrier to gene flow. Our findings have important implications on the conservation of mangroves, especially relating to replanting efforts and the definition of evolutionary significant units in Rhizophora species. We outlined the genetic structure and identified geographical areas that require further investigations for both R. mucronata and R. stylosa. These results serve as the foundation for the conservation genetics of R. mucronata and R. stylosa and highlighted the need to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of closely-related species, determine their respective genetic structure, and avoid artificially promoting

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Fusarium solani species complex in human infections and the descriptions of F. keratoplasticum sp. nov. and F. petroliphilum stat. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Short, Dylan P.G.; O’Donnell, Kerry; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium species are frequently associated with mycotic keratitis and, to a lesser extent, cases of localized and disseminated infections. The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with human infectious diseases. Several studies to date have reveale...

  4. Climate change impacts on the ecology of Fusarium graminearum species complex and susceptibility of wheat to Fusarium head blight: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a major threat to agricultural grain production, food safety, and animal health. The severity of disease epidemics and accumulation of associated trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat kerne...

  5. A natural fungal infection of a sylvatic cockroach with Metarhizium blattodeae sp. nov., a member of the M. flavoviride species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wild, forest-dwelling cockroach from the subfamily Ectobiidae (order Blattodea) in a nature reserve in Cavalcante, in the state of Goias, Brazil, was found to be infected by a new, genetically distinct species in the Metarhizium flavoviride species complex that we describe here as Metarhizium blat...

  6. A checklist of the mosquitoes of Indiana with notes on the cryptic species complexes Anopheles quadrimaculatus s.l. and Anopheles punctipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine L E; Chaon, Benjamin C; Shan, Qiuqi A; Lobo, Neil F; Collins, Frank H

    2008-09-01

    The checklist of the mosquito species reported to occur in the state of Indiana is updated to include a number of new records and new classifications. Specimens of the cryptic species complex Anopheles quadrimaculatus s.1. are identified as An. quadrimaculatus s.s., and specimens of An. punctipennis are identified as the Eastern form of the species.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction assay to identify all immature stages of two species of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, C R; Wesson, D M; Meek, C L

    1999-12-01

    A polymerase chain reaction assay that detects differences in the 2nd internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA was tested as a means to identify all immature stages of 2 species in the Anopheles quadrimaculatus sibling species complex. The technique was successful in amplifying DNA from eggs, 1st-4th instars, and pupae of An. quadrilmaculatus Say and An. inundatus Reinert.

  8. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Aller, A.I.; Canton, E.; Castanon-Olivares, L.R.; Chowdhary, A.; Cordoba, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Govender, N.; Hagen, F.; Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Johnson, E.; Kidd, S.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; St-Germain, G.; Trilles, L.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex versus fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are not available. We established ECVs for these species and agents based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions. A total of 2,985 to

  9. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Gennaro Pescitelli; Alessio Cimmino; Suzette Clement; Beth Peacock; Antonio Evidente

    2017-01-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure (‘die-off’), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex...

  10. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the F. fujikuroi species complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.; van Diepeningen, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common group of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxins production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from

  11. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  12. Molecular phylogeny and diversity of Fusarium endophytes isolated from tomato stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazaki, Iori; Kadota, Ikuo

    2015-09-01

    Plant tissues are a known habitat for two types of Fusarium species: plant pathogens and endophytes. Here, we investigated the molecular phylogeny and diversity of endophytic fusaria, because endophytes are not as well studied as pathogens. A total of 543 Fusarium isolates were obtained from the inside of tomato stems cultivated in soils mainly obtained from agricultural fields. We then determined partial nucleotide sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) genes of the isolates. Among the isolates from tomato, 24 EF-1α gene sequence types (EFST) were found: nine were classified as being from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and its sister taxa (FOSC, 332 isolates), seven from the F. fujikuroi species complex (FFSC, 75 isolates) and eight from the F. solani species complex (FSSC, 136 isolates). To determine more characteristic details of the tomato isolates, we isolated 180 fusaria directly from soils and found 95% of them were nested within the FOSC (82 isolates; five EFSTs), FFSC (21 isolates; six FESTs) and FSSC (68 isolates; 11 EFSTs). These results suggested that the dominant Fusarium endophytes within tomato stems were members of the same three species complexes, which were also the dominant fusaria in the soils. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India’s huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon, and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated ‘Pro-Indica,’ ‘Pro-Aus,’ and ‘Mid-Gangetic,’ which showed poor correspondence with the morpho-taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the ‘Pro-Indica’ and ‘Pro-Aus’ sub-populations across agro

  14. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae is a species complex

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    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi. Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. Methods We employed Bayesian Inference (BI methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci (COXI, 16S and one nuclear locus (28S. We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements can predict individual’s membership to a putative species. Results Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83–100% in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Discussion Our results indicate

  15. Eggplant Resistance to the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Involves Both Broad-Spectrum and Strain-Specific Quantitative Trait Loci

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    Sylvia Salgon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt (BW is a major disease of solanaceous crops caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC. Strains are grouped into five phylotypes (I, IIA, IIB, III, and IV. Varietal resistance is the most sustainable strategy for managing BW. Nevertheless, breeding to improve cultivar resistance has been limited by the pathogen’s extensive genetic diversity. Identifying the genetic bases of specific and non-specific resistance is a prerequisite to breed improvement. A major gene (ERs1 was previously mapped in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. using an intraspecific population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of susceptible MM738 (S × resistant AG91-25 (R. ERs1 was originally found to control three strains from phylotype I, while being totally ineffective against a virulent strain from the same phylotype. We tested this population against four additional RSSC strains, representing phylotypes I, IIA, IIB, and III in order to clarify the action spectrum of ERs1. We recorded wilting symptoms and bacterial stem colonization under controlled artificial inoculation. We constructed a high-density genetic map of the population using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs developed from genotyping-by-sequencing and added 168 molecular markers [amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs, simple sequence repeats (SSRs, and sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs] developed previously. The new linkage map based on a total of 1,035 markers was anchored on eggplant, tomato, and potato genomes. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping for resistance against a total of eight RSSC strains resulted in the detection of one major phylotype-specific QTL and two broad-spectrum QTLs. The major QTL, which specifically controls three phylotype I strains, was located at the bottom of chromosome 9 and corresponded to the previously identified major gene ERs1. Five candidate R-genes were underlying this QTL, with different alleles

  16. Candida glabrata species complex prevalence and antifungal susceptibility testing in a culture collection: First description of Candida nivariensis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya Eugenia; Taverna, Constanza G; Bosco-Borgeat, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Ivana; Vivot, Walter; Szusz, Wanda; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Córdoba, Susana B

    2016-12-01

    The presence of the cryptic species belonging to the Candida glabrata complex has not been studied in Argentina. We analyzed a collection of 117 clinical isolates of C. glabrata complex belonging to a National Culture Collection of Instituto Nacional de Microbiología "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" from Argentina (40 isolates from blood samples, 18 from other normally sterile sites, 20 from vagina, 14 from urine, 7 from oral cavity, 3 from catheter, 1 from a stool sample and 14 isolates whose clinical origin was not recorded). The aims of this work were to determine the prevalence of the cryptic species Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis and to evaluate the susceptibility profile of isolates against nine antifungal drugs. Identification was carried out by using classical phenotypic tests, CHROMagar™ Candida, PCR and MALDI-TOF. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were determined according to the EDef 7.3 (EUCAST) reference document. Of the 117 isolates, 114 were identified as C. glabrata and three as C. nivariensis by using PCR and MALDI-TOF. There were no major differences between C. nivariensis and C. glabrata susceptibility profiles. No resistant strains were found to echinocandins. We have found that the percentage of C. nivariensis in our culture collection was 2.56. This is the first description of C. nivariensis in Argentina, and data obtained could contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiology of this cryptic species.

  17. Native trees of the Northeast Argentine: natural hosts of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattana, Maria Emilia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Fernández, Mariana; Rojas, Florencia; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    In Argentina, information about epidemiology and environmental distribution of Cryptococcus is scarce. The city of Resistencia borders with Brazil and Paraguay where this fungus is endemic. All these supported the need to investigate the ecology of the genus and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in this area. The aim was to investigate the presence of species of Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii complex and their genotypes in trees of the city of Resistencia. One hundred and five trees were sampled by swabbing technique. The isolates were identified using conventional and commercial methods and genotyped by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism). Cryptococcus was found in 7 out of the total trees. 6 out of 7 Cryptococcus isolates were identified as C. neoformans and one as C. gattii. C. gattii was isolated from Grevillea robusta. C. neoformans strains were isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae and Peltophorum dubium. Genotyping showed that all C. neoformans belonged to the VNI type and C. gattii belonged to the VGI type. This represents the first study on the ecology of Cryptococcus spp. associated to trees from northeastern Argentina, and the first report describing Grevillea robusta as a host of members of this fungal genus. Another finding is the isolation of C. neoformans from Tabebuia avellanedae and Peltophorum dubium, both tree species native to northeastern Argentina. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and optimization of a new MALDI-TOF protocol for identification of the Sporothrix species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Santos, Cledir; Sampaio, Paula; Romeo, Orazio; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Pais, Célia; Lima, Nelson; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2015-01-01

    Accurate species identification of the Sporothrix schenckii complex is essential, since identification based only on phenotypic characteristics is often inconclusive due to phenotypic variability within the species. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for species identification of 70 environmental and clinical isolates of the Sporothrix complex. A reference database was established for MALDI-TOF MS-based species identification according to minor adjustments in the manufacturer's guidelines. The MALDI-TOF MS clearly distinguished strains of Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana, S. schenckii, Sporothrix luriei and Sporothrix pallida, enabling identification of all isolates at the species level, as confirmed by partial calmodulin gene sequence analyses. The present methodology is simple, reliable, rapid and highly suitable for routine identification in clinical mycology laboratories and culture collections, particularly for updating and reclassifying of deposited Sporothrix isolates. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A two-locus DNA sequence database for typing plant and human pathogens within the Fusarium oxysporum species complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Gueidan, C; Sink, S

    2009-01-01

    We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1alpha) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species compl...

  20. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  1. Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mérigot, Bastien; Valière, Sophie; Chenuil, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Closely related species with divergent life history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographi...

  2. Phylogeography and systematic revision of the Egyptian cobra (Serpentes : Elapidae : Naja haje) species complex, with the description of a new species from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Trape, Jean-François; Chirio, L.; Broadley, D. G.; Wuster, W.

    2009-01-01

    We use a combination of phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences and multivariate morphometrics to investigate the phylogeography and systematics of the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) species complex. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial haplotypes reveals a highly distinct clade of haplotypes from the Sudano-Sahelian savanna belt of West Africa, and that the haplotypes of Naja haje arabica form the sister group of North and East African N. h. haje. Multivariate morphometrics confirm the distin...

  3. Transposable element-assisted evolution and adaptation to host plant within the Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandaubert, Jonathan; Lowe, Rohan G T; Soyer, Jessica L; Schoch, Conrad L; Van de Wouw, Angela P; Fudal, Isabelle; Robbertse, Barbara; Lapalu, Nicolas; Links, Matthew G; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Linglin, Juliette; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Cruaud, Corinne; Borhan, Hossein; Howlett, Barbara J; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Rouxel, Thierry

    2014-10-12

    Many plant-pathogenic fungi have a tendency towards genome size expansion, mostly driven by increasing content of transposable elements (TEs). Through comparative and evolutionary genomics, five members of the Leptosphaeria maculans-Leptosphaeria biglobosa species complex (class Dothideomycetes, order Pleosporales), having different host ranges and pathogenic abilities towards cruciferous plants, were studied to infer the role of TEs on genome shaping, speciation, and on the rise of better adapted pathogens. L. maculans 'brassicae', the most damaging species on oilseed rape, is the only member of the species complex to have a TE-invaded genome (32.5%) compared to the other members genomes (<4%). These TEs had an impact at the structural level by creating large TE-rich regions and are suspected to have been instrumental in chromosomal rearrangements possibly leading to speciation. TEs, associated with species-specific genes involved in disease process, also possibly had an incidence on evolution of pathogenicity by promoting translocations of effector genes to highly dynamic regions and thus tuning the regulation of effector gene expression in planta. Invasion of L. maculans 'brassicae' genome by TEs followed by bursts of TE activity allowed this species to evolve and to better adapt to its host, making this genome species a peculiarity within its own species complex as well as in the Pleosporales lineage.

  4. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological and genomic characterization of Filobasidiella depauperata: a homothallic sibling species of the pathogenic cryptococcus species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Findley, Keisha; Sun, Sheng; Dietrich, Fred S; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-03-10

    The fungal species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii cause respiratory and neurological disease in animals and humans following inhalation of basidiospores or desiccated yeast cells from the environment. Sexual reproduction in C. neoformans and C. gattii is controlled by a bipolar system in which a single mating type locus (MAT) specifies compatibility. These two species are dimorphic, growing as yeast in the asexual stage, and producing hyphae, basidia, and basidiospores during the sexual stage. In contrast, Filobasidiella depauperata, one of the closest related species, grows exclusively as hyphae and it is found in association with decaying insects. Examination of two available strains of F. depauperata showed that the life cycle of this fungal species shares features associated with the unisexual or same-sex mating cycle in C. neoformans. Therefore, F. depauperata may represent a homothallic and possibly an obligately sexual fungal species. RAPD genotyping of 39 randomly isolated progeny from isolate CBS7855 revealed a new genotype pattern in one of the isolated basidiospores progeny, therefore suggesting that the homothallic cycle in F. depauperata could lead to the emergence of new genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of genes linked to MAT in C. neoformans indicated that two of these genes in F. depauperata, MYO2 and STE20, appear to form a monophyletic clade with the MATa alleles of C. neoformans and C. gattii, and thus these genes may have been recruited to the MAT locus before F. depauperata diverged. Furthermore, the ancestral MATa locus may have undergone accelerated evolution prior to the divergence of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species since several of the genes linked to the MATa locus appear to have a higher number of changes and substitutions than their MATalpha counterparts. Synteny analyses between C. neoformans and F. depauperata showed that genomic regions on other chromosomes displayed conserved gene order. In contrast, the genes

  6. Morphological and genomic characterization of Filobasidiella depauperata: a homothallic sibling species of the pathogenic cryptococcus species complex.

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    Marianela Rodriguez-Carres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The fungal species Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii cause respiratory and neurological disease in animals and humans following inhalation of basidiospores or desiccated yeast cells from the environment. Sexual reproduction in C. neoformans and C. gattii is controlled by a bipolar system in which a single mating type locus (MAT specifies compatibility. These two species are dimorphic, growing as yeast in the asexual stage, and producing hyphae, basidia, and basidiospores during the sexual stage. In contrast, Filobasidiella depauperata, one of the closest related species, grows exclusively as hyphae and it is found in association with decaying insects. Examination of two available strains of F. depauperata showed that the life cycle of this fungal species shares features associated with the unisexual or same-sex mating cycle in C. neoformans. Therefore, F. depauperata may represent a homothallic and possibly an obligately sexual fungal species. RAPD genotyping of 39 randomly isolated progeny from isolate CBS7855 revealed a new genotype pattern in one of the isolated basidiospores progeny, therefore suggesting that the homothallic cycle in F. depauperata could lead to the emergence of new genotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of genes linked to MAT in C. neoformans indicated that two of these genes in F. depauperata, MYO2 and STE20, appear to form a monophyletic clade with the MATa alleles of C. neoformans and C. gattii, and thus these genes may have been recruited to the MAT locus before F. depauperata diverged. Furthermore, the ancestral MATa locus may have undergone accelerated evolution prior to the divergence of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species since several of the genes linked to the MATa locus appear to have a higher number of changes and substitutions than their MATalpha counterparts. Synteny analyses between C. neoformans and F. depauperata showed that genomic regions on other chromosomes displayed conserved gene order. In

  7. A reinvestigation of phylogeny and divergence times of the Ablepharus kitaibelii species complex (Sauria, Scincidae) based on mtDNA and nuDNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtanioti, Eirini; Kapli, Paschalia; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Avcı, Aziz; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka; Gherghel, Iulian; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2016-10-01

    Morphological and DNA data support that the East Mediterranean snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii represents a species complex that includes four species A. kitaibelii, A. budaki, A. chernovi, and A. rueppellii, highlighting the need of its taxonomic reevaluation. Here, we used Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of all members of the complex based on two mitochondrial (cyt b, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear markers (MC1R, and NKTR) and using Chalcides, Eumeces, and Eutropis as outgroups. The biogeographic history of the complex was also investigated through the application of several phylogeographic (BEAST) and biogeographic (BBM) analyses. Paleogeographic and paleoclimatic data were used to support the inferred phylogeographic patterns. The A. kitaibelli species complex exhibits high genetic diversity, revealing cases of hidden diversity and cases of non-monophyletic species such as A. kitaibelii and A. budaki. Our results indicate that A. pannonicus branches off first and a group that comprises specimens of A. kitaibelli and A. budaki from Kastelorizo Island group (southeast Greece) and southwest Turkey, respectively is differentiated from the rest A. kitaibelli and A. budaki populations and may represent a new species. The estimated divergence times place the origin of the complex in the Middle Miocene (∼16Mya) and the divergence of most currently recognized species in the Late Miocene. The inferred ancestral distribution suggests that the complex originated in Anatolia, supposing that several vicariance and dispersal events that are related with the formation of the Mid-Aegean Trench, the Anatolian Diagonal and the orogenesis of the mountain chains in southern and eastern Anatolia have led to current distribution pattern of A. kitaibelii species complex in the Balkans and Middle East. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive evolution of M3 lysin--a candidate gamete recognition protein in the Mytilus edulis species complex.

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    Lima, Thiago G; McCartney, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Marine invertebrate gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) are classic examples of rapid adaptive evolution of reproductive proteins, and hybridizing Mytilus blue mussels allow us to study the evolution of GRPs during speciation following secondary contact. Even with frequent hybridization, positive selection drives divergence of M7 lysin, one of the three Mytilus egg vitelline envelope (VE) lysins. Mytilus trossulus and M. edulis form a broad hybrid zone in the Canadian Maritimes and eastern Maine, isolated by strong (but partial) gamete incompatibility. M7 lysin, however, is an unlikely GRP controlling this gametic incompativility, as earlier studies showed either weak or no positive selection and extensive introgression between the two species. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and cloned several alleles of M3 lysin, a potent VE lysin encoded by a nonhomologous gene whose evolution has not been studied. McDonald-Kreitman and HKA tests reveal strong positive selection, which PAML branch-site models detect in 19.7% of the codons. Protein structure predictions show that replacements map exclusively to one face of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of this C-type lectin, with codons under positive selection localizing to CRD regions known to control ligand specificity. Polymorphism/divergence analyses show that selective sweep has purged M. edulis but not M. trossulus of polymorphism, and unique to M3 is an absence of fixed substitutions and broad haplotype sharing between M. edulis and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. Taken together, these results suggest that different lysins serve as GRPs in different Mytilus hybrid zones, with M3 likely co-opted to play this role in the western Atlantic.

  9. A nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) potentially useful for the separation of Rhodnius prolixus from members of the Rhodnius robustus cryptic species complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Márcio G.; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Lawrence, Gena G.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Dotson, Ellen M.; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka; Randall-Maher, Jennifer; Monteiro, Fernando A.

    2013-01-01

    The design and application of rational strategies that rely on accurate species identification are pivotal for effective vector control. When morphological identification of the target vector species is impractical, the use of molecular markers is required. Here we describe a non-coding, single-copy nuclear DNA fragment that contains a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the potential to distinguish the important domestic Chagas disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus, from members of the four sylvatic Rhodnius robustus cryptic species complex. A total of 96 primer pairs obtained from whole genome shotgun sequencing of the R. prolixus genome (12,626 random reads) were tested on 43 R. prolixus and R. robustus s.l. samples. One of the seven amplicons selected (AmpG) presented a SNP, potentially diagnostic for R. prolixus, on the 280th site. The diagnostic nature of this SNP was then performed on 154 R. prolixus and R. robustus s.l. samples aimed at achieving the widest possible geographic coverage. The results of a 60% majority rule Bayesian consensus tree and a median-joining network constructed based on the genetic variability observed reveal the paraphyletic nature of the R. robustus species complex, with respect to R. prolixus. AmpG region is located in the fourth intron of the Transmembrane protein 165 gene, which seems to be in the R. prolixus X chromosome. Other possible chromosomal locations of the AmpG region in the R. prolixus genome are also presented and discussed. PMID:23219914

  10. A new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on members of the M. chinensis species-complex (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, Meligethinae

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    Meike Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Meligethes (Odontogethes inexpectatus sp. n. is described from China, Sichuan Province. The new species is based on a female specimen previously incorrectly referred to as Meligethes scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015, which was recently described from a series of male specimens collected in the same area. Both species belong to the taxonomically difficult species-group related to M. chinensis Kirejtshuk, 1979, including a dozen closely related species distributed throughout Nepal and SW and Central China. The true female of Meligethes scrobescens is also described, based on recently collected material from China (Hubei and Chongqing, including a series of male and female specimens. Diagnostic characters distinguishing the new species from all other known members of the M. chinensis species-group and species-complex are discussed, and their overall range distribution are depicted. Additional data on geographic distribution and larval ecology of some of the closely related species are also reported.

  11. Implications of Cu and Ni toxicity in two members of the Hyalella azteca cryptic species complex: Mortality, growth, and bioaccumulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jessica; Witt, Jonathan D S; Norwood, Warren; Dixon, D George

    2016-11-01

    Hyalella azteca, an amphipod crustacean, is frequently used in freshwater toxicity tests. Since the mid-1980s, numerous organizations have collected and established cultures of H. azteca originating from localities across North America. However, H. azteca is actually a large cryptic species complex whose members satisfy both the biological and the phylogenetic species concepts. Genetic analysis at the mitochondrial COI gene has revealed that only 2 clades are cultured in 17 North American laboratories; however, there are 85 genetically divergent lineages within this complex in the wild. In the present study, 2 members (clades 1 and 8) of the H. azteca species complex were identified using the mitochondrial COI gene. These 2 clades were exposed to Cu or Ni for 14 d. A saturation-based mortality model and the general growth model were used to determine mortality (lethal concentration, 25% and 50% [LC25 and LC50], lethal body concentration, 25% and 50% [LBC25 and LBC50]) and growth (inhibitory concentration, 25% [IC25, IBC25]) endpoints, respectively. A modified saturation-based model was used to estimate metal bioaccumulation parameters. Clade 8 was significantly more tolerant than clade 1, with differences in LC50s. However, the effects of the metals on growth were not significantly different between clades, even though clade 1 was significantly larger than then clade 8. Differences in Cu or Ni bioaccumulation were not observed between clades 1 and 8. The differences in Cu and Ni LC50s may have implications for risk assessments, and it is recommended that toxicity experiments should only be performed with properly identified members of the H. azteca complex to maintain consistency among laboratories. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2817-2826. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Towards a phylogenetic approach to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Bustamante, Dulce M; Menes, Marianela; Stevens, Lori; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Rizzo, Donna; Klotz, Stephen A; Schmidt, Justin; Axen, Heather J; Dorn, Patricia L

    2014-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of insect vectors of parasitic diseases are important for understanding the evolution of epidemiologically relevant traits, and may be useful in vector control. The sub-family Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) includes ∼140 extant species arranged in five tribes comprised of 15 genera. The genus Triatoma is the most species-rich and contains important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Triatoma species were grouped into complexes originally by morphology and more recently with the addition of information from molecular phylogenetics (the four-complex hypothesis); however, without a strict adherence to monophyly. To date, the validity of proposed species complexes has not been tested by statistical tests of topology. The goal of this study was to clarify the systematics of 19 Triatoma species from North and Central America. We inferred their evolutionary relatedness using two independent data sets: the complete nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 ribosomal DNA (ITS-2 rDNA) and head morphometrics. In addition, we used the Shimodaira-Hasegawa statistical test of topology to assess the fit of the data to a set of competing systematic hypotheses (topologies). An unconstrained topology inferred from the ITS-2 data was compared to topologies constrained based on the four-complex hypothesis or one inferred from our morphometry results. The unconstrained topology represents a statistically significant better fit of the molecular data than either the four-complex or the morphometric topology. We propose an update to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, based on a phylogeny inferred from ITS-2 as a first step towards updating the phylogeny of the complexes based on monophyly and statistical tests of topologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  14. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

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    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  15. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 secondary structure modelling for intra-specific differentiation among species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2014-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of member species which are of quarantine importance is impacted by a number of factors that negatively affect species identification. Structural information of the rRNA marker may be considered to be a conserved marker which can be used as supplementary information for possible species identification. The difficulty in using ITS rDNA sequences for identification lies in the low level of sequence variation at the intra-specific level and the generation of artificially-induced sequence variation due to errors in polymerization of the ITS array during DNA replication. Type and query ITS sequences were subjected to sequence analyses prior to generation of predicted consensus secondary structures, including the pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms and number of indel haplotypes, GC content, and detection of artificially-induced sequence variation. Data pertaining to structure stability, the presence of conserved motifs in secondary structures and mapping of all sequences onto the consensus C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto secondary structure for ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 markers was then carried out. Motifs that are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes were found for all ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences. The sequences exhibited conserved features typical of functional rRNAs. Generally, polymorphisms occurred within less conserved regions and were seen as bulges, internal and terminal loops or non-canonical G-U base-pairs within regions of the double stranded helices. Importantly, there were also taxonomic motifs and base changes that were unique to specific taxa and which may be used to support intra-specific identification of members of the C. gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.

  16. Assessing Species Boundaries Using Multilocus Species Delimitation in a Morphologically Conserved Group of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes, the Poecilia sphenops Species Complex (Poeciliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin C.; Alda, Fernando; Breitman, M. Florencia; Bermingham, Eldredge; van den Berghe, Eric P.; Johnson, Jerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including ‘non-adaptive radiations’ containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci) from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial ‘major-lineages’ diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively) 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the importance of

  17. The Colletotrichum boninense species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Shivas, R.G.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature

  18. Identification and Characterization of VNI/VNII and Novel VNII/VNIV Hybrids and Impact of Hybridization on Virulence and Antifungal Susceptibility Within the C. neoformans/C. gattii Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminnejad, Mojgan; Cogliati, Massimo; Duan, Shuyao; Arabatzis, Michael; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Lazéra, Marcia; Velegraki, Aristea; Ellis, David; Sorrell, Tania C.; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα). The URA5-RFLP pattern for VNII/VNIV (aADα) differs from the VNIII (αADa) hybrids. Analysis of the allelic patterns of selected genes for AD hybrids showed 79% or more heterozygosis for the studied loci except for CBS132 (VNIII), which showed 50% of heterozygosity. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to hybrids belonging to different sero/mating type allelic patterns. All hybrid isolates were identified as belonging to the same hybrid group with identification scores ranging between 2.101 to 2.634. All hybrids were virulent when tested in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth) model, except for VNII/VNIV (aADα) hybrids. VNI/VGII hybrids were the most virulent hybrids. Hybrids recovered from larvae manifested a significant increase in capsule and total cell size and produced a low proportion (5–10%) of giant cells compared with the haploid control strains. All strains expressed the major virulence factors—capsule, melanin and phospholipase B—and grew well at 37°C. The minimal inhibitory concentration of nine drugs was measured by micro-broth dilution and compared with published data on haploid strains. MICs were similar amongst hybrids and haploid parental strains. This is the first study reporting natural same sex αAAα intra-varietal VNI/VNII hybrids and aADα inter-varietal VNII/VNIV hybrids. PMID:27764108

  19. Cylindrotheca closterium is a species complex as was evidenced by the variations of rbcL gene and SSU rDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Yang, Guanpin; Sun, Ying; Wu, Suihan; Zhang, Xiufang

    2007-04-01

    The genus Cylindrotheca consists of a small group of marine diatoms with a few species described. Eleven isolates of diatoms identified as Cylindrotheca closterium morphologically were obtained from Jiaozhou Bay with their nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene sequences determined in this study. Interestingly, very high sequence divergences of SSU rDNA and rbcL gene were found among these isolates, and numerous nucleotide variation of rbcL gene caused relatively few variation of deduced amino acid sequence. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and rbcL gene, respectively, grouped the isolates into 6 clades. Phylogenetic tree of SSU rDNA placed all the Cylindrotheca isolates together, separating them into two lineages clearly. Lineage I was composed of the eleven C. closterium isolates obtained in this study together with another C. closterium isolate, but some clades were not well supported. Lineage II contained two C. closterium isolates and one C. fusiformis isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL gene also separated the Cylindrotheca isolates into two well-defined lineages. The eleven C. closterium isolates formed a lineage and all clades were supported strongly. Statistical comparisons of SSU rDNA indicated that the average distance within lineage I was significantly higher than that of other microalgae species ( P < 0.01). These results suggested the existence of cryptic species within C. closterium.

  20. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

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    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  1. Diagnostic description and geographic distribution of four new cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray species complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae; Neotrygon spp.) based on DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Arlyza, Irma S.; Hoareau, Thierry B.; Shen, Kang-Ning

    2017-08-01

    Nine morphologically similar but genetically distinct lineages in the blue-spotted maskray species complex, previously Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller and Henle) qualify as cryptic species. Four of these lineages have been previously described as Neotrygon australiae Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon caeruleopunctata Last, White and Séret, Neotrygon orientale Last, White and Séret, and Neotrygon varidens (Garman), but the morphological characters used in the descriptions offered poor diagnoses and their geographic distributions were not delineated precisely. The objective of the present work is to complete the description of the cryptic species in the complex. Here, an additional four lineages are described as new species on the basis of their mitochondrial DNA sequences: Neotrygon bobwardi, whose distribution extends from the northern tip of Aceh to the western coast of Sumatera; Neotrygon malaccensis, sampled from the eastern part of the Andaman Sea and from the Malacca Strait; Neotrygon moluccensis, from the eastern half of the Banda Sea; and Neotrygon westpapuensis from the central portion of northern West Papua. The geographic distributions of N. australiae, N. coeruleopunctata, N. orientale, and N. varidens are updated. For each species, a diagnosis is provided in the form of a combination of private or partly-private nucleotides at 2-4 nucleotide sites along a 519-base pair fragment of the CO1 gene. We believe that the present taxonomic revision will provide information relevant to the sound management and conservation of cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray in the Coral Triangle region.

  2. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 enhances the susceptibility to antifungals and reduces the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Evangelista, Antonio José de Jesus; Serpa, Rosana; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; de Melo, Charlline Vládia Silva; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Franco, Jônatas da Silva; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fébio Gadelha

    2016-02-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are chaperones required for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in different fungal pathogens, playing an important role in the infectious process. This study investigated the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 by radicicol on the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex--agents of the most common life-threatening fungal infection amongst immunocompromised patients. The influence of Hsp90 inhibition was investigated regarding in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents of planktonic and sessile cells, ergosterol concentration, cell membrane integrity, growth at 37 °C, production of virulence factors in vitro, and experimental infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hsp90 inhibition inhibited the in vitro growth of planktonic cells of Cryptococcus spp. at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 μg ml(-1) and increased the in vitro inhibitory effect of azoles, especially fluconazole (FLC) (P < 0.05). Inhibition of Hsp90 also increased the antifungal activity of azoles against biofilm formation and mature biofilms of Cryptococcus spp., notably for Cryptococcus gattii. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition compromised the permeability of the cell membrane, and reduced planktonic growth at 37 °C and the capsular size of Cryptococcus spp. In addition, Hsp90 inhibition enhanced the antifungal activity of FLC during experimental infection using Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our results indicate that Hsp90 inhibition can be an important strategy in the development of new antifungal drugs.

  3. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae) with the description of four new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminer, Marcel A.; Ron, Santiago R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n.) occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy. PMID:24478591

  4. Revision of the Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the descriptions of six new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-08-22

    The Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex is revised and includes A. arizonus La Rivers, A. bispinus La Rivers, A. drakei La Rivers, A. guttatipennis Stål, A. mexicanus Montandon, and A. mormon Montandon. Six new species that belong to this complex are described from Mexico: A. ayoyolin n. sp., A. bowlesi n. sp., A. contrerasi n. sp., A. itsipatsari n. sp., A. noveloi n. sp., and A. veracruzanus n. sp. The subspecies A. mormon australis La Rivers, A. m. heidemanni Montandon, and A. m. minor La Rivers are proposed as junior synonyms of A. m. mormon Montandon. A supplemental redescription of A. guttatipennis Stål based on the holotype is provided and a lectotype of A. mexicanus Montandon is designated. Ambrysus arizonus is newly recorded from Mexico and A. bispinus from Guatemala. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. arizonus and A. mormon are distributed in Mexico and the United States, and A. bispinus is distributed in Mexico and Guatemala. Ambrysus mormon has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with male and female genitalia.

  5. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF, and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh; Hagen, Ferry; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Stielow, J Benjamin; Karami-Osbo, Rouhollah; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common groups of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxin production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from contaminated fig fruits in Iran. Initially this species was identified as Fusarium andiyazi by morphology. In the present study the species was studied by multilocus sequence analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and phenotypic characters. Multilocus analyses were based on translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1), RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (BT2) and proved F. ficicrescens as a member of the FFSC. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the fungus is closely related to Fusarium lactis, Fusarium ramigenum, and Fusarium napiforme; known plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and occasionally occurring multidrug resistant opportunists. The new species differed by being able to grow at 37 °C and by the absence of mycotoxin production. TEF1 was confirmed as an essential barcode for identifying Fusarium species. In addition to TEF1, we evaluated BT2 and RPB2 in order to provide sufficient genetic and species boundaries information for recognition of the novel species. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. UPDATE OF THE MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES SPECIES COMPLEX BY INCLUDING SPECIMENS FROM SOUTH TYROL (ITALY AND CARINTHIA (AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARIC S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of the Austropotamobius pallipes species complex were assessed in several recent genetic studies by analysing sequences of the mitochondrial DNA. Although the Alpine region is known to harbour great extents of morphological and genetic diversity, none of the previous studies included populations from South Tyrol in Northern Italy and Carinthia in Southern Austria. In order to clarify their taxonomic status white-clawed crayfish were sampled from six populations in South Tyrol and three populations in Carinthia. Phylogenetic analyses are based on partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, which were supplemented with sequences deposited in GenBank. All surveyed individuals from the six populations in South Tyrol comprised a single haplotype that equalled the already described haplotype S3. This haplotype is distributed in Plansee (Austria as well as several other localities in Italy and Switzerland, and belongs to the A. italicus carinthiacus clade. The investigated specimens from all three Carinthian populations also displayed one single haplotype. However, this haplotype clustered in the A. italicus carsicus clade and has not been published before. Our study clearly shows that neither Austrian crayfish populations from Plansee and Carinthia, nor populations from South Tyrol and Carinthia belong to the same phylogenetic lineage.

  7. An endemic rat species complex is evidence of moderate environmental changes in the terrestrial biodiversity centre of China through the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Deyan; Lu, Liang; Cheng, Jilong; Xia, Lin; Chang, Yongbin; Wen, Zhixin; Lv, Xue; Du, Yuanbao; Liu, Qiyong; Yang, Qisen

    2017-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms that allow the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), the terrestrial biodiversity centre of China, to harbour high levels of species diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we sought to explore the biogeographic history of the endemic rat, Niviventer andersoni species complex (NASC), and to understand the long-term persistence of high species diversity in this region. In contrast to previous studies that have proposed regional refuges in eastern or southern of the HDM and emphasized the influence of climatic oscillations on local vertebrates, we found that HDM as a whole acted as refuge for the NASC and that the historical range shifts of NASC mainly occurred in the marginal regions. Demographic analyses revealed slight recent population decline in Yunnan and south-eastern Tibet, whereas of the populations in Sichuan and of the entire NASC were stable. This pattern differs greatly from classic paradigms of temperate or alpine and holarctic species. Interestingly, the mean elevation, area and climate of potential habitats of clade a (N. excelsior), an alpine inhabitant, showed larger variations than did those of clade b (N. andersoni), a middle-high altitude inhabitant. These species represent the evolutionary history of montane small mammals in regions that were less affected by the Quaternary climatic changes. PMID:28393882

  8. Influence of the larval phase on connectivity: strong differences in the genetic structure of brooders and broadcasters in the Ophioderma longicauda species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A A-T; Mérigot, B; Valière, S; Chenuil, A

    2015-12-01

    Closely related species with divergent life history traits are excellent models to infer the role of such traits in genetic diversity and connectivity. Ophioderma longicauda is a brittle star species complex composed of different genetic clusters, including brooders and broadcasters. These species diverged very recently and some of them are sympatric and ecologically syntopic, making them particularly suitable to study the consequences of their trait differences. At the scale of the geographic distribution of the broadcasters (Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic), we sequenced the mitochondrial marker COI and genotyped an intron (i51) for 788 individuals. In addition, we sequenced 10 nuclear loci newly developed from transcriptome sequences, for six sympatric populations of brooders and broadcasters from Greece. At the large scale, we found a high genetic structure within the brooders (COI: 0.07 < F(ST) < 0.65) and no polymorphism at the nuclear locus i51. In contrast, the broadcasters displayed lower genetic structure (0 < F(ST) < 0.14) and were polymorphic at locus i51. At the regional scale, the multilocus analysis confirmed the contrasting genetic structure between species, with no structure in the broadcasters (global F(ST) < 0.001) and strong structure in the brooders (global F(ST) = 0.49), and revealed a higher genetic diversity in broadcasters. Our study showed that the lecithotrophic larval stage allows on average a 50-fold increase in migration rates, a 280-fold increase in effective size and a threefold to fourfold increase in genetic diversity. Our work, investigating complementary genetic markers on sympatric and syntopic taxa, highlights the strong impact of the larval phase on connectivity and genetic diversity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adding complexity to the complex: new insights into the phylogeny, diversification and origin of parthenogenesis in the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Almodóvar, Ana; Novo, Marta; Simancas, Bárbara; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2012-08-01

    The importance of the Aporrectodea caliginosa species complex lies in the great abundance and wide distribution of the species which exist within it. For more than a century, chaos has surrounded this complex; morphological criteria has failed to solve the taxonomic status of these species. This present body of work aims to study the phylogeny of this complex by increasing the number of samples used in previous molecular works and by including morphologically-similar species that were never studied using molecular tools (A. giardi, Nicodrilus monticola, N. carochensis and N. tetramammalis). Two basal clades were obtained: one formed by A. caliginosa and A. tuberculata and the other by the rest of the species. This second clade was divided into two more: one with Eurosiberian and another with Mediterranean forms. A. caliginosa and A. longa were divided into two paraphyletic groups. Both A. giardi and A. nocturna showed characteristics consistent with monophyletic groups. Each of the two recovered lineages of A. trapezoides were phylogenetically related to different sexual species. While lineage I of A. trapezoides was monophyletic, lineage II resulted to be paraphyletic, as well as the three Nicodrilus 'species'. The diversification of the complex occurred during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene (6.92-11.09 Mya). The parthenogenetic forms within the Mediterranean clade would have diversified before the ones in the Eurosiberian clade (3.13-4.64 Mya and 1.05-3.48 Mya, respectively), thus implying the existence not only of at least two different moments in which parthenogenesis arose within this complex of species, but also of two different and independent evolutionary lines. Neither the 4× rule nor the GMYC method for species delimitation were successful for distinguishing taxonomically-distinct species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic revision of the marbled velvet geckos (Oedura marmorata species complex, Diplodactylidae) from the Australian arid and semi-arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Doughty, Paul

    2016-03-08

    Lizards restricted to rocky habitats often comprise numerous deeply divergent lineages, reflecting the disjunct nature of their preferred habitat and the capacity of rocky habitats to function as evolutionary refugia. Here we review the systematics and diversity of the predominantly saxicoline Australian marbled velvet geckos (genus Oedura) in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones using newly-gathered morphological data and previously published genetic data. Earlier work showed that four largely allopatric and genetically divergent lineages are present: Western (Pilbara and Gascoyne regions), Gulf (west and south of the Gulf of Carpentaria), Central (central ranges) and Eastern (Cooper and Darling Basins). None of these four populations are conspecific with true O. marmorata, a seperate species complex that is restricted to the Top End region of the Northern Territory. Top End forms share a short, bulbous tail whereas the other four lineages treated here possess a long, tapering tail. Morphological differences among the arid and semi-arid lineages include smaller body size, tapering lamellae and a shorter tail for the Gulf population, and a partially divided rostral scale in the Western population compared to the Central and Eastern populations. Accordingly, we resurrect O. cincta de Vis from synonymy for the Central and Eastern lineages, and regard this species as being comprised of two evolutionary significant units. We also describe the Gulf and Western lineages as new species: Oedura bella sp. nov. and O. fimbria sp. nov., respectively. We note that a predominantly arboreal lineage (the Eastern lineage of O. cincta) is more widely distributed than the other lineages and is phylogenetically nested within a saxicoline clade, but tends to have a deeper head and shorter limbs, consistent with morphological variation observed in other lizard radiations including both saxicoline and arboreal taxa.

  11. The Trouble with MEAM2: Implications of Pseudogenes on Species Delimitation in the Globally Invasive Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Elfekih, Samia; Court, Leon N; Gordon, Karl H J; Delatte, Hélène; De Barro, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Molecular species identification using suboptimal PCR primers can over-estimate species diversity due to coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial (NUMT) DNA/pseudogenes. For the agriculturally important whitefly Bemisia tabaci cryptic pest species complex, species identification depends primarily on characterization of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) gene. The lack of robust PCR primers for the mtDNA COI gene can undermine correct species identification which in turn compromises management strategies. This problem is identified in the B. tabaci Africa/Middle East/Asia Minor clade which comprises the globally invasive Mediterranean (MED) and Middle East Asia Minor I (MEAM1) species, Middle East Asia Minor 2 (MEAM2), and the Indian Ocean (IO) species. Initially identified from the Indian Ocean island of Réunion, MEAM2 has since been reported from Japan, Peru, Turkey and Iraq. We identified MEAM2 individuals from a Peruvian population via Sanger sequencing of the mtDNA COI gene. In attempting to characterize the MEAM2 mitogenome, we instead characterized mitogenomes of MEAM1. We also report on the mitogenomes of MED, AUS, and IO thereby increasing genomic resources for members of this complex. Gene synteny (i.e., same gene composition and orientation) was observed with published B. tabaci cryptic species mitogenomes. Pseudogene fragments matching MEAM2 partial mtDNA COI gene exhibited low frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms that matched low copy number DNA fragments (species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Allopolyploid speciation and ongoing backcrossing between diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages in the Achillea millefolium species complex: analyses of single-copy nuclear genes and genomic AFLP

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    Ehrendorfer Friedrich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the flowering plants, many polyploid species complexes display evolutionary radiation. This could be facilitated by gene flow between otherwise separate evolutionary lineages in contact zones. Achillea collina is a widespread tetraploid species within the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex (Asteraceae-Anthemideae. It is morphologically intermediate between the relic diploids, A. setacea-2x in xeric and A. asplenifolia-2x in humid habitats, and often grows in close contact with either of them. By analyzing DNA sequences of two single-copy nuclear genes and the genomic AFLP data, we assess the allopolyploid origin of A. collina-4x from ancestors corresponding to A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x, and the ongoing backcross introgression between these diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages. Results In both the ncpGS and the PgiC gene tree, haplotype sequences of the diploid A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x group into two clades corresponding to the two species, though lineage sorting seems incomplete for the PgiC gene. In contrast, A. collina-4x and its suspected backcross plants show homeologous gene copies: sequences from the same tetraploid individual plant are placed in both diploid clades. Semi-congruent splits of an AFLP Neighbor Net link not only A. collina-4x to both diploid species, but some 4x individuals in a polymorphic population with mixed ploidy levels to A. setacea-2x on one hand and to A. collina-4x on the other, indicating allopolyploid speciation as well as hybridization across ploidal levels. Conclusions The findings of this study clearly demonstrate the hybrid origin of Achillea collina-4x, the ongoing backcrossing between the diploid progenitor and their tetraploid progeny lineages. Such repeated hybridizations are likely the cause of the great genetic and phenotypic variation and ecological differentiation of the polyploid taxa in Achillea millefolium agg.

  13. Development of a PCR-RFLP method based on the transcription elongation factor 1-a gene to differentiate Fusarium graminearum from other species within the Fusarium graminearum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of cereals crops worldwide and a major food safety concern due to grain contamination with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. Fusarium graminearum, a member of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is the dominant FHB pathogen in many p...

  14. Novel multilocus sequence typing scheme reveals high genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes within the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, K.; Sutton, D.A.; Rinaldi, M.G.; Gueidan, C.; Crous, P.W.; Geiser, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Species limits within the clinically important Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes (FIESC and FCSC, respectively) were investigated using multilocus DNA sequence data. Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of aligned DNA sequences from four loci

  15. Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato: insights into the evolution of a fungal species complex interacting with diverse plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaofei; Tian, Xianglin; Liu, Wenkui; Wei, Tingyu; Wang, Wei; Dong, Qiuyue; Wang, Bo; Meng, Yanan; Zhang, Rong; Gleason, Mark L; Sun, Guangyu

    2017-02-15

    The fungal species complex Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato contains over 20 plant-interacting species. These species exhibit different life styles (e.g., endophytes, foliar and fruit pathogens) and show considerable variation in host and tissue adaptation strategies. Accurate species delimitation in C. gloeosporioides s.l. is very challenging due to nascent lineage boundaries and phenotypic plasticity, which strongly impedes studies of the complex's host-interaction biology. In this study, we first sequenced and compared nine mitogenomes belonging to four C. gloeosporioides s.l. species lineages (C. gloeosporioides, C. fructicola, C. aenigma, and C. siamense s.l.), and evaluated the usefulness of mitogenome sequence in complementing prevailing nuclear markers for species delimitation. The C. gloeosporioides s.l. mitogenomes ranged between 52,671 and 58,666 bp in size, and each contained an identical set of genes transcribed in the same direction. Compared with previously reported Colletotrichum mitogenomes, these mitogenomes were uniquely featured by: (1) significantly larger genome size due to richer intron content and longer intergenic region; (2) striking GC content elevation at the intergenic region; and (3) considerable intron content variation among different species lineages. Compared with nuclear DNA markers commonly used in phylogeny, the mitogenome nucleotide diversity was extremely low, yet the mitogenome alignment contained the highest number of parsimony informative sites, which allowed the generation of a high-resolution phylogeny recognizing all taxonomic lineages, including ones belonging to the very nascent C. siamense s.l. complex. The tree topology was highly congruent with the phylogeny based on nuclear marker concatenation except for lineages within C. siamense s.l. Further comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that lineage-specific rapid divergence of GS and SOD2 markers confounded concatenation-based species relationship

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Bacterial Wilt in the Madagascar Highlands Caused by Andean (Phylotype IIB-1 and African (Phylotype III Brown Rot Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex

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    Santatra Ravelomanantsoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC is a highly diverse cluster of bacterial strains found worldwide, many of which are destructive and cause bacterial wilt (BW in a wide range of host plants. In 2009, potato production in Madagascar was dramatically affected by several BW epidemics. Controlling this disease is critical for Malagasy potato producers. The first important step toward control is the characterization of strains and their putative origins. The genetic diversity and population structure of the RSSC were investigated in the major potato production areas of the Highlands. A large collection of strains (n = 1224 was assigned to RSSC phylotypes based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Phylotypes I and III have been present in Madagascar for a long time but rarely associated with major potato BW outbreaks. The marked increase of BW prevalence was found associated with phylotype IIB sequevar 1 (IIB-1 strains (n = 879. This is the first report of phylotype IIB-1 strains in Madagascar. In addition to reference strains, epidemic IIB-1 strains (n = 255 were genotyped using the existing MultiLocus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA scheme RS2-MLVA9, producing 31 haplotypes separated into two related clonal complexes (CCs. One major CC included most of the worldwide haplotypes distributed across wide areas. A regional-scale investigation suggested that phylotype IIB-1 strains were introduced and massively spread via latently infected potato seed tubers. Additionally, the genetic structure of phylotype IIB-1 likely resulted from a bottleneck/founder effect. The population structure of phylotype III, described here for the first time in Madagascar, exhibited a different pattern. Phylotype III strains (n = 217 were genotyped using the highly discriminatory MLVA scheme RS3-MLVA16. High genetic diversity was uncovered, with 117 haplotypes grouped into 11 CCs. Malagasy phylotype III strains were highly differentiated

  17. Genetic and morphological evidence that Phoma sclerotioides, causal agent of brown root rot of alfalfa, is composed of a species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Michael J; Bergstrom, Gary C

    2011-05-01

    Phoma sclerotioides, causal agent of brown root rot of alfalfa, causes severe root and crown lesions on alfalfa and other perennial forage legumes in regions with harsh winters. Isolates of P. sclerotioides exhibit diverse cultural morphologies on potato dextrose agar (PDA), suggesting that they may exhibit a high degree of genetic diversity. To investigate the genetic relatedness of P. sclerotioides isolates, 154 isolates from North America were sequenced at 10 loci. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the complete 10-locus data set placed isolates into multiple strongly supported clades, and analyses of gene-jackknife and single-gene partitions of the data set indicated robust support for six major clades and three subclades. Genetic differences corresponded closely to differences in conidial size and septation, pycnidial neck length, mycelial pigmentation, and growth rate in axenic culture at 18 and 25°C. Isolates exhibited morphologies broadly consistent with the species description of P. sclerotioides, and new species were not designated. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences, we propose establishing seven infraspecific varieties within P. sclerotioides: P. sclerotioides var. sclerotioides, champlainii, viridis, obscurus, steubenii, macrospora, and saskatchewanii. All varieties of P. sclerotioides caused brown root rot of alfalfa and grew well at low temperatures.

  18. Genome sequence of Fusarium isolate MYA-4552 from the midgut of Anoplophora glabripennis, an invasive, wood-boring beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is a clade of environmentally ubiquitous fungi that includes plant, animal and insect associates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the undescribed species FSSC 6 (isolate MYA-4552), housed in the gut of the wood-boring cerambycid beetle Anoplopho...

  19. Fusarium algeriense sp. nov., a novel toxigenic crown rot pathogen of durum wheat from Algeria is nested within the Fusarium burgessii species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel crown rot pathogen of wheat discovered during pathogen surveys of Algeria in 2014 and 2015 is formally described here as Fusarium algeriense. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic data resolved the eight isolates of this pathogen as a genealogically exclusive species lineage within the F. burges...

  20. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

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    Angeliki Gariou-Papalexiou

    Full Text Available Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT applications.

  1. Social isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

    2011-01-01

    ..., reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms...

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species complex in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

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    Esther Manso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Aspergillus spp. infection can be encountered in the antifungal drug-exposed patient due to selection of intrinsically resistant species or isolates with acquired resistance belonging to species that are normally susceptible. Resistance to triazoles is not common in Aspergillus spp., however, triazole resistance in A. fumigatus appears to be increasing in several European countries in recent years and can be clinically relevant. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Aspergillus spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important.

  3. Where and when does a ring start and end? Testing the ring-species hypothesis in a species complex of Australian parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leo; Dolman, Gaynor; Donnellan, Stephen; Saint, Kathleen M; Berg, Mathew L; Bennett, Andrew T.D

    2008-01-01

    Speciation, despite ongoing gene flow can be studied directly in nature in ring species that comprise two reproductively isolated populations connected by a chain or ring of intergrading populations. We applied three tiers of spatio-temporal analysis (phylogeny/historical biogeography, phylogeography and landscape/population genetics) to the data from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of eastern Australian parrots of the Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans complex to understand the history and present genetic structure of the ring they have long been considered to form. A ring speciation hypothesis does not explain the patterns we have observed in our data (e.g. multiple genetic discontinuities, discordance in genotypic and phenotypic assignments where terminal differentiates meet). However, we cannot reject that a continuous circular distribution has been involved in the group's history or indeed that one was formed through secondary contact at the ‘ring's’ east and west; however, we reject a simple ring-species hypothesis as traditionally applied, with secondary contact only at its east. We discuss alternative models involving historical allopatry of populations. We suggest that population expansion shown by population genetics parameters in one of these isolates was accompanied by geographical range expansion, secondary contact and hybridization on the eastern and western sides of the ring. Pleistocene landscape and sea-level and habitat changes then established the birds' current distributions and range disjunctions. Populations now show idiosyncratic patterns of selection and drift. We suggest that selection and drift now drive evolution in different populations within what has been considered the ring. PMID:18664434

  4. The CYP51C gene, a reliable marker to resolve interspecific phylogenetic relationships within the Fusarium species complex and a novel target for species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ortuño, Dolores; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Atkins, Sarah L; Fraaije, Bart A

    2010-12-15

    Early diagnosis and control of different Fusarium species is essential for successful management of plant disease and subsequent prevention of toxins entering the food chain. This issue can be addressed using phylogenetic analyses and other molecular techniques, including the design of species-specific primers and corresponding PCR assays. In practice, only a few genes are sequenced for most species and insights into the evolutionary mechanisms at the species level usually stem from phylogenetic analyses of only one or a small number of genetic loci. This poses the question of whether the recovered tree accurately reflects the relationships among species or rather more local interrelationships particular to the genetic marker employed. This study examined if the Fusarium-specific CYP51C gene can be used to establish evolutionary relationships between Fusarium species and enable species-specific detection. The resolving power of the CYP51C gene was studied for 46 Fusarium isolates representing 18 different species. The resulting phylogeny analysis showed clear and well-structured separation of the isolates according to their species rank, synthesised toxin and Fusarium section. Moreover, a comparison between the individual CYP51C phylogeny and a reference tree (inferred from the concatenation of ITS, CYP51C, β-tubulin and TEF-1α sequences) indicated superior resolution of CYP51C relative to ITS and β-tubulin sequences. In addition to its suitability as a reliable marker for diagnosis of different toxigenic Fusarium species, we also show that the CYP51C gene is a promising target for development of species-specific PCR. This was demonstrated by the specific detection of Fusarium cerealis in grain samples of wheat. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequences of 94 Environmental Isolates of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, Géraldine A; Feldgarden, Michael; Kolter, Roberto; Mahillon, Jacques

    2013-10-03

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is a species complex that includes the anthrax pathogen Bacillus anthracis and other bacterial species of medical, industrial, and ecological importance. Their phenotypes of interest are typically linked to large plasmids that are closely related to the anthrax plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 94 isolates of B. cereus sensu lato, which were chosen for their plasmid content and environmental origins.

  6. Isolated Aortitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among others. In some cases, biologics like anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs such as infliximab or rituximab have been used. Isolated aortitis occurring with retroperitoneal fibrosis has been treated with tamoxifen, an anti- ...

  7. Hybridization in the Ensatina Ring Species, Strong selection against hybrids at a hybrid zone in the ensatina ring species complex and its evolutionary implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrino, Joao; Baird, Stuart J.E.; Lawson, Lucinda; Macey, J. Robert; Moritz, Craig; Wake, David B.

    2005-04-22

    The analysis of interactions between lineages at varying levels of genetic divergence can provide insights into the process of speciation through the accumulation of incompatible mutations. Ring species, and especially the Ensatina eschscholtzii system exemplify this approach. The plethodontid salamanders Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica and Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis hybridize in the Central Sierran foothills of California. We compared the genetic structure across two transects (southern and northern Calaveras Co.), one of which was re-sampled over 20 years, and examined diagnostic molecular markers (eight allozyme loci and mitochondrial DNA) and a diagnostic quantitative trait (color pattern). Key results across all studies were: (i) cline centers for all markers were coincident and the zones were narrow, with width estimates of 730m to 2000m; (ii) cline centers at the northern Calaveras transect were coincident between 1981 and 2001, demonstrating repeatability over 5 generations; (iii) there are very few if any putative F1's, but a relatively high number of backcrossed individuals (57-86 percent) in the central portion of transects; (iv) we found substantial linkage disequilibrium in all three studies and strong heterozygote deficit both in northern Calaveras, in 2001, and southern Calaveras. Both linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote deficit show maximum values near the center of the zones (R and Fis, approx. equal to 0.5). Using estimates of cline width and dispersal, we infer strong selection against hybrids (s* approx. equal to 46-75 percent). This is sufficient to promote accumulation of differences at loci that are neutral or under divergent selection, but would still allow for introgression of adaptive alleles. The evidence for strong, but incomplete isolation across this centrally located contact is consistent with theory suggesting a gradual increase in postzygotic incompatibility between allopatric populations subject to divergent

  8. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864) species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakona, Albert; Skelton, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to Pseudobarbus afer across the species' distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i) the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii) the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii) the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv) the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to Pseudobarbus phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to Pseudobarbus afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the Pseudobarbus afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for Pseudobarbus afer s.s (Mandela lineage), revalidate Pseudobarbus senticeps (Krom lineage) as a distinct species, and describe a new species Pseudobarbus swartzi (St Francis lineage). The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both Pseudobarbus afer and Pseudobarbus swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger) scales (25-33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10-12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales) and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate Pseudobarbus senticeps from Pseudobarbus afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the

  9. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession

  10. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity of Cryptococcus gattii VGII Clinical Isolates and Its Impact on Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A. Barcellos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains. In this study, we analyzed some virulence determinants of C. gattii VGII strains (CG01, CG02, and CG03 isolated from patients in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The C. gattii R265 VGIIa strain, which was isolated from the Vancouver outbreak, differed from C. gattii CG01, CG02 and CG03 isolates (also classified as VGII when analyzed the capsular dimensions, melanin production, urease activity, as well as the glucuronoxylomannan (GXM secretion. Those differences directly reflected in their virulence potential. In addition, CG02 displayed higher virulence compared to R265 (VGIIa strain in a cryptococcal murine model of infection. Lastly, we examined the genotypic diversity of these strains through Multilocus Sequence Type (MLST and one new subtype was described for the CG02 isolate. This study confirms the presence and the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of highly virulent strains in the Northeast region of Brazil.

  11. The presence of a virulence locus discriminates Fusarium oxysporum isolates causing tomato wilt from other isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H Charlotte; Lievens, Bart; Claes, Loes; Houterman, Petra M; Cornelissen, Ben J C; Rep, Martijn

    2008-06-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungus that inhabits soils throughout the world. As a species, F. oxysporum can infect a very broad range of plants and cause wilt or root rot disease. Single isolates of F. oxysporum, however, usually infect one or a few plant species only. They have therefore been grouped into formae speciales (f.sp.) based on host specificity. Isolates able to cause tomato wilt (f.sp. lycopersici) do not have a single common ancestor within the F. oxysporum species complex. Here we show that, despite their polyphyletic origin, isolates belonging to f.sp. lycopersici all contain an identical genomic region of at least 8 kb that is absent in other formae speciales and non-pathogenic isolates, and comprises the genes SIX1, SIX2 and SHH1. In addition, SIX3, which lies elsewhere on the same chromosome, is also unique for f.sp. lycopersici. SIX1 encodes a virulence factor towards tomato, and the Six1, Six2 and Six3 proteins are secreted in xylem during colonization of tomato plants. We speculate that these genes may be part of a larger, dispensable region of the genome that confers the ability to cause tomato wilt and has spread among clonal lines of F. oxysporum through horizontal gene transfer. Our findings also have practical implications for the detection and identification of f.sp. lycopersici.

  12. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Multicenter study of isavuconazole MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex using the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Chowdhary, A.; Gonzalez, G.M.; Guinea, J.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Thompson, G.R.; Turnidge, J.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of isavuconazole are not available for Cryptococcus spp. The isavuconazole ECVs based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions for 438 Cryptococcus neoformans nongenotyped isolates, 870 isolates of genotype VNI, and 406 Cryptococcus gattii isolates from six

  14. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    With the view of investigating the degree of divergence between each species pair, we planned to study the polytene chromosomes of the F1 hybrids, as it would mirror the level of compatibility between the genomes of the parental species. Two sets of crosses were made, one involving homozygous strains of all four ...

  15. Systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin, with description of two new ocellated species (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Silva Loboda

    Full Text Available A systematic revision of the Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 species complex in the Paraná-Paraguay basin based on morphological characters was undertaken. Morphological systems analyzed include external morphology, coloration, dermal denticles, and spines, canals of the ventral lateral-line system, and skeletal components. Potamotrygon motoro is widely distributed in the Paraná-Paraguay basin and some of its diagnostic characters are: ocelli present on dorsal disc tricolored, well-defined and evenly distributed, with diameter similar or greater than eye-length; ventral coloration with relatively large whitish central region, with gray or brown area predominant on outer ventral disc margins; dermal denticles well-developed and star-shaped over central disc; labial grooves absent; monognathic heterodonty present in upper and lower jaws of adults. Potamotrygon pauckei Castex, 1963 and Potamotrygon labradori Castex, Maciel & Achenbach, 1963, are synonymized with P. motoro; Potamotrygon alba Castex, 1963, is a nomen dubium in accordance with previous authors. Additionally, two new ocellated species of Potamotrygon from the Paraná-Paraguay basin are described: Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. and Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. These are described and compared with P. motoro and other congeners. Potamotrygon pantanensis, sp. nov. is described from the northern Pantanal region; Potamotrygon amandae, sp. nov. is widespread in the Paraná-Paraguay basin.

  16. Identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophyte isolates by repetitive-sequence-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting using the DiversiLab system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, A Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa A; Inci, Melek; Sariguzel, Fatma M; Sav, Hafize

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophyte species, isolation and identification in clinical samples are still difficult and take a long time. The identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory in Turkey by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were assessed by comparing the results with those of reference identification. A total of 44 dermatophytes isolated from various clinical specimens of 20 patients with superficial mycoses in Kayseri and 24 patients in Hatay were studied. The identification of dermatophyte isolates was based on the reference identification and rep-PCR using the DiversiLab System (BioMerieux). The genotyping of dermatophyte isolates from different patients was determined by rep-PCR. In the identification of dermatophyte isolates, agreement between rep-PCR and conventional methods was 87.8 % ( 36 of 41). The dermatophyte strains belonged to four clones (A -D) which were determined by the use of rep-PCR. The dermatophyte strains in Clone B, D showed identical patterns with respect to the region. In conclusion, rep-PCR appears to be useful for evaluation of the identification and clonal relationships between Trichophyton rubrum species complex and Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex isolates. The similarity and diversity of these isolates may be assessed according to different regions by rep-PCR. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible use of local cellulosic wastes for the ... The three compost types were also supplemented with 5.0 and 10.0% of RB. ... on WS + 10.0% RB, while the longest period was 18 days on WS-SS (1:1) + 5.0% RB.

  18. Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... (WS-SS), soybean straw (SS) and rice brans (RB) were used as culture medium. Three types of compost were prepared: a mixture of WS-SS (1:1), WS and SS. In addition, wheat straw was used as the control treatment. One kilogram of material from each trial was placed in plastic buckets and kept for 48 h ...

  19. [Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii complex clinical isolates from Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattana, Maria E; Tracogna, Maria F; Fernández, Mariana S; Carol Rey, Mariana C; Sosa, Maria A; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by yeast species of Cryptococcus genus, particularly Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex. The knowledge of the cryptococcosis casuistic in northeastern Argentina is scarce and there is no information about the molecular types circulating in this area. The aim of this study was to genotyping C. neoformans/C. gattii complex clinical isolates obtained at Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina), in order to determine species, variety and molecular type. During two years and one month 26 clinical isolates were studied. Using conventional and molecular methods one isolate was identified as C. gattii VGI type, and 25 isolates as C. neoformans var. grubii; 23 of these belonged to VNI type and two belonged to VNII type. This data is a contribution to the knowledge of cryptococcosis epidemiology in Argentina and the first report about C. neoformans/ C. gattii complex molecular types from clinical isolates in northeastern Argentina.

  20. Fusarium species isolated from Pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in South Africa. It is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. Pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 2008 to 2010. The kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of Fusarium species, as it was recently suggested that mycotoxins synthesised by Fusarium torulosum could be the cause of this intoxication. Ninety-four Fusarium isolates were retrieved from the grass samples, of which 72 were members of the Fusarium incarnatum/Fusarium equiseti species complex based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1α sequence data. The South African isolates from kikuyu identified as members of the F. incarnatum/F. equiseti species complex grouped together in six separate clades. The other isolates were Fusarium culmorum (n = 3, Fusarium redolens (n = 4 and Fusarium oxysporum (n = 15. Although F. torulosum could not be isolated from P. clandestinum collected during kikuyu poisoning outbreaks in South Africa, the mycotoxicosis theory is still highly plausible.

  1. Antifungal susceptibilities and identification of species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottonelli Stopiglia, Cheila Denise; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Heidrich, Daiane; Valente, Patricia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused worldwide by the dimorphic species complex, Sporothrix schenckii. We studied 85 isolates recovered in Brazil to verify their identification and evaluate their in vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns. Based on phenotypic tests (microscopic features, ability to grow at 30°C and 37°C, colony diameters, as well as assimilation of sucrose and raffinose) and molecular assays (amplification of a fragment of the calmodulin gene), the strains were identified as S. schenckii, S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, with a predominance of S. schenckii isolates. There was 37.7% disagreement between the phenotypic and genotypic identification methodologies. In general, terbinafine was the most active drug, followed by ketoconazole and itraconazole, and the less active fluconazole and voriconazole. Five isolates (one S. globosa and four S. schenckii) were found to be itraconazole-resistant strains but, in general, there were no differences in the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles among the Sporothrix species.

  2. First environmental isolations of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Tunisia and review of published studies on environmental isolations in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mseddi, F; Sellami, A; Jarboui, M A; Sellami, H; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2011-05-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause cryptococcosis. These fungi were commonly associated with pigeon droppings and plant materials. The habitat of these pathogens has not been yet studied in Tunisia, although the ecology of these yeasts must be elucidated in order to establish surveillance programs and to prevent infections. The aim of this survey was to recover C. neoformans and C. gattii environmental isolates from pigeon droppings and plant materials in different areas of Sfax region, Tunisia. Nine hundred and fifty samples from leaves, wood, flowers, fruits and soil around trunk bases of 40 almond (Prunus dulcis) and 60 eucalyptus trees were collected as well as 250 pigeon droppings samples from different sites: buildings (n = 150), houses (n = 50) and zoo (n = 50). The identification of Cryptococcus neoformans complex was confirmed using the ID32C auxanogram panel (BioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France); species were determined by multiplex PCR using the CN70 and CN49 primers, and mating type was determined by PCR. C. neoformans was recovered from 26 specimens of pigeon droppings (10.4%). This yeast was obtained more frequently from dry droppings (9.2%) than from moist droppings (1.2%). The mating type was determined. All the 31 environmental strains of C. neoformans and C. gattii were MATα. Out of 700 samples tested from 100 trees, only 5 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex were recovered (0.6%), two isolates of C. gattii and one isolate of C. neoformans were recovered from the wood of E. camaldulensis trees, and only two isolates of C. gattii were recovered from the wood of almond trees (Prunus dulcis Mill. var. zaaf and var. achek). These two Tunisian almond tree varieties were recorded for the first time in Africa as hosts for C. gattii. These results add new information to the ecology and epidemiology of C. neoformans species complex in Tunisia.

  3. Genetic and morphological approaches distinguish the three sibling species of the Anisakis simplex species complex, with a species designation as Anisakis berlandi n. sp. for A. simplex sp. C (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Cipriani, Paolo; Webb, Stephen C; Paoletti, Michela; Marcer, Federica; Bellisario, Bruno; Gibson, David I; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Numerous specimens of the 3 sibling species of the Anisakis simplex species complex (A. pegreffii, A. simplex (senso stricto)), and A. simplex sp. C) recovered from cetacean species stranded within the known geographical ranges of these nematodes were studied morphologically and genetically. The genetic characterization was performed on diagnostic allozymes and sequences analysis of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] of ribosomal [r]DNA) and mitochondrial (mitochondrial [mt]DNA cox2 and rrnS) genes. These markers showed (1) the occurrence of sympatry of the 2 sibling species A. pegreffii and A. simplex sp. C in the same individual host, the pilot whale, Globicephala melas Traill, from New Zealand waters; (2) the identification of specimens of A. pegreffii in the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), from the Mediterranean Sea; and (3) the presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in the pilot whale and the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, from the northeastern Atlantic waters. No F1 hybrids were detected among the 3 species using the nuclear markers. The phylogenetic inference, obtained by maximum parsimony (MP) analysis of separate nuclear (ITS rDNA region), combined mitochondrial (mtDNA cox2 and rrnS) sequences datasets, and by concatenated analysis obtained at both MP and Bayesian inference (BI) of the sequences datasets at the 3 studied genes, resulted in a similar topology. They were congruent in depicting the existence of the 3 species as distinct phylogenetic lineages, and the tree topologies support the finding that A. simplex (s.s.), A. pegreffii, and A. berlandi n. sp. (= A. simplex sp. C) represent a monophyletic group. The morphological and morphometric analyses revealed the presence of morphological features that differed among the 3 biological species. Morphological analysis using principal component analysis, and Procrustes analysis, combining morphological and genetic datasets, showed the specimens clustering into 3 well

  4. Molecular analyses of Fusarium isolates recovered from a cluster of invasive mold infections in a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheel Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive fusariosis (IF is a rare but often fatal fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients. In 2007, cases of IF above the expected epidemiologic baseline were detected in the hematology ward of a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Possible sources of infection were investigated by performing environmental sampling and patient isolate collection, followed by molecular typing. Isolates from dermatology patients with superficial fusariosis were included in the study for comparison to molecular types found in the community. Methods Environmental sampling focused on water-related sources in and around the hematology ward. Initially, we characterized 166 clinical and environmental isolates using the Fusarium translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α genetic locus. Isolates included 68 collected from water-related sources in the hospital environment, 55 from 18 hematology patients, and 43 from the skin/nails of 40 outpatients seen at the hospital dermatology clinic. Multi-locus sequence typing was performed on Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC species 1 and 2 isolates to investigate their relatedness further. Results Most of the hematology samples were FSSC species 2, with species type FSSC 2-d the most commonly isolated from these patients. Most of the outpatient dermatology samples were also FSSC 2, with type 2-d again predominating. In contrast, environmental isolates from water sources were mostly Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC and those from air samples mostly Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC. A third of the environmental samples were FSSC, with species types FSSC 1-a and FSSC 1-b predominating. Conclusions Fusarium isolate species types from hematology patient infections were highly similar to those recovered from dermatology patients in the community. Four species types (FSSC 1-a, 1-b, 2-d and 2-f were shared between hematology patients and the environment. Limitations in environmental

  5. Molecular analyses of Fusarium isolates recovered from a cluster of invasive mold infections in a Brazilian hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive fusariosis (IF) is a rare but often fatal fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients. In 2007, cases of IF above the expected epidemiologic baseline were detected in the hematology ward of a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Possible sources of infection were investigated by performing environmental sampling and patient isolate collection, followed by molecular typing. Isolates from dermatology patients with superficial fusariosis were included in the study for comparison to molecular types found in the community. Methods Environmental sampling focused on water-related sources in and around the hematology ward. Initially, we characterized 166 clinical and environmental isolates using the Fusarium translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) genetic locus. Isolates included 68 collected from water-related sources in the hospital environment, 55 from 18 hematology patients, and 43 from the skin/nails of 40 outpatients seen at the hospital dermatology clinic. Multi-locus sequence typing was performed on Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) species 1 and 2 isolates to investigate their relatedness further. Results Most of the hematology samples were FSSC species 2, with species type FSSC 2-d the most commonly isolated from these patients. Most of the outpatient dermatology samples were also FSSC 2, with type 2-d again predominating. In contrast, environmental isolates from water sources were mostly Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and those from air samples mostly Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC). A third of the environmental samples were FSSC, with species types FSSC 1-a and FSSC 1-b predominating. Conclusions Fusarium isolate species types from hematology patient infections were highly similar to those recovered from dermatology patients in the community. Four species types (FSSC 1-a, 1-b, 2-d and 2-f) were shared between hematology patients and the environment. Limitations in environmental sampling do not allow

  6. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  7. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  8. Analog signal isolation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several techniques for isolating analog signals in an accelerator environment. The techniques presented here encompass isolation amplifiers, voltage-to-frequency converters (VIFCs), transformers, optocouplers, discrete fiber optics, and commercial fiber optic links. Included within the presentation of each method are the design issues that must be considered when selecting the isolation method for a specific application.

  9. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kee Peng; Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Yeo, Siok Koon; Toh, Yue Fen; Looi, Hong Keat; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Yee, Wai-Yan; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole), as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  10. Identification and characterization of Daldinia eschscholtzii isolated from skin scrapings, nails, and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Peng Ng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Daldinia eschscholtzii is a filamentous wood-inhabiting endophyte commonly found in woody plants. Here, we report the identification and characterization of nine D. eschscholtzii isolates from skin scrapings, nail clippings, and blood. Methods The nine isolates were identified based on colony morphology, light microscopy, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based phylogeny. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the fungal isolates was evaluated by the Etest to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results The nine isolates examined were confirmed as D. eschscholtzii. They exhibited typical features of Daldinia sp. on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, with white felty colonies and black-gray coloration on the reverse side. Septate hyphae, branching conidiophore with conidiogenous cells budding from its terminus, and nodulisporium-like conidiophores were observed under the microscope. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nine isolates were clustered within the D. eschscholtzii species complex. All the isolates exhibited low MICs against azole agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, as well as amphotericin B, with MIC of less than 1 µg/ml. Discussion Early and definitive identification of D. eschscholtzii is vital to reducing misuse of antimicrobial agents. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization as well as antifungal profiling of D. eschscholtzii provide the basis for future studies on its biology, pathogenicity, and medicinal potential.

  11. Highly divergent mussel lineages in isolated Indonesian marine lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontine E. Becking

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine lakes, with populations in landlocked seawater and clearly delineated contours, have the potential to provide a unique model to study early stages of evolution in coastal marine taxa. Here we ask whether populations of the mussel Brachidontes from marine lakes in Berau, East Kalimantan (Indonesia are isolated from each other and from the coastal mangrove systems. We analyzed sequence data of one mitochondrial marker (Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI, and two nuclear markers (18S and 28S. In addition, we examined shell shape using a geometric morphometric approach. The Indonesian populations of Brachidontes spp. harbored four deeply diverged lineages (14–75% COI corrected net sequence divergence, two of which correspond to previously recorded lineages from marine lakes in Palau, 1,900 km away. These four lineages also showed significant differences in shell shape and constitute a species complex of at least four undescribed species. Each lake harbored a different lineage despite the fact that the lakes are separated from each other by only 2–6 km, while the two mangrove populations, at 20 km distance from each other, harbored the same lineage and shared haplotypes. Marine lakes thus represent isolated habitats. As each lake contained unique within lineage diversity (0.1–0.2%, we suggest that this may have resulted from in situdivergence due to isolation of founder populations after the formation of the lakes (6,000–12,000 years before present. Combined effects of stochastic processes, local adaptation and increased evolutionary rates could produce high levels of differentiation in small populations such as in marine lake environments. Such short-term isolation at small spatial scales may be an important contributing factor to the high marine biodiversity that is found in the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

  12. Epidemiology, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Pathogenicity of Candida africana Isolates from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Adrien; Linton, Chistopher J.; Palmer, Michael D.; Brown, Phillipa; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida africana was previously proposed as a new species within the Candida albicans species complex, together with C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, although further phylogenetic analyses better support its status as an unusual variant within C. albicans. Here we show that C. africana can be distinguished from C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by pyrosequencing of a short region of ITS2, and we have evaluated its occurrence in clinical samples by pyrosequencing all presumptive isolates of C. albicans submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 9-month period. The C. albicans complex constituted 826/1,839 (44.9%) of yeast isolates received over the study period and included 783 isolates of C. albicans, 28 isolates of C. dubliniensis, and 15 isolates of C. africana. In agreement with previous reports, C. africana was isolated exclusively from genital specimens, in women in the 18-to-35-year age group. Indeed, C. africana constituted 15/251 (6%) of “C. albicans” isolates from female genital specimens during the study period. C. africana isolates were germ tube positive, grew significantly more slowly than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on conventional mycological media, could be distinguished from the other members of the C. albicans complex by appearance on chromogenic agar, and were incapable of forming chlamydospores. Here we present the detailed evaluation of epidemiological, phenotypic, and clinical features and antifungal susceptibility profiles of United Kingdom isolates of C. africana. Furthermore, we demonstrate that C. africana is significantly less pathogenic than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis in the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model. PMID:23303503

  13. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.

    Denne SBI-meddelelse beskriver resultaterne af en undersøgelse af bygninger, hvor der er anvendt alternativ isolering. Undersøgelsen omfatter termografering og fugtmåling af udvendige bygningsdele isoleret med alternativ isolering. Endvidere rapporteres resultaterne af målinger af indholdet af tu...

  14. Seeing the Whole Elephant: Imaging Flow Cytometry Reveals Extensive Morphological Diversity within Blastocystis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yason, John Anthony; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common protist isolated in humans and many animals. The parasite is a species complex composed of 19 subtypes, 9 of which have been found in humans. There are biological and molecular differences between Blastocystis subtypes although microscopy alone is unable to distinguish between these subtypes. Blastocystis isolates also display various morphological forms. Several of these forms, however, have not been properly evaluated on whether or not these play significant functions in the organism's biology. In this study, we used imaging flow cytometry to analyze morphological features of Blastocystis isolates representing 3 subtypes (ST1, ST4 and ST7). We also employed fluorescence dyes to discover new cellular features. The profiles from each of the subtypes exhibit considerable differences with the others in terms of shape, size and granularity. We confirmed that the classical vacuolar form comprises the majority in all three subtypes. We have also evaluated other morphotypes on whether these represent distinct life stages in the parasite. Irregularly-shaped cells were identified but all of them were found to be dying cells in one isolate. Granular forms were present as a continuum in both viable and non-viable populations, with non-viable forms displaying higher granularity. By analyzing the images, rare morphotypes such as multinucleated cells could be easily observed and quantified. These cells had low granularity and lower DNA content. Small structures containing nucleic acid were also identified. We discuss the possible biological implications of these unusual forms. PMID:26618361

  15. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  16. isolated rural hospitals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the results of a qualitative study that evaluated the effect of an educational intervention aimed at rural ... performance spiral in academically isolated rural hospitals. .... Heavy after-hrs workload, alcohol ... Continued academic stimula-.

  17. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om målinger på alternative isoleringsmaterialer i bygninger, udgivet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI meddelelse 128) under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  18. Isolated Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects related to astrophysics of isolated neutron stars are discussed. We start with an introduction into the “new zoo” of young isolated neutron stars. In addition to classical radio pulsars, now we know several species (soft gamma-ray repeators, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, close-by cooling neutron stars - aka “Magnificent seven”, - RRATs, and some others. All these types are briefly discussed. In the second lecture a description of magneto-rotational evolution of neutron stars is given. Finally, in the third lecture we discuss population synthesis of isolated neutron stars. In some details we discuss population synthesis of young isolated radio pulsars and young close-by cooling neutron stars.

  19. Isolation of Plastid Ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Plastid ribosomes are responsible for a large part of the protein synthesis in plant leaves, green algal cells, and the vast majority in the thalli of red algae. Plastid translation is necessary not only for photosynthesis but also for development/differentiation of plants and algae. While some isolated plastid ribosomes from a few green lineages have been characterized by biochemical and proteomic approaches, in-depth proteomics including analyses of posttranslational modifications and processing, comparative proteomics of plastid ribosomes isolated from the cells grown under different conditions, and those from different taxa are still to be carried out. Establishment of isolation methods for pure plastid ribosomes from a wider range of species would be beneficial to study the relationship between structure, function, and evolution of plastid ribosomes. Here I describe methodologies and provide example protocols for extraction and isolation of plastid ribosomes from a unicellular green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), a land plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), and a marine red macroalga (Pyropia yezoensis).

  20. Reproductive isolation during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Rummell, Sonja E; Ellstrand, Norman C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that reproductive isolation should facilitate evolution under domestication. However, a systematic comparison of reproductive barrier strength between crops and their progenitors has not been conducted to test this hypothesis. Here, we present a systematic survey of reproductive barriers between 32 economically important crop species and their progenitors to better understand the role of reproductive isolation during the domestication process. We took a conservative approach, avoiding those types of reproductive isolation that are poorly known for these taxa (e.g., differences in flowering time). We show that the majority of crops surveyed are isolated from their progenitors by one or more reproductive barriers, despite the fact that the most important reproductive barrier in natural systems, geographical isolation, was absent, at least in the initial stages of domestication for most species. Thus, barriers to reproduction between crops and wild relatives are closely associated with domestication and may facilitate it, thereby raising the question whether reproductive isolation could be viewed as a long-overlooked "domestication trait." Some of the reproductive barriers observed (e.g., polyploidy and uniparental reproduction), however, may have been favored for reasons other than, or in addition to, their effects on gene flow.

  1. Characterization of Fusarium Keratitis Outbreak Isolates: Contribution of Biofilms to Antimicrobial Resistance and Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Sun, Yan; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Fusarium is a major cause of microbial keratitis, and its ability to form biofilms was suggested as a contributing factor in recent outbreaks. We investigated the ability of outbreak Fusarium isolates (F. solani species complex [FSSC] and F. oxysporum species complex [FOSC]) to form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated their antifungal susceptibilities. Methods. Biofilm formation was assessed using our in vitro contact lens model and in vivo murine model. Biofilm architecture was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Susceptibility against amphotericin B (AmB), voriconazole (VCZ), and natamycin (NAT) was determined using the CLSI-M38-A2 method and XTT metabolic assay. Results. FSSC strains formed more biofilms than FOSC, in a strain- and clade-dependent manner. CLSM analyses revealed that “high biofilm forming” (HBF) strains had denser and thicker biofilms than “low biofilm forming” (LBF) strains of both species (thickness 51 vs. 41 μm for FSSC and 61 vs. 45 μm for FOSC strains, P Fusarium biofilms exhibited species-dependent antifungal susceptibilities (e.g., FSSC biofilms AmB minimal inhibitory concentrations [MIC] ≥16 μg/mL, while NAT or VCZ MICs were 2–8 μg/mL). FSSC-infected mice had severe corneal opacification independent of biofilm thickness, while FOSC infection resulted in moderate corneal opacification. Corneal fungal burden of mice infected with HBF strains was higher than those of the LBF strains. In contrast, the reference ATCC isolate was unable to cause infection. Conclusions. The ability to form biofilms is a key pathogenicity determinant of Fusarium, irrespective of the thickness of these biofilms. Further studies are warranted to explore this association in greater detail. PMID:22669723

  2. Influenza virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type.

  3. Nucleic acid isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  4. Nucleic acid isolation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  5. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  6. Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-08-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents.

  7. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  8. Proteoglycan isolation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton-linked proteoglycans. Methods for analysis...

  9. Emotion regulation during isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012) ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : emotion regulation * isolation * Mars 500 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  10. Isolated Intraorbital Frontosphenoidal Synostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermiller, Paul A; Yeom, Kristen W; Menard, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Unilateral anterior plagiocephaly is most commonly the result of deformational plagiocephaly or unilateral coronal synostosis, a premature fusion of the frontoparietal suture. However, other sutures within the coronal ring have been implicated in producing anterior cranial asymmetries. These fusions can occur in isolation or in concert with adjacent sutures. The frontosphenoidal suture is one such suture within the coronal ring that has been involved both concomitantly with and independently of frontoparietal suture fusion. Although isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis has been presented previously in the literature, these reports include patients with fusion of the extraorbital portion of the frontosphenoidal suture. This clinical report presents the first clearly documented patient of isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis that occurs entirely within the intraorbital region.The patient presented to Plastic Surgery Clinic at 3 months of age with left frontal flattening, supraorbital rim retrusion, and temporal bulging that was noted soon after birth. Computed tomography analysis revealed an isolated fusion of the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone to the frontal bone on the left side. The patient had no family history of cranial anomalies and genetic testing was negative for mutations. The infant was treated with a cranial orthotic for 3 months, underwent open fronto-orbital advancement and cranial vault remodeling at 6 months, and continued wearing a cranial orthotic for another 4.5 months. Following surgical and orthotic treatment, the patient achieved a satisfactory result.

  11. ISOLATION OF DIHYDROCHALCONE GLUCOSIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-04-26

    Apr 26, 1994 ... ABSTRACT: The internal tissue flavonoids of P- senegalense are glycosides, based mostly on quercetin. Chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex Lil-20 of the hydrophilic extract resulted in the isolation and characterizationof quercetin-S -B—0-galactoside(l), quercetin-S-B-O-glucoside. (2), quercetin-3 ...

  12. Isolation of RNP granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Christiansen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    be regarded as a supramolecular assembly of RNA and protein, probably representing several overlapping post-transcriptional operons. The present protocol describes how RNP granules may be isolated by the transgenic expression of a 3X FLAG version of an RNA-binding protein under tetracycline control via...

  13. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  14. Isolated mucosal Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Sundriyal; Naveen Kumar; Raj Kumar; Brijesh Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a term used to define a group of clinical syndrome caused by various species of parasite Leishmania. Three main clinical types of leishmaniasis are visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. However, isolated presentation as mucosal disease is rare. We report a case of primarily mucosal leishmaniasis.

  15. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  16. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence...

  17. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  18. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  20. A taxonomic revision of the Wallemia sebi species complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jančič, Sašo; Nguyen, Hai D. T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a xerophilic food- and air-borne fungus. The name has been used for strains that prevail in cold, temperate and tropical climates. In this study, multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, DNA replication licensing factor (MCM7), pre...

  1. Multifaceted roles of metabolic enzymes of the Paracoccidioides species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi, and are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a serious disease of multiple organs. The large number of tissues colonized by this fungus suggests the presence of a variety of surface molecules involved in adhesion. A surprising finding is that the majority of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glyoxylate cycle in Paracoccidioides spp. has adhesive properties that aid in the interaction with the host extracellular matrix, and so act as ‘moonlighting’ proteins. Moonlighting proteins have multiple functions and add another dimension to cellular complexity, while benefiting cells in several ways. This phenomenon occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. For example, moonlighting proteins from the glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle can play roles in bacterial pathogens, either by acting as proteins secreted in a conventional pathway or not and/or as cell surface component that facilitate adhesion or adherence . This review outlines the multifuncionality exposed by a variety of Paracoccidioides spp. enzymes including aconitase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, triose phosphate isomerase, fumarase and enolase. The roles that moonlighting activities play in the virulence characteristics of this fungus and several other human pathogens during their interactions with the host are discussed.

  2. Biogeography of Fusarium graminearum species complex and chemotypes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Theo; Zhang, Hao; van Diepeningen, Anne; Waalwijk, Cees

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the geographic distribution of distinct trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat and barley were first recorded two decades ago. The different toxicological properties of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated derivatives require careful monitoring of the dynamics of these mycotoxins and their producers. The phylogenetic species concept has become a valuable tool to study the global occurrence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species. This has revolutionised our views on the terrestrial distribution of trichothecene-producing Fusaria in the context of agronomics, climatic conditions, and human interference by the global trade and exchange of agricultural commodities. This paper presents an overview of the dynamics of the different trichothecene-producing Fusarium species as well as their chemotypes and genotypes across different continents. Clearly not one global population exists, but separate ones can be distinguished, sometimes even sympatric in combination with different hosts. A population with more pathogenic strains and chemotypes can replace another. Several displacement events appear to find their origin in the inadvertent introduction of new genotypes into new regions: 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. graminearum in Canada; 3-acetyl-DON-producing F. asiaticum in Eastern China; 15-acetyl-DON F. graminearum in Uruguay; and NIV-producing F asiaticum in the southern United States.

  3. Niche partitioning in a sympatric cryptic species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jessica J; Whitehorn, Penelope R; Goulson, Dave; Tinsley, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    Competition theory states that multiple species should not be able to occupy the same niche indefinitely. Morphologically, similar species are expected to be ecologically alike and exhibit little niche differentiation, which makes it difficult to explain the co-occurrence of cryptic species. Here, we investigated interspecific niche differentiation within a complex of cryptic bumblebee species that co-occur extensively in the United Kingdom. We compared the interspecific variation along different niche dimensions, to determine how they partition a niche to avoid competitive exclusion. We studied the species B. cryptarum, B. lucorum, and B. magnus at a single location in the northwest of Scotland throughout the flight season. Using mitochondrial DNA for species identification, we investigated differences in phenology, response to weather variables and forage use. We also estimated niche region and niche overlap between different castes of the three species. Our results show varying levels of niche partitioning between the bumblebee species along three niche dimensions. The species had contrasting phenologies: The phenology of B. magnus was delayed relative to the other two species, while B. cryptarum had a relatively extended phenology, with workers and males more common than B. lucorum early and late in the season. We found divergent thermal specialisation: In contrast to B. cryptarum and B. magnus, B. lucorum worker activity was skewed toward warmer, sunnier conditions, leading to interspecific temporal variation. Furthermore, the three species differentially exploited the available forage plants: In particular, unlike the other two species, B. magnus fed predominantly on species of heather. The results suggest that ecological divergence in different niche dimensions and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the environment may contribute to the persistence of cryptic species in sympatry. Furthermore, our study suggests that cryptic species provide distinct and unique ecosystem services, demonstrating that morphological similarity does not necessarily equate to ecological equivalence.

  4. Molecular Identification and Amphotericin B Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus From 11 Hospitals in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Min Seok; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Yeon-Joon; Lee, Hye Soo; Koo, Sun Hoe; Lee, Won Gil; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung-Geun; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the species distribution and amphotericin B (AMB) susceptibility of Korean clinical Aspergillus isolates by using two Etests and the CLSI broth microdilution method. Methods A total of 136 Aspergillus isolates obtained from 11 university hospitals were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin genomic regions. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMB were determined in Etests using Mueller-Hinton agar (Etest-MH) and RPMI agar (Etest-RPG), and categorical agreement with the CLSI method was assessed by using epidemiological cutoff values. Results ITS sequencing identified the following six Aspergillus species complexes: Aspergillus fumigatus (42.6% of the isolates), A. niger (23.5%), A. flavus (17.6%), A. terreus (11.0%), A. versicolor (4.4%), and A. ustus (0.7%). Cryptic species identifiable by β-tubulin sequencing accounted for 25.7% (35/136) of the isolates. Of all 136 isolates, 36 (26.5%) had AMB MICs of ≥2 µg/mL by the CLSI method. The categorical agreement of Etest-RPG with the CLSI method was 98% for the A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. versicolor complexes, 87% for the A. terreus complex, and 37.5% for the A. flavus complex. That of Etest-MH was ≤75% for the A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor complexes but was higher for the A. fumigatus complex (98.3%). Conclusions Aspergillus species other than A. fumigatus constitute about 60% of clinical Aspergillus isolates, and reduced AMB susceptibility is common among clinical isolates of Aspergillus in Korea. Molecular identification and AMB susceptibility testing by Etest-RPG may be useful for characterizing Aspergillus isolates of clinical relevance. PMID:26354348

  5. Isolated limb perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kuhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated limb perfusion is a surgical procedure that can be used to treat an advanced malignant melanoma and soft tissue sarcomas, it is also effective in treating in-transit metastases of melanoma and local metastases of soft tissue sarcomas. With perfusion of the affected limb with cytostatic agents it is possible to avoid amputation and mutilating operations that significantly reduced the function of the limb. Since the procedure is isolated on a limb, it can be perfused with much higher doses of cytotoxic drugs, systemic toxicity is thus reduced or prevented. The most common side effects are erythema and edema.Cytotoxic drugs, that are manly used, are melphalan and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Efficient also proved to be simultaneous hyperthermia of the affected limb.

  6. [Isolated mediastinal cystic lymphangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Iury Andrade; Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Gomes, Bruno de Moraes; Cabrera, Giovana Abero; Machuca, Tiago Noguchi

    2009-01-01

    A 59 years old female patient, asymptomatic, with the incidental finding of an ovarian tumor in her routine gynecological evaluation, and during the preoperative examinations it was incidentally found an isolated mediastinal tumor, and then routed to diagnostic evaluation of the lesion, which later proved to be a cystic lymphangioma. The cystic hygroma of the mediastinum is a benign tumor and very infrequent, representing only 0.7 to 4.5% of all mediastinal tumors, and of these, only 1% is exclusively mediastinal in location. The definitive diagnosis is only possible by pathological examination, and the recommended treatment consists of complete surgical resection. Cases are described in isolated reports or series with few patients, and their readiness or synchronicity with other tumors, unknown, and to the best of out knowledge, not reported yet.

  7. Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryoon Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid.

  8. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  9. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varner P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema

  10. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  11. Isolated third ventricle glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Kılıç, Türker

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and the most malignant type of gliomas. Cerebral hemispheres are usual locations for gliomas. Isolated third ventricular presentation is very rare for glioblastomas. A new case of isolated third ventricular glioblastoma has been presented in this report. A 36-year-old woman was admitted to outpatient clinic with headache, blurred vision and confusion. A head CT scan and MRI had showed third ventricular mass lesion with obstructive hydrocephalus. Previous to her admission to our clinic, a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt had been inserted and her hydrocephalus had been relieved to some extent in acute settings. In our clinic, stereotactic biopsy was performed and a second ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted from the opposite site. Histopathological diagnosis was glioblastoma. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were started immediately after the surgery. Patient's hydrocephalus has resolved and she was well at post-operative 6th month. In differential diagnosis list of the tumors presenting in the third ventricle, there are plenty of tumors such as colloid cyst, meningioma, germinoma, craniopharyngioma, lymphoma, choroid plexus papilloma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, chiasmatic and hypothalamic benign astrocytoma. Ring enhancement of this region pathology is a peculiar sign for glioblastoma, yet not pathognomonic. Tumor histology is crucial to yield the final diagnosis. Management of obstructive hydrocephalus, making histopathological diagnosis, starting adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in isolated third ventricular glioblastomas is a safe and effective approach when we consider malignant nature and intractable progress of glioblastomas.

  12. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  13. Molecular analysis of clonal trichomonad isolates indicate the existence of heterogenic species present in different birds and within the same host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabensteiner, Elvira; Bilic, Ivana; Kolbe, Thomas; Hess, Michael

    2010-08-27

    Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoon and the etiological agent of avian trichomoniasis. Despite its importance, especially in columbiformes and falconiformes, only a few molecular studies have yet been performed in order to investigate the degree of genetic diversity and cross-transmissibility between different isolates of this parasite. To address these questions 63 clonal cultures of Trichomonas spp. isolates were established by successful isolation of single trichomonads from a mixture of micro-organisms obtained from 17 birds belonging to five different species. All birds were from Austria with the exception of one bird which originated from the Czech Republic. The sequence of the complete genomic region spanning the two ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene was determined for all 63 isolates. In addition, in order to compare the results obtained with the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region the sequence of the 18S rRNA gene was determined from a subset of isolates. Unrooted phylogenetic trees inferred by distance, parsimony, and likelihood methods suggest the existence of at least three clusters within the T. gallinae species complex, two groups being closely related to the human pathogens, Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax. Furthermore, for the first time two different trichomonad sequence types isolated at the same time from a single bird could be detected in the crops of two pigeons. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ADRENALECTOMY FOR ISOLATED METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shumarova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolated adrenal gland metastases are not frequently finding. The aim of the present retrospective study was to estimate clinical and pathological parameters that could be used to predict survival after adrenalectomy. Material and methods: A total of 34 patients with adrenal gland masses suspected to be metastases was included in this study. The group of patients with isolated metastases was19 (56% and a group of patients with adrenal adenomas -15 (44%. Results: The sample of patients consisted of 18 (53% men and 16 (47% women from 40 to 81 years old with a mean (±SD age of 61.6±10.3 years, presented with adrenal mass suspected to be metastases. Nineteen (56% of them had demonstrated metastases and 16 (84% metachronous with median overall survival (OS 54.6 (range 43-66 months. Median OS in the group with metastases was 22.6 months. Lung carcinoma was the most common primary tumour metastasizing in the adrenal gland – 58% of all metastases with a disease-free interval (DFI of 13 months. It was presented by shorter median survival than the rest primary tumour types (37.8 vs. 96.7months; log-rank test, p=0.028. In the multivariate Cox’s hazard analysis of the surgical technique was found to be an independent prognostic factor (p=0.047, together with lung carcinoma vs. renal cell carcinoma (p=0.045. Conclusion: Adrenalectomy due to isolated metastases in the adrenal glands showed the median overall survival of 22.6 months. Shorter survival periods were associated with lung carcinoma, DFI<12months, conversion to open surgery, synchronous metastases, but not with age, tumour size or resection status.

  15. Nucleic acid isolation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes a process for preparing DNA from cellular materials for use in genetic studies of eukaryotic systems, a process for isolating DNA fragments from proteolytic digestion products and detergent products in a solution with the DNA fragments produced in stripping undesired cellular constituents from the DNA. It comprises the step of dialyzing a solution containing the DNA fragments, detergent products, and proteolytic digestion products against a solution containing PEG for a time effective to yield DNA sufficiently pure of the genetic studies.

  16. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  17. Journey from isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Ottawa Consultation in 1982, the relationship between the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC was nonexistent. In the NHKA it became progressively clear that it would be impossible to travel the road of faith alone. This article examined the factors which contributed to the growing isolation of the NHKA, especially nationalism, a particularistic ecclesiology and the rejection of Apartheid by international ecumenical bodies. It also reflected on efforts of the NHKA to return to the international ecumenical movement.

  18. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  19. Schizosaccharomyces isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the optimization of a selective and differential medium which would facilitate the isolation of Schizosaccharomyces (a genus with a low incidence compared to other microorganisms to select individuals from this genus for industrial purposes, especially in light of the recent recommendation of the use of yeasts from this genus in the wine industry by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, or to detect the presence of such yeasts, for those many authors who consider them food spoilers. To this end, we studied various selective differential agents based on the main physiological characteristics of these species, such as their high resistances to high concentrations of sugar, sulfur dioxide, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid or malo ethanolic fermentation. This selective medium is based on the genus resistance to the antibiotic actidione and its high resistance to inhibitory agents such as benzoic acid. Malic acid was used as a differential factor due to the ability of this genus to metabolise it to ethanol, which allows detecting of the degradation of this compound. Lastly, the medium was successfully used to isolate strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe from honey and honeycombs.

  20. Linkage Map of Lissotriton Newts Provides Insight into the Genetic Basis of Reproductive Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niedzicka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are widely used to investigate structure, function, and evolution of genomes. In speciation research, maps facilitate the study of the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation by allowing identification of genomic regions underlying reduced fitness of hybrids. Here we present a linkage map for European newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris species complex, constructed using two families of F2 L. montandoni × L. vulgaris hybrids. The map consists of 1146 protein-coding genes on 12 linkage groups, equal to the haploid chromosome number, with a total length of 1484 cM (1.29 cM per marker. It is notably shorter than two other maps available for salamanders, but the differences in map length are consistent with cytogenetic estimates of the number of chiasmata per chromosomal arm. Thus, large salamander genomes do not necessarily translate into long linkage maps, as previously suggested. Consequently, salamanders are an excellent model to study evolutionary consequences of recombination rate variation in taxa with large genomes and a similar number of chromosomes. A complex pattern of transmission ratio distortion (TRD was detected: TRD occurred mostly in one family, in one breeding season, and was clustered in two genomic segments. This is consistent with environment-dependent mortality of individuals carrying L. montandoni alleles in these two segments and suggests a role of TRD blocks in reproductive isolation. The reported linkage map will empower studies on the genomic architecture of divergence and interactions between the genomes of hybridizing newts.

  1. Isolated Tracklet Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weryk, Robert J.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Williams, Gareth

    2017-10-01

    We discuss our on-going work to reduce the size of the Isolated Tracklet File (ITF) : a database hosted by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) containing 14+ million unlinked detections of asteroids. The ITF is dominated by observations from Pan-STARRS1 (F51), the Catalina Sky Survey (G96), and the Spacewatch Project (691).Survey telescopes are dependent on the follow-up capabilities of other telescopes, but many of their detected objects are not linked to already known objects, are are either not posted to the NEO Confirmation Page and/or are not followed up sufficiently, and therefore have their astrometry relegated to the ITF. While many of these asteroids may have in fact been previously observed sufficiently over longer timescales (enough to become designated objects), the linking of their astrometry can pose a challenge.We have developed a search method capable of finding and linking these isolated detections for distinct types of orbit classes, including main-belt and Hungaria objects (which often appear on the NEOCP due to their apparent motion). We use a brute-force technique which compares tracklets having motion which suggests they are the same object. Suspected linkages are further tested by searching for additional tracklets over multiple oppositions.So far, we have linked a significant portion of the ITF and have submitted these linkages to the MPC. We are confident in being able to link even more tracklets. Our method can even associate these new linkages with already designated objects, which will eventually lead to them becoming numbered objects. We hope to improve the efficiency of all asteroid surveys as future detections can be batch submitted without manual review, and more objects which are well known will not be posted to the NEOCP.

  2. Isolated Northern Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Isolation, identification and molecular characterisation of an isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important virus infecting cucurbits and has a worldwide distribution. In the Republic of South Africa, ZYMV has been reported as a major limiting factor to cucurbit production. The aim of this study was to identify, isolate and partially characterise a ZYMV isolate from ...

  4. Cotton roll isolation versus Vac-Ejector isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A J; Saravia, M E; Farrington, F H

    1989-01-01

    A visible-light-cured, white pit-and-fissure sealant was applied to 523 teeth in school children using either cotton rolls or a VacEjector for isolation. After a minimum of six months, the patients were recalled and the retention of the sealants was evaluated. No significant difference in sealant retention was found between the two isolation methods.

  5. Acute unilateral isolated ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

    2015-01-05

    A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5 days the patient started oral prednisolone 30 mg reducing over 12 weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6 months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  7. Seismic isolation for Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Allen, G; Cowley, S; Daw, E; Debra, D; Giaime, J; Hammond, G; Hammond, M; Hardham, C; How, J; Hua, W; Johnson, W; Lantz, B; Mason, K; Mittleman, R; Nichol, J; Richman, S; Rollins, J; Shoemaker, D; Stapfer, G; Stebbins, R

    2002-01-01

    The baseline design concept for a seismic isolation component of the proposed 'Advanced LIGO' detector upgrade has been developed with proof-of-principle experiments and computer models. It consists of a two-stage in-vacuum active isolation platform that is supported by an external hydraulic actuation stage. Construction is underway for prototype testing of a full-scale preliminary design.

  8. Patients experience of source isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina

    2014-01-01

    , Nursing education in Århus, Hedeager 2, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Background: Medical treatment and care of patients with infections may include source isolation of the patient, to avoid spreading of the infection. However, isolation is a potential physiological and psychological stress factor...... of the patients perspectives of being isolated to identify areas of potential interest for developing new caring strategies to minimize the negative side effects of isolation. Methods: Literature was systematically searched in CINAHL, Nursing Reference Center, Social Care Online, SveMed+, The Cochrane Library...... of Care: The patients felt abandoned and forgotten by the nurses, because of fewer visits and time limited communication. This led to emotions such as frustrations, insecurity and neglect. While isolated the patients felt it difficult to achieve contact and have an optimal relation with the nurses...

  9. Dynamic isolation technologies in negative pressure isolation wards

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents novel design principles and technologies for dynamic isolation based on experimental studies. These approaches have now become the local standard in Beijing and are currently being promoted for use nationwide. Further, the book provides details of measures and guidelines for the design process. Departing from the traditional understanding that isolation wards should be designed with high negative pressure, airtight doors and fresh air, it establishes the basis for designing biological clean rooms, including isolation wards, using a simple and convenient scientific approach. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, hospital management staff and graduate students in heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC), air cleaning technologies and related areas.

  10. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  12. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: isolated lissencephaly sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Isolated lissencephaly sequence Isolated lissencephaly sequence Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS) is a condition that affects brain development ...

  14. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B

    2000-03-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.

  15. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Revision of Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: divergence by paraproct and paramere: speciation in isolation by integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, János

    2017-08-01

    . In the Ecclisopteryx genus with 14 species we have established two independent lineages both with a single species, as well as two species complexes with five new species applying the speciation trait of the genus, that is the shape divergence of the stimulatory organ on the dorsoapical surface of the gonopods. Based on the Darwinian natural selection, we do not understand how the discovered 70+49 new European incipient phylogenetic species of limnephilid caddisflies have been evolved in the isolated sky island habitats of high mountain ranges. This isolation induced speciation represents a challenge to the mechanistic reductionist concept of the natural selection. Our first trial to extract information from various disciplines to answer this question is presented in a brief theoretical discourse: (1 rethinking the status of natural selection towards postdarwinism; (2 teleology or teleonomy; (3 limits and potentials in understanding reality; (4 organisation of universe by integration; (5 what are and how the organising forces are powered to work in the emerging energy mechanisms; (6 divergence by integration; (7 divergence in isolation; (8 reproductive isolation by sexual selection; (9 shape divergence; (10 speciation traits; (11 generic ranking characters. Assessing the limits and potentials, the humility and hybris attitudes towards understanding reality, we hypothesise an integrative power of organisation, instead of simplistic natural selection, that works both in isolated and sympatric populations to maintain the integer state of the integrated autonomic entities against mutations, permutations, transmutations and perturbations. The permanent flux of these adverse, neutral or advantegous external and internal effects generates and gives rise to a responsive and balancing integrative mechanisms with comparative magnitude and multitude. This permanently balancing organisation process develops and drives a large number of interactions along various patterns of

  17. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  18. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical.

  19. Isolation, characterization and identification of actinomycetes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 62 isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from 7 soil samples collected from Agriculture Research Center Semongok, Sarawak. All 62 isolates exhibited a range of colony colours (dark grey, grey, dark brown, brownish, whitish and yellowish white). All the isolates were later purified and subjected to a few ...

  20. Isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates from Lake Magadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms from soda lakes have attracted attention as a possible source of novel enzymes and metabolites for use in industrial applications. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from Kenyan soda lakes has been done mainly in Lakes Elmenteita, Bogoria and Nakuru. Only a few studies have been documented on ...

  1. Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking among Social Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.

    2011-01-01

    To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…

  2. Is an isolated cleft lip an isolated anomaly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelder, J. D.; Breugem, C. C.; de Vries, Iris; de Bruin, M.; van der Molen, A. B. Mink; van der Horst, C. M. A. M.

    Introduction: It is well known that patients with cleft lip/palate or cleft palate can have associated anomalies. However, there is a relative paucity of information about the possible anomalies associated with an isolated cleft lip. A recent study (Vallino et al., 2008) showed that children with

  3. Is an isolated cleft lip an isolated anomaly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelder, J. D.; Breugem, C. C.; de Vries, I. A. C.; de Bruin, M.; Mink van der Molen, A. B.; van der Horst, C. M. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: It is well known that patients with cleft lip/palate or cleft palate can have associated anomalies. However, there is a relative paucity of information about the possible anomalies associated with an isolated cleft lip. A recent study (Vallino et al., 2008) showed that children with

  4. Isolation contactor state control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-05-16

    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  5. Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yuasa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC. The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab.

  6. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  7. Isolated petrous apex ectopic craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius July

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary ectopic craniopharyngioma is a rare entity. Isolated petrous apex bone location has not been reported previously. This study reports a case of 26-year-old male with right abducent nerve palsy. CT and MRI imaging reveal right petrous apex cystic lesion. No sellar or suprasellar region involvement was found. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoid approach has been successfully performed. Histopathology examination confirms the diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. So far, it’s probably the first case report of primary ectopic craniopharyngioma isolated in the petrous apex. This case report supports the premise that primary ectopic craniopharyngioma is a multifactorial process that starts with an error from migrated embryological cells.

  8. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  9. Isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-07

    Jul 7, 1990 ... Case 2. Initial chest radiograph showing rounded shadows with cavitation. Fig. 2. Case 2. Chest radiograph showing progression to effusion. nuc/eacum was Isolated from repeated blood cultures. Two- dimensional echocardiography revealed vegetations on the tricuspid valve (Fig. 3). The patient was now ...

  10. Physical isolation with virtual support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wearne, Susan M.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Dornan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Changing the current geographical maldistribution of the medical workforce is important for global health. Research regarding programs that train doctors for work with disadvantaged, rural populations is needed. This paper explores one approach of remote supervision of registrars in isol...

  11. JBS Haldane: an isolated souvenir

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 5. J. B. S. Haldane: an isolated souvenir. P. P. DIVAKARAN. HALDANE AT 125 Volume 96 Issue 5 November 2017 pp 733-733. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/096/05/0733-0733. Keywords.

  12. Providencia stuartii Isolates from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Olga; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M.; Betts, Jonathan; Mevius, Dik; Wareham, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Providencia stuartii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant strain over a 4-month period in a critical care unit in Athens. Molecular typing revealed each of the isolates to be clonally related with coresistance to cephalosporins,

  13. Deep Sequencing Analysis Reveals the Mycoviral Diversity of the Virome of an Avirulent Isolate of Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomäus, Anika; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani represents an important plant pathogenic Basidiomycota species complex and the host of many different mycoviruses, as indicated by frequent detection of dsRNA elements in natural populations of the fungus. To date, eight different mycoviruses have been characterized in Rhizoctonia and some of them have been reported to modulate its virulence. DsRNA extracts of the avirulent R. solani isolate DC17 (AG2-2-IV) displayed a diverse pattern, indicating multiple infections with mycoviruses. Deep sequencing analysis of the dsRNA extract, converted to cDNA, revealed that this isolate harbors at least 17 different mycovirus species. Based on the alignment of the conserved RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) domain, this viral community included putative members of the families Narnaviridae, Endornaviridae, Partitiviridae and Megabirnaviridae as well as of the order Tymovirales. Furthermore, viruses, which could not be assigned to any existing family or order, but showed similarities to so far unassigned species like Sclerotinia sclerotiorum RNA virus L, Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 1, Aspergillus foetidus slow virus 2 or Rhizoctonia fumigata virus 1, were identified. This is the first report of a fungal isolate infected by 17 different viral species and a valuable study case to explore the diversity of mycoviruses infecting R. solani.

  14. Deep Sequencing Analysis Reveals the Mycoviral Diversity of the Virome of an Avirulent Isolate of Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Bartholomäus

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani represents an important plant pathogenic Basidiomycota species complex and the host of many different mycoviruses, as indicated by frequent detection of dsRNA elements in natural populations of the fungus. To date, eight different mycoviruses have been characterized in Rhizoctonia and some of them have been reported to modulate its virulence. DsRNA extracts of the avirulent R. solani isolate DC17 (AG2-2-IV displayed a diverse pattern, indicating multiple infections with mycoviruses. Deep sequencing analysis of the dsRNA extract, converted to cDNA, revealed that this isolate harbors at least 17 different mycovirus species. Based on the alignment of the conserved RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp domain, this viral community included putative members of the families Narnaviridae, Endornaviridae, Partitiviridae and Megabirnaviridae as well as of the order Tymovirales. Furthermore, viruses, which could not be assigned to any existing family or order, but showed similarities to so far unassigned species like Sclerotinia sclerotiorum RNA virus L, Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 1, Aspergillus foetidus slow virus 2 or Rhizoctonia fumigata virus 1, were identified. This is the first report of a fungal isolate infected by 17 different viral species and a valuable study case to explore the diversity of mycoviruses infecting R. solani.

  15. Bioinformatic as a tool to highlight and characterize extragenomic sequences within Fusarium verticillioides strains isolated from Italian Zea mays kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium Link is a genus including ubiquitous plant-pathogenic fungi that may cause severe crop losses. The Fusarium genus is divided in species complexes; the species are grouped by physiological, biological, ecological and genetic similarity. The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of...

  16. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  17. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period...... in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient...

  18. Heterogeneity of koala retrovirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Shojima, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-01-03

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus which may induce immune suppression, leukemia and lymphoma in koalas. Currently three KoRV subgroups (A, B, and J) have been reported. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that KoRV-B and KoRV-J should be classified as the same subgroup. In long terminal repeat (LTR), a KoRV-B isolate has four 17 bp tandem repeats named direct repeat (DR)-1, while a KoRV-J isolate (strain OJ-4) has three 37 bp tandem repeats named DR-2. We also found that the promoter activity of the KoRV-J strain OJ-4 is stronger than that of original KoRV-A, suggesting that KoRV-J may replicate more efficiently than KoRV-A. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Isolation of streptococcal hyaluronate synthase.

    OpenAIRE

    Prehm, P; Mausolf, A

    1986-01-01

    Hyaluronate synthase was isolated from protoblast membranes of streptococci by Triton X-114 extraction and cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation. It was identified as a 52,000-Mr protein, which bound to nascent hyaluronate and was affinity-labelled by periodate-oxidized UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Antibodies directed against the 52,000-Mr protein inhibited hyaluronate synthesis. Mutants defective in hyaluronate synthase activity lacked the 52,000-Mr protein in membrane e...

  20. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the isolation effect require attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireta, Tamra J; Mazzei, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    An item that differs from the surrounding items is remembered better than an item that is consistent with its surroundings; this is known as the von Restorff effect or isolation effect (von Restorff, Psychologische Forschung, 18, 299-342, 1933). Theoretical explanations have proposed that the isolate is processed differently from control items, though some research has suggested that this processing might require more attention for semantic than for physical isolates. To test this possibility, in the present study we examined the isolation effects for physical isolates and semantic isolates under full and divided attention. Participants viewed lists of categorized words, with some lists containing either a physical or a semantic isolate, followed by immediate written free recall. Across three experiments, divided attention eliminated the semantic isolation effect but did not impact the physical isolation effect. Furthermore, semantic isolates were output earlier in recall than controls, whereas physical isolates were output more similarly to controls. These findings suggest that semantic isolation effects require attention during encoding, whereas physical isolation effects are relatively automatic.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Pierre Robin sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Isolated Pierre Robin sequence Isolated Pierre Robin sequence Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pierre Robin sequence is a set of abnormalities affecting the head ...

  3. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  4. Isolation of Cellulolytic Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Manuel; Esparis, Azucena; Fabregas, Jaime

    1983-01-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity.

  5. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  6. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  7. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  8. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  9. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Juel, Cynthia Dawn

    2002-01-01

    was characterized as C. meleagridis. The porcine Cryptosporidium isolates (N = 4) revealed a pattern which was genetically distinct from human and bovine isolates. Cryptosporidium in a hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.) was identified for the first time. By microsatellite sequencing the hedgehog isolate showed...

  10. Isolation, characterization, and hydrolytic activities of Geobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to isolate, identify, characterize and to determine the enzymatic activities of the thermophilic Geobacillus species from five Jordanian hot springs. Based on phenotypic characters, eight thermophilic isolates were identified and belonged to the genus Geobacillus. The Geobacillus isolates ...

  11. Isolation, characterization and identification of actinomycetes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    antimicrobial test using selected phytopathogens as test strains and it was observed that 3, 25, 35 and. 37 of the isolates showed antagonistic reaction with ... Six of the most promising isolates were selected and identified using their 16S rRNA sequence. ..... isolated from a Brazilian tropical forest soil. World J. Microbiol.

  12. methicillin resistance in staphylococcal isolates from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical isolates is shown in Table and asymptomatic bacteruria. 2. (community) isolates. Figure 1: Susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcal isolates to different antibiotics. I Resistant. 100% H E] intermediate. 90% [:1 Sensitive r. 80%. 70%. 60%. 50%. 40%. 30%. 20% J. 10% __. 0%. AMP AMX CHI. ClP CLOX ERY PEN.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 125 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains were isolated from patients attending private clinics in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Out of the 125 gonococcal isolates, 90 (72%) were resistant to penicillin G, 85 (68%) to ampicillin, 70 (56%) to tetracycline, 55 (44%) to erythromycin and 26 (22%) isolates were resistant to ...

  14. Occurrence, isolation and DNA identification of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... A total of 12 strains were tested by DNA identification analysis and these indigenous isolates were unambiguously ... To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of. S. thermophilus ..... Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tarhana, a traditional Turkish.

  15. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Great Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Mahadeva Swamy, H M; Birah, Ajanta; Thimmegowda, Geetha G

    2013-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soil samples of Great Nicobar Islands, one of the "hottest biodiversity hotspots," where no collection has been characterized previously. The 36 new Bt isolates were obtained from 153 samples analyzed by crystal protein production with light/phase-contrast microscopy, determination of cry gene profile by SDS-PAGE, evaluation of toxicity against Coleopteran, and Lepidopteran insect pests, finally cloning and sequencing. Majority of the isolates showed the presence of 66-35 kDa protein bands on SDS-PAGE while the rest showed >130, 130, 73, and 18 kDa bands. The variations in crystal morphology and mass of crystal protein(s) purified from the isolates of Bt revealed genetic and molecular diversity. Based on the toxicity test, 50 % of isolates were toxic to Ash weevils, 16 % isolates were toxic to cotton bollworm, 38 % isolates were toxic both to ash weevil as well as cotton bollworm, while 11 % of the isolates did not exhibit any toxicity. PCR analysis unveiled prepotency of cry1B- and cry8b-like genes in these isolates. This study appoints the first isolation and characterization of local B. thuringiensis isolates in Great Nicobar Islands. Some of these isolates display toxic potential and, therefore, could be adopted for future applications to control some agriculturally important insect pests in the area of integrated pest management for sustainable agriculture.

  17. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases as reagents for cell isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapinska, Anna M.; Amar, Sabrina; He, Zhong; Matosevic, Sandro; Zylberberg, Claudia; Fields, Gregg B.

    2016-01-01

    Cell isolation methods for therapeutic purposes have seen little advancement over the years. The original methods of stem cell and islet isolation using bacterial collagenases were developed in the early 1980s and are still used today. Bacterial collagenases are subject to autodegradation, and isolates obtained with these enzymes may be contaminated with endotoxins, reducing cell viability and contributing to toxicity in downstream applications. Here we describe a novel method for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSC) utilizing recombinantly produced matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). The ADSCs isolated by MMPs displayed essentially identical morphological and phenotypical characteristics to cells isolated by bacterially-derived collagenase I and Liberase™. Samples isolated with MMPs and Liberase™ had comparable levels of CD73, CD90, and CD105. The adipogenic and osteogenic potential of the ADSCs isolated by MMPs was retained as compared to cells isolated with Liberase™. However, ADSCs isolated by Liberase™ displayed 6% contamination with other cells as per negative markers revealed by PE staining, as opposed to <1% for all MMP-treated samples. MMP-based cell isolation may contribute to optimization of transplantation technology. PMID:27702483

  19. Phylogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates, Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jay E; Gulvik, Christopher A; Elrod, Mindy G; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori A; Sheth, Mili; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2017-07-01

    The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, which is mainly associated with tropical areas. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among genome sequences from isolates of B. pseudomallei that originated in the Western Hemisphere by comparing them with genome sequences of isolates that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere. Analysis indicated that isolates from the Western Hemisphere form a distinct clade, which supports the hypothesis that these isolates were derived from a constricted seeding event from Africa. Subclades have been resolved that are associated with specific regions within the Western Hemisphere and suggest that isolates might be correlated geographically with cases of melioidosis. One isolate associated with a former World War II prisoner of war was believed to represent illness 62 years after exposure in Southeast Asia. However, analysis suggested the isolate originated in Central or South America.

  20. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catinon, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.catinon@gmail.com [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.ispl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boudouma, Omar, E-mail: boudouma@ccr.jussieu.fr [Service du MEB, UFR928, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris VI (France); Bordier, Louise, E-mail: Louise.Bordier@lsce.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnello, Gregory, E-mail: contact@evinrude.fr [Evinrude, Espace St Germain, 38200 Vienne (France); Reynaud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Tissut, Michel, E-mail: michel.tissut@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-01

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron + Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. - Highlights: • The developed method offers a low-cost approach of large-scale dry deposition. • Tombstones are excellent supports for sampling these atmospheric deposits. • Smelted elements crystallise after cooling, giving typical technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs). • Coupling microscopic and bulk analyses allows identifying TMP origin. • Magnetic TMPs issued from steel industry were separated by a new technique.

  1. Power inverter with optical isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  2. From rumors to genetic isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E. Castilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose a registration process for population genetic isolates, usually geographic clusters of genetic disorders, based on the systematic search of rumors, defined as any type of account regardless of its reliability. Systematically ascertained rumors are recorded, and validated through a progressive process of pre-established steps. This paper outlines the conceptual basis for this approach and presents the preliminary results from a rumor-based nationwide registry of genetically isolated populations, named CENISO (Censo Nacional de Isolados, operating in Brazil since 2009. During the first four years of its existence (2009-2013, a total of 191 Rumors were registered and validated, resulting in a prevalence rate of one per million inhabitants of Brazil. When the five statutory geographic regions of Brazil were considered, more Rumors were registered for the Northeast (2.11; 1.74-2.54 per 10(6 than for the remaining four regions, North, Center-West, Southeast, and South, which did not differ among themselves. About half (86/191 of the recorded rumors were proven to be geographic clusters; of these disorders, 58 were autosomal recessive, 17 autosomal dominant, 5 X-linked, 3 multifactorial, and one environmental (thalidomide embryopathy.

  3. Isolated islets in diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhonde, R; Shukla, R C; Kanitkar, M; Shukla, R; Banerjee, M; Datar, S

    2007-03-01

    This review highlights some recent developments and diversified applications of islets in diabetes research as they are rapidly emerging as a model system in biomedical and biotechnological research. Isolated islets have formed an effective in vitro model in antidiabetic drug development programme, screening of potential hypoglycaemic agents and for investigating their mechanisms of action. Yet another application of isolated islets could be to understand the mechanisms of beta cell death in vitro and to identify the sites of intervention for possible cytoprotection. Advances in immunoisolation and immunomodulation protocols have made xeno-transplantation feasible without immunosuppression thus increasing the availability of islets. Research in the areas of pancreatic and non pancreatic stem cells has given new hope to diabetic subjects to renew their islet cell mass for the possible cure of diabetes. Investigations of the factors leading to differentiation of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells would be of interest as they are likely to induce pancreatic regeneration in diabetics. Similarly search for the beta cell protective agents has a great future in preservation of residual beta cell mass left after diabetogenic insults. We have detailed various applications of islets in diabetes research in context of their current status, progress and future challenges and long term prospects for a cure.

  4. The uncharacterized gene 1700093K21Rik and flanking regions are correlated with reproductive isolation in the house mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Janoušek, Václav; Wang, Liuyang; Tucker, Priscilla K

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive barriers exist between the house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, members of the Mus musculus species complex, primarily as a result of hybrid male infertility, and a hybrid zone exists where their ranges intersect in Europe. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic for the two taxa, the extent of introgression across the genome was previously compared in these hybrid populations. Sixty-nine of 1316 autosomal SNPs exhibited reduced introgression in two hybrid zone transects suggesting maladaptive interactions among certain loci. One of these markers is within a region on chromosome 11 that, in other studies, has been associated with hybrid male sterility of these subspecies. We assessed sequence variation in a 20 Mb region on chromosome 11 flanking this marker, and observed its inclusion within a roughly 150 kb stretch of DNA showing elevated sequence differentiation between the two subspecies. Four genes are associated with this genomic subregion, with two entirely encompassed. One of the two genes, the uncharacterized 1700093K21Rik gene, displays distinguishing features consistent with a potential role in reproductive isolation between these subspecies. Along with its expression specifically within spermatogenic cells, we present various sequence analyses that demonstrate a high rate of molecular evolution of this gene, as well as identify a subspecies amino acid variant resulting in a structural difference. Taken together, the data suggest a role for this gene in reproductive isolation.

  5. Effectiveness of Base Isolation Technique and Influence of Isolator Characteristics on Response of a Base Isolated Building

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Tolani; Dr. Ajay Sharma

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns with the seismic response comparison of a fixed base building with a base isolated building and parametric study of a base isolated building. The structural system considered for analysis is a three storey reinforced concrete building, which is idealized as a shear type building with one lateral degree of freedom at each floor level. The isolation systems considered for this study are Laminated Rubber bearing (LRB), Lead Rubber Bearing (N-Z bearing) and Frictio...

  6. Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found. The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of Chaetomium isolates based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolates Cg7, Cg8, and Cg9 were closely related to the Australian isolates but distantly related to the isolates from New Zealand. However, all these isolates clustered in the same Australia group as evident in the evolutionary history analysis using parsimony method. European isolate MU-2009 and Australian isolates NA26 ...

  8. [Staphylococcal enterotoxin type E: isolation, purification, identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beĭlbaeva, M L; Ezepchuk, Iu V; Ramazanova, B A

    1989-04-01

    Homogeneous protein of staphylococcal enterotoxin type E has been isolated. The technique of isolation, permitting 48% yield of active material, includes concentration by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel-filtration on sephacryl S-200. The molecular mass of the isolated protein is 32 Kd. Antigenic affinity of staphylococcal toxins types A and E has been established by immunochemical analysis.

  9. K. OXYTOCA BACTERIOPHAGES ISOLATION METHODS IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. Sadrtdinova

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study related to increasing the efficiency of phage isolation of bacteria of the species K. oxytoca, by developing the optimal composition of the medium used in the work. In scientific research, in almost all methods associated with the isolation of bacteriophages, meat-peptone broth and meat-peptone agar are used as the nutrient basis. The peculiarities of growth and cultivation of microorganisms create certain difficulties for the isolation of phages ac...

  10. Genetic Characterization of Pathogenic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, J. H.; Clemons, K. V.; Stevens, D. A.; Davis, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from human patients have been genetically analyzed. Some of the characteristics of these isolates are very different from laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae and, for this reason, stringent genetic tests have been used to confirm their identity as S. cerevisiae. Most of these clinical isolates are able to grow at 42°, a temperature that completely inhibits the growth of most other S. cerevisiae strains. This property can be considered a virulen...

  11. Loneliness and Social Isolation among Eldely People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Püllüm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is defined as the process of people losing their contacts with other social resources or their willingness to participate. Social isolation is a grave and widespread problem among seniors in society causing many harmful health conditions. Social isolation may be prevented by defining risk factors in seniors and leading them to suitable resources. The elderly should be encouraged to share their experiences and continue to produce for as long as possible, so that they are prevented from feeling isolated from society and the continuity of their economic productivity is ensured.

  12. Variability in Indian isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, B K; Singh, U P; Singh, K P

    2002-01-01

    Variability among 26 isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii collected from various hosts/soil samples and localities in India is reported. The isolates varied in colony morphology, mycelial growth rate, sclerotium formation, teleomorph production and sclerotial size and color. Out of 26 isolates, only 4 produced the teleomorph stage on Cyperus rotundus rhizome meal agar medium. Mycelial incompatibility among the isolates was also seen, and out of 325 combinations, only 29 combinations (8.9%) showed compatible reactions. Based on mycelial compatibility, 13 vegetative incompatibility groups (VCG) were identified among the isolates. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction of culture filtrates of the isolates revealed 10-22 peaks. Six peaks were identified as gallic, oxalic, ferulic, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), chlorogenic, and cinnamic acids. Oxalic, IAA, and cinnamic acids were present in the culture filtrates of all the isolates in varying amounts. The other three phenolic acids were not detected in some of the isolates. A comparative HPLC analysis of sclerotial exudate, sclerotia, mycelia, and culture filtrates of two S. rolfsii isolates (leaf spot- and collar rot-causing) producing different symptoms on their respective hosts revealed variation in the content of phenolic acids, IAA, and oxalic acid.

  13. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, Henrik W.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2001-01-01

    approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, fieldmeasurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end......The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than "universal solutions" for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present amore unified and generally applicable...... for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donoragencies and development banks....

  14. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...

  15. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release.

  16. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  17. Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, Pamela (Palo Alto, CA); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-02-23

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

  18. ISOLATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE NUCLEI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Jean C.; Edelman, P. Michael; Knigge, Karl M.; Schwartz, Irving L.

    1965-01-01

    A method employing aqueous media for isolation of nuclei from rat skeletal muscle is described. The technique involves (a) mincing and then homogenizing in a 0.32 M sucrose-salt solution with a Potter-Elvehjem type homogenizer using a Delrin (an acetal resin) pestle and a carefully controlled, relatively large pestle-to-glass clearance, (b) filtering through fiberglass and stainless steel screens of predetermined mesh size to remove myofibrils and connective tissue, and (c) centrifuging in a 2.15 M sucrose-salt solution containing 0.7 mM ATP. Electron and phase-contrast microscopic observations show that the nuclei are intact, unencumbered by cytoplasmic tags, and possess well preserved distinct nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and nuclear membranes. Cytoplasmic contamination is minimal and mainly mitochondrial. Chemical assays of the nuclear fraction show that the DNA/protein and RNA/DNA ratios are comparable to those obtained in other tissues. These ratios, as well as the low specific activity obtained for cytochrome c oxidase and the virtual absence of myofibrillar ATPase, indicate a high degree of purity with minimal mitochondrial and myofibrillar contamination. The steps comprising the technique and the reasons for their selection are discussed. PMID:4287141

  19. Outbreeding lethality between toxic Group I and nontoxic Group III Alexandrium tamarense spp. isolates: Predominance of heterotypic encystment and implications for mating interactions and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnahan, Michael L.; Kulis, David M.; Solow, Andrew R.; Erdner, Deana L.; Percy, Linda; Lewis, Jane; Anderson, Donald M.

    2010-02-01

    We report the zygotic encystment of geographically dispersed isolates in the dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense, in particular, successful mating of toxic Group I and nontoxic Group III isolates. However, hypnozygotes produced in Group I/III co-cultures complete no more than three divisions after germinating. Previous reports have suggested a mate recognition mechanism whereby hypnozygotes produced in co-cultures could arise from either homotypic (inbred) or heterotypic (outbred) gamete pairs. To determine the extent to which each occurs, a nested PCR assay was developed to determine parentage of individual hypnozygotes. The vast majority of hypnozygotes from pairwise Group I/III co-cultures were outbred, so that inviability was a result of hybridization, not inbreeding. These findings support the assertion that complete speciation underlies the phylogenetic structure of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex. Additionally, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy numbers of both hybrid and single ribotype hypnozygotes were reduced substantially from those of haploid motile cells. The destruction of rDNA loci may be crucial for the successful mating of genetically distant conjugants and appears integral to the process of encystment. The inviability of Group I/III hybrids is important for public health because the presence of hybrid cysts may indicate ongoing displacement of a nontoxic population by a toxic one (or vice versa). Hybrid inviability also suggests a bloom control strategy whereby persistent, toxic Group I blooms could be mitigated by introduction of nontoxic Group III cells. The potential for hybridization in nature was investigated by applying the nested PCR assay to hypnozygotes from Belfast Lough, Northern Ireland, a region where Group I and III populations co-occur. Two hybrid cysts were identified in 14 successful assays, demonstrating that Group I and III populations do interbreed in that region. However, an analysis of mating data

  20. Scalable Detection and Isolation of Phishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for scalable detection and isolation of phishing. The main ideas are to move the protection from end users towards the network provider and to employ the novel bad neighborhood concept, in order to detect and isolate both phishing e-mail senders and phishing web

  1. Isolation and identification of Archanobacterium pyogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical tests of the 48 isolated bacterial strains revealed that all the strains were beta-hemolytic on blood agar, hydrolyzed gelatin and starch were unable to hydrolyze esculin or reduce nitrate and did not produce urease which was typical characteristics of A. pyogene. Identification of the isolated strains was further ...

  2. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene ...

  3. Isolated posterior fossa involvement of progressive multifocal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... Open Access frontal lobe. Supratentorial lesions typically involve the subcortical white matter with a scalloping appearance.2. White matter of the posterior fossa is the next common area of involvement; however, isolated cerebellar white matter or isolated medullary involvement is less common.2. One study ...

  4. LITTERFALL AND NUTRIENT RETURNS IN ISOLATED STANDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    and branch morphology, leaf size and arrangement. The main objective of this study was to examine litter production and nutrient returns through litterfall by isolated stands of Terminalia catappa, and determine the contributions of nutrient elements to the rainforest soil by the isolated exotic, through a direct comparison with.

  5. Antibiotic resistance profiles of environmental isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resistance in the environment. The strong correlation (r=0.97) between the ARPs of the clinical and the environmental isolates may suggest a link between diarrhoeal incidence and the water quality in the region. It is thus imperative that the determination of antibiotic susceptibility/resistance patterns of isolated microbes is ...

  6. Isolation, identification and characterization of Leuconostoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal microflora of snakehead (Channa striatus) fish was studied to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria as new probiotic. A total of five lactic acid bacteria were isolated from intestine to evaluate with probiotic properties. Leuconostoc mesenteroides sp. mesenteroides with more ability to inhibit growth of ...

  7. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  8. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 30 Streptomyces isolates (28 from soil and 2 from water) were isolated and purified from hot-springs areas in the northern part of Jordan. Four strains were thermopile. They grew at 45 and 55°C but not at 28°C. Strains were described morphologically on four different media: on glycerol yeast extract, oatmeal, yeast ...

  9. Antiproliferative heparin (glycosaminoglycans) isolated from giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heparin was isolated from two bivalve mollusks, Tridacna maxima (giant clam) and Perna viridis (green mussel). The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2 g/kg (in crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (in purified samples) in T. maxima and P. viridis, ...

  10. Antimicrobial Suseptibility Of Neisserria gonorrhoeae Isolated From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 108 isolates tested, 80 (74.07%) were resistant to penicillin, 74 (68.5%) were resistant to ampicillin. The resistance profiles for the remaining antibiotics tested were as follows: Erythromycin (58.3%), Tetracycline (62%) and gentamicin (25.9%). All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and ofloxacin.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Urinary Pathogens Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was carried out in order to isolate, characterize and identify the pathogens associated with UTI in two teaching hospitals at Osun state, Nigeria and ... Escherichia coli 19 (21.6%) were the commonest pathogen isolated followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 14 (15.9%), Staphylococcus aureus 12(13.6%), ...

  12. Isolation, identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 to isolate coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CPS) from subclinical mastitic (SCM) lactating cows, to establishing prevalence, to identify risk factors and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CPS isolates in and around Haramaya.

  13. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  14. Isolating USB connections in medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Jan-Hein

    2009-01-01

    Although offering several benefits, the universal serial bus (USB) port has not been rapidly adopted for connecting medical equipment. This is because it could affect safety procedures, with equipment not operating isolated from the mains. To overcome this, a single package isolation device has been developed that can be inserted directly into the USB signal path.

  15. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The objective of this investigation was to isolate and determine the chemical constituents of the leaves of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional pharmacopoeias of Central Africa, essentially for its ...

  16. Isolation and characterization of extreme halophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, Madlen; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). HZDR Young Investigator Group

    2017-06-01

    Extreme halophilic archaea from the family Halobactereacea represent a dominant part of the microbial community present in saline soils as well as rock salts. By using a culture-dependent approach different Haloarchaea could be isolated and were phylogenetic analysed. Interestingly, isolates closely related to different Halobacterium spp. were found in both environments.

  17. Isolation, characterization and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The swab sticks were inoculated into brain-heart infusion broth, transported to the laboratory and then inoculated on mannitol salt agar. Isolates with the characteristic colonial morphology of S. aureus were then identified microscopically and characterized biochemically. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to seven ...

  18. Short communication: Isolation and identification of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogens and opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus, were isolated from the Berg River. Similarly, in the Plankenburg River system, Aeromonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., Stenotrophomonas sp. and Yersinia enterocolitica were also isolated. This raises major ...

  19. The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms from Hyptis marrubioides Epling roots. ... The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing endophytic strains from the root system of Hyptis marrubioides. Coarse and fine root fragments were ... Keywords: Bacteria, fungus, Lamiaceae, root system ...

  20. Gene Diversity of Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is protozoan parasite responsible for trichomoniasis and is more common in high-risk behavior group such as prostitute individuals. Interest in trichomoni­asis is due to increase one's susceptibility to viruses such as herpes, human papillomavirus and HIV. The aim of this study was to find genotypic differences between the isolates.Methods: Forty isolates from prisoners' women in Tehran province were used in this study. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to determine genetic differ­ences among isolates and was correlated with patient's records. By each primer the banding pat­tern size of each isolates was scored (bp, genetic differences were studied, and the genealogical tree was constructed by using NTSYS software program and UPGMA method.Results: The least number of bands were seen by using primer OPD8 and the most by using OPD3. Results showed no significant difference in isolates from different geographical areas in Iran. By using primer OPD1 specific amplified fragment with length 1300 base pair were found in only 8 isolates. All these isolates were belonged to addicted women; however, six belonged to asymptomatic patients and two to symptomatic ones.Conclusion: There was not much genetic diversity in T vaginalis isolates from three different geo­graphical areas.

  1. Isolation, identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 to isolate coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CPS) from subclinical mastitic (SCM) lactating cows, to establishing prevalence, to identify risk factors and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CPS isolates in and around Haramaya ...

  2. Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria from tropical medicinal plants. ... In addition, metabolites of nine isolates inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases, and three inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. Based on their ...

  3. Understanding the differences in gelling properties between lupin protein isolate and soy protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The gelling properties of lupin protein isolate (LPI) were compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). It was found that LPI behaves fundamentally different than SPI, evidenced by the formation of weaker and deformable gels. Further investigation shows that both protein isolates can be

  4. Experimental Study of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of a Geometric Anti-Spring Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize low-frequency vibration isolation, a novel geometric anti-spring isolator consisting of several cantilever blade springs are developed in this paper. The optimal design parameters of the geometric anti-spring isolator for different nonlinear geometric parameters are theoretically obtained. The transmissibility characteristic of the geometric anti-spring isolator is investigated through mathematical simulation. A geometric anti-spring isolator with a nonlinear geometric parameter of 0.92 is designed and its vibration isolation performance and nonlinearity characteristic is experimentally studied. The experiment results show that the designed isolator has good low-frequency vibration isolation performance, of which the initial isolation frequency is less than 3.6 Hz when the load weight is 21 kg. The jump phenomena of the response of the isolator under linear frequency sweep excitation are observed, and this result demonstrates that the geometric anti-spring isolator has a complex nonlinearity characteristics with the increment of excitation amplitude. This research work provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the application of the nonlinear geometric anti-spring low-frequency passive vibration isolation technology in engineering practice.

  5. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  6. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  7. Characterisation of clinically isolated Streptococcus pyogenes from balanoposthitis patients, with special emphasis on emm89 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tadao; Hata, Nanako; Matsui, Hideyuki; Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. In addition, this bacterium is a causative agent of balanoposthitis. To reveal the bacteriological characteristics of the isolates from balanoposthitis patients, we analysed 47 isolates. In addition, novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes isolates have been reported to be spreading worldwide recently. Hence, we further analysed eight emm89 isolates. A drug susceptibility experiment was performed and emm types were determined. More detailed experiments, such as PCR analysis for the presence of virulence-associated genes and MLST analysis, were performed especially using emm89 isolates. All isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, but 34 % of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The emm types of the isolates varied, with emm89 and emm11 being the most prevalent, but the emm1 type was not detected. The analysis of emm89 isolates revealed that drug susceptibilities varied. All isolates were negative for the hasABC gene and produced active NADase that are characteristics of novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes. MLST analysis demonstrated that six isolates were of the ST101 type, the most predominant type reported thus far, but two isolates were of the ST646 type. According to the PCR analysis used to determine the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin-related genes, the six ST101 isolates were further classified into four groups. These results suggest that balanoposthitis is caused by a variety of types of S. pyogenes, with novel clade genotype emm89 isolates playing a role in balanoposthitis infections in Japan.

  8. Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research, development of new biotechnological methods, diagnostic tests, confirmation of results, and reinvestigations are possible because of the availability of well-preserved living organisms maintained without any changes. Cryopreservation is a simpler, more reliable and long-term stable method for culture maintenance. Storage temperature and composition of the suspending vehicle are factors that affect the viability of mycobacterial strains. Three vehicles and three storage temperatures were evaluated to define a suitable cryoprotective medium for the preservation of Mycobacterium bovis strains. Colonies of sixteen M. bovis isolates were used to prepare the suspensions, which were then added to three vehicles: sterile 0.85% saline solution (SS, Middlebrook 7H9 broth (7H9, and Middlebrook 7H9 broth with sodium pyruvate (7H9p replacing glycerol. Aliquots of these suspensions were frozen by three different methods, directly in the -20°C freezer, directly in the -80°C freezer, and at -196°C by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN. The frozen aliquots were thawed at room temperature after 45, 90 and 120 days. Mycobacterial viability was assessed by counting the living cells on plates of Stonebrink medium before and after the freezing procedure. Storage at -20°C exhibited a lower recovery of M. bovis compared to storage at -80°C (Dunn’s test, p=0.0018 and LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.0352. There was no statistically significant difference between storage at -80°C and in LN (Dunn’s test, p=0.1403, yet -80°C showed better results than LN. All three suspending vehicles showed no statistically significant difference in terms of viability (Friedman’s test, p=0.7765. Given the low loss proportion of 5% during storage at -20°C and the high cost equipment required for storage at -80°C and LN, we recommend storage at -20°C or -80°C, when this is available, for preservation of M. bovis field strains.

  9. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  10. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichoderma species are commonly used as biological control agents against phytopathogenic fungi and some isolates are able to improve plant growth. In this study, the effects of three Trichoderma isolates including Trichoderma harzianum isolate T969, T. harzianum isolate T447 and Trichoderma sp. isolate T in tomato ...

  11. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2002-01-01

    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...... of the satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  12. Active thermal isolation for temperature responsive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Scott D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor); Carraway, Debra L. (Inventor); Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature responsive sensor is located in the airflow over the specified surface of a body and is maintained at a constant temperature. An active thermal isolator is located between this temperature responsive sensor and the specified surface of the body. The temperature of this isolator is controlled to reduce conductive heat flow from the temperature responsive sensor to the body. This temperature control includes: (1) operating the isolator at the same temperature as the constant temperature of the sensor and (2) establishing a fixed boundary temperature which is either less than or equal to or slightly greater than the sensor constant temperature.

  13. Protein distribution in lupin protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. prepared by various isolation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranyi, Isabel S; Volke, Daniela; Hoffmann, Ralf; Eisner, Peter; Herfellner, Thomas; Brunnbauer, Markus; Koehler, Peter; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute

    2016-09-15

    Differences in the protein distribution of various protein isolates from Lupinus angustifolius L. Vitabor were identified as affected by the isolation procedure (alkaline and/or salt-induced extraction followed by isoelectric and/or dilutive precipitation). Protein isolates extracted in alkaline solution showed higher protein yields (26.4-31.7%) compared to salt-induced extraction (19.8-30.0%) or combined alkaline and salt-induced extraction (23.3-25.6%). Chemical variations among the protein isolates especially occurred within the albumins. Protein isolates precipitated isoelectrically showed the highest contents, whereas protein isolates precipitated by dilutive showed the lowest contents of conglutin δ. Furthermore, the alkaline subunits of conglutin α and conglutin γ decreased during alkaline extraction compared to salt-induced extraction. A decrease in protein-bound polar and basic amino acids was shown after protein isolation. In contrast, the amounts of nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, hydroxylated and sulfur-rich amino acids were higher in the lupin protein isolates compared to the lupin flakes. However, the functional side chains could not be related to the specific molecular arrangements of the protein isolates, as a similar amino acid composition was found among the protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Pseudomonas sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp. and four fungal species namely; Aspergillus spp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp. and Penicillium spp. were identified. Majority of the bacteria were isolated from fish samples from Benin City ...

  15. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 2012;10:1367. April 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/expert-answers/hypertension/FAQ- ...

  16. Isolated splenic peliosis in an immunocompromised patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cited by Gushiken1). Isolated splenic peliosis is extremely rare, and most cases are associated with peliosis hepatis. Establishing the incidence of splenic peliosis is difficult, since the condition usually remains asymptomatic or is discovered ...

  17. Compact, Lightweight, High Voltage Propellant Isolators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TA&T, Inc. proposes an enabling fabrication process for high voltage isolators required in high power solar electric and nuclear electric propulsion (SEP and...

  18. Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yasir, Muhammad; Chung, Eu Jin; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729(T), was isolated from vermicompost collected at Masan, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729...

  19. Sources, isolation, characterisation and evaluation of probiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fontana, Luis; Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    ...'. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, which are isolated from traditional fermented products and the gut, faeces and breast milk of human subjects...

  20. A case of familial isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacino Carlos A

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemihyperplasia (hemihypertrophy is defined as asymmetric body overgrowth of one or more body parts. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or be part of well-defined syndromes such as in the case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS. Isolated hemihyperplasia is usually sporadic, but a number of familial occurrences have been described. Case presentation We describe a Tunisian family in which three maternal cousins and their maternal grandfather present with isolated hemihyperplasia. Conclusions The etiology of isolated hemihyperplasia is unknown although in BWS, genomic imprinting has been shown to play a role in the asymmetric overgrowth. Given the similarity between these two conditions, it is possible that both may share a common pathogenesis. We also discuss the possible genetic mechanisms leading to the production of hemihyperplasia in this family.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are four types of isolated growth hormone deficiency differentiated by the severity of the condition, the gene ... Practice and Guidelines Committee. ACMG practice guideline: genetic evaluation of short stature. Genet Med. 2009 Jun;11( ...

  2. SEISMIC ISOLATION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREW S. WHITTAKER

    2014-10-01

    The funding by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission of a research project to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and MCEER/University at Buffalo facilitated the writing of a soon-to-be-published NUREG on seismic isolation. Funding of MCEER by the National Science Foundation led to research products that provide the technical basis for a new section in ASCE Standard 4 on the seismic isolation of safety-related nuclear facilities. The performance expectations identified in the NUREG and ASCE 4 for seismic isolation systems, and superstructures and substructures are described in the paper. Robust numerical models capable of capturing isolator behaviors under extreme loadings, which have been verified and validated following ASME protocols, and implemented in the open source code OpenSees, are introduced.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a bacterial celluloseproducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year ripened persimmon vinegar, which belonged to the family of Acetobacteracea based on its morphological and physiological characteristics. The phylogenetic position of the isolated strain was most closely related to Gluconacetobacter ...

  4. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess. PMID:1583149

  5. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from a breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C; Lamothe, F

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a rare human pathogen recovered so far only from stools or blood from patients with enterocolitis or bacteremia. We report the isolation of C. upsaliensis from a breast abscess.

  6. Extracellular enzymes of Fusarium graminearum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Eleonora Kikot

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum isolates from three different agroecological regions in Argentina were examined according to the production of different extracellular enzyme activities of potential biotechnological interest: pectinases (PGase: polygalacturonase and PMGase: polymethylgalacturonase, cellulase (CMCase: carboxymethylcellulase and hemicellulase (xylanase. The isolates were grown in minimum salt medium supplemented with 0.25% glucose, 0.125% citric pectin and 0.125% oat bran as carbon sources and/or enzyme inducers. PGase activity was detected early (after two days of incubation in all the cultures; it was found to be the highest for all the isolates. PMGase was high only for those isolates of the II region. CMCase and endoxylanase activities were particularly found at late stages (after four and seven days of incubation, respectively and the maximum values were lower than pectinase activities.

  7. Electrically Isolating Transmission-Line Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic coupling circuit used to insert signal in transmission line and to isolate transmission line from ground of circuit in which signal originates. Made from commercially available components, reduces susceptibility to interference along transmission path.

  8. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The MRSA were isolated from sheep, bovine, camel and poultry meat samples collected from retails shops and slaughter houses located in Amman area, Jordan. B. mallei NB-8 and C. kutscheri NB-1 ...

  9. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    -resistant. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The MRSA were isolated from sheep, bovine, camel and poultry meat samples collected from retails shops and slaughter houses located in Amman area, Jordan. B. mallei. NB-8 and ...

  10. Identification and differentiation of isolates of Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and differentiation of isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes from yam by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. G Thottappilly, H D Mignouna, A Onasanya, M Abang, O Oyelakin, N K Singh ...

  11. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    Zooxanthellae freshly isolated from the coral host Pocillopora damicornis exhibited substrate-saturable uptake kinetics for ammonium, nitrate and urea. Maximum uptake velocity for ammonium [10.1 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] was greater than...

  12. Enterocin from Enterococcus faecium isolated from mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Enterococcus faecium isolated from mangrove environment produced enterocin and it showed broad inhibitory spectrum against gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum,. Enterococcus facealis, Listeria monocytogens and Salmonella paratyphii. The optimum production of.

  13. Enterocin from Enterococcus faecium isolated from mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterococcus faecium isolated from mangrove environment produced enterocin and it showed broad inhibitory spectrum against gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus facealis, Listeria monocytogens and Salmonella paratyphii. The optimum production of bacteriocin ...

  14. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia colipathotypes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of Escherichia colipathotypes and factors associated with well and boreholes water contamination in Mombasa County. Thani Suleiman Thani, Samwel Morris Lifumo Symekher, Hamadi Boga, Joseph Oundo ...

  15. Isolation and characterization of antineoplastic alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , from Catharanthus roseus L. Don., cultivated in Egypt, by several chromatographic techniques. Five modified methods for the preparation of total alkaloids were carried out. All the isolated mixtures were evaluated by HPLC and HPTLC ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: familial isolated hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperparathyroidism familial isolated hyperparathyroidism Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... hyperparathyroidism , such as kidney stones, nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue. Because calcium is removed ...

  17. Isolated dextrocardia and congenital heart blocking

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Maurice; Harbieh, Bernard; Heriopian, Aline

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, isolated dextrocardia in association with congenital complete atrioventricular heart block has not been previously reported. We report such a case, elaborate on the possible pathogenesis, and present our experience with management.

  18. Isolated neck-lifting procedure: isolated stork lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, Sheila C; Wu, Allan Y; Morrow, David M

    2013-04-01

    Many patients desire cosmetic improvement of neck laxity when consulting with a plastic surgeon about their face. Neck laxity and loss of the cervicomental angle can be due to multiple components of aging such as skin quality/elasticity, loss of platysma muscle tone, and submental fat accumulation. Traditionally, the procedure of choice for patients with an aging lower face and neck is a cervicofacial rhytidectomy. However, occasionally, a patient wishes to have no other facial surgery than an improvement of their excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck. In other instances, a patient may present with having had a face/neck-lifting procedure that left objectionable vertical/diagonal lines at the lateral neck. In both these instances, a surgeon should consider an isolated stork lift (ISL) procedure. An ISL procedure avoids and/or corrects problematic vertical/diagonal lateral neck folds by "walking" the excess skin flaps around the posterior inferior occipital hairline bilaterally, bringing the flaps together at the lateral and posterior neck, which sometimes involves a midline posterior dart excision of the dog ear. A patient presenting with excessive skin of the neck (anterior, lateral, and/or posterior) and/or residual vertical/diagonal skin folds is an excellent candidate for the ISL. The ISL procedure was performed on 273 patients over a 2-year period at The Morrow Institute. Patients were included if they had excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck and/or diagonal/vertical lateral bands and did not desire a full face-lifting procedure. Patients were excluded from this study if they would not accept having longer hair in order to cover the scar along the posterior inferior occipital hairline or a midline T-flap skin closure scar at the base of the posterior midline neck. Under a combination of local anesthesia and IV sedation, a postauricular face-lift incision was made that was extended in a circumoccipital fashion

  19. Fault Detection and Isolation using Eigenstructure Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.B.; Patton, R.J.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer.......The purpose of this article is to investigate the robustness to model uncertainties of observer based fault detection and isolation. The approach is designed with a straight forward dynamic nad the observer....

  20. Isolated Duodenal Injuries After Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Raheel; Shafique, Muhammad Salman; Ul Haq, Najibul; Akram, Zohra; Qureshi, Usman; Khan, Jahangir Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    Isolated duodenal injury after blunt abdominal trauma is a very rare entity. In contrast to penetrating injuries, duodenal injuries after blunt trauma are difficult to diagnose. Early diagnosis and management is required to prevent high morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. We present three young patients of blunt abdominal trauma with an isolated injury to duodenum in which primary repair of perforations were done with good outcomes.