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Sample records for errors reveals ubiquitous

  1. Systems-level Proteomics of Two Ubiquitous Leaf Commensals Reveals Complementary Adaptive Traits for Phyllosphere Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B; Schubert, Olga T; Röst, Hannes; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vorholt, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves whereas Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be coregulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Systems-level Proteomics of Two Ubiquitous Leaf Commensals Reveals Complementary Adaptive Traits for Phyllosphere Colonization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B.; Schubert, Olga T.; Röst, Hannes; Aebersold, Ruedi; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves whereas Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be coregulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota. PMID:27457762

  3. An abundance of ubiquitously expressed genes revealed by tissue transcriptome sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramsköld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The parts of the genome transcribed by a cell or tissue reflect the biological processes and functions it carries out. We characterized the features of mammalian tissue transcriptomes at the gene level through analysis of RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq data across human and mouse tissues and cell lines. We observed that roughly 8,000 protein-coding genes were ubiquitously expressed, contributing to around 75% of all mRNAs by message copy number in most tissues. These mRNAs encoded proteins that were often intracellular, and tended to be involved in metabolism, transcription, RNA processing or translation. In contrast, genes for secreted or plasma membrane proteins were generally expressed in only a subset of tissues. The distribution of expression levels was broad but fairly continuous: no support was found for the concept of distinct expression classes of genes. Expression estimates that included reads mapping to coding exons only correlated better with qRT-PCR data than estimates which also included 3' untranslated regions (UTRs. Muscle and liver had the least complex transcriptomes, in that they expressed predominantly ubiquitous genes and a large fraction of the transcripts came from a few highly expressed genes, whereas brain, kidney and testis expressed more complex transcriptomes with the vast majority of genes expressed and relatively small contributions from the most expressed genes. mRNAs expressed in brain had unusually long 3'UTRs, and mean 3'UTR length was higher for genes involved in development, morphogenesis and signal transduction, suggesting added complexity of UTR-based regulation for these genes. Our results support a model in which variable exterior components feed into a large, densely connected core composed of ubiquitously expressed intracellular proteins.

  4. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  5. WORKING MEMORY STRUCTURE REVEALED IN ANALYSIS OF RECALL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina V Ershova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed working memory errors stemming from 193 Russian college students taking the Tarnow Unchunkable Test utilizing double digit items on a visual display.In three-item trials with at most one error per trial, single incorrect tens and ones digits (“singlets” were overrepresented and made up the majority of errors, indicating a base 10 organization.These errors indicate that there are separate memory maps for each position and that there are pointers that can move primarily within these maps. Several pointers make up a pointer collection. The number of pointer collections possible is the working memory capacity limit. A model for self-organizing maps is constructed in which the organization is created by turning common pointer collections into maps thereby replacing a pointer collection with a single pointer.The factors 5 and 11 were underrepresented in the errors, presumably because base 10 properties beyond positional order were used for error correction, perhaps reflecting the existence of additional maps of integers divisible by 5 and integers divisible by 11.

  6. Sinusoidal error perturbation reveals multiple coordinate systems for sensorymotor adaptation.

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    Hudson, Todd E; Landy, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    A coordinate system is composed of an encoding, defining the dimensions of the space, and an origin. We examine the coordinate encoding used to update motor plans during sensory-motor adaptation to center-out reaches. Adaptation is induced using a novel paradigm in which feedback of reach endpoints is perturbed following a sinewave pattern over trials; the perturbed dimensions of the feedback were the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system in one session and a polar coordinate system in another session. For center-out reaches to randomly chosen target locations, reach errors observed at one target will require different corrections at other targets within Cartesian- and polar-coded systems. The sinewave adaptation technique allowed us to simultaneously adapt both dimensions of each coordinate system (x-y, or reach gain and angle), and identify the contributions of each perturbed dimension by adapting each at a distinct temporal frequency. The efficiency of this technique further allowed us to employ perturbations that were a fraction the size normally used, which avoids confounding automatic adaptive processes with deliberate adjustments made in response to obvious experimental manipulations. Subjects independently corrected errors in each coordinate in both sessions, suggesting that the nervous system encodes both a Cartesian- and polar-coordinate-based internal representation for motor adaptation. The gains and phase lags of the adaptive responses are not readily explained by current theories of sensory-motor adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cascade of neural events leading from error commission to subsequent awareness revealed using EEG source imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dhar

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to shed light on the respective contributions of three important action monitoring brain regions (i.e. cingulate cortex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex during the conscious detection of response errors. To this end, fourteen healthy adults performed a speeded Go/Nogo task comprising Nogo trials of varying levels of difficulty, designed to elicit aware and unaware errors. Error awareness was indicated by participants with a second key press after the target key press. Meanwhile, electromyogram (EMG from the response hand was recorded in addition to high-density scalp electroencephalogram (EEG. In the EMG-locked grand averages, aware errors clearly elicited an error-related negativity (ERN reflecting error detection, and a later error positivity (Pe reflecting conscious error awareness. However, no Pe was recorded after unaware errors or hits. These results are in line with previous studies suggesting that error awareness is associated with generation of the Pe. Source localisation results confirmed that the posterior cingulate motor area was the main generator of the ERN. However, inverse solution results also point to the involvement of the left posterior insula during the time interval of the Pe, and hence error awareness. Moreover, consecutive to this insular activity, the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC was activated in response to aware and unaware errors but not in response to hits, consistent with the implication of this area in the evaluation of the value of an error. These results reveal a precise sequence of activations in these three non-overlapping brain regions following error commission, enabling a progressive differentiation between aware and unaware errors as a function of time elapsed, thanks to the involvement first of interoceptive or proprioceptive processes (left insula, later leading to the detection of a breach in the prepotent response mode (right OFC.

  8. Fourier decomposition of spatial localization errors reveals an idiotropic dominance of an internal model of gravity.

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    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    Given its conspicuous nature, gravity has been acknowledged by several research lines as a prime factor in structuring the spatial perception of one's environment. One such line of enquiry has focused on errors in spatial localization aimed at the vanishing location of moving objects - it has been systematically reported that humans mislocalize spatial positions forward, in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, spatial localization errors were found to evolve dynamically with time in a pattern congruent with an anticipated trajectory (representational trajectory). The present study attempts to ascertain the degree to which vestibular information plays a role in these phenomena. Human observers performed a spatial localization task while tilted to varying degrees and referring to the vanishing locations of targets moving along several directions. A Fourier decomposition of the obtained spatial localization errors revealed that although spatial errors were increased "downward" mainly along the body's longitudinal axis (idiotropic dominance), the degree of misalignment between the latter and physical gravity modulated the time course of the localization responses. This pattern is surmised to reflect increased uncertainty about the internal model when faced with conflicting cues regarding the perceived "downward" direction.

  9. Ubiquitous human computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittrain, Jonathan

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a drawing pin and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This paper explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  10. Learning with Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    If ubiquitous computing becomes a reality and is widely adopted, it will inevitably have an impact on education. This article reviews the background of ubiquitous computing and current research projects done involving educational "ubicomp." Finally it explores how ubicomp may and may not change education in both formal and informal settings and…

  11. Ubiquitous Annotation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitous annotation systems allow users to annotate physical places, objects, and persons with digital information. Especially in the field of location based information systems much work has been done to implement adaptive and context-aware systems, but few efforts have focused on the general...... requirements for linking information to objects in both physical and digital space. This paper surveys annotation techniques from open hypermedia systems, Web based annotation systems, and mobile and augmented reality systems to illustrate different approaches to four central challenges ubiquitous annotation...... systems have to deal with: anchoring, structuring, presentation, and authoring. Through a number of examples each challenge is discussed and HyCon, a context-aware hypermedia framework developed at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, is used to illustrate an integrated approach to ubiquitous annotations...

  12. A SURVEY ON UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

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    Vishal Meshram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a survey of ubiquitous computing research which is the emerging domain that implements communication technologies into day-to-day life activities. This research paper provides a classification of the research areas on the ubiquitous computing paradigm. In this paper, we present common architecture principles of ubiquitous systems and analyze important aspects in context-aware ubiquitous systems. In addition, this research work presents a novel architecture of ubiquitous computing system and a survey of sensors needed for applications in ubiquitous computing. The goals of this research work are three-fold: i serve as a guideline for researchers who are new to ubiquitous computing and want to contribute to this research area, ii provide a novel system architecture for ubiquitous computing system, and iii provides further research directions required into quality-of-service assurance of ubiquitous computing.

  13. Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Friday, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    . While such growth is positive, the newest generation of ubicomp practitioners and researchers, isolated to specific tasks, are in danger of losing their sense of history and the broader perspective that has been so essential to the field’s creativity and brilliance. Under the guidance of John Krumm...... applications Privacy protection in systems that connect personal devices and personal information Moving from the graphical to the ubiquitous computing user interface Techniques that are revolutionizing the way we determine a person’s location and understand other sensor measurements While we needn’t become...

  14. Ubiquitous Surveys Reveal Shallow Research Designs (Commentary).

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    McDaniel, Charles-Gene

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the large amount of often irrelevant, poorly designed, and poorly written quantitative journalism research. Notes that journalism education and mass communication education research published in scholarly journals is largely ignored by professional journalists, who find more value in the qualitative research reported in the journalism…

  15. Ubiquitous Network Society

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    Cristian USCATU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is evolving faster than ever in the ITC domain. Computing devices become smaller and more powerful by the day (and cheaper than ever. They have started to move away from the classical “computer” towards portable devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs and mobile phones. Even these devices are no longer what they used to be. A phone is no longer a simple voice communication device, but a minicomputer with lots of functions. The addition of wireless communication protocols, like WiFi and Bluetooth, leads to a web of interconnected devices with the final purpose of enabling us to access desired services anywhere, at any time. Adding less complicated devices, as sensors and detectors, located everywhere (clothes, cars, furniture, home appliances etc. but connected to the same global network, we have a technological world aware of itself and aware of us, ready to serve our needs without hindering our lives. “Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing, just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives.” [Weiser, 1995

  16. Programmable ubiquitous telerobotic devices

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    Doherty, Michael; Greene, Matthew; Keaton, David; Och, Christian; Seidl, Matthew L.; Waite, William; Zorn, Benjamin G.

    1997-12-01

    We are investigating a field of research that we call ubiquitous telepresence, which involves the design and implementation of low-cost robotic devices that can be programmed and operated from anywhere on the Internet. These devices, which we call ubots, can be used for academic purposes (e.g., a biologist could remote conduct a population survey), commercial purposes (e.g., a house could be shown remotely by a real-estate agent), and for recreation and education (e.g., someone could tour a museum remotely). We anticipate that such devices will become increasingly common due to recent changes in hardware and software technology. In particular, current hardware technology enables such devices to be constructed very cheaply (less than $500), and current software and network technology allows highly portable code to be written and downloaded across the Internet. In this paper, we present our prototype system architecture, and the ubot implementation we have constructed based on it. The hardware technology we use is the handy board, a 6811-based controller board with digital and analog inputs and outputs. Our software includes a network layer based on TCP/IP and software layers written in Java. Our software enables users across the Internet to program the behavior of the vehicle and to receive image feedback from a camera mounted on it.

  17. Neural prediction errors reveal a risk-sensitive reinforcement-learning process in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Yael; Edlund, Jeffrey A; Dayan, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-11

    Humans and animals are exquisitely, though idiosyncratically, sensitive to risk or variance in the outcomes of their actions. Economic, psychological, and neural aspects of this are well studied when information about risk is provided explicitly. However, we must normally learn about outcomes from experience, through trial and error. Traditional models of such reinforcement learning focus on learning about the mean reward value of cues and ignore higher order moments such as variance. We used fMRI to test whether the neural correlates of human reinforcement learning are sensitive to experienced risk. Our analysis focused on anatomically delineated regions of a priori interest in the nucleus accumbens, where blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals have been suggested as correlating with quantities derived from reinforcement learning. We first provide unbiased evidence that the raw BOLD signal in these regions corresponds closely to a reward prediction error. We then derive from this signal the learned values of cues that predict rewards of equal mean but different variance and show that these values are indeed modulated by experienced risk. Moreover, a close neurometric-psychometric coupling exists between the fluctuations of the experience-based evaluations of risky options that we measured neurally and the fluctuations in behavioral risk aversion. This suggests that risk sensitivity is integral to human learning, illuminating economic models of choice, neuroscientific models of affective learning, and the workings of the underlying neural mechanisms.

  18. The Future of Ubiquitous Elearning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Post-secondary students are increasingly receiving instruction by eLearning. Many or these are part-time students or are working while taking classes. In such circumstances, students may find themselves short of time to study. One mechanism that can be exploited to make the best use of available time is ubiquitous eLearning. Ubiquitous eLearning…

  19. Patient safety in dentistry - state of play as revealed by a national database of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thusu, S; Panesar, S; Bedi, R

    2012-08-01

    Modern dentistry has become increasingly invasive and sophisticated. Consequently the risk to the patient has increased. The aim of this study is to investigate the types of patient safety incidents (PSIs) that occur in dentistry and the accuracy of the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) database in identifying those attributed to dentistry. The database was analysed for all incidents of iatrogenic harm in the speciality of dentistry. A snapshot view using the timeframe January to December 2009 was used. The free text elements from the database were analysed thematically and reclassified according to the nature of the PSI. Descriptive statistics were provided. Two thousand and twelve incident reports were analysed and organised into ten categories. The commonest was due to clerical errors - 36%. Five areas of PSI were further analysed: injury (10%), medical emergency (6%), inhalation/ingestion (4%), adverse reaction (4%) and wrong site extraction (2%). There is generally low reporting of PSIs within the dental specialities. This may be attributed to the voluntary nature of reporting and the reluctance of dental practitioners to disclose incidences for fear of loss of earnings. A significant amount of iatrogenic harm occurs not during treatment but through controllable pre- and post-procedural checks. Incidences of iatrogenic harm to dental patients do occur but their reporting is not widely used. The use of a dental specific reporting system would aid in minimising iatrogenic harm and adhere to the Care Quality Commission (CQC) compliance monitoring system on essential standards of quality and safety in dental practices.

  20. Mobile and ubiquitous learning technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 22 November). Mobile and ubiquitous learning technologies. Presentation given at the Workshop "Blended Learning an Hochschulen" at the Fakultätentag Informatik at the Universität Jena, Jena, Germany.

  1. Ubiquitous Computing, Complexity and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environments, experience time, and develop identities individually and socially. Interviews with working media artists lend further perspectives on these cultural transformations. Drawing on cultural theory, new media art studies, human-computer interaction theory, and software studies, this cutting-edge book......The ubiquitous nature of mobile and pervasive computing has begun to reshape and complicate our notions of space, time, and identity. In this collection, over thirty internationally recognized contributors reflect on ubiquitous computing’s implications for the ways in which we interact with our...... critically unpacks the complex ubiquity-effects confronting us every day....

  2. Trust Models in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-01-01

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.......We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models....

  3. Ubiquitous media for collocated interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Jacucci, Giulio; Peltonen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Has ubiquitous computing entered our lives as anticipated in the early 90s or at the turn of the millennium? In this last decade, the processing of media combined with sensing and communication capabilities has been slowly entering our lives through powerful smartphones, multimodal game consoles,...

  4. International Symposium on Ubiquitous Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Medromi, Hicham; Sadik, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This volume publishes new trends and findings in hot topics related to ubiquitous computing/networking. It is the outcome of UNet - ainternational scientific event that took place on September 08-10, 2015, in the fascinating city of Casablanca, Morocco. UNet’15 is technically sponsored by IEEE Morocco Section and IEEE COMSOC Morocco Chapter.

  5. Trust models in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukow, Karl; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-10-28

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.

  6. The Status of Ubiquitous Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David G.; Petitto, Karen R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the prevalence and rationale of ubiquitous computing on college campuses--teaching with the assumption or expectation that all faculty and students have access to the Internet--and offers lessons learned by pioneering institutions. Lessons learned involve planning, technology, implementation and management, adoption of computer-enhanced…

  7. Ubiquitous emotion-aware computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    Emotions are a crucial element for personal and ubiquitous computing. What to sense and how to sense it, however, remain a challenge. This study explores the rare combination of speech, electrocardiogram, and a revised Self-Assessment Mannequin to assess people’s emotions. 40 people watched 30

  8. A Collaborative Model for Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jorge; Barbosa, Debora; Rabello, Solon

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile devices and widespread adoption of wireless networks have enabled the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing. Application of this technology to improving education strategies gave rise to Ubiquitous e-Learning, also known as Ubiquitous Learning. There are several approaches to organizing ubiquitous learning environments, but most of them…

  9. Ubiquitous Versus One-to-One

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnear, Anita

    2006-01-01

    When we planned the editorial calendar with the topic ubiquitous computing, we were thinking of ubiquitous computing as the one-to-one ratio of computers to students and teachers and 24/7 access to electronic resources. At the time, we were aware that ubiquitous computing in the computer science field had more to do with wearable computers. Our…

  10. HCI in Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing

    OpenAIRE

    椎尾, 一郎; 安村, 通晃; 福本, 雅明; 伊賀, 聡一郎; 増井, 俊之

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides some perspectives to human computer interaction in mobile and ubiquitous computing. The review covers overview of ubiquitous computing, mobile computing and wearable computing. It also summarizes HCI topics on these field, including real-world oriented interface, multi-modal interface, context awareness and in-visible computers. Finally we discuss killer applications for coming ubiquitous computing era.

  11. Navigation strategies as revealed by error patterns on the Magic Carpet test in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eBelmonti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionShort-term memory develops differently in navigation vs. manual space. The Magic Carpet (MC is a novel navigation test derived from the Walking Corsi Test and the manual Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT. The MC requires mental rotations and executive function. In Cerebral Palsy (CP, CBT and MC scores relate differently to clinical and lesional factors. Hypotheses of this study are: that frontal lesions specifically affect navigation in CP; that brain lesions affect MC cognitive strategies.Material and methodsTwenty-two children with spastic CP, aged 5 to 14 years, 14 with a unilateral and 8 with a bilateral form, underwent the CBT and the MC. Errors were classified into 7 patterns by a recently described algorithm. Brain lesions were quantified according to a novel semi-quantitative MRI scale. Control data were partially drawn from a previous study on 91 typically developing children.ResultsChildren with CP performed worse than controls on both tests. Right hemispheric impairment correlated with spatial memory. MC span was reduced less than CBT span and was more selectively related to right middle white-matter and frontal lesions. Error patterns were differently distributed in CP than in typical development and depended on right brain impairment: children with more extensive right lesions made more positional than sequential errors.DiscussionIn CP, navigation is affected only by extensive lesions involving the right frontal lobe. In addition, these are associated with abnormal cognitive strategies. Whereas in typical development positional errors, preserving serial order, increase with age and performance, in CP they are associated with poorer performance and more extensive right-brain lesions. The explanation may lie in lesion side: right brain is crucial for mental rotations, necessary for spatial updating. Left-lateralized spatial memory strategies, relying on serial order, are not efficient if not accompanied by right-brain spatial

  12. Ubiquitous Multicriteria Clinic Recommendation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Toly

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in information, communication, and sensor technologies have led to new opportunities in medical care and education. Patients in general prefer visiting the nearest clinic, attempt to avoid waiting for treatment, and have unequal preferences for different clinics and doctors. Therefore, to enable patients to compare multiple clinics, this study proposes a ubiquitous multicriteria clinic recommendation system. In this system, patients can send requests through their cell phones to the system server to obtain a clinic recommendation. Once the patient sends this information to the system, the system server first estimates the patient's speed according to the detection results of a global positioning system. It then applies a fuzzy integer nonlinear programming-ordered weighted average approach to assess four criteria and finally recommends a clinic with maximal utility to the patient. The proposed methodology was tested in a field experiment, and the experimental results showed that it is advantageous over two existing methods in elevating the utilities of recommendations. In addition, such an advantage was shown to be statistically significant.

  13. Differential Dopamine Release Dynamics in the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell Reveal Complementary Signals for Error Prediction and Incentive Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoris, Michael P; Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2015-08-19

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is phasically released during appetitive behaviors, though there is substantive disagreement about the specific purpose of these DA signals. For example, prediction error (PE) models suggest a role of learning, while incentive salience (IS) models argue that the DA signal imbues stimuli with value and thereby stimulates motivated behavior. However, within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) patterns of DA release can strikingly differ between subregions, and as such, it is possible that these patterns differentially contribute to aspects of PE and IS. To assess this, we measured DA release in subregions of the NAc during a behavioral task that spatiotemporally separated sequential goal-directed stimuli. Electrochemical methods were used to measure subsecond NAc dopamine release in the core and shell during a well learned instrumental chain schedule in which rats were trained to press one lever (seeking; SL) to gain access to a second lever (taking; TL) linked with food delivery, and again during extinction. In the core, phasic DA release was greatest following initial SL presentation, but minimal for the subsequent TL and reward events. In contrast, phasic shell DA showed robust release at all task events. Signaling decreased between the beginning and end of sessions in the shell, but not core. During extinction, peak DA release in the core showed a graded decrease for the SL and pauses in release during omitted expected rewards, whereas shell DA release decreased predominantly during the TL. These release dynamics suggest parallel DA signals capable of supporting distinct theories of appetitive behavior. Dopamine signaling in the brain is important for a variety of cognitive functions, such as learning and motivation. Typically, it is assumed that a single dopamine signal is sufficient to support these cognitive functions, though competing theories disagree on how dopamine contributes to reward-based behaviors. Here, we have found that real

  14. Dashboard for Analyzing Ubiquitous Learning Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lkhagvasuren, Erdenesaikhan; Matsuura, Kenji; Mouri, Kousuke; Ogata, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Mobile and ubiquitous technologies have been applied to a wide range of learning fields such as science, social science, history and language learning. Many researchers have been investigating the development of ubiquitous learning environments; nevertheless, to date, there have not been enough research works related to the reflection, analysis…

  15. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  16. Multimedia and ubiquitous engineering MUE 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Joseph; Jeong, Hwa; Waluyo, Borgy

    2013-01-01

    The new multimedia standards (for example, MPEG-21) facilitate the seamless integration of multiple modalities into interoperable multimedia frameworks, transforming the way people work and interact with multimedia data. These key technologies and multimedia solutions interact and collaborate with each other in increasingly effective ways, contributing to the multimedia revolution and having a significant impact across a wide spectrum of consumer, business, healthcare, education, and governmental domains. Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of multimedia and ubiquitous environment including models and systems, new directions, novel applications associated with the utilization and acceptance of ubiquitous computing devices and systems.

  17. Embedding Moodle into Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2010). Embedding Moodle into Ubiquitous Computing Environments. In M. Montebello, et al. (Eds.), 9th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLearn2010) (pp. 100-107). October, 19-22, 2010, Valletta, Malta.

  18. Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications CUTE 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Doo-Soon; Jia, Weijia; Yeo, Sang-Soo

    2013-01-01

    This book is for The 7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications (CUTE 2012). Ubiquitous computing will require a new approach to fitting technology to our lives. The advent of new computing devices, and the seamless connectivity between these devices, thanks to diverse wired and wireless networks, are enabling new opportunities for a user to perform his/her operation all the time and everywhere. These seamlessly connected devices are ranging from mobile handset to wearable computers. Also, it is expected that these devices will become so pervasive that they will be embedded in the surrounding physical environment, and transparent and invisible to a user. Such devices, whether carried on by people or embedded into other systems, will constitute a global internetworking infrastructure and likely to provide a new level of openness and dynamics. Ubiquitous computing has as its goal the enhancing computer use by pushing computational services out of conventional desktop in...

  19. Unit and ubiquitous Internet of Things

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, Huansheng

    2013-01-01

    Although the Internet of Things (IoT) will play a key role in the development of next generation information, network, and communication technologies, many are still unclear about what makes IoT different from similar concepts. Answering fundamental questions about IoT architectures and models, Unit and Ubiquitous Internet of Things introduces essential IoT concepts from the perspectives of mapping and interaction between the physical world and the cyber world. It addresses key issues such as strategy and education, particularly around unit and ubiquitous IoT technologies. Supplying a new pers

  20. Attacker Modelling in Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Davide

    in with our everyday life. This future is visible to everyone nowadays: terms like smartphone, cloud, sensor, network etc. are widely known and used in our everyday life. But what about the security of such systems. Ubiquitous computing devices can be limited in terms of energy, computing power and memory...... attacker remain somehow undened and still under extensive investigation. This Thesis explores the nature of the ubiquitous attacker with a focus on how she interacts with the physical world and it denes a model that captures the abilities of the attacker. Furthermore a quantitative implementation...

  1. Learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Pedersen, Nicholai Friis; Aaen, Janus Holst

    The aim of this paper is to identify the key learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet. Rather than focusing on mobile technology or the mobility of the learner, the paper emphasises the ubiquity of internet access as a paramount catalyst for new learning in the digital age. From...... a sociocultural perspective the paper discusses different ways in which the use of mobile devices can extend and augment the context of the learner. The learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet relate to the opportunities to extend the context of the learner on three levels: 1) personalisation...

  2. Creating ubiquitous intelligent sensing environments (CRUISE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    The recent developments in the research and the technology have brought attention to the wireless sensor networks as one of the key enabling technologies in the next 10 years. Ubiquitous Intelligent Sensing Environments have promising future in supporting the everyday life of the European citizens...

  3. Ubiquitous Computing in Physico-Spatial Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Interaction design of pervasive and ubiquitous computing (UC) systems must take into account physico-spatial issues as technology is implemented into our physical surroundings. In this paper we discuss how one conceptual framework for understanding interaction in context, Activity Theory (AT...

  4. Designing for Privacy in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Figueiras, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Improving human communication during face–to–face meetings is nowadays possible by transferring online social networking benefits to the physical world. This is enabled by the ubiquitous social networking services that became available by means of wirelessly interconnected smart devices...

  5. Ubiquitous developments of the digital single market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewski, M.; Porrino, F.; Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Marcus, J.S.; Cave, J.; Huijboom, N.M.; Elixmann, D.; Hillebrand, A.; Schindler, R.; Horvath, V.

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous solutions providing access from anywhere at any time are a next step for government and commercial services, and are expected to result in lower costs, increased flexibility, and an enhanced user experience. These solutions, based on modern cloud technologies, may facilitate re-use across

  6. A Socio-technical study of an Ubiquitous CPOE-system in Local Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Böttger, Ulrich; Boye, Niels

    2006-01-01

    , transformation in competencies, and less time spent at the bedside for nurses and doctors, as a system - constructed for ubiquitous drug-order entries and handling - was implemented for local use. This study throws light on problems of patient continuity, patient-related and IT-system-related error...

  7. Revealing the consequences and errors of substance arising from the inverse confusion between the crystal (ligand) field quantities and the zero-field splitting ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Al. Piastów 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Karbowiak, Mirosław [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-01-01

    , most recently, have lead to pitfalls and errors of substance bearing on understanding of physical properties. Clarification of the incorrect terminology is timely in order to bring about better understanding of the physical principles and prevent further proliferation of the confusion. - Highlights: • Confusion between crystal field quantities and zero-field splitting ones elucidated. • Consequences of this confusion and errors of substance revealed. • Literature survey of notational and terminological problems presented. • Invalid direct conversions between the CF parameters and ZFS ones exposed. • Terminological clarifications enable better understanding of physical principles.

  8. Ubiquitous Retailing Innovative Scenario: From the Fixed Point of Sale to the Flexible Ubiquitous Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pantano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current advances in information and communications technologies developed new tools for retailers to innovate. In fact, the increasing computing capacity and the advancements in networking systems provided a new ubiquitous scenario that can be adapted for retailing in order to develop innovative shopping environments. The aim of this paper is to deeply understand the emergence of the ubiquitous retailing phenomenon and the possible shift from the physical point of sale to a ubiquitous one, by analysing this radical innovation and the main consequences for frms and market.

  9. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods.

  10. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...... shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon. Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation....... Findings/Design -- The project will ultimately shed light on how an understanding of interaction form activity theory and ecological psychology maps to an implementation of a new conceptual model for interaction with technology. Research limitations/Implications -- Implementation of an actual system...

  11. Student Assessment in the Ubiquitously Connected World

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Student cheating on university assessments from entrance exams to finals and from contract cheating on coursework to requesting exam answers using a mobile phone during the exam, has received more and more attention of late. As connection to the Internet becomes ubiquitous and computing and communications technology more embedded in our environment, it is argued that a re-focussing on providing educational opportunities is needed in higher education, rather than chasing the ever-retreating p...

  12. A proposal of ubiquitous fuzzy computing for ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Communication and Intelligent User Interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information technology

  13. Ubiquitous fuzzy computing in open ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous communication and intelligent user interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information

  14. CILT2000: Ubiquitous Computing--Spanning the Digital Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Robert; Vahey, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of ubiquitous and handheld computers in education. Summarizes the contributions of the Center for Innovative Learning Technologies (CILT) and describes the ubiquitous computing sessions at the CILT2000 Conference. (Author/YDS)

  15. Revealing the consequences and errors of substance arising from the inverse confusion between the crystal (ligand) field quantities and the zero-field splitting ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowicz, Czesław; Karbowiak, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Survey of recent literature has revealed a doubly-worrying tendency concerning the treatment of the two distinct types of Hamiltonians, namely, the physical crystal field (CF), or equivalently ligand field (LF), Hamiltonians and the zero-field splitting (ZFS) Hamiltonians, which appear in the effective spin Hamiltonians (SH). The nature and properties of the CF (LF) Hamiltonians have been mixed up in various ways with those of the ZFS Hamiltonians. Such cases have been identified in a rapidly growing number of studies of the transition-ion based systems using electron magnetic resonance (EMR), optical spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. These findings have far ranging implications since these Hamiltonians are cornerstones for interpretation of magnetic and spectroscopic properties of the single transition ions in various crystals or molecules as well as the exchange coupled systems (ECS) of transition ions, e.g. single molecule magnets (SMM) or single ion magnets (SIM). The seriousness of the consequences of such conceptual problems and related terminological confusions has reached a level that goes far beyond simple semantic issues or misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. The prevailing confusion, denoted as the CF=ZFS confusion, pertains to the cases of labeling the true ZFS quantities as purportedly the CF (LF) quantities. Here we consider the inverse confusion between the CF (LF) quantities and the SH (ZFS) ones, denoted the ZFS=CF confusion, which consists in referring to the parameters (or Hamiltonians), which are the true CF (LF) quantities, as purportedly the ZFS (or SH) quantities. Specific cases of the ZFS=CF confusion identified in recent textbooks, reviews and papers, especially SMM- and SIM-related ones, are surveyed and the pertinent misconceptions are clarified. The serious consequences of the terminological confusions include misinterpretation of data from a wide range of experimental techniques and

  16. New Trends on Ubiquitous Mobile Multimedia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices present the opportunity to enhance our fast-growing and globally connected society, improving user-experience through novel approaches for information dissemination through mobile communication. The research community is developing new technologies, services, and applications to enable ubiquitous environments based on mobile technology. This paper tackles several important challenges such as communication cost and device limitations for development of ubiquitous multimedia applications. And we propose a system for news delivery using a set of wireless multimedia applications. For this purpose, we have performed a case study with Apple iPhone's platform, featuring two multimedia application contexts, namely, Web and native applications. The multimedia mobile applications draw on iPhone's assets, enabling context-awareness to distribute news, improving communication efficiency and setting-up viewing optimizations, thus enhancing user-experience. The proposed system is evaluated and validated through a series of real-life experiments on real devices, with online full availability. Moreover, due to the Web application availability, the system is not restrained to Apple's iPhone platform, but can also benefit users with other devices.

  17. Ubiquitous computing in shared-care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, S

    2006-07-01

    In light of future challenges, such as growing numbers of elderly, increase in chronic diseases, insufficient health care budgets and problems with staff recruitment for the health-care sector, information and communication technology (ICT) becomes a possible means to meet these challenges. Organizational changes such as the decentralization of the health-care system lead to a shift from in-hospital to both advanced and basic home health care. Advanced medical technologies provide solutions for distant home care in form of specialist consultations and home monitoring. Furthermore, the shift towards home health care will increase mobile work and the establishment of shared care teams which require ICT-based solutions that support ubiquitous information access and cooperative work. Clinical documentation and decision support systems are the main ICT-based solutions of interest in the context of ubiquitous computing for shared care environments. This paper therefore describes the prerequisites for clinical documentation and decision support at the point of care, the impact of mobility on the documentation process, and how the introduction of ICT-based solutions will influence organizations and people. Furthermore, the role of dentistry in shared-care environments is discussed and illustrated in the form of a future scenario.

  18. Ubiquitous Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Scoping Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Mari Aulikki; Haavisto, Elina; Liikanen, Eeva; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous learning and the use of ubiquitous learning environments heralds a new era in higher education. Ubiquitous learning environments enhance context-aware and seamless learning experiences available from any location at any time. They support smooth interaction between authentic and digital learning resources and provide personalized…

  19. Integrating Collaborative and Decentralized Models to Support Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victória; Barbosa, Débora Nice Ferrari; Rigo, Sandro José; de Oliveira, Jezer Machado; Rabello, Solon Andrade, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The application of ubiquitous technologies in the improvement of education strategies is called Ubiquitous Learning. This article proposes the integration between two models dedicated to support ubiquitous learning environments, called Global and CoolEdu. CoolEdu is a generic collaboration model for decentralized environments. Global is an…

  20. The Construction of an Ontology-Based Ubiquitous Learning Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ching-Jung; Chou, Chien-Chih; Yang, Jin-Tan David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to incorporate adaptive ontology into ubiquitous learning grid to achieve seamless learning environment. Ubiquitous learning grid uses ubiquitous computing environment to infer and determine the most adaptive learning contents and procedures in anytime, any place and with any device. To achieve the goal, an…

  1. Networked Biomedical System for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Durresi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed system that enables global and ubiquitous health monitoring of patients. The biomedical data will be collected by wearable health diagnostic devices, which will include various types of sensors and will be transmitted towards the corresponding Health Monitoring Centers. The permanent medical data of patients will be kept in the corresponding Home Data Bases, while the measured biomedical data will be sent to the Visitor Health Monitor Center and Visitor Data Base that serves the area of present location of the patient. By combining the measured biomedical data and the permanent medical data, Health Medical Centers will be able to coordinate the needed actions and help the local medical teams to make quickly the best decisions that could be crucial for the patient health, and that can reduce the cost of health service.

  2. Ubiquitous health in practice: the interreality paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Raspelli, Simona; Grassi, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Cipresso, Pietro; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new ubiquitous computing paradigm for behavioral health care: "Interreality". Interreality integrates assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) may improve existing psychological treatment. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Daniela, a 40 years old teacher, with a mother affected by Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Language of Mechanisms: Exam Analysis Reveals Students' Strengths, Strategies, and Errors When Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism (Curved Arrows) in New Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alison B.; Featherstone, Ryan B.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated students' successes, strategies, and common errors in their answers to questions that involved the electron-pushing (curved arrow) formalism (EPF), part of organic chemistry's language. We analyzed students' answers to two question types on midterms and final exams: (1) draw the electron-pushing arrows of a reaction step,…

  4. Empowering Pre-Service Teachers to Produce Ubiquitous Flipped Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya García-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on technological and educational outcomes that resulted from the production of foreign language educational videos by 90 pre-service instructors enrolled in an official Master’s Degree in Secondary Education programme. This teaching practice, conducted during two consecutive years, was set in a ubiquitous learning environment with the intention of effectively linking digital technology with pedagogy by means of producing flipped classroom units. The findings reveal that these pre-service teachers successfully combined instructional dynamics with digital skills to produce flipped classes adapted to the young generation’s needs. The classroom becomes, therefore, a more participatory learner-centred scenario with a variety of interactive and collaborative activities performed by foreign language students.

  5. Dissociated roles of the anterior cingulate cortex in reward and conflict processing as revealed by the feedback error-related negativity and N200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Travis E; Holroyd, Clay B

    2011-04-01

    The reinforcement learning theory of the error-related negativity (ERN) holds that the impact of reward signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system modulates activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), alternatively disinhibiting and inhibiting the ACC following unpredicted error and reward events, respectively. According to a recent formulation of the theory, activity that is intrinsic to the ACC produces a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) called the N200, and following unpredicted rewards, the N200 is suppressed by extrinsically applied positive dopamine reward signals, resulting in an ERP component called the feedback-ERN (fERN). Here we demonstrate that, despite extensive spatial and temporal overlap between the two ERP components, the functional processes indexed by the N200 (conflict) and the fERN (reward) are dissociable. These results point toward avenues for future investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  7. Ubiquitous information for ubiquitous computing: expressing clinical data sets with openEHR archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sebastian; Hovenga, Evelyn; Buck, Jasmin; Knaup, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing requires ubiquitous access to information and knowledge. With the release of openEHR Version 1.0 there is a common model available to solve some of the problems related to accessing information and knowledge by improving semantic interoperability between clinical systems. Considerable work has been undertaken by various bodies to standardise Clinical Data Sets. Notwithstanding their value, several problems remain unsolved with Clinical Data Sets without the use of a common model underpinning them. This paper outlines these problems like incompatible basic data types and overlapping and incompatible definitions of clinical content. A solution to this based on openEHR archetypes is motivated and an approach to transform existing Clinical Data Sets into archetypes is presented. To avoid significant overlaps and unnecessary effort during archetype development, archetype development needs to be coordinated nationwide and beyond and also across the various health professions in a formalized process.

  8. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  9. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  10. Ubiquitous Graphene Electronics on Scotch Tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoonyoung; Ho Kim, Hyun; Lee, Sangryun; Lee, Eunho; Won Kim, Seong; Ryu, Seunghwa; Cho, Kilwon

    2015-07-01

    We report a novel concept of graphene transistors on Scotch tape for use in ubiquitous electronic systems. Unlike common plastic substrates such as polyimide and polyethylene terephthalate, the Scotch tape substrate is easily attached onto various objects such as banknotes, curved surfaces, and human skin, which implies potential applications wherein electronics can be placed in any desired position. Furthermore, the soft Scotch tape serves as an attractive substrate for flexible/foldable electronics that can be significantly bent, or even crumpled. We found that the adhesive layer of the tape with a relatively low shear modulus relaxes the strain when subjected to bending. The capacitance of the gate dielectric made of oxidized aluminum oxide was 1.5 μF cm-2, so that a supply voltage of only 2.5 V was sufficient to operate the devices. As-fabricated graphene transistors on Scotch tape exhibited high electron mobility of 1326 (±155) cm2 V-1 s-1 the transistors still showed high mobility of 1254 (±478) cm2 V-1 s-1 even after they were crumpled.

  11. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTION FROM HEALTH AND COSMETIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processses and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be miniuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health.Pharmaceuticals and person care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP are generally less than ppt-ppb), evidence is accumulateing that these trace-level pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environment half-lives (especially where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commerical use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Locat

  12. Security policies and trust in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupam; Finin, Tim; Kagal, Lalana; Parker, Jim; Patwardhan, Anand

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous environments comprise resource-constrained mobile and wearable devices and computational elements embedded in everyday artefacts. These are connected to each other using both infrastructure-based as well as short-range ad hoc networks. Limited Internet connectivity limits the use of conventional security mechanisms such as public key infrastructures and other forms of server-centric authentication. Under these circumstances, peer-to-peer interactions are well suited for not just information interchange, but also managing security and privacy. However, practical solutions for protecting mobile devices, preserving privacy, evaluating trust and determining the reliability and accuracy of peer-provided data in such interactions are still in their infancy. Our research is directed towards providing stronger assurances of the reliability and trustworthiness of information and services, and the use of declarative policy-driven approaches to handle the open and dynamic nature of such systems. This paper provides an overview of some of the challenges and issues, and points out directions for progress.

  13. I WHATSAPP AN IGUANA: AN ATTEMPT TO APPLY UBIQUITOUS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Haryanti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting how Whatsapp provides alternative method to enhance writing skills on personal letter for senior high school student. This method Whatsapps inspired by the concept called ubiquitous learning (U-Learning, which means ―learning supported by ICT resources held anytime, anywhere and fits the context of the learner‖ (de Sousa Monteiro et al., 2014. Participants were 40 11-th grade students in one class in Cirebon High School. A short story in the form of personal letter entitled I Wanna Iguana by Karen Kaufman Orloff was used as main learning source and the mobile version of the story was sent to the class Whatsapp group along with the reading comprehension questions and the personal letter template. The study was conducted for three weeks in the middle of the second semester year 2017. Contrary to the basic face-to-face teaching and learning, the using of Whatsapp group demonstrates how mobile technology can be fully integrated in an educational context to support students‘ learning beyond the classroom. Another advantages of using Whatsapp group is the fact that learning become the responsibility of learners and may take place through observation, trial and error, asking for help, conversing with others, reading to stories, reflecting on a one‘s personal event, or stimulated by general interests

  14. Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware for Ubiquitous Home Networking Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Minwoo Son; Seung-Hun Lee; Dongkyoo Shin; Dongil Shin

    2008-01-01

    The next stage of the home networking environment is supposed to be ubiquitous, where each piece of material is equipped with an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag. To fully support the ubiquitous environment, home networking middleware should be able to recommend home services based on a user-s interests and efficiently manage information on service usage profiles for the users. Therefore, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network) technology, which recognizes and manages a ...

  15. Ubiquitous and pervasive commerce new frontiers for electronic business

    CERN Document Server

    Roussos, George

    2006-01-01

    The new capabilities of ubiquitous and pervasive computing imply that products, locations, consumers and employees create rich streams of information about themselves, their immediate environment and their use. This book brings together technological and business aspects of conducting commerce using ubiquitous and pervasive computing techniques and also examines its implications for society at large. Individual chapters examine in detail the core technologies that make ubiquitous computing possible, the business standards that must be established to support the envisioned global infrastructure

  16. Intermittently-visual Tracking Experiments Reveal the Roles of Error-correction and Predictive Mechanisms in the Human Visual-motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Tamura, Yurie; Sase, Kazuya; Sugawara, Ken; Sawada, Yasuji

    Prediction mechanism is necessary for human visual motion to compensate a delay of sensory-motor system. In a previous study, “proactive control” was discussed as one example of predictive function of human beings, in which motion of hands preceded the virtual moving target in visual tracking experiments. To study the roles of the positional-error correction mechanism and the prediction mechanism, we carried out an intermittently-visual tracking experiment where a circular orbit is segmented into the target-visible regions and the target-invisible regions. Main results found in this research were following. A rhythmic component appeared in the tracer velocity when the target velocity was relatively high. The period of the rhythm in the brain obtained from environmental stimuli is shortened more than 10%. The shortening of the period of rhythm in the brain accelerates the hand motion as soon as the visual information is cut-off, and causes the precedence of hand motion to the target motion. Although the precedence of the hand in the blind region is reset by the environmental information when the target enters the visible region, the hand motion precedes the target in average when the predictive mechanism dominates the error-corrective mechanism.

  17. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  18. A ubiquitous reflective e-portfolio architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Marcos; de Souza, Wanderley L; da Silva, Roseli F; do Prado, Antonio F; Rodrigues, Jose F

    2013-11-01

    In nurse and in medicine courses, the use of reflective portfolios as a pedagogical tool is becoming a common practice; in the last years, this practice has gradually migrated from paper-based to electronic-based portfolios. Current approaches for reflective e-portfolios, however, do not widely operate at outdoor sites, where data networks are limited or nonexistent. Considering that many of the activities related to nurse and medicine courses relate to professional practices conducted in such conditions, these network shortcomings restrict the adoption of e-portfolios. The present study describes the requirements specification, design, implementation, and evaluation of the Ubiquitous Reflective E-Portfolio Architecture, a solution proposed to support the development of systems based on mobile and wired access for both online and offline operation. We have implemented a prototype named Professional Practice Module to evaluate the Ubiquitous Reflective E-Portfolio Architecture; the module was based on requirements observed during the professional practice, the paper-based portfolio in use, and related learning meetings in the Medicine Course of a Brazilian University. The evaluation of the system was carried out with a learning group of 2nd year students of the medicine course, who answered to extensive evaluation questionnaires. The prototype proved to be operational in the activities of the professional practice of the Medicine Course object of the study, including homework tasks, patient care, data sharing, and learning meetings. It also demonstrated to be versatile with respect to the availability of the computer network that, many times, was not accessible. Moreover, the students considered the module useful and easy to use, but pointed out difficulties about the keyboard and the display sizes of the netbook devices, and about their operational system. Lastly, most of the students declared preference for the electronic Professional Practice Module in internal

  19. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  20. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Cherskii’s Sculpin and Siberian Taimen Reveal GenBank Entry Errors: Incorrect Species Identification and Recombinant Mitochondrial Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy S Balakirev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial (mt genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii’s sculpin Cottus czerskii . A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3% has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027. At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4% has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027 and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050. We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii . Our results are of consequence concerning the GenBank database quality, highlighting the potential negative consequences of entry errors, which once they are introduced tend to be propagated among databases and subsequent publications. We illustrate the premise with the data on recombinant mt genome of the Siberian taimen Hucho taimen (NCBI Reference Sequence Database NC_016426.1; GenBank accession number HQ897271.1, bearing 2 introgressed fragments (≈0.9 kb [kilobase] from 2 lenok subspecies, Brachymystax lenok and Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis , submitted to GenBank on June 12, 2011. Since the time of submission, the H taimen recombinant mt genome leading to incorrect phylogenetic inferences was propagated in multiple subsequent publications despite the fact that nonrecombinant H taimen genomes were also available (submitted to GenBank on August 2, 2014; KJ711549, KJ711550. Other examples of recombinant sequences persisting in GenBank are also considered. A GenBank Entry Error Depositary is urgently needed to monitor and avoid a progressive accumulation of wrong biological information.

  1. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Cherskii's Sculpin Cottus czerskii and Siberian Taimen Hucho taimen Reveal GenBank Entry Errors: Incorrect Species Identification and Recombinant Mitochondrial Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Saveliev, Pavel A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii's sculpin Cottus czerskii . A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3%) has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027). At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4%) has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027) and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050). We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii . Our results are of consequence concerning the GenBank database quality, highlighting the potential negative consequences of entry errors, which once they are introduced tend to be propagated among databases and subsequent publications. We illustrate the premise with the data on recombinant mt genome of the Siberian taimen Hucho taimen (NCBI Reference Sequence Database NC_016426.1; GenBank accession number HQ897271.1), bearing 2 introgressed fragments (≈0.9 kb [kilobase]) from 2 lenok subspecies, Brachymystax lenok and Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis , submitted to GenBank on June 12, 2011. Since the time of submission, the H taimen recombinant mt genome leading to incorrect phylogenetic inferences was propagated in multiple subsequent publications despite the fact that nonrecombinant H taimen genomes were also available (submitted to GenBank on August 2, 2014; KJ711549, KJ711550). Other examples of recombinant sequences persisting in GenBank are also considered. A GenBank Entry Error Depositary is urgently needed to monitor and avoid a progressive accumulation of wrong biological information.

  2. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  3. Implications of Ubiquitous Computing for the Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hover, Stephanie D.; Berson, Michael J.; Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Swan, Kathleen Owings

    2004-01-01

    In March 2002, members of the National Technology Leadership Initiative (NTLI) met in Charlottesville, Virginia to discuss the potential effects of ubiquitous computing on the field of education. Ubiquitous computing, or "on-demand availability of task-necessary computing power," involves providing every student with a handheld computer--a…

  4. Ubiquitous Computing: The Universal Use of Computers on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David G., Ed.

    This book is a collection of vignettes from 13 universities where everyone on campus has his or her own computer. These 13 institutions have instituted "ubiquitous computing" in very different ways at very different costs. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: The Ubiquitous Computing Movement" (David G. Brown); (2) "Dartmouth College" (Malcolm…

  5. Towards context adaptive privacy decisions in ubiquitous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Könings, Bastian; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In ubiquitous systems control of privacy settings will be increasingly difficult due to the pervasive nature of sensing and communication capabilities. We identify challenges for privacy decisions in ubiquitous systems and propose a system for in situ privacy decision support. When context changes

  6. Architecture of personal healthcare information system in ubiquitous healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhardwaj, S.; Sain, M.; Lee, H.-J.; Chung, W.Y.; Slezak, D.; et al., xx

    2009-01-01

    Due to recent development in Ubiquitous Healthcare now it’s time to build such application which can work independently and with less interference of Physician. In this paper we are try to build the whole architecture of personal Healthcare information system for ubiquitous healthcare which also

  7. Ubiquitous Total Station Development using Smartphone, RSSI and Laser Sensor providing service to Ubi-GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shoushtari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing trend in technological advances and Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS has targeted for intelligent human lives. Accordingly, Ubiquitous Computing Approach was proposed by Mark Weiser. This paper proposes an ubiquitous surveying solution in Geometrics and surveying field. Ubiquitous Surveying provides cost-effective, smart and available surveying techniques while traditional surveying equipment are so expensive and have small availability specially in indoor and daily surveying jobs. In order to have a smart surveying instrument, different information technology methods and tools like Triangle method, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI method and laser sensor are used. These new ways in combine with surveying equations introduces a modern surveying equipment called Ubi-Total Station that also employed different sensors embedded in smartphone and mobile stand. RSSI-based localization and Triangle method technique are easy and well known methods to predict the position of an unknown node in indoor environments whereas additional measures are required for a sufficient accuracy. In this paper the main goal is to introduce the Ubiquitous Total Station as a development in smart and ubiquitous GIS. In order to public use of the surveying equipment, design and implementation of this instrument has been done. Conceptual model of Smartphone-based system is designed for this study and based on this model, an Android application as a first sample is developed. Finally the evaluations shows that absolute errors in X and Y calculation are 0.028 and 0.057 meter respectively. Also RMSE of 0.26 was calculated in RSSI method for distance measurement. The high price of traditional equipment and their requirement for professional surveyors has given way to intelligent surveying. In the suggested system, smartphones can be used as tools for positioning and coordinating geometric information of objects.

  8. 8th International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-16) and the 11st International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications (CUTE 2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Yi; Yi, Gangman; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the combined proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA-16) and the 11st International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications (CUTE 2016), both held in Bangkok, Thailand, December 19 - 21, 2016. The aim of these two meetings was to promote discussion and interaction among academics, researchers and professionals in the field of ubiquitous computing technologies. These proceedings reflect the state-of-the-art in the development of computational methods, involving theory, algorithm, numerical simulation, error and uncertainty analysis and novel application of new processing techniques in engineering, science, and other disciplines related to ubiquitous computing.

  9. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  10. Structure of the vault, a ubiquitous celular component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L B; Siva, A C; Rome, L H; Stewart, P L

    1999-04-15

    The vault is a ubiquitous and highly conserved ribonucleoprotein particle of approximately 13 MDa. This particle has been shown to be upregulated in certain multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and to share a protein component with the telomerase complex. Determination of the structure of the vault was undertaken to provide a first step towards understanding the role of this cellular component in normal metabolism and perhaps to shed some light on its role in mediating drug resistance. Over 1300 particle images were combined to calculate an approximately 31 A resolution structure of the vault. Rotational power spectra did not yield a clear symmetry peak, either because of the thin, smooth walls or inherent flexibility of the vault. Although cyclic eightfold (C8) symmetry was imposed, the resulting reconstruction may be partially cylindrically averaged about the eightfold axis. Our results reveal the vault to be a hollow, barrel-like structure with two protruding caps and an invaginated waist. Although the normal cellular function of the vault is as yet undetermined, the structure of the vault is consistent with either a role in subcellular transport, as previously suggested, or in sequestering macromolecular assemblies.

  11. Predictors of Errors of Novice Java Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Manabat, Geecee Maybelline A.; Tolentino, Miguel Angelo A.; Torres, Edmon L.

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study determined which of the sources of errors would predict the errors committed by novice Java programmers. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents perceived that they committed the identified eighteen errors infrequently. Thought error was perceived to be the main source of error during the laboratory programming…

  12. Socio-technical Issues for Ubiquitous Information Society in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Motohisa; Homma, Koichi; Sasaki, Toshiro; Sato, Yoshinori; Kido, Kunihiko; Fukumoto, Takashi; Yano, Koujin

    Impact of the ubiquitous information technology on our society is so significant that directing technological development and preparing institutional apparatus are quite important and urgent. The present paper elaborates, with the efforts by both humanity and engineering disciplines, to find out the socio-technical issues of ubiquitous information society in 2010 by inspecting social implications of emerging technology as well as social expectations. In order to deliberate the issues, scenarios are developed that describes possible life in ubiquitous information society. The derived issues cover integrating information technology and human body, producing smart sharable environment, protecting individual rights, fostering new service business, and forming community.

  13. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  14. Use of Ubiquitous Technologies in Military Logistic System in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, P.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies) from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  15. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements. (topical review)

  16. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Presented at the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  17. Mining the preferences of patients for ubiquitous clinic recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tin-Chih Toly; Chiu, Min-Chi

    2018-03-06

    A challenge facing all ubiquitous clinic recommendation systems is that patients often have difficulty articulating their requirements. To overcome this problem, a ubiquitous clinic recommendation mechanism was designed in this study by mining the clinic preferences of patients. Their preferences were defined using the weights in the ubiquitous clinic recommendation mechanism. An integer nonlinear programming problem was solved to tune the values of the weights on a rolling basis. In addition, since it may take a long time to adjust the values of weights to their asymptotic values, the back propagation network (BPN)-response surface method (RSM) method is applied to estimate the asymptotic values of weights. The proposed methodology was tested in a regional study. Experimental results indicated that the ubiquitous clinic recommendation system outperformed several existing methods in improving the successful recommendation rate.

  18. Disclosure of Personal Data in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio

    users' privacy. Firstly, it updates the current privacy guidelines of ubiquitous computing by proposing four drawbacks to be avoided when designing for privacy in ubiquitous social networking environments. Secondly, this dissertation identifies and investigates the determinants that might influence......Ubiquitous social networking focuses on developing possible advantageous relationships such as friendships, partnerships and business relations in the physical world, by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. The foundation of these services is based on disclosure...... of personal information, which can provoke numerous accidental invasions of privacy. This dissertation contributes by addressing two problems, related to support of privacy-aware social networking in ubiquitous computing environments that focus on maximizing potential networking benefits while preserving...

  19. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jafari; A. Sadeghi-Niaraki

    2013-01-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system ...

  20. Cluster-based localization and tracking in ubiquitous computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Torres-González, Arturo; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-01

    Localization and tracking are key functionalities in ubiquitous computing systems and techniques. In recent years a very high variety of approaches, sensors and techniques for indoor and GPS-denied environments have been developed. This book briefly summarizes the current state of the art in localization and tracking in ubiquitous computing systems focusing on cluster-based schemes. Additionally, existing techniques for measurement integration, node inclusion/exclusion and cluster head selection are also described in this book.

  1. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  2. The error in total error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trust information-based privacy architecture for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka Sakari; Blobel, Bernd; Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko

    2013-10-08

    Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections were developed using system

  4. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick; Won, Dongho

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  5. Internet messenger based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Internet messenger (IM) has become an important educational technology component in college education, IM makes it possible for students to engage in learning and collaborating at smart virtual class learning (SVCL) using ubiquitous computing. However, the model of IM-based smart virtual class learning using ubiquitous computing and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application to improve engagement and behavior are still limited. In addition, the expectation that IM based SVCL using ubiquitous computing could improve engagement and behavior on smart class cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present the model of IM-based SVCL using ubiquitous computing and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous computing and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect and its contribution to learning

  6. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakjun Lee

    Full Text Available With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  7. Mobile, ubiquitous, and pervasive learning fundaments, applications, and trends

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is concerned with the mobile, ubiquitous, and pervasive learning arena. It present a collection of works corresponding to four categories: reviews, studies, conceptual proposals, and approaches. As a result of the submission and revision processes eight manuscripts were accepted and organized into the aforementioned four parts as follows: ·Review: a couple of chapters offer a survey of related works. One concerns with the diversity of mobile, ubiquitous, and pervasive labor, where interested findings are unveiled based on correlations. Other focuses on adaptive and adaptable architectures that are suitable to implement ubiquitous learning sceneries, whose contribution represents a model of a domain specific architecture. ·Studies: two chapters explore issues related to the effect of question styles made through smartphones and tablets, and the disposition of teachers to exploit mobile devices at classroom. ·Conceptual: a pair of chapters offer a given proposal, the first to develop adaptive mobil...

  8. A model for ubiquitous care of noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Henrique Damasceno; Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victória

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitous computing, or ubicomp, is a promising technology to help chronic diseases patients managing activities, offering support to them anytime, anywhere. Hence, ubicomp can aid community and health organizations to continuously communicate with patients and to offer useful resources for their self-management activities. Communication is prioritized in works of ubiquitous health for noncommunicable diseases care, but the management of resources is not commonly employed. We propose the UDuctor, a model for ubiquitous care of noncommunicable diseases. UDuctor focuses the resources offering, without losing self-management and communication supports. We implemented a system and applied it in two practical experiments. First, ten chronic patients tried the system and filled out a questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model. After this initial evaluation, an alpha test was done. The system was used daily for one month and a half by a chronic patient. The results were encouraging and show potential for implementing UDuctor in real-life situations.

  9. Navigation studies based on the ubiquitous positioning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Mi, Weijie; Wang, Defeng

    2007-11-01

    This paper summarized the nowadays positioning technologies, such as absolute positioning methods and relative positioning methods, indoor positioning and outdoor positioning, active positioning and passive positioning. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technologies were introduced as the omnipresent out-door positioning technologies, including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BD-1/2. After analysis of the shortcomings of GNSS, indoor positioning technologies were discussed and compared, including A-GPS, Cellular network, Infrared, Electromagnetism, Computer Vision Cognition, Embedded Pressure Sensor, Ultrasonic, RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification), Bluetooth, WLAN etc.. Then the concept and characteristics of Ubiquitous Positioning was proposed. After the ubiquitous positioning technologies contrast and selection followed by system engineering methodology, a navigation system model based on Incorporate Indoor-Outdoor Positioning Solution was proposed. And this model was simulated in the Galileo Demonstration for World Expo Shanghai project. In the conclusion, the prospects of ubiquitous positioning based navigation were shown, especially to satisfy the public location information acquiring requirement.

  10. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  11. Integrated Environment for Ubiquitous Healthcare and Mobile IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagalaban, Giovanni; Kim, Seoksoo

    The development of Internet technologies based on the IPv6 protocol will allow real-time monitoring of people with health deficiencies and improve the independence of elderly people. This paper proposed a ubiquitous healthcare system for the personalized healthcare services with the support of mobile IPv6 networks. Specifically, this paper discusses the integration of ubiquitous healthcare and wireless networks and its functional requirements. This allow an integrated environment where heterogeneous devices such a mobile devices and body sensors can continuously monitor patient status and communicate remotely with healthcare servers, physicians, and family members to effectively deliver healthcare services.

  12. Privacy-related context information for ubiquitous health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Antto; Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-03-11

    Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how data can be processed or how components

  13. A Survey of Service Composition Mechanisms in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ingstrup, Mads

    2007-01-01

    Composition of services, i.e., providing new services by combining existing ones, is a pervasive idea in ubiquitous computing. We surveyed the field by looking at what features are actually present in technologies that support service composition in some form. Condensing this into a list...... of features allowed us to discuss the qualitative merits and drawbacks of various approaches to service composition, focusing in particular on usability, adaptability and efficiency. Moreover, we found that further research is needed into quality-of-service assurance of composites and into contingency...... management for composites—one of the concerns differentiating service composition in ubiquitous computing from its counterpart in less dynamic settings....

  14. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  15. Ubiquitous Learning Ecologies for a Critical Cyber-Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Díaz-Nafría, José-María

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify and analyse the ubiquitous learning acquired through blending education settings devoted to the "lifelong training of trainers" and how these contribute to the development of a conscious, critic and engaged citizenship. Through active exploration of the learning process, the study analyses the…

  16. Multimedia Adaptation in Ubiquitous Environments: Benefits of Structured Multimedia Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); I. Vaishnavi (Ishan); R. Kernchen; S. Meissner; M. Boussard; A. Spedalieri; B. Gao (Bo); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper demonstrates the advantages of using structured multimedia documents for session management and media distribution in ubiquitous environments. We show how document manipulations can be used to perform powerful operations such as content to context adaptation and presentation

  17. Noise and Vibration Risk Prevention Virtual Web for Ubiquitous Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel-Macías, María Dolores; Cubero-Atienza, Antonio J.; Martínez-Valle, José Miguel; Pedrós-Pérez, Gerardo; del Pilar Martínez-Jiménez, María

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new Web portal offering experimental labs for ubiquitous training of university engineering students in work-related risk prevention. The Web-accessible computer program simulates the noise and machine vibrations met in the work environment, in a series of virtual laboratories that mimic an actual laboratory and provide the…

  18. Dynamic Service Discovery and Composition for Ubiquitous Networks Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, L.O.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The realization of ubiquitous networks brings new challenges to application development. In this kind of network, services and, more specifically web services, have been used to provide the functionality required by its users and applications. In such environments features like automatic service

  19. A survey on web modeling approaches for ubiquitous web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwinger, W.; Retschitzegger, W.; Schauerhuber, A.; Kappel, G.; Wimmer, M.; Pröll, B.; Cachero Castro, C.; Casteleyn, S.; De Troyer, O.; Fraternali, P.; Garrigos, I.; Garzotto, F.; Ginige, A.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; Koch, N.; Moreno, N.; Pastor, O.; Paolini, P.; Pelechano Ferragud, V.; Rossi, G.; Schwabe, D.; Tisi, M.; Vallecillo, A.; Sluijs, van der K.A.M.; Zhang, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Ubiquitous web applications (UWA) are a new type of web applications which are accessed in various contexts, i.e. through different devices, by users with various interests, at anytime from anyplace around the globe. For such full-fledged, complex software systems, a methodologically sound

  20. PERKAM: Personalized Knowledge Awareness Map for Computer Supported Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bishouty, Moushir M.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yano, Yoneo

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a ubiquitous computing environment in order to support the learners while doing tasks; this environment is called PERKAM (PERsonalized Knowledge Awareness Map). PERKAM allows the learners to share knowledge, interact, collaborate, and exchange individual experiences. It utilizes the RFID ubiquities technology to detect the…

  1. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  2. Ubiquitous Computing--Are We Crazy? Point/Counterpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Scott W.; Horn, Patricia S.

    2005-01-01

    The push for ubiquitous computing (UC) relies on an understandable and well-intentioned belief that teaching and schooling need to be transformed. This view appears credible based on large-scale criteria, such as test scores relative to other countries, drop-out rates, and economic changes. And the use of technology to achieve this goal is…

  3. Commentary: Ubiquitous Computing Revisited--A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, representatives from the teacher educator associations representing the core content areas (science, mathematics, language arts, and social studies) and educational technology met at the National Technology Leadership Retreat (NTLR) to discuss potential implications of ubiquitous computing for K-12 schools. This paper re-examines some of…

  4. Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Networking: Concepts, Technologies and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes concepts, technologies and challenges related to mobile computing and networking. Defines basic concepts of cellular systems. Describes the evolution of wireless technologies that constitute the foundations of mobile computing and ubiquitous networking. Presents characterization and issues of mobile computing. Analyzes economical and…

  5. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., & Specht, M. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France. [unpublished

  6. Privacy context model for dynamic privacy adaptation in ubiquitous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, Florian; Koenings, Bastian; Dietzel, Stefan; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Ubiquitous computing is characterized by the merger of physical and virtual worlds as physical artifacts gain digital sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. Maintaining an appropriate level of privacy in the face of such complex and often highly dynamic systems is challenging. We argue

  7. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  8. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people’s lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al’s scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments. PMID:29505575

  9. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  10. Ubiquitous and Seamless Localization: Fusing GNSS Pseudoranges and WLAN Signal Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Richter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous global positioning is not feasible by GNSS alone, as it lacks accurate position fixes in dense urban centres and indoors. Hybrid positioning methods have been developed to aid GNSS in those environments. Fingerprinting localization in wireless local area networks (WLANs is a promising aiding system because of its availability, accuracy, and error mechanisms opposed to that of GNSS. This article presents a low-cost approach to ubiquitous, seamless positioning based on a particle filter integrating GNSS pseudoranges and WLAN received signal strength indicators (RSSIs. To achieve accurate location estimates indoors/outdoors and in the transition zones, appropriate likelihood functions are essential as they determine the influence of each sensor information on the position estimate. We model the spatial RSSI distributions with Gaussian processes and use these models to predict RSSIs at the particle’s positions to obtain point estimates of the RSSI likelihood function. The particle filter’s performance is assessed with real data of two test trajectories in an environment challenging for GNSS and WLAN fingerprinting localization. Outcomes of an extended Kalman filter using pseudoranges and a WLAN position as observation is included as benchmark. The proposed algorithm achieves accurate and robust seamless localization with a median accuracy of five meters.

  11. Towards ubiquitous access of computer-assisted surgery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lufei, Hanping; Shi, Weishong; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2006-01-01

    Traditional stand-alone computer-assisted surgery (CAS) systems impede the ubiquitous and simultaneous access by multiple users. With advances in computing and networking technologies, ubiquitous access to CAS systems becomes possible and promising. Based on our preliminary work, CASMIL, a stand-alone CAS server developed at Wayne State University, we propose a novel mobile CAS system, UbiCAS, which allows surgeons to retrieve, review and interpret multimodal medical images, and to perform some critical neurosurgical procedures on heterogeneous devices from anywhere at anytime. Furthermore, various optimization techniques, including caching, prefetching, pseudo-streaming-model, and compression, are used to guarantee the QoS of the UbiCAS system. UbiCAS enables doctors at remote locations to actively participate remote surgeries, share patient information in real time before, during, and after the surgery.

  12. Design requirements for ubiquitous computing environments for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, Magnus; Larsson, Anders; Eriksson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing environments can support clinical administrative routines in new ways. The aim of such computing approaches is to enhance routine physical work, thus it is important to identify specific design requirements. We studied healthcare professionals in an emergency room and developed the computer-augmented environment NOSTOS to support teamwork in that setting. NOSTOS uses digital pens and paper-based media as the primary input interface for data capture and as a means of controlling the system. NOSTOS also includes a digital desk, walk-up displays, and sensor technology that allow the system to track documents and activities in the workplace. We propose a set of requirements and discuss the value of tangible user interfaces for healthcare personnel. Our results suggest that the key requirements are flexibility in terms of system usage and seamless integration between digital and physical components. We also discuss how ubiquitous computing approaches like NOSTOS can be beneficial in the medical workplace.

  13. Network architecture test-beds as platforms for ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Timothy

    2008-10-28

    Distributed systems research, and in particular ubiquitous computing, has traditionally assumed the Internet as a basic underlying communications substrate. Recently, however, the networking research community has come to question the fundamental design or 'architecture' of the Internet. This has been led by two observations: first, that the Internet as it stands is now almost impossible to evolve to support new functionality; and second, that modern applications of all kinds now use the Internet rather differently, and frequently implement their own 'overlay' networks above it to work around its perceived deficiencies. In this paper, I discuss recent academic projects to allow disruptive change to the Internet architecture, and also outline a radically different view of networking for ubiquitous computing that such proposals might facilitate.

  14. A Client-Server System for Ubiquitous Video Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Nossenson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a simple client-server system architecture and algorithms for ubiquitous live video and VOD service support. The main features of the system are: efficient usage of network resources, emphasis on user personalization, and ease of implementation. The system supports many continuous service requirements such as QoS provision, user mobility between networks and between different communication devices, and simultaneous usage of a device by a number of users.

  15. I WHATSAPP AN IGUANA: AN ATTEMPT TO APPLY UBIQUITOUS LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Haryanti

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting how Whatsapp provides alternative method to enhance writing skills on personal letter for senior high school student. This method Whatsapps inspired by the concept called ubiquitous learning (U-Learning), which means ―learning supported by ICT resources held anytime, anywhere and fits the context of the learner‖ (de Sousa Monteiro et al., 2014). Participants were 40 11-th grade students in one class in Cirebon High School. A short story in the form of personal le...

  16. Application of ubiquitous computing in personal health monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, C; Grossmann, U; Stork, W; Müller-Glaser, K D

    2002-01-01

    A possibility to significantly reduce the costs of public health systems is to increasingly use information technology. The Laboratory for Information Processing Technology (ITIV) at the University of Karlsruhe is developing a personal health monitoring system, which should improve health care and at the same time reduce costs by combining micro-technological smart sensors with personalized, mobile computing systems. In this paper we present how ubiquitous computing theory can be applied in the health-care domain.

  17. Development of Wearable Systems for Ubiquitous Healthcare Service Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunduyile, O.O.; Olugbara, O.O.; Lall, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a wearable system using wireless biomedical sensors for ubiquitous healthcare service provisioning. The prototype system is developed to address current healthcare challenges such as increasing cost of services, inability to access diverse services, low quality services and increasing population of elderly as experienced globally. The biomedical sensors proactively collect physiological data of remote patients to recommend diagnostic services. The prot...

  18. Alexithymia in anorexia and bulimia: Ubiquitous and primary trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amianto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alexithymia is associated to Eating Disorders (ED and relevant for their prognosis but it is uncertain if it is ubiquitous, primary and necessary for ED outburst. Methods: 124 ED outpatients and 80 healthy controls were compared with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, personality and psychopathology measures. Alexithymia and the other features are compared between anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and control groups. Alexithymia-based clusters were explored and compared with controls. Alexithymia traits are correlated with the other features. Results: Difficulty in identifying feelings was ubiquitous in ED subjects. A Non-Alexithymic Cluster (NAC and an Alexithymic Cluster (ALC were found with no difference in AN/BN distribution. ALC displays disordered personality and high psychopathology. Self-directiveness and interoceptive awareness were independently related to alexithymia and to depressive feelings. These two features along with depressive features completely accounted for alexithymia variance. Conclusion: even though the difficulty in identifying feelings is ubiquitous in ED subjects, Alexithymia may not represent a primary trait but a complex dysfunction consequent to co-occurring character immaturity, altered interoceptive awareness, and depressive traits.

  19. Ubiquitous mobile knowledge construction in collaborative learning environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloian, Nelson; Zurita, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is a critical activity for any organization. It has been said to be a differentiating factor and an important source of competitiveness if this knowledge is constructed and shared among its members, thus creating a learning organization. Knowledge construction is critical for any collaborative organizational learning environment. Nowadays workers must perform knowledge creation tasks while in motion, not just in static physical locations; therefore it is also required that knowledge construction activities be performed in ubiquitous scenarios, and supported by mobile and pervasive computational systems. These knowledge creation systems should help people in or outside organizations convert their tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, thus supporting the knowledge construction process. Therefore in our understanding, we consider highly relevant that undergraduate university students learn about the knowledge construction process supported by mobile and ubiquitous computing. This has been a little explored issue in this field. This paper presents the design, implementation, and an evaluation of a system called MCKC for Mobile Collaborative Knowledge Construction, supporting collaborative face-to-face tacit knowledge construction and sharing in ubiquitous scenarios. The MCKC system can be used by undergraduate students to learn how to construct knowledge, allowing them anytime and anywhere to create, make explicit and share their knowledge with their co-learners, using visual metaphors, gestures and sketches to implement the human-computer interface of mobile devices (PDAs).

  20. A systematic analysis of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy reveals numerous ubiquitously expressed and muscle-specific genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, Magdalena; Kummeling, GJM; Sammani, Arjan; Linschoten, Marijke; Baas, AF; van der Smagt, Jasper; Doevendans, Pieter A.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Dooijes, Dennis; Mokry, Michal; Asselbergs, Folkert W.

    AimsDespite considerable progress being made in genetic diagnostics for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using panels of the most prevalent genes, the cause remains unsolved in a substantial percentage of patients. We hypothesize that several previously described DCM genes with low or unknown prevalence

  1. A systematic analysis of genetic dilated cardiomyopathy reveals numerous ubiquitously expressed and muscle-specific genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakalova, Magdalena; Kummeling, Gijs; Sammani, Arjan; Linschoten, Marijke; Baas, Annette F.; van der Smagt, Jasper; Doevendans, Pieter A.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Dooijes, Dennis; Mokry, Michal; Asselbergs, Folkert W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress being made in genetic diagnostics for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) using panels of the most prevalent genes, the cause remains unsolved in a substantial percentage of patients. We hypothesize that several previously described DCM genes with low or unknown prevalence

  2. Adjusting for the Incidence of Measurement Errors in Multilevel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the incidence of measurement errors using these techniques generally revealed coefficient estimates of ... physical, biological, social and medical science, measurement errors are found. The errors are ... (M) and Science and Technology (ST).

  3. Laboratory errors and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miligy, Dawlat A

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory data are extensively used in medical practice; consequently, laboratory errors have a tremendous impact on patient safety. Therefore, programs designed to identify and reduce laboratory errors, as well as, setting specific strategies are required to minimize these errors and improve patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to identify part of the commonly encountered laboratory errors throughout our practice in laboratory work, their hazards on patient health care and some measures and recommendations to minimize or to eliminate these errors. Recording the encountered laboratory errors during May 2008 and their statistical evaluation (using simple percent distribution) have been done in the department of laboratory of one of the private hospitals in Egypt. Errors have been classified according to the laboratory phases and according to their implication on patient health. Data obtained out of 1,600 testing procedure revealed that the total number of encountered errors is 14 tests (0.87 percent of total testing procedures). Most of the encountered errors lay in the pre- and post-analytic phases of testing cycle (representing 35.7 and 50 percent, respectively, of total errors). While the number of test errors encountered in the analytic phase represented only 14.3 percent of total errors. About 85.7 percent of total errors were of non-significant implication on patients health being detected before test reports have been submitted to the patients. On the other hand, the number of test errors that have been already submitted to patients and reach the physician represented 14.3 percent of total errors. Only 7.1 percent of the errors could have an impact on patient diagnosis. The findings of this study were concomitant with those published from the USA and other countries. This proves that laboratory problems are universal and need general standardization and bench marking measures. Original being the first data published from Arabic countries that

  4. Some guidelines for the ethical development of ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Adam

    2008-10-28

    At a time when both the landscape of everyday life and the choices available to us there are increasingly conditioned by ubiquitous information processing systems, it seems wise to articulate some general principles guiding their ethical design and deployment. I here enunciate five broad guidelines for the designers of such systems, including recommendations that they be devised in such a way as to default to harmlessness, be conservative of time, be conservative of face, be self-disclosing and be deniable. I conclude with some observations about the likelihood of any such principles winning usefully widespread voluntary adherence.

  5. Observations on sustainable and ubiquitous healthcare informatics from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Helen J; Wright, Graham

    2009-01-01

    As nurses around the world prepare to celebrate the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale in 2010 this paper reviews her work on using information, especially statistics, to analyze and manage patient care and links that to current developments in informatics. It then examines assistive technologies and how they may impact on nursing practice in the future and links these developments to the writings of Florence Nightingale. The paper concludes by suggesting that in progressing towards sustainable and ubiquitous healthcare informatics we need to study history in order to learn from the lessons of Florence Nightingale and other healthcare pioneers.

  6. A proposal of an open ubiquitous fuzzy computing system for Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Lee, R.S.T.; Lioa, V.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Communication and Intelligent User Interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information

  7. Datenschutz- und Medizinprodukterecht bei Ubiquitous Computing-Anwendungen im Gesundheitssektor / Data protection and medical product law with respect to medical ubiquitous computing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skistims, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to ubiquitous computing there is a great potential of application, particularly in medicine and health care. This work deals with the legal problems which ubiquitous computing is facing in these areas. At the beginning, issues with respect to data protection and professional secrecy are treated. Afterwards the problem of applicability of medical product law for medical ubiquitous computing applications as well as the resulting requirements for manufactures, operators and users will be discussed.

  8. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  9. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Genghui; Huang, Shuang; Sun, Xuemin; Hu, Feng; Hu, Hongzhi; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners' initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners' interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners' psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners' situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners' psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners' psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners' habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns. PMID:26557846

  10. Distributed user interfaces for clinical ubiquitous computing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, Magnus; Larsson, Anders; Berglund, Erik; Eriksson, Henrik

    2005-08-01

    Ubiquitous computing with multiple interaction devices requires new interface models that support user-specific modifications to applications and facilitate the fast development of active workspaces. We have developed NOSTOS, a computer-augmented work environment for clinical personnel to explore new user interface paradigms for ubiquitous computing. NOSTOS uses several devices such as digital pens, an active desk, and walk-up displays that allow the system to track documents and activities in the workplace. We present the distributed user interface (DUI) model that allows standalone applications to distribute their user interface components to several devices dynamically at run-time. This mechanism permit clinicians to develop their own user interfaces and forms to clinical information systems to match their specific needs. We discuss the underlying technical concepts of DUIs and show how service discovery, component distribution, events and layout management are dealt with in the NOSTOS system. Our results suggest that DUIs--and similar network-based user interfaces--will be a prerequisite of future mobile user interfaces and essential to develop clinical multi-device environments.

  11. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Asim; Seet, Boon-Chong; Ding, Zhiguo

    2018-02-08

    Ubiquitous wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have become a critical technology for enabling smart cities and other ubiquitous monitoring applications. Their deployment, however, can be seriously hampered by the spectrum available to the sheer number of sensors for communication. To support the communication needs of UWSNs without requiring more spectrum resources, the power-domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique originally proposed for 5th Generation (5G) cellular networks is investigated for UWSNs for the first time in this paper. However, unlike 5G networks that operate in the licensed spectrum, UWSNs mostly operate in unlicensed spectrum where sensors also experience cross-technology interferences from other devices sharing the same spectrum. In this paper, we model the interferences from various sources at the sensors using stochastic geometry framework. To evaluate the performance, we derive a theorem and present new closed form expression for the outage probability of the sensors in a downlink scenario under interference limited environment. In addition, diversity analysis for the ordered NOMA users is performed. Based on the derived outage probability, we evaluate the average link throughput and energy consumption efficiency of NOMA against conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) technique in UWSNs. Further, the required computational complexity for the NOMA users is presented.

  12. Toward ubiquitous healthcare services with a novel efficient cloud platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Fan, Xiaomao; Li, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous healthcare services are becoming more and more popular, especially under the urgent demand of the global aging issue. Cloud computing owns the pervasive and on-demand service-oriented natures, which can fit the characteristics of healthcare services very well. However, the abilities in dealing with multimodal, heterogeneous, and nonstationary physiological signals to provide persistent personalized services, meanwhile keeping high concurrent online analysis for public, are challenges to the general cloud. In this paper, we proposed a private cloud platform architecture which includes six layers according to the specific requirements. This platform utilizes message queue as a cloud engine, and each layer thereby achieves relative independence by this loosely coupled means of communications with publish/subscribe mechanism. Furthermore, a plug-in algorithm framework is also presented, and massive semistructure or unstructured medical data are accessed adaptively by this cloud architecture. As the testing results showing, this proposed cloud platform, with robust, stable, and efficient features, can satisfy high concurrent requests from ubiquitous healthcare services.

  13. Ubiquitous Supervisory System Based on Social Contexts Using Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Izumi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As described in this paper, we propose a supervisory system that considers actual situations and social aspects of users in a ubiquitous computing environment. To realize gentle and safe supervision while providing efficient supervisory services, the system must recognize the situations of a watched person, such as the person's physical condition. To achieve this, we have proposed a ubiquitous supervisory system "uEyes", which introduces Social Context Awareness: a distinguishing feature for supervision. Using this feature, the system can combine environmental information acquired from sensors in the real world and common-sense knowledge related to human activities in daily life. As described in this paper, we specifically examine design of Social Context Awareness using ontology technologies. Based on this advanced feature, a live video streaming system is configured autonomously depending on the users' circumstances in runtime. We implemented a uEyes prototype for supervising elderly people and performed some experiments based on several scenarios. Based on those experimental results, we confirmed that the social contexts are handled effectively to support the supervision.

  14. After Installation: Ubiquitous Computing and High School Science in Three Experienced, High-Technology Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Brian; Falk, Joni K.; Stroud, Rena; Hobbs, Kathryn; Hammerman, James

    2010-01-01

    There are few studies of the impact of ubiquitous computing on high school science, and the majority of studies of ubiquitous computing report only on the early stages of implementation. The present study presents data on 3 high schools with carefully elaborated ubiquitous computing systems that have gone through at least one "obsolescence cycle"…

  15. The Characteristics of Ubiquitous and Unique Leptospira Strains from the Collection of Russian Centre for Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Olga L.; Kunda, Marina S.; Aksenova, Ekaterina I.; Ryzhova, Natalia N.; Semenov, Andrey N.; Petrov, Evgeny M.; Didenko, Lubov V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Ananyina, Yuliya V.; Gintsburg, Alexandr L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Leptospira, the causal agent of leptospirosis, has been isolated from the environment, patients, and wide spectrum of animals in Russia. However, the genetic diversity of Leptospira in natural and anthropurgic foci was not clearly defined. Methods. The recent MLST scheme was used for the analysis of seven pathogenic species. 454 pyrosequencing technology was the base of the whole genome sequencing (WGS). Results. The most wide spread and prevalent Leptospira species in Russia were L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii. Five STs, common for Russian strains: 37, 17, 199, 110, and 146, were identified as having a longtime and ubiquitous distribution in various geographic areas. Unexpected properties were revealed for the environmental Leptospira strain Bairam-Ali. WGS of this strain genome suggested that it combined the features of the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains and may be a reservoir of the natural resistance genes. Results of the comparative analysis of rrs and rpoB genes and MLST loci for different Leptospira species strains and phenotypic and serological properties of the strain Bairam-Ali suggested that it represented separate Leptospira species. Conclusions. Thus, the natural and anthropurgic foci supported ubiquitous Leptospira species and the pool of genes important for bacterial adaptivity to various conditions. PMID:25276806

  16. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  17. Unfolding and Refolding Embodiment into the Landscape of Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Malmborg, Lone

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates the future of the body as a distributed and shared embodiment; an unfolded body that doesn’t end at one's skin, but emerges as intercorporeality between bodies and the technological environment. Looking at new tendencies within interaction design and ubiquitous computing to see...... how these are to an increasing extent focusing on sociality, context-awareness, relations, affects, connectedness, and collectivity we will examine how these new technological movements can change our perception of embodiment towards a distributed and shared one. By examining interactive textiles...... as part of a future rising landscape of multi-sensory networks we will exemplify how the new technologies can shutter dichotomies and challenge traditional notions of embodiment and the subject. Finally, we show how this ‘new embodiment’ manifests Deleuze’s philosophy of the body as something unstable...

  18. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalko, Matthew J; Shahmohammadi, Mohsen; Sample, Alanson P

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR), which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power.

  19. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Chabalko

    Full Text Available Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR, which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power.

  20. Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi, Mohsen; Sample, Alanson P.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. However, existing solutions are limited to near contact distances and do not provide the geometric freedom to enable automatic and un-aided charging. We introduce quasistatic cavity resonance (QSCR), which can enable purpose-built structures, such as cabinets, rooms, and warehouses, to generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within. A theoretical model of a quasistatic cavity resonator is derived, and field distributions along with power transfer efficiency are validated against measured results. An experimental demonstration shows that a 54 m3 QSCR room can deliver power to small coil receivers in nearly any position with 40% to 95% efficiency. Finally, a detailed safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power. PMID:28199321

  1. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.

  2. A Survey of Software Infrastructures and Frameworks for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Endres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, we discuss 29 software infrastructures and frameworks which support the construction of distributed interactive systems. They range from small projects with one implemented prototype to large scale research efforts, and they come from the fields of Augmented Reality (AR, Intelligent Environments, and Distributed Mobile Systems. In their own way, they can all be used to implement various aspects of the ubiquitous computing vision as described by Mark Weiser [60]. This survey is meant as a starting point for new projects, in order to choose an existing infrastructure for reuse, or to get an overview before designing a new one. It tries to provide a systematic, relatively broad (and necessarily not very deep overview, while pointing to relevant literature for in-depth study of the systems discussed.

  3. Mobile-PKI Service Model for Ubiquitous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Inkyung; Chun, Kilsoo

    One of the most important things in PKI(Public Key Infrastructure) is the private key management issue. The private key must be deal with safely for secure PKI service. Even though PKI service is usually used for identification and authentication of user in e-commerce, PKI service has many inconvenient factors. Especially, the fact that storage media of private key for PKI service is limited to PC hard disk drive or smart card users must always carry, gives an inconvenience to user and is not suitable in ubiquitous network. This paper suggests the digital signature service using a mobile phone(m-PKI service) which is suitable in future network. A mobile phone is the most widely used for personal communication means and has a characteristic of high movability. We can use the PKI service anytime and anywhere using m-PKI.

  4. Transparency of intentions decreases privacy concerns in ubiquitous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulasvirta, Antti; Suomalainen, Tiia; Hamari, Juho; Lampinen, Airi; Karvonen, Kristiina

    2014-10-01

    An online experiment (n=1,897) was carried out to understand how data disclosure practices in ubiquitous surveillance affect users' privacy concerns. Information about the identity and intentions of a data collector was manipulated in hypothetical surveillance scenarios. Privacy concerns were found to differ across the scenarios and moderated by knowledge about the collector's identity and intentions. Knowledge about intentions exhibited a stronger effect. When no information about intentions was disclosed, the respondents postulated negative intentions. A positive effect was found for disclosing neutral intentions of an organization or unknown data collector, but not for a private data collector. The findings underline the importance of disclosing intentions of data use to users in an easily understandable manner.

  5. A Comprehensive Ubiquitous Healthcare Solution on an Android™ Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Cheng Hii

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Provision of ubiquitous healthcare solutions which provide healthcare services at anytime anywhere has become more favorable nowadays due to the emphasis on healthcare awareness and also the growth of mobile wireless technologies. Following this approach, an Android™ smart phone device is proposed as a mobile monitoring terminal to observe and analyze ECG (electrocardiography waveforms from wearable ECG devices in real time under the coverage of a wireless sensor network (WSN. The exploitation of WSN in healthcare is able to substitute the complicated wired technology, moving healthcare away from a fixed location setting. As an extension to the monitoring scheme, medicine care is taken into consideration by utilizing the mobile phone as a barcode decoder, to verify and assist out-patients in the medication administration process, providing a better and more comprehensive healthcare service.

  6. Successful enrichment of the ubiquitous freshwater acI Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sarahi L; McMahon, Katherine D; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Warnecke, Falk

    2014-02-01

    Actinobacteria of the acI lineage are often the numerically dominant bacterial phylum in surface freshwaters, where they can account for > 50% of total bacteria. Despite their abundance, there are no described isolates. In an effort to obtain enrichment of these ubiquitous freshwater Actinobacteria, diluted freshwater samples from Lake Grosse Fuchskuhle, Germany, were incubated in 96-well culture plates. With this method, a successful enrichment containing high abundances of a member of the lineage acI was established. Phylogenetic classification showed that the acI Actinobacteria of the enrichment belonged to the acI-B2 tribe, which seems to prefer acidic lakes. This enrichment grows to low cell densities and thus the oligotrophic nature of acI-B2 was confirmed. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  8. VLSI architectures for modern error-correcting codes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-01

    Error-correcting codes are ubiquitous. They are adopted in almost every modern digital communication and storage system, such as wireless communications, optical communications, Flash memories, computer hard drives, sensor networks, and deep-space probing. New-generation and emerging applications demand codes with better error-correcting capability. On the other hand, the design and implementation of those high-gain error-correcting codes pose many challenges. They usually involve complex mathematical computations, and mapping them directly to hardware often leads to very high complexity. VLSI

  9. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  10. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  11. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  12. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  13. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  14. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distributing Workflows over a Ubiquitous P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Al-Shakarchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses issues in the distribution of bundled workflows across ubiquitous peer-to-peer networks for the application of music information retrieval. The underlying motivation for this work is provided by the DART project, which aims to develop a novel music recommendation system by gathering statistical data using collaborative filtering techniques and the analysis of the audio itsel, in order to create a reliable and comprehensive database of the music that people own and which they listen to. To achieve this, the DART scientists creating the algorithms need the ability to distribute the Triana workflows they create, representing the analysis to be performed, across the network on a regular basis (perhaps even daily in order to update the network as a whole with new workflows to be executed for the analysis. DART uses a similar approach to BOINC but differs in that the workers receive input data in the form of a bundled Triana workflow, which is executed in order to process any MP3 files that they own on their machine. Once analysed, the results are returned to DART's distributed database that collects and aggregates the resulting information. DART employs the use of package repositories to decentralise the distribution of such workflow bundles and this approach is validated in this paper through simulations that show that suitable scalability is maintained through the system as the number of participants increases. The results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. FCJ-135 Feral Computing: From Ubiquitous Calculation to Wild Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Fuller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In ‘The Coming Age of Calm Technology’, Mark Weiser and John Seely Brown are clear in their assertions, what really ‘matters’ about technology is not technology in itself, rather, its capacity to continuously recreate our relationship with the world at large (Brown and Weiser 1996. Even though they promote such an idea under the banner of ‘calm technology’, what is central to their thesis is the mutational capacities brought into the world by the spillage of computation out from its customary boxes. What their work tends to occlude is that in setting the sinking of technology almost imperceptibly, but deeply into the ‘everyday’ as a target for ubiquitous computing, other possibilities are masked, for instance, those of greater hackability or interrogability of such technologies. Our contention is that making ubicomp seamless (MacColl et al, 2002 tends to obfuscate the potential of computation in reworking computational subjects, including societies, modes of life, and inter-relations with the dynamics of thought and the composition of experience and understanding.

  17. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  18. From computers to ubiquitous computing by 2010: health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omer; Lo, Benny; Pansiot, Julien; Atallah, Louis; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2008-10-28

    Over the past decade, miniaturization and cost reduction in semiconductors have led to computers smaller in size than a pinhead with powerful processing abilities that are affordable enough to be disposable. Similar advances in wireless communication, sensor design and energy storage have meant that the concept of a truly pervasive 'wireless sensor network', used to monitor environments and objects within them, has become a reality. The need for a wireless sensor network designed specifically for human body monitoring has led to the development of wireless 'body sensor network' (BSN) platforms composed of tiny integrated microsensors with on-board processing and wireless data transfer capability. The ubiquitous computing abilities of BSNs offer the prospect of continuous monitoring of human health in any environment, be it home, hospital, outdoors or the workplace. This pervasive technology comes at a time when Western world health care costs have sharply risen, reflected by increasing expenditure on health care as a proportion of gross domestic product over the last 20 years. Drivers of this rise include an ageing post 'baby boom' population, higher incidence of chronic disease and the need for earlier diagnosis. This paper outlines the role of pervasive health care technologies in providing more efficient health care.

  19. Ubiquitous computing in sports: A review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Arnold; Dabnichki, Peter; Heller, Mario; Kornfeind, Philipp

    2009-10-01

    Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is a term for a synergetic use of sensing, communication and computing. Pervasive use of computing has seen a rapid increase in the current decade. This development has propagated in applied sport science and everyday life. The work presents a survey of recent developments in sport and leisure with emphasis on technology and computational techniques. A detailed analysis on new technological developments is performed. Sensors for position and motion detection, and such for equipment and physiological monitoring are discussed. Aspects of novel trends in communication technologies and data processing are outlined. Computational advancements have started a new trend - development of smart and intelligent systems for a wide range of applications - from model-based posture recognition to context awareness algorithms for nutrition monitoring. Examples particular to coaching and training are discussed. Selected tools for monitoring rules' compliance and automatic decision-making are outlined. Finally, applications in leisure and entertainment are presented, from systems supporting physical activity to systems providing motivation. It is concluded that the emphasis in future will shift from technologies to intelligent systems that allow for enhanced social interaction as efforts need to be made to improve user-friendliness and standardisation of measurement and transmission protocols.

  20. A concept for ubiquitous robotics in industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, Mikko; Heilala, Juhani; Kivikunnas, Sauli

    2007-09-01

    In this paper a concept for industrial ubiquitous robotics is presented. The concept combines two different approaches to manage agile, adaptable production: firstly the human operator is strongly in the production loop and secondly, the robot workcell will be more autonomous and smarter to manage production. This kind of autonomous robot cell can be called production island. Communication to the human operator working in this kind of smart industrial environment can be divided into two levels: body area communication and operator-infrastructure communication including devices, machines and infra. Body area communication can be supportive in two directions: data is recorded by means of measuring physical actions, such as hand movements, body gestures or supportive when it will provide information to user such as guides or manuals for operation. Body area communication can be carried out using short range communication technologies such as NFC (Near Field communication) which is RFID type of communication. In the operator-infrastructure communication, WLAN or Bluetooth -communication can be used. Beyond the current Human Machine interaction HMI systems, the presented system concept is designed to fulfill the requirements for hybrid, knowledge intensive manufacturing in the future, where humans and robots operate in close co-operation.

  1. Ubiquitous Health in Korea: Progress, Barriers, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yountae

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Korea has one of the most advanced information technology (IT) infrastructures in the world, and the application of IT in health systems is rapidly progressing from computerization to information systems, ubiquitous systems, and smart systems. This study aims to analyze Korean environments in regards to the development of their u-Health industry and propose directions for u-Healthcare services based on this analysis. Methods This paper reviews the background, progress history, and current status of u-Health in Korea, and suggests strategies for the u-Health industry based on an analysis of its barriers and obstacles. Results When u-Health was introduced to Koreans, their policies and approaches focused mainly on environmental factors, yet these efforts have not progressed further to impact the u-Healthcare service industry itself. To develop the u-Healthcare industry, four points need to be considered: the development and support of the practical service model, institutional support, support of core technology and industry, and the institutionalization of health management service. Conclusions Korea is at a strategic point to start building u-Healthcare service delivery models. u-Healthcare is a healthcare service that provides added value through u-Health environments. By identifying critical success factors in u-Healthcare, we can strengthen the u-Health industry and implement policies to coordinate our efforts in the process of value chains to which we belong. PMID:23346474

  2. A NEW UBIQUITOUS-BASED INDOOR POSITIONING SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM EXTRA HARDWARE USING SMART PHONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hassany Pazoky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the position has been an ambition in many areas such as science, military, business, etc. GPS was the realization of this wish in 1970s. Technological advances such as ubiquitous computing, as a conquering perspective, requires any service to work for any user, any place, anytime, and via any network. As GPS cannot provide services in indoor environments, many scientists began to develop indoor positioning systems (IPS. Smart phones penetrating our everyday lives were a great platform to host IPS applications. Sensors in smart phones were another big motive to develop IPS applications. Many researchers have been working on the topic developing various applications. However, the applications introduced lack simplicity. In other words, they need to install a step counter or smart phone on the ankle, which makes it awkward and inapplicable in many situations. In the current study, a new IPS methodology is introduced using only the usual embedded sensors in the smart phones. The robustness of this methodology cannot compete with those of the aforementioned approaches. The price paid for simplicity was decreasing robustness and complicating the methods and formulations. However, methods or tricks to harness the errors to an acceptable range are introduced as the future works.

  3. Is hyperactivity ubiquitous in ADHD or dependent on environmental demands? Evidence from meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Wells, Erica L.; Soto, Elia F.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity, or excess gross motor activity, is considered a core and ubiquitous characteristic of ADHD. Alternate models question this premise, and propose that hyperactive behavior reflects, to a large extent, purposeful behavior to cope with environmental demands that interact with underlying neurobiological vulnerabilities. The present review critically evaluates the ubiquity and environmental modifiability of hyperactivity in ADHD through meta-analysis of 63 studies of mechanically measured activity level in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) groups. Random effects models corrected for publication bias confirmed elevated gross motor activity in ADHD (d = 0.86); surprisingly, neither participant age (child vs. adult) nor the proportion of each ADHD sample diagnosed with the Inattentive subtype/presentation moderated this effect. In contrast, activity level assessed during high cognitive load conditions in general (d = 1.14) and high executive functioning demands in particular (d = 1.39) revealed significantly higher effect sizes than activity level during low cognitive load (d = 0.36) and in-class schoolwork (d = 0.50) settings. Low stimulation environments, more rigorous diagnostic practices, actigraph measurement of movement frequency and intensity, and ADHD samples that included fewer females were also associated with larger effects. Overall, the results are inconsistent with DSM-5 and ADHD models that a) describe hyperactivity as ubiquitous behavior, b) predict a developmental decline in hyperactivity, or c) differentiate subtypes/presentations according to perceived differences in hyperactive behavior. Instead, results suggest that the presence and magnitude of hyperactive behavior in ADHD may be influenced to a considerable extent by environmental factors in general, and cognitive/executive functioning demands in particular. PMID:27131918

  4. A system for ubiquitous health monitoring in the bedroom via a Bluetooth network and wireless LAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J M; Choi, B H; Seo, J W; Sohn, R H; Ryu, M S; Yi, W; Park, K S

    2004-01-01

    Advances in information technology have enabled ubiquitous health monitoring at home, which is particularly useful for patients, who have to live alone. We have focused on the automatic and unobtrusive measurement of biomedical signals and activities of patients. We have constructed wireless communication networks in order to transfer data. The networks consist of Bluetooth and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). In this paper, we present the concept of a ubiquitous-Bedroom (u-Bedroom) which is a part of a ubiquitous-House (u-House) and we present our systems for ubiquitous health monitoring.

  5. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  6. mORCA: ubiquitous access to life science web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Del-Pino, Sergio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Falgueras, Juan

    2018-01-16

    Technical advances in mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have produced an extraordinary increase in their use around the world and have become part of our daily lives. The possibility of carrying these devices in a pocket, particularly mobile phones, has enabled ubiquitous access to Internet resources. Furthermore, in the life sciences world there has been a vast proliferation of data types and services that finish as Web Services. This suggests the need for research into mobile clients to deal with life sciences applications for effective usage and exploitation. Analysing the current features in existing bioinformatics applications managing Web Services, we have devised, implemented, and deployed an easy-to-use web-based lightweight mobile client. This client is able to browse, select, compose parameters, invoke, and monitor the execution of Web Services stored in catalogues or central repositories. The client is also able to deal with huge amounts of data between external storage mounts. In addition, we also present a validation use case, which illustrates the usage of the application while executing, monitoring, and exploring the results of a registered workflow. The software its available in the Apple Store and Android Market and the source code is publicly available in Github. Mobile devices are becoming increasingly important in the scientific world due to their strong potential impact on scientific applications. Bioinformatics should not fall behind this trend. We present an original software client that deals with the intrinsic limitations of such devices and propose different guidelines to provide location-independent access to computational resources in bioinformatics and biomedicine. Its modular design makes it easily expandable with the inclusion of new repositories, tools, types of visualization, etc.

  7. Lipid droplets as ubiquitous fat storage organelles in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Fengli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid droplets are a class of eukaryotic cell organelles for storage of neutral fat such as triacylglycerol (TAG and cholesterol ester (CE. We and others have recently reported that lysosome-related organelles (LROs are not fat storage structures in the nematode C. elegans. We also reported the formation of enlarged lipid droplets in a class of peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation mutants. In the present study, we seek to provide further evidence on the organelle nature and biophysical properties of fat storage structures in wild-type and mutant C. elegans. Results In this study, we provide biochemical, histological and ultrastructural evidence of lipid droplets in wild-type and mutant C. elegans that lack lysosome related organelles (LROs. The formation of lipid droplets and the targeting of BODIPY fatty acid analogs to lipid droplets in live animals are not dependent on lysosomal trafficking or peroxisome dysfunction. However, the targeting of Nile Red to lipid droplets in live animals occurs only in mutants with defective peroxisomes. Nile Red labelled-lipid droplets are characterized by a fluorescence emission spectrum distinct from that of Nile Red labelled-LROs. Moreover, we show that the recently developed post-fix Nile Red staining method labels lipid droplets exclusively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate lipid droplets as ubiquitous fat storage organelles and provide a unified explanation for previous studies on fat labelling methods in C. elegans. These results have important applications to the studies of fat storage and lipid droplet regulation in the powerful genetic system, C. elegans.

  8. Redundant measurements for controlling errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Crawford, J.M.; Madeen, M.L.

    1979-07-01

    Current federal regulations for nuclear materials control require consideration of operating data as part of the quality control program and limits of error propagation. Recent work at the BNFP has revealed that operating data are subject to a number of measurement problems which are very difficult to detect and even more difficult to correct in a timely manner. Thus error estimates based on operational data reflect those problems. During the FY 1978 and FY 1979 R and D demonstration runs at the BNFP, redundant measurement techniques were shown to be effective in detecting these problems to allow corrective action. The net effect is a reduction in measurement errors and a significant increase in measurement sensitivity. Results show that normal operation process control measurements, in conjunction with routine accountability measurements, are sensitive problem indicators when incorporated in a redundant measurement program

  9. Prescription Errors in Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    clinical pharmacists in detecting errors before they have a (sometimes serious) clinical impact should not be underestimated. Research on medication error in mental health care is limited. .... participation in ward rounds and adverse drug.

  10. Optimization of Trade-offs in Error-free Image Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R.; Moore, Stephen M.; Blaine, G. James; Zimmerman, John B.; Wallace, Gregory K.

    1989-05-01

    The availability of ubiquitous wide-area channels of both modest cost and higher transmission rate than voice-grade lines promises to allow the expansion of electronic radiology services to a larger community. The band-widths of the new services becoming available from the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) are typically limited to 128 Kb/s, almost two orders of magnitude lower than popular LANs can support. Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) techniques, a compressed approximation to an image may be rapidly transmitted. However, intensity or resampling transformations of the reconstructed image may reveal otherwise invisible artifacts of the approximate encoding. A progressive transmission scheme reported in ISO Working Paper N800 offers an attractive solution to this problem by rapidly reconstructing an apparently undistorted image from the DCT coefficients and then subse-quently transmitting the error image corresponding to the difference between the original and the reconstructed images. This approach achieves an error-free transmission without sacrificing the perception of rapid image delivery. Furthermore, subsequent intensity and resampling manipulations can be carried out with confidence. DCT coefficient precision affects the amount of error information that must be transmitted and, hence the delivery speed of error-free images. This study calculates the overall information coding rate for six radiographic images as a function of DCT coefficient precision. The results demonstrate that a minimum occurs for each of the six images at an average coefficient precision of between 0.5 and 1.0 bits per pixel (b/p). Apparently undistorted versions of these six images can be transmitted with a coding rate of between 0.25 and 0.75 b/p while error-free versions can be transmitted with an overall coding rate between 4.5 and 6.5 b/p.

  11. Reducing number entry errors: solving a widespread, serious problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimbleby, Harold; Cairns, Paul

    2010-10-06

    Number entry is ubiquitous: it is required in many fields including science, healthcare, education, government, mathematics and finance. People entering numbers are to be expected to make errors, but shockingly few systems make any effort to detect, block or otherwise manage errors. Worse, errors may be ignored but processed in arbitrary ways, with unintended results. A standard class of error (defined in the paper) is an 'out by 10 error', which is easily made by miskeying a decimal point or a zero. In safety-critical domains, such as drug delivery, out by 10 errors generally have adverse consequences. Here, we expose the extent of the problem of numeric errors in a very wide range of systems. An analysis of better error management is presented: under reasonable assumptions, we show that the probability of out by 10 errors can be halved by better user interface design. We provide a demonstration user interface to show that the approach is practical.To kill an error is as good a service as, and sometimes even better than, the establishing of a new truth or fact. (Charles Darwin 1879 [2008], p. 229).

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of the Cherskii’s Sculpin Cottus czerskii and Siberian Taimen Hucho taimen Reveal GenBank Entry Errors: Incorrect Species Identification and Recombinant Mitochondrial Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Saveliev, Pavel A; Ayala, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome is sequenced in 2 individuals of the Cherskii’s sculpin Cottus czerskii. A surprisingly high level of sequence divergence (10.3%) has been detected between the 2 genomes of C czerskii studied here and the GenBank mt genome of C czerskii (KJ956027). At the same time, a surprisingly low level of divergence (1.4%) has been detected between the GenBank C czerskii (KJ956027) and the Amur sculpin Cottus szanaga (KX762049, KX762050). We argue that the observed discrepancies are due to incorrect taxonomic identification so that the GenBank accession number KJ956027 represents actually the mt genome of C szanaga erroneously identified as C czerskii. Our results are of consequence concerning the GenBank database quality, highlighting the potential negative consequences of entry errors, which once they are introduced tend to be propagated among databases and subsequent publications. We illustrate the premise with the data on recombinant mt genome of the Siberian taimen Hucho taimen (NCBI Reference Sequence Database NC_016426.1; GenBank accession number HQ897271.1), bearing 2 introgressed fragments (≈0.9 kb [kilobase]) from 2 lenok subspecies, Brachymystax lenok and Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis, submitted to GenBank on June 12, 2011. Since the time of submission, the H taimen recombinant mt genome leading to incorrect phylogenetic inferences was propagated in multiple subsequent publications despite the fact that nonrecombinant H taimen genomes were also available (submitted to GenBank on August 2, 2014; KJ711549, KJ711550). Other examples of recombinant sequences persisting in GenBank are also considered. A GenBank Entry Error Depositary is urgently needed to monitor and avoid a progressive accumulation of wrong biological information. PMID:28890653

  13. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…

  14. Evaluation of a ubiquitous learning system in a design engineering environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, R.W.; Horvath, I.; Rusak, Z.; De Smit, A.; Opiyo, E.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing is computing power that is integrated in devices and environments in such a way that they offer optimal support to human daily life activities. For industrial design engineering students, applying ubiquitous technologies offer a great opportunity and challenge for innovating

  15. Conjoint Analysis for Mobile Devices for Ubiquitous Learning in Higher Education: The Korean Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongjik

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of mobile devices in education, the essential features of these devices for ubiquitous learning have not been empirically addressed. This study empirically investigated the necessary conditions for using mobile devices as an educational tool for ubiquitous learning in higher education by a conjoint method. The…

  16. The Influential Factors for the Variation of Data Sensitivity in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous social networking services offer new opportunities for developing advantageous relationships by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. As sharing of personal information is an intrinsic part of ubiquitous social networking, these services are subject......, mood, location familiarity, number of previous encounters and mutual friends, were also discovered to influence participants' data disclosure, but as factors of secondary importance....

  17. Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (pp. 337-338). March, 27-30, 2012, Takamatsu, Japan: IEEE Computer

  18. Errors in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartush, J M

    1996-11-01

    Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.

  19. Ubiquitous distribution of fluorescent protein in muscles of four ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AKI FUNAHASHI

    The deduced amino acid sequences among the four species and two subspecies exhibited 91.4–100% identity, and ... The comparison of amino acid sequences revealed two common substitutions in A. ..... tion of tissues exhibiting energy metabolism (Zschiesche et al. ... organization of the neurons (Rakic 1971; Feng et al.

  20. Analysis of Medication Error Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Young, Jonathan; Santell, John; Hicks, Rodney; Posse, Christian; Fecht, Barbara A.

    2004-11-15

    In medicine, as in many areas of research, technological innovation and the shift from paper based information to electronic records has created a climate of ever increasing availability of raw data. There has been, however, a corresponding lag in our abilities to analyze this overwhelming mass of data, and classic forms of statistical analysis may not allow researchers to interact with data in the most productive way. This is true in the emerging area of patient safety improvement. Traditionally, a majority of the analysis of error and incident reports has been carried out based on an approach of data comparison, and starts with a specific question which needs to be answered. Newer data analysis tools have been developed which allow the researcher to not only ask specific questions but also to “mine” data: approach an area of interest without preconceived questions, and explore the information dynamically, allowing questions to be formulated based on patterns brought up by the data itself. Since 1991, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has been collecting data on medication errors through voluntary reporting programs. USP’s MEDMARXsm reporting program is the largest national medication error database and currently contains well over 600,000 records. Traditionally, USP has conducted an annual quantitative analysis of data derived from “pick-lists” (i.e., items selected from a list of items) without an in-depth analysis of free-text fields. In this paper, the application of text analysis and data analysis tools used by Battelle to analyze the medication error reports already analyzed in the traditional way by USP is described. New insights and findings were revealed including the value of language normalization and the distribution of error incidents by day of the week. The motivation for this effort is to gain additional insight into the nature of medication errors to support improvements in medication safety.

  1. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  2. Ubi-RKE: A Rhythm Key Based Encryption Scheme for Ubiquitous Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Dong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As intelligent ubiquitous devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing; security is seen as one of the major challenges of the ubiquitous computing. Now a days, applying ubiquitous computing in number of fields for human safety and convenience was immensely increased in recent years. The popularity of the technology is rising day by day, and hence the security is becoming the main focused point with the advent and rising popularity of the applications. In particular, the number of wireless networks based on ubiquitous devices has increased rapidly; these devices support transmission for many types of data traffic. The convenient portability of ubiquitous devices makes them vulnerable to security threats, such as loss, theft, data modification, and wiretapping. Developers and users should seriously consider employing data encryption to protect data from such vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose a Rhythm Key based Encryption scheme for ubiquitous devices (Ubi-RKE. The concept of Rhythm Key based Encryption has been applied to numerous real world applications in different domains. It provides key memorability and secure encryption through user touching rhythm on ubiquitous devices. Our proposed scheme is more efficient for users than existing schemes, by providing a strong cipher.

  3. Systematic Procedural Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    .... This problem has received surprisingly little attention from cognitive psychologists. The research summarized here examines such errors in some detail both empirically and through computational cognitive modeling...

  4. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  5. A new model on the use of ubiquitous technology (U-Tech as a learning tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laptops, smartphones and tablets which also known as ubiquitous technology or u-tech have been widely used by students in the university. However, study on the factors influencing it usage as not many comprehensive studies have been done related to it. A review of related literature reveals that factors, namely the Technology Competency (TC, Performance Expectancy (PE, Effort Expectancy (EE, Behavioural Intention (BI, Facilitating Conditions (FC and Social Status (SS influence its usage. Thus, the focus of this study was to confirm whether the determined factors contribute towards u-tech usage among students in the institutions of higher learning, particularly in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research in which the Structural Equation Modelling using AMOS was employed. The results attained from the analysis produced a reliable model towards u-tech usage. Therefore, it can be concluded that, u-tech usage described by the five factors. This study has suggested that the university administration should play an active role in disseminating any news that is related to the usefulness of u-tech.

  6. Discovery of Ubiquitous Fast-Propagating Intensity Disturbances by the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J.; Champey, P.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Štěpán, J.; Belluzzi, L.; Manso Sainz, R.; De Pontieu, B.; Ichimoto, K.; Carlsson, M.; Casini, R.; Goto, M.

    2016-12-01

    High-cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere or the transition region or both at a speed much higher than the speed of sound. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of two-dimensional images taken with broadband filters centered on the Lyα line at a 0.6 s cadence. The multiple fast-propagating intensity disturbances appear in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and they are clearly detected in at least 20 areas in a field of view of 527″ × 527″ during the 5 minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km s-1, and they are comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed fast-propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is about 10″, and the widths are a few arcseconds, which are almost determined by a pixel size of 1.″03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation for the fast-propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves.

  7. Aquaculture disturbance impacts the diet but not ecological linkages of a ubiquitous predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Kathleen C.; McDonald, P. Sean; VanBlaricom, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture operations are a frequent and prominent cause of anthropogenic disturbance to marine and estuarine communities and may alter species composition and abundance. However, little is known about how such disturbances affect trophic linkages or ecosystem functions. In Puget Sound, Washington, aquaculture of the Pacific geoduck clam (Panopea generosa) is increasing and involves placing nets and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes in intertidal areas to protect juvenile geoducks from predators. Initial studies of the structured phase of the farming cycle have documented limited impacts on the abundance of some species. To examine the effect of geoduck aquaculture on ecological linkages, the trophic relationships of a local ubiquitous consumer, Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), to its invertebrate prey were compared between geoduck aquaculture sites and nearby reference areas with no aquaculture. Mark-recapture data indicated that sculpin exhibit local site fidelity to cultured and reference areas. The stomach contents of sculpin and stable isotope signatures of sculpin and their prey were examined to study the trophic ecology of cultured and reference areas. Results showed that the structured phase of geoduck aquaculture initiated some changes to staghorn sculpin ecology, as reflected in sculpin diet through stomach content analysis. However, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes revealed that the general food web function of sculpin remained unchanged. The source of carbon at the base of the food web and the trophic position of sculpin were not impacted by geoduck aquaculture. The study has important implications for geoduck aquaculture management and will inform regulatory decisions related to shellfish aquaculture policy.

  8. A Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform for Integrating Smart Devices into the Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, David Díaz Pardo; Izquierdo, Álvaro Sigüenza; Vercher, Jesús Bernat; Gómez, Luis Alfonso Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing Sensor Web developments make a growing amount of heterogeneous sensor data available to smart devices. This is generating an increasing demand for homogeneous mechanisms to access, publish and share real-world information. This paper discusses, first, an architectural solution based on Next Generation Networks: a pilot Telco Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) Platform that embeds several OGC® Sensor Web services. This platform has already been deployed in large scale projects. Second, the USN-Platform is extended to explore a first approach to Semantic Sensor Web principles and technologies, so that smart devices can access Sensor Web data, allowing them also to share richer (semantically interpreted) information. An experimental scenario is presented: a smart car that consumes and produces real-world information which is integrated into the Semantic Sensor Web through a Telco USN-Platform. Performance tests revealed that observation publishing times with our experimental system were well within limits compatible with the adequate operation of smart safety assistance systems in vehicles. On the other hand, response times for complex queries on large repositories may be inappropriate for rapid reaction needs. PMID:24945678

  9. Let Me Relax: Toward Automated Sedentary State Recognition and Ubiquitous Mental Wellness Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajanna

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in ubiquitous computing technology improve workplace productivity, reduce physical exertion, but ultimately result in a sedentary work style. Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of stress, obesity, and other health complications. Let Me Relax is a fully automated sedentary-state recognition framework using a smartwatch and smartphone, which encourages mental wellness through interventions in the form of simple relaxation techniques. The system was evaluated through a comparative user study of 22 participants split into a test and a control group. An analysis of NASA Task Load Index pre- and post- study survey revealed that test subjects who followed relaxation methods, showed a trend of both increased activity as well as reduced mental stress. Reduced mental stress was found even in those test subjects that had increased inactivity. These results suggest that repeated interventions, driven by an intelligent activity recognition system, is an effective strategy for promoting healthy habits, which reduce stress, anxiety, and other health risks associated with sedentary workplaces.

  10. Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC. The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges.

  11. Reactive ground-state pathways are not ubiquitous in red/green cyanobacteriochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Gottlieb, Sean M; Kim, Peter W; Rockwell, Nathan C; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S

    2013-09-26

    Recent characterization of the red/green cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) NpR6012g4 revealed a high quantum yield for its forward photoreaction [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 130-133] that was ascribed to the activity of hidden, productive ground-state intermediates. The dynamics of the pathways involving these ground-state intermediates was resolved with femtosecond dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, the first such study reported for any CBCR. To address the ubiquity of such second-chance initiation dynamics (SCID) in CBCRs, we examined the closely related red/green CBCR NpF2164g6 from Nostoc punctiforme. Both NpF2164g6 and NpR6012g4 use phycocyanobilin as the chromophore precursor and exhibit similar excited-state dynamics. However, NpF2164g6 exhibits a lower quantum yield of 32% for the generation of the isomerized Lumi-R primary photoproduct, compared to 40% for NpR6012g4. This difference arises from significantly different ground-state dynamics between the two proteins, with the SCID mechanism deactivated in NpF2164g6. We present an integrated inhomogeneous target model that self-consistently fits the pump-probe and pump-dump-probe signals for both forward and reverse photoreactions in both proteins. This work demonstrates that reactive ground-state intermediates are not ubiquitous phenomena in CBCRs.

  12. Use of ubiquitous materials for the estimation of accidental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Kim, J.L.; Lee, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Incidents involving unexpected radiation exposure do take place due to human error, equipment failure or other reasons in spite of regulatory systems being in place. Medical physicists who are also radiation safety officers (RSO) of their institutions in several countries, like India, have the responsibility of radiation protection of the staff, carers and comforters of the patients, visitors and public at large, apart from ensuring patient-specific treatment planning for accurate dose delivery, adoption of optimized practices, and minimization of chances of radiation accidents in radiation therapy, radio-diagnostic, and nuclear medicine practices. Theft and mishandling of 137 Cs teletherapy source in 1987 in Goiania (Brazil) in which 28 people suffered radiation burns and five people (three men, one woman, and one child) died and several other incidents demonstrated that mishandling of a source from a place like hospital cannot be ruled out. In the recent times, especially after terrorist attack on World Trade Center, New York, USA (on September 11, 2001), apprehensions of radiation terrorism and other malevolent uses (Dirty Bomb) of radioactive materials have considerably increased all over the world. To meet the situation of any radiation accident (due to external sources or the hospital-based sources), preparedness for dosimetry of the exposed persons in the quickest possible way becomes important for the implementation of the necessary follow-up procedures

  13. Multimodal and ubiquitous computing systems: supporting independent-living older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Dowdall, Alan; Lines, Lorna; Hone, Kate

    2004-09-01

    We document the rationale and design of a multimodal interface to a pervasive/ubiquitous computing system that supports independent living by older people in their own homes. The Millennium Home system involves fitting a resident's home with sensors--these sensors can be used to trigger sequences of interaction with the resident to warn them about dangerous events, or to check if they need external help. We draw lessons from the design process and conclude the paper with implications for the design of multimodal interfaces to ubiquitous systems developed for the elderly and in healthcare, as well as for more general ubiquitous computing applications.

  14. FTRA 4th International Conference on Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Adeli, Hojjat; Park, Namje; Woungang, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    MUSIC 2013 will be the most comprehensive text focused on the various aspects of Mobile, Ubiquitous and Intelligent computing. MUSIC 2013 provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of intelligent technologies in mobile and ubiquitous computing environment. MUSIC 2013 is the next edition of the 3rd International Conference on Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing (MUSIC-12, Vancouver, Canada, 2012) which was the next event in a series of highly successful International Workshop on Multimedia, Communication and Convergence technologies MCC-11 (Crete, Greece, June 2011), MCC-10 (Cebu, Philippines, August 2010).

  15. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  16. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  17. [Analysis of intrusion errors in free recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2017-06-01

    Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that participants who committed intrusion errors were more deficient on measures of eight-word recognition memory, delayed visual recognition and tests of executive control (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale and the ADST-Graphical Sequences as measures of response inhibition). Using hierarchical multiple regression, only free recall and delayed visual recognition retained an independent effect in the association with intrusion errors, such that deficient scores on tests of episodic memory were sufficient to explain the occurrence of intrusion errors. Measures of inhibitory control did not add significantly to the explanation of intrusion errors in free recall, which makes insufficient strength of memory traces rather than a primary deficit in inhibition the preferred account for intrusion errors in free recall.

  18. Influence of Ubiquitous Electron Acceptors on In Situ Anaerobic Biotransformation of RDX in Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wani, Altaf

    2003-01-01

    A series of column studies, with aquifer material from the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant, were performed to explore the phenomenon of electron competition from ubiquitous inorganic electron acceptors (nitrate and sulfate...

  19. Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2010, 19-21 March). Ambient Learning Displays Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. Presented at the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal.

  20. The Synergy of Paper-Based and Digital Material for Ubiquitous Foreign Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Leone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of digital information transfer, storage and communication methods has allowed for access to ubiquitous global connections and to a large number of resources available to foreign language students at all age and levels of schooling. Further, the combination of traditional paper-based learning material with digital one in a ubiquitous learning environment may offer great innovation in the delivery of education, to foster a student-centred approach, and to accommodate the needs of ubiquitous learners’ personal lifestyles. In this direction, research has increasingly emphasised the importance of a technology-enhanced rather than technology-driven learning approach. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the integration of paper-based and digital material through Quick Response (QR code for ubiquitous English language learners in three different scenarios. Results show that, despite some difficulties, flexibility and personalisation of learning have been perceived as an asset.

  1. System architecture for ubiquitous live video streaming in university network environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available an architecture which supports ubiquitous live streaming for university or campus networks using a modified bluetooth inquiry mechanism with extended ID, integrated end-user device usage and adaptation to heterogeneous networks. Riding on that architecture...

  2. Smart Geographic object: Toward a new understanding of GIS Technology in Ubiquitous Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Sakyoud; Rey, Gaëtan; Mohamed, Eladnani; Lavirotte, Stéphane; Abdelaziz, El Fazziki; Tigli, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    International audience; One of the fundamental aspects of ubiquitous computing is the instrumentation of the real world by smart devices. This instrumentation constitutes an opportunity to rethink the interactions between human beings and their environment on the one hand, and between the components of this environment on the other. In this paper we discuss what this understanding of ubiquitous computing can bring to geographic science and particularly to GIS technology. Our main idea is the ...

  3. Interactive Spaces: Towards Collaborative structuring and Ubiquitous Presentation in Domestic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    collaborative structuring and ubiquitous presentation of materials in private homes. With DoHM we propose establishing new relationship between digital and physical hyperspaces, folding hyperspaces into the physical space of the household. Thus we strive to combine the qualities of physical domestic materials...... and spaces with the flexibility and dynamics of digital hyperspaces. We propose a variety of new ubiquitous home appliances called MediaWall, MediaTable, MediaTray and MediaPort, which address these issues....

  4. Interactive Spaces: Towards Collaborative Structuring and Ubiquitous Presentation in Domestic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    collaborative structuring and ubiquitous presentation of materials in private homes. With DoHM we propose establishing new relationship between digital and physical hyperspaces, folding hyperspaces into the physical space of the household. Thus we strive to combine the qualities of physical domestic materials...... and spaces with the flexibility and dynamics of digital hyperspaces. We propose a variety of new ubiquitous home appliances called MediaWall, MediaTable, MediaTray and MediaPort, which address these issues....

  5. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  6. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  7. Error propagation analysis for a sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeater, M.L.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Hawkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a program to develop reliability methods for operational use with reactor sensors and protective systems, error propagation analyses are being made for each model. An example is a sensor system computer simulation model, in which the sensor system signature is convoluted with a reactor signature to show the effect of each in revealing or obscuring information contained in the other. The error propagation analysis models the system and signature uncertainties and sensitivities, whereas the simulation models the signatures and by extensive repetitions reveals the effect of errors in various reactor input or sensor response data. In the approach for the example presented, the errors accumulated by the signature (set of ''noise'' frequencies) are successively calculated as it is propagated stepwise through a system comprised of sensor and signal processing components. Additional modeling steps include a Fourier transform calculation to produce the usual power spectral density representation of the product signature, and some form of pattern recognition algorithm

  8. From Many-to-One to One-to-Many: The Evolution of Ubiquitous Computing in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Lim, Carolyn; Tan, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Personal, Internet-connected technologies are becoming ubiquitous in the lives of students, and ubiquitous computing initiatives are already expanding in educational contexts. Historically in the field of education, the terms one-to-one (1:1) computing and ubiquitous computing have been interpreted in a number of ways and have at times been used…

  9. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  10. Errors and violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated

  11. Ubiquitous distribution of helmchrome in phototactic swarmers of the stramenopiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kazuo; Takao, Yoshitake; Horiguchi, Takeo; Motomura, Taizo

    2016-05-01

    Most swarmers (swimming cells) of the stramenopile group, ranging from unicellular protist to giant kelps (brown algae), have two heterogeneous flagella: a long anterior flagellum (AF) and a relatively shorter posterior flagellum (PF). These flagellated cells often exhibit phototaxis upon light stimulation, although the mechanism by which how the phototactic response is regulated remains largely unknown. A flavoprotein concentrating at the paraflagellar body (PFB) on the basal part of the PF, which can emit green autofluorescence under blue light irradiance, has been proposed as a possible blue light photoreceptor for brown algal phototaxis although the nature of the flavoprotein still remains elusive. Recently, we identified helmchrome as a PF-specific flavoprotein protein in a LC-MS/MS-based proteomics study of brown algal flagella (Fu et al. 2014). To verify the conservation of helmchrome, in the present study, the absence or presence and the localization of helmchrome in swarmers of various algal species were investigated. The results showed that helmchrome was only detected in phototactic swarmers but not the non-phototactic ones of the stramenopile group. Electron microscopy further revealed that the helmchrome detectable swarmers bear a conserved PFB-eyespot complex, which may serve as structural basis for light sensing. It is speculated that all three conserved properties: helmchrome, the PFB structure, and the eyespot apparatus, will be essential parts for phototaxis of stramenopile swarmers.

  12. Microdiversification in genome-streamlined ubiquitous freshwater Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Stefan M; Ghai, Rohit; Pernthaler, Jakob; Salcher, Michaela M

    2018-01-01

    Actinobacteria of the acI lineage are the most abundant microbes in freshwater systems, but there are so far no pure living cultures of these organisms, possibly because of metabolic dependencies on other microbes. This, in turn, has hampered an in-depth assessment of the genomic basis for their success in the environment. Here we present genomes from 16 axenic cultures of acI Actinobacteria. The isolates were not only of minute cell size, but also among the most streamlined free-living microbes, with extremely small genome sizes (1.2-1.4 Mbp) and low genomic GC content. Genome reduction in these bacteria might have led to auxotrophy for various vitamins, amino acids and reduced sulphur sources, thus creating dependencies to co-occurring organisms (the 'Black Queen' hypothesis). Genome analyses, moreover, revealed a surprising degree of inter- and intraspecific diversity in metabolic pathways, especially of carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and mainly encoded in genomic islands. The striking genotype microdiversification of acI Actinobacteria might explain their global success in highly dynamic freshwater environments with complex seasonal patterns of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We propose a new order within Actinobacteria ('Candidatus Nanopelagicales') with two new genera ('Candidatus Nanopelagicus' and 'Candidatus Planktophila') and nine new species.

  13. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  14. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  15. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  16. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  17. Errors in energy bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kop, L.

    2001-01-01

    On request, the Dutch Association for Energy, Environment and Water (VEMW) checks the energy bills for her customers. It appeared that in the year 2000 many small, but also big errors were discovered in the bills of 42 businesses

  18. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  19. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  20. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  1. Apologies and Medical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims by patients. Patients indicate they want and expect explanations and apologies after medical errors and physicians indicate they want to apologize. However, in practice, physicians tend to provide minimal information to patients after medical errors and infrequently offer complete apologies. Although fears about potential litigation are the most commonly cited barrier to apologizing after medical error, the link between litigation risk and the practice of disclosure and apology is tenuous. Other barriers might include the culture of medicine and the inherent psychological difficulties in facing one’s mistakes and apologizing for them. Despite these barriers, incorporating apology into conversations between physicians and patients can address the needs of both parties and can play a role in the effective resolution of disputes related to medical error. PMID:18972177

  2. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  3. Ubiquitous and Continuous Propagating Disturbances in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Huw; Hutton, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    A new processing method applied to Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamic Observatory observations reveals continuous propagating faint motions throughout the corona. The amplitudes are small, typically 2% of the background intensity. An hour’s data are processed from four AIA channels for a region near disk center, and the motions are characterized using an optical flow method. The motions trace the underlying large-scale magnetic field. The motion vector field describes large-scale coherent regions that tend to converge at narrow corridors. Large-scale vortices can also be seen. The hotter channels have larger-scale regions of coherent motion compared to the cooler channels, interpreted as the typical length of magnetic loops at different heights. Regions of low mean and high time variance in velocity are where the dominant motion component is along the line of sight as a result of a largely vertical magnetic field. The mean apparent magnitude of the optical velocities are a few tens of km s‑1, with different distributions in different channels. Over time, the velocities vary smoothly between a few km s‑1 to 100 km s‑1 or higher, varying on timescales of minutes. A clear bias of a few km s‑1 toward positive x-velocities is due to solar rotation and may be used as calibration in future work. All regions of the low corona thus experience a continuous stream of propagating disturbances at the limit of both spatial resolution and signal level. The method provides a powerful new diagnostic tool for tracing the magnetic field, and to probe motions at sub-pixel scales, with important implications for models of heating and of the magnetic field.

  4. [Errors in laboratory daily practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrose, C; Le Carrer, D

    2007-01-01

    Legislation set by GBEA (Guide de bonne exécution des analyses) requires that, before performing analysis, the laboratory directors have to check both the nature of the samples and the patients identity. The data processing of requisition forms, which identifies key errors, was established in 2000 and in 2002 by the specialized biochemistry laboratory, also with the contribution of the reception centre for biological samples. The laboratories follow a strict criteria of defining acceptability as a starting point for the reception to then check requisition forms and biological samples. All errors are logged into the laboratory database and analysis report are sent to the care unit specifying the problems and the consequences they have on the analysis. The data is then assessed by the laboratory directors to produce monthly or annual statistical reports. This indicates the number of errors, which are then indexed to patient files to reveal the specific problem areas, therefore allowing the laboratory directors to teach the nurses and enable corrective action.

  5. Learning mechanisms to limit medication administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Pud, Dorit

    2010-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify and test the effectiveness of learning mechanisms applied by the nursing staff of hospital wards as a means of limiting medication administration errors. Since the influential report ;To Err Is Human', research has emphasized the role of team learning in reducing medication administration errors. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying team learning. Thirty-two hospital wards were randomly recruited. Data were collected during 2006 in Israel by a multi-method (observations, interviews and administrative data), multi-source (head nurses, bedside nurses) approach. Medication administration error was defined as any deviation from procedures, policies and/or best practices for medication administration, and was identified using semi-structured observations of nurses administering medication. Organizational learning was measured using semi-structured interviews with head nurses, and the previous year's reported medication administration errors were assessed using administrative data. The interview data revealed four learning mechanism patterns employed in an attempt to learn from medication administration errors: integrated, non-integrated, supervisory and patchy learning. Regression analysis results demonstrated that whereas the integrated pattern of learning mechanisms was associated with decreased errors, the non-integrated pattern was associated with increased errors. Supervisory and patchy learning mechanisms were not associated with errors. Superior learning mechanisms are those that represent the whole cycle of team learning, are enacted by nurses who administer medications to patients, and emphasize a system approach to data analysis instead of analysis of individual cases.

  6. DISCOVERY OF UBIQUITOUS FAST-PROPAGATING INTENSITY DISTURBANCES BY THE CHROMOSPHERIC LYMAN ALPHA SPECTROPOLARIMETER (CLASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J.; Champey, P.; Auchère, F.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Ramos, A. Asensio

    2016-01-01

    High-cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere or the transition region or both at a speed much higher than the speed of sound. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of two-dimensional images taken with broadband filters centered on the Ly α line at a 0.6 s cadence. The multiple fast-propagating intensity disturbances appear in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and they are clearly detected in at least 20 areas in a field of view of 527″ × 527″ during the 5 minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km s −1 , and they are comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed fast-propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is about 10″, and the widths are a few arcseconds, which are almost determined by a pixel size of 1.″03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation for the fast-propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves.

  7. DISCOVERY OF UBIQUITOUS FAST-PROPAGATING INTENSITY DISTURBANCES BY THE CHROMOSPHERIC LYMAN ALPHA SPECTROPOLARIMETER (CLASP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Champey, P. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Auchère, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bueno, J. Trujillo; Ramos, A. Asensio, E-mail: masahito.kubo@nao.ac.jp [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2016-12-01

    High-cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere or the transition region or both at a speed much higher than the speed of sound. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of two-dimensional images taken with broadband filters centered on the Ly α line at a 0.6 s cadence. The multiple fast-propagating intensity disturbances appear in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and they are clearly detected in at least 20 areas in a field of view of 527″ × 527″ during the 5 minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km s{sup −1}, and they are comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed fast-propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is about 10″, and the widths are a few arcseconds, which are almost determined by a pixel size of 1.″03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation for the fast-propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves.

  8. Apoferritin as an ubiquitous nanocarrier with excellent shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dostalova S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Simona Dostalova,1,2 Katerina Vasickova,1 David Hynek,1,2 Sona Krizkova,1,2 Lukas Richtera,1,2 Marketa Vaculovicova,1,2 Tomas Eckschlager,3 Marie Stiborova,4 Zbynek Heger,1,2 Vojtech Adam1,2 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, 2Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Brno, 3Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Charles University, 4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Due to many adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy, novel methods of targeting drugs to cancer cells are being investigated. Nanosize carriers are a suitable platform for this specific delivery. Herein, we evaluated the long-term stability of the naturally found protein nanocarrier apoferritin (Apo with encapsulated doxorubicin (Dox. The encapsulation was performed using Apo’s ability to disassemble reversibly into its subunits at low pH (2.7 and reassemble in neutral pH (7.2, physically entrapping drug molecules in its cavity (creating ApoDox. In this study, ApoDox was prepared in water and phosphate-buffered saline and stored for 12 weeks in various conditions (-20°C, 4°C, 20°C, and 37°C in dark, and 4°C and 20°C under ambient light. During storage, a very low amount of prematurely released drug molecules were detected (maximum of 7.5% for ApoDox prepared in PBS and 4.4% for ApoDox prepared in water. Fourier-transform infrared spectra revealed no significant differences in any of the samples after storage. Most of the ApoDox prepared in phosphate-buffered saline and ApoDox prepared in water and stored at -20°C formed very large aggregates (up to 487% of original size. Only ApoDox prepared in water and stored at 4°C showed no significant increase in size or shape. Although this storage caused slower internalization to LNCaP prostate cancer cells, ApoDox (2.5 µM of Dox

  9. Ubiquitous testing using tablets: its impact on medical student perceptions of and engagement in learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee-Young

    2016-03-01

    Ubiquitous testing has the potential to affect medical education by enhancing the authenticity of the assessment using multimedia items. This study explored medical students' experience with ubiquitous testing and its impact on student learning. A cohort (n=48) of third-year students at a medical school in South Korea participated in this study. The students were divided into two groups and were given different versions of 10 content-matched items: one in text version (the text group) and the other in multimedia version (the multimedia group). Multimedia items were delivered using tablets. Item response analyses were performed to compare item characteristics between the two versions. Additionally, focus group interviews were held to investigate the students' experiences of ubiquitous testing. The mean test score was significantly higher in the text group. Item difficulty and discrimination did not differ between text and multimedia items. The participants generally showed positive responses on ubiquitous testing. Still, they felt that the lectures that they had taken in preclinical years did not prepare them enough for this type of assessment and clinical encounters during clerkships were more helpful. To be better prepared, the participants felt that they needed to engage more actively in learning in clinical clerkships and have more access to multimedia learning resources. Ubiquitous testing can positively affect student learning by reinforcing the importance of being able to understand and apply knowledge in clinical contexts, which drives students to engage more actively in learning in clinical settings.

  10. A single gene (Eu4) encodes the tissue-ubiquitous urease of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torisky, R S; Griffin, J D; Yenofsky, R L; Polacco, J C

    1994-02-01

    We sought to determine the genetic basis of expression of the ubiquitous (metabolic) urease of soybean. This isozyme is termed the metabolic urease because its loss, in eu4/eu4 mutants, leads to accumulation of urea, whereas loss of the embryo-specific urease isozyme does not. The eu4 lesion eliminated the expression of the ubiquitous urease in vegetative and embryonic tissues. RFLP analysis placed urease clone LC4 near, or within, the Eu4 locus. Sequence comparison of urease proteins (ubiquitous and embryo-specific) and clones (LC4 and LS1) indicated that LC4 and LS1 encode ubiquitous and embryo-specific ureases, respectively. That LC4 is transcribed into poly(A)+ RNA in all tissues was indicated by the amplification of its transcript by an LC4-specific PCR primer. (The LS1-specific primer, on the other hand, amplified poly(A)+ RNA only from developing embryos expressing the embryo-specific urease.) These observations are consistent with Eu4 being the ubiquitous urease structural gene contained in the LC4 clone. In agreement with this notion, the mutant phenotype of eu4/eu4 callus was partially corrected by the LC4 urease gene introduced by particle bombardment.

  11. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  12. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  13. Population structuring of the ubiquitous stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula in southern Brazil as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flávio O.Francisco; Leandro R.Santiago; Yuri M.Mizusawa; Benjamin P.Oldroyd; Maria C.Arias

    2017-01-01

    Tetragonisca angustula is one of the most widespread stingless bees in the Neotropics.This species swarms frequently and is extremely successful in urban environments.In addition,it is one of the most popular stingless bee species for beekeeping in Latin America,so nest transportation and trading is common.Nest transportation can change the genetic structure of the host population,reducing inbreeding and increasing homogenization.Here,we evaluate the genetic structure of 17 geographic populations of T.angustula in southern Brazil to quantify the level of genetic differentiation between populations.Analyses were conducted on partially sequenced mitochondrial genes and 11 microsatellite loci of 1002 workers from 457 sites distributed on the mainland and on 3 islands.Our results show that T.angustula populations are highly differentiated as demon strated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers.Of 73 haplotypes,67 were population-specific.MtDNA diversity was low in 9 populations but microsatellite diversity was moderate to high in all populations.Microsatellite data suggest 10 genetic clusters and low level of gene flow throughout the studied area.However,physical barri ers,such as rivers and mountain ranges,or the presence or absence of forest appear to be unrelated to population clusters.Factors such as low dispersal,different ecological con ditions,and isolation by distance arc most likely shaping the population structure of this species.Thus far,nest transportation has not influenced the general population structure in the studied area.However,due to the genetic structure we found,we recommend that nest transportation should only occur within and between populations that are genetically similar.

  14. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine invertebrate associates. Finally, the results did not support the contention that a single bacterial pathogen may be the causative agent of WS Acroporids on the GBR.

  15. Population structuring of the ubiquitous stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula in southern Brazil as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Flávio O; Santiago, Leandro R; Mizusawa, Yuri M; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Arias, Maria C

    2017-10-01

    Tetragonisca angustula is one of the most widespread stingless bees in the Neotropics. This species swarms frequently and is extremely successful in urban environments. In addition, it is one of the most popular stingless bee species for beekeeping in Latin America, so nest transportation and trading is common. Nest transportation can change the genetic structure of the host population, reducing inbreeding and increasing homogenization. Here, we evaluate the genetic structure of 17 geographic populations of T. angustula in southern Brazil to quantify the level of genetic differentiation between populations. Analyses were conducted on partially sequenced mitochondrial genes and 11 microsatellite loci of 1002 workers from 457 sites distributed on the mainland and on 3 islands. Our results show that T. angustula populations are highly differentiated as demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Of 73 haplotypes, 67 were population-specific. MtDNA diversity was low in 9 populations but microsatellite diversity was moderate to high in all populations. Microsatellite data suggest 10 genetic clusters and low level of gene flow throughout the studied area. However, physical barriers, such as rivers and mountain ranges, or the presence or absence of forest appear to be unrelated to population clusters. Factors such as low dispersal, different ecological conditions, and isolation by distance are most likely shaping the population structure of this species. Thus far, nest transportation has not influenced the general population structure in the studied area. However, due to the genetic structure we found, we recommend that nest transportation should only occur within and between populations that are genetically similar. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  18. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  19. Error Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  20. Ubiquitous Computing Services Discovery and Execution Using a Novel Intelligent Web Services Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Han, SangYong

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitous Computing makes it possible to determine in real time the location and situations of service requesters in a web service environment as it enables access to computers at any time and in any place. Though research on various aspects of ubiquitous commerce is progressing at enterprises and research centers, both domestically and overseas, analysis of a customer's personal preferences based on semantic web and rule based services using semantics is not currently being conducted. This paper proposes a Ubiquitous Computing Services System that enables a rule based search as well as semantics based search to support the fact that the electronic space and the physical space can be combined into one and the real time search for web services and the construction of efficient web services thus become possible.

  1. The benefit of generating errors during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R

    2014-04-01

    Testing has been found to be a powerful learning tool, but educators might be reluctant to make full use of its benefits for fear that any errors made would be harmful to learning. We asked whether testing could be beneficial to memory even during novel learning, when nearly all responses were errors, and where errors were unlikely to be related to either cues or targets. In 4 experiments, participants learned definitions for unfamiliar English words, or translations for foreign vocabulary, by generating a response and being given corrective feedback, by reading the word and its definition or translation, or by selecting from a choice of definitions or translations followed by feedback. In a final test of all words, generating errors followed by feedback led to significantly better memory for the correct definition or translation than either reading or making incorrect choices, suggesting that the benefits of generation are not restricted to correctly generated items. Even when information to be learned is novel, errorful generation may play a powerful role in potentiating encoding of corrective feedback. Experiments 2A, 2B, and 3 revealed, via metacognitive judgments of learning, that participants are strikingly unaware of this benefit, judging errorful generation to be a less effective encoding method than reading or incorrect choosing, when in fact it was better. Predictions reflected participants' subjective experience during learning. If subjective difficulty leads to more effort at encoding, this could at least partly explain the errorful generation advantage.

  2. RECON: Capturing Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction in Real Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Løvborg

    2009-01-01

    for studying the user experience of such applications in the field tend to be cumbersome and expensive with regard to time and manpower, and they generally do not scale well with number of users and duration of studies. RECON addresses these challenges and provides an addition to the methodological...... to conduct large scale remote studies of mobile and ubiquitous applications in real contexts.......Evaluating the user experience of mobile and ubiquitous applications is a challenging task. They are becoming increasingly complex and tightly interwoven into the fabric of everyday life and thus cannot easily be taken out of context and evaluated in controlled experimental environments. Methods...

  3. [Facing the challenges of ubiquitous computing in the health care sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieff, Peter; Friedewald, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The steady progress of microelectronics, communications and information technology will enable the realisation of the vision for "ubiquitous computing" where the Internet extends into the real world embracing everyday objects. The necessary technical basis is already in place. Due to their diminishing size, constantly falling price and declining energy consumption, processors, communications modules and sensors are being increasingly integrated into everyday objects today. This development is opening up huge opportunities for both the economy and individuals. In the present paper we discuss possible applications, but also technical, social and economic barriers to a wide-spread use of ubiquitous computing in the health care sector. .

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  5. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  6. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  7. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  8. Ubiquitous atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruch, G.M.; Spruch, L.

    1974-01-01

    The fundamentals of modern physics, including the basic physics and chemistry of the atom, elementary particles, cosmology, periodicity, and recent advances, are surveyed. The biology and chemistry of the life process is discussed to provide a background for considering the effects of atomic particles on living things. The uses of atomic power in space travel, merchant shipping, food preservation, desalination, and nuclear clocks are explored. (Pollut. Abstr.)

  9. Errors in radiographic recognition in the emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.A.; Cooperstein, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    For 6 months we monitored the frequency and type of errors in radiographic recognition made by radiology residents on call in our emergency room. A relatively low error rate was observed, probably because the authors evaluated cognitive errors only, rather than include those of interpretation. The most common missed finding was a small fracture, particularly on the hands or feet. First-year residents were most likely to make an error, but, interestingly, our survey revealed a small subset of upper-level residents who made a disproportionate number of errors

  10. Study on the Context-Aware Middleware for Ubiquitous Greenhouses Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwang Hwang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN technology is one of the important technologies to implement the ubiquitous society, and it could increase productivity of agricultural and livestock products, and secure transparency of distribution channels if such a WSN technology were successfully applied to the agricultural sector. Middleware, which can connect WSN hardware, applications, and enterprise systems, is required to construct ubiquitous agriculture environment combining WSN technology with agricultural sector applications, but there have been insufficient studies in the field of WSN middleware in the agricultural environment, compared to other industries. This paper proposes a context-aware middleware to efficiently process data collected from ubiquitous greenhouses by applying WSN technology and used to implement combined services through organic connectivity of data. The proposed middleware abstracts heterogeneous sensor nodes to integrate different forms of data, and provides intelligent context-aware, event service, and filtering functions to maximize operability and scalability of the middleware. To evaluate the performance of the middleware, an integrated management system for ubiquitous greenhouses was implemented by applying the proposed middleware to an existing greenhouse, and it was tested by measuring the level of load through CPU usage and the response time for users’ requests when the system is working.

  11. Undergraduate Students' Opinions with Regard to Ubiquitous MOOC for Enhancing Cross-Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsorn, Boonrat; Na-Songkhla, Jaitip; Luetkehans, Lara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study undergraduate students' opinions with regard to the ubiquitous massive open online course (MOOC) for enhancing cross-cultural competence. This descriptive research applied a survey method. The survey data were collected by using survey questionnaires and online questionnaires from 410 undergraduate students…

  12. Pervasion of what? : techno–human ecologies and their ubiquitous spirits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Are the robots coming? Is the singularity near? Will we be dominated by technology? The usual response to ethical issues raised by pervasive and ubiquitous technologies assumes a philosophical anthropology centered on existential autonomy and agency, a dualistic ontology separating humans from

  13. 2nd FTRA International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing Application and Wireless Sensor Network

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Yi; Chao, Han-Chieh; Yi, Gangman

    2015-01-01

    IT changes everyday’s life, especially in education and medicine. The goal of ITME 2014 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of Ubiquitous Computing Application and Wireless Sensor Network. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers and practitioners. The organizing committee is soliciting unpublished papers for the main conference and its special tracks.

  14. Ubiquitous Accessibility for People with Visual Impairments: Are We There Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Syed Masum; Ashok, Vikas; Porter, Donald E; Ramakrishnan, I V

    2017-05-01

    Ubiquitous access is an increasingly common vision of computing, wherein users can interact with any computing device or service from anywhere, at any time. In the era of personal computing, users with visual impairments required special-purpose, assistive technologies, such as screen readers, to interact with computers. This paper investigates whether technologies like screen readers have kept pace with, or have created a barrier to, the trend toward ubiquitous access, with a specific focus on desktop computing as this is still the primary way computers are used in education and employment. Towards that, the paper presents a user study with 21 visually-impaired participants, specifically involving the switching of screen readers within and across different computing platforms, and the use of screen readers in remote access scenarios. Among the findings, the study shows that, even for remote desktop access-an early forerunner of true ubiquitous access-screen readers are too limited, if not unusable. The study also identifies several accessibility needs, such as uniformity of navigational experience across devices, and recommends potential solutions. In summary, assistive technologies have not made the jump into the era of ubiquitous access, and multiple, inconsistent screen readers create new practical problems for users with visual impairments.

  15. Radar sensor technology developments as CSIR DPSS in support of persistent, ubiquitous surveillance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anderson, F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of an S&T capability based on international technology trends in persistent, ubiquitous surveillance. The ultimate aim of this programme is to develop and produce a series of South African innovations that can be used by departments and agencies...

  16. Bringing Mohamed to the Mountain: Situated Professional Development in a Ubiquitous Computing Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Kratcoski, Annette; Mazzer, Pat; Schenker, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an ongoing situated professional development program in which teachers bring their intact classes for an extended stay in a ubiquitous computing environment equipped with a variety of state-of-the-art computing devices. The experience is unique in that it not only situates teacher learning about technology integration in…

  17. Ubiquitous Computing and Changing Pedagogical Possibilities: Representations, Conceptualizations and Uses of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Van 'T Hooft, Mark; Kratcoski, Annette; Schenker, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on preliminary findings from an ongoing study of teaching and learning in a ubiquitous computing classroom. The research employed mixed methods and multiple measures to document changes in teaching and learning that result when teachers and students have access to a variety of digital devices wherever and whenever they need…

  18. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  19. Evaluating Ubiquitous Media Usability Challenges: Content Transfer and Channel Switching Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    As ubiquitous media is developing rapidly, new HCI challenges emerge. In this paper, we address usability issues related to the transfer of content between fixed and mobile devices, as well as channel switching delays on mobile devices. We first provide an extensive review of the field. We...

  20. Introducing Laptops to Children: An Examination of Ubiquitous Computing in Grade 3 Reading, Language, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Robert M.; Bethel, Edward Clement; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-­called "ubiquitous computing" program in a Quebec school district. CAT­3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer…

  1. Ubiquitous Knowledge Construction: Mobile Learning Re-Defined and a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsinyi; Su, Yi-Ju; Chou, Chien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Emerging from recent mobile technologies, mobile learning, or m-learning, is beginning to offer "stunning new technical capabilities" in education (DiGiano et al., 2003). This new genre of learning is viewed as a revolutionary stage in educational technology. However, ubiquitous computing technologies have given rise to several issues. This…

  2. Four Stages of Research on the Educational Use of Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laru, Jari; Naykki, Piia; Järvelä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Gartner Group's hype cycle is used as the basis for categorizing and analyzing research on the educational use of ubiquitous computing. There are five phases of the hype cycle: the technology trigger, the peak of inflated expectations, the trough of disillusionment, the slope of enlightenment, and the plateau of productivity.…

  3. Ubiquitous and Ambient Intelligence Assisted Learning Environment Infrastructures Development--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagarajan, Sujith; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous Learning Environment (ULE) has been becoming a mobile and sensor based technology equipped environment that suits the modern world education discipline requirements for the past few years. Ambient Intelligence (AmI) makes much smarter the ULE by the support of optimization and intelligent techniques. Various efforts have been so far…

  4. Refining the ethics of computer-made decisions : A classification of moral mediation by ubiquitous machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Voort, M.; Pieters, W.; Consoli, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, computers have become more and more involved in society by the rise of ubiquitous systems, increasing the number of interactions between humans and IT systems. At the same time, the technology itself is getting more complex, enabling devices to act in a way that previously only

  5. Using TinyOS Components for the Design of an Adaptive Ubiquitous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaya, O.S.; Durmaz, O.; Dulman, S.O.; Gemesi, R.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work is an initiative attempt toward component-based software engineering in ubiquitous computing systems. Software components cooperate in a distributed manner to meet a demand, and adapt their software bindings during run-time depending on the context information. There are two main research

  6. Using TinyOS Components for the Design of an Adaptive Ubiquitous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaya, O.S.; Durmaz, O.; Dulman, S.O.; Gemesi, R.; Jansen, P.G.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    This work is an initiative attempt toward component-based software engineering in ubiquitous computing systems. Software components cooperate in a distributed manner to meet a demand, and adapt their software bindings during run-time depending on the context information. There are two main research

  7. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  8. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  9. Error-Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    001 is an integrated tool suited for automatically developing ultra reliable models, simulations and software systems. Developed and marketed by Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI), it has been applied in engineering, manufacturing, banking and software tools development. The software provides the ability to simplify the complex. A system developed with 001 can be a prototype or fully developed with production quality code. It is free of interface errors, consistent, logically complete and has no data or control flow errors. Systems can be designed, developed and maintained with maximum productivity. Margaret Hamilton, President of Hamilton Technologies, also directed the research and development of USE.IT, an earlier product which was the first computer aided software engineering product in the industry to concentrate on automatically supporting the development of an ultrareliable system throughout its life cycle. Both products originated in NASA technology developed under a Johnson Space Center contract.

  10. Minimum Tracking Error Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Luca RICCETTI

    2010-01-01

    Investors assign part of their funds to asset managers that are given the task of beating a benchmark. The risk management department usually imposes a maximum value of the tracking error volatility (TEV) in order to keep the risk of the portfolio near to that of the selected benchmark. However, risk management does not establish a rule on TEV which enables us to understand whether the asset manager is really active or not and, in practice, asset managers sometimes follow passively the corres...

  11. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  12. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical

  13. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, David L.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  14. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie David L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  15. Accounting for optical errors in microtensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Zachary R; Alvarez, Nicolas J

    2018-09-15

    Drop shape analysis (DSA) techniques measure interfacial tension subject to error in image analysis and the optical system. While considerable efforts have been made to minimize image analysis errors, very little work has treated optical errors. There are two main sources of error when considering the optical system: the angle of misalignment and the choice of focal plane. Due to the convoluted nature of these sources, small angles of misalignment can lead to large errors in measured curvature. We demonstrate using microtensiometry the contributions of these sources to measured errors in radius, and, more importantly, deconvolute the effects of misalignment and focal plane. Our findings are expected to have broad implications on all optical techniques measuring interfacial curvature. A geometric model is developed to analytically determine the contributions of misalignment angle and choice of focal plane on measurement error for spherical cap interfaces. This work utilizes a microtensiometer to validate the geometric model and to quantify the effect of both sources of error. For the case of a microtensiometer, an empirical calibration is demonstrated that corrects for optical errors and drastically simplifies implementation. The combination of geometric modeling and experimental results reveal a convoluted relationship between the true and measured interfacial radius as a function of the misalignment angle and choice of focal plane. The validated geometric model produces a full operating window that is strongly dependent on the capillary radius and spherical cap height. In all cases, the contribution of optical errors is minimized when the height of the spherical cap is equivalent to the capillary radius, i.e. a hemispherical interface. The understanding of these errors allow for correct measure of interfacial curvature and interfacial tension regardless of experimental setup. For the case of microtensiometry, this greatly decreases the time for experimental setup

  16. Error-related brain activity and error awareness in an error classification paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Francesco; Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    Error-related brain activity has been linked to error detection enabling adaptive behavioral adjustments. However, it is still unclear which role error awareness plays in this process. Here, we show that the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), an event-related potential reflecting early error monitoring, is dissociable from the degree of error awareness. Participants responded to a target while ignoring two different incongruent distractors. After responding, they indicated whether they had committed an error, and if so, whether they had responded to one or to the other distractor. This error classification paradigm allowed distinguishing partially aware errors, (i.e., errors that were noticed but misclassified) and fully aware errors (i.e., errors that were correctly classified). The Ne/ERN was larger for partially aware errors than for fully aware errors. Whereas this speaks against the idea that the Ne/ERN foreshadows the degree of error awareness, it confirms the prediction of a computational model, which relates the Ne/ERN to post-response conflict. This model predicts that stronger distractor processing - a prerequisite of error classification in our paradigm - leads to lower post-response conflict and thus a smaller Ne/ERN. This implies that the relationship between Ne/ERN and error awareness depends on how error awareness is related to response conflict in a specific task. Our results further indicate that the Ne/ERN but not the degree of error awareness determines adaptive performance adjustments. Taken together, we conclude that the Ne/ERN is dissociable from error awareness and foreshadows adaptive performance adjustments. Our results suggest that the relationship between the Ne/ERN and error awareness is correlative and mediated by response conflict. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  18. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  19. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, S; Ludin, A N M; Majid, M R

    2014-01-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  20. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S.; Ludin, A. N. M.; Majid, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  1. Ubiquitous Performance-Support System as Mindtool: A Case Study of Instructional Decision Making and Learning Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsinyi; Chuang, Po-Ya; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Wu, Ting-Ting; Huang, Shu-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have conducted various studies on applying wireless communication and ubiquitous computing technologies to education, so that the technologies can provide learners and educators with more active and adaptive support. This study proposes a Ubiquitous Performance-support System (UPSS) that can facilitate the seamless use of powerful new…

  2. Researching the Ethical Dimensions of Mobile, Ubiquitous and Immersive Technology Enhanced Learning (MUITEL): A Thematic Review and Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Vic; Sharples, Mike; Tracy, Frances; Bertram, Neil; Masters, Sherriden

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the ethical dimensions of researching the mobile, ubiquitous and immersive technology enhanced learning (MUITEL), with a particular focus on learning in informal settings. We begin with an analysis of the interactions between mobile, ubiquitous and immersive technologies and the wider context of the digital economy. In…

  3. Students' errors in solving linear equation word problems: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    the modified Newman Error Hierarchical levels (NEAL), which comprise reading, comprehension, transformation, process skills and encoding errors. The results revealed that majority (60%) of the students attempted most of the questions with a few (2%) arriving at the correct answer which implies students have difficulties ...

  4. Human Pacman: A Mobile Augmented Reality Entertainment System Based on Physical, Social, and Ubiquitous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter details the Human Pacman system to illuminate entertainment computing which ventures to embed the natural physical world seamlessly with a fantasy virtual playground by capitalizing on infrastructure provided by mobile computing, wireless LAN, and ubiquitous computing. With Human Pacman, we have a physical role-playing computer fantasy together with real human-social and mobile-gaming that emphasizes on collaboration and competition between players in a wide outdoor physical area that allows natural wide-area human-physical movements. Pacmen and Ghosts are now real human players in the real world experiencing mixed computer graphics fantasy-reality provided by using the wearable computers on them. Virtual cookies and actual tangible physical objects are incorporated into the game play to provide novel experiences of seamless transitions between the real and virtual worlds. This is an example of a new form of gaming that anchors on physicality, mobility, social interaction, and ubiquitous computing.

  5. NOVEL APPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING MARKETS USING TELEVISION AS A UBIQUITOUS DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Arpan

    2013-01-01

    – personal computer (including laptop and tablet), television and mobile (including smart phone). For emerging market countries like India, personal computers are not yet affordable to masses and most of the people are not savvy or skilled enough to operate a personal computer. Mobile phones, though being...... connected to the internet-world in a low-cost manner, it has the potential of becoming the ―Ubiquitous Computing Screen‖ for the home. The emerging markets are characterized by some unique issues like low bandwidth / low Quality-of-Service (QoS) of the available wireless networks, extreme cost...... solutions for seamlessly blending Internet with broadcasting content. To this end, in this thesis a novel application development framework is proposed first on top of a low-cost over-the-top box that uses television as a ubiquitous device with a focus on emerging markets. Then an end-to-end solution...

  6. Ubiquitous health monitoring and real-time cardiac arrhythmias detection: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhou, Haiying; Zuo, Decheng; Hou, Kun-Mean; De Vaulx, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    As the symptoms and signs of heart diseases that cause sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmia has attracted great attention. Due to limitations in time and space, traditional approaches to cardiac arrhythmias detection fail to provide a real-time continuous monitoring and testing service applicable in different environmental conditions. Integrated with the latest technologies in ECG (electrocardiograph) analysis and medical care, the pervasive computing technology makes possible the ubiquitous cardiac care services, and thus brings about new technical challenges, especially in the formation of cardiac care architecture and realization of the real-time automatic ECG detection algorithm dedicated to care devices. In this paper, a ubiquitous cardiac care prototype system is presented with its architecture framework well elaborated. This prototype system has been tested and evaluated in all the clinical-/home-/outdoor-care modes with a satisfactory performance in providing real-time continuous cardiac arrhythmias monitoring service unlimitedly adaptable in time and space.

  7. Real-time long term measurement using integrated framework for ubiquitous smart monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gwanghee; Lee, Giu; Lee, Woosang; Jeon, Joonryong; Kim, Pil-Joong

    2007-04-01

    Ubiquitous monitoring combining internet technologies and wireless communication is one of the most promising technologies of infrastructure health monitoring against the natural of man-made hazards. In this paper, an integrated framework of the ubiquitous monitoring is developed for real-time long term measurement in internet environment. This framework develops a wireless sensor system based on Bluetooth technology and sends measured acceleration data to the host computer through TCP/IP protocol. And it is also designed to respond to the request of web user on real time basis. In order to verify this system, real time monitoring tests are carried out on a prototype self-anchored suspension bridge. Also, wireless measurement system is analyzed to estimate its sensing capacity and evaluate its performance for monitoring purpose. Based on the evaluation, this paper proposes the effective strategies for integrated framework in order to detect structural deficiencies and to design an early warning system.

  8. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  9. Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks and future “Internet of Things""

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    Overview of heterogeneous networks of embedded devices that can range from RFID, to smart identifiable systems with sensing and actuating capabilitie. Presentation of wireless sensor networks protocols and Internet of Things future technology. Bridging the real, virtual and digital worlds by using wireless connectivity. Application examples in automotive, aeronautics, healthcare, building, oil and gas industries. Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks and future “Internet ...

  10. Expressing clinical data sets with openEHR archetypes: a solid basis for ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sebastian; Hovenga, Evelyn; Buck, Jasmin; Knaup, Petra

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the feasibility and usefulness of expressing clinical data sets (CDSs) as openEHR archetypes. For this, we present an approach to transform CDS into archetypes, and outline typical problems with CDS and analyse whether some of these problems can be overcome by the use of archetypes. Literature review and analysis of a selection of existing Australian, German, other European and international CDSs; transfer of a CDS for Paediatric Oncology into openEHR archetypes; implementation of CDSs in application systems. To explore the feasibility of expressing CDS as archetypes an approach to transform existing CDSs into archetypes is presented in this paper. In case of the Paediatric Oncology CDS (which consists of 260 data items) this lead to the definition of 48 openEHR archetypes. To analyse the usefulness of expressing CDS as archetypes, we identified nine problems with CDS that currently remain unsolved without a common model underpinning the CDS. Typical problems include incompatible basic data types and overlapping and incompatible definitions of clinical content. A solution to most of these problems based on openEHR archetypes is motivated. With regard to integrity constraints, further research is required. While openEHR cannot overcome all barriers to Ubiquitous Computing, it can provide the common basis for ubiquitous presence of meaningful and computer-processable knowledge and information, which we believe is a basic requirement for Ubiquitous Computing. Expressing CDSs as openEHR archetypes is feasible and advantageous as it fosters semantic interoperability, supports ubiquitous computing, and helps to develop archetypes that are arguably of better quality than the original CDS.

  11. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz Santana, Yanira; Bajo Pérez, Javier; Abraham, Ajith P.; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a k...

  12. The new transparency: police violence in the context of ubiquitous surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Brucato, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Media and surveillance scholars often comment on the purported empowering quality of transparency, which they expect participatory media to promote. From its Enlightenment origins, transparency is related to accountability and legitimacy: its increase is believed to promote these. It has earned a position as an unassailed, prime normative value in contemporary liberal and social democracies. Though still valued, transparency is undergoing change in an era of ubiquitous surveillance. Publics s...

  13. Error forecasting schemes of error correction at receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-08-01

    To combat error in computer communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Recently Chakraborty has proposed a simple technique called the packet combining scheme in which error is corrected at the receiver from the erroneous copies. Packet Combining (PC) scheme fails: (i) when bit error locations in erroneous copies are the same and (ii) when multiple bit errors occur. Both these have been addressed recently by two schemes known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme, and Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme respectively. In the letter, two error forecasting correction schemes are reported, which in combination with PRPC offer higher throughput. (author)

  14. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a stand...

  15. Design and Implementation of Ubiquitous Health System U-Health Using Smart-Watches Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Termeh, V.; Sadeghi Niaraki, A.

    2015-12-01

    Today as diseases grow rapidly, the responsibilities of the health clinics in giving services to patients increase and patients have to be more monitored and controlled. Remote systems of monitoring patients result in reducing cost, ease of movement, and also persistent control of patients by their doctors, so that patient can be monitored without need to go to the clinic. Recent advances in the field of ubiquitous sciences as well as using smartphones have resulted in increasingly use of this devices in remote monitoring of patients. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a ubiquitous health system using smartphones and sensors of smart-watches. This is accomplished through the information sent to the smartphone from the sensors of the watch, e.g. heart beat measurement sensor and ultraviolet ray. Then, this information is analyzed in the smartphone and some information based on the position of the patient and the path of him/her using GIS analyses as well as the information about the health level of the patient is sent to the doctor via SMS or phone call. Unnatural heart beats can be resulted in diseases such as Heart Failure and Arterial Fibrillation. With the approach adopted in this study, the patient or the doctor could be aware of these diseases at any time. The proposed approach is a low cost, without need to complex and resilient equipment, system in ubiquitous health that does not limit the movement of the patient.

  16. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water; however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols, the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists when a project is launched.

  17. Automatic, Global and Dynamic Student Modeling in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Graf

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous learning allows students to learn at any time and any place. Adaptivity plays an important role in ubiquitous learning, aiming at providing students with adaptive and personalized learning material, activities, and information at the right place and the right time. However, for providing rich adaptivity, the student model needs to be able to gather a variety of information about the students. In this paper, an automatic, global, and dynamic student modeling approach is introduced, which aims at identifying and frequently updating information about students’ progress, learning styles, interests and knowledge level, problem solving abilities, preferences for using the system, social connectivity, and current location. This information is gathered in an automatic way, using students’ behavior and actions in different learning situations provided by different components/services of the ubiquitous learning environment. By providing a comprehensive student model, students can be supported by rich adaptivity in every component/service of the learning environment. Furthermore, the information in the student model can help in giving teachers a better understanding about the students’ learning process.

  18. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-07-22

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched.

  19. CORRECTING ERRORS: THE RELATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF ERROR FEEDBACK IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Jayathilake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Error correction in ESL (English as a Second Language classes has been a focal phenomenon in SLA (Second Language Acquisition research due to some controversial research results and diverse feedback practices. This paper presents a study which explored the relative efficacy of three forms of error correction employed in ESL writing classes: focusing on the acquisition of one grammar element both for immediate and delayed language contexts, and collecting data from university undergraduates, this study employed an experimental research design with a pretest-treatment-posttests structure. The research revealed that the degree of success in acquiring L2 (Second Language grammar through error correction differs according to the form of the correction and to learning contexts. While the findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature, this paper concludes creating a cline of error correction forms to be promoted in Sri Lankan L2 writing contexts, particularly in ESL contexts in Universities.

  20. Uncertainty quantification and error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higdon, Dave M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Mark C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berliner, Mark [OHIO STATE UNIV.; Covey, Curt [LLNL; Ghattas, Omar [UNIV OF TEXAS; Graziani, Carlo [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Seager, Mark [LLNL; Sefcik, Joseph [LLNL; Stark, Philip [UC/BERKELEY; Stewart, James [SNL

    2010-01-01

    UQ studies all sources of error and uncertainty, including: systematic and stochastic measurement error; ignorance; limitations of theoretical models; limitations of numerical representations of those models; limitations on the accuracy and reliability of computations, approximations, and algorithms; and human error. A more precise definition for UQ is suggested below.

  1. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  2. Performance, postmodernity and errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    speaker’s competency (note the –y ending!) reflects adaptation to the community langue, including variations. This reversal of perspective also reverses our understanding of the relationship between structure and deviation. In the heyday of structuralism, it was tempting to confuse the invariant system...... with the prestige variety, and conflate non-standard variation with parole/performance and class both as erroneous. Nowadays the anti-structural sentiment of present-day linguistics makes it tempting to confuse the rejection of ideal abstract structure with a rejection of any distinction between grammatical...... as deviant from the perspective of function-based structure and discuss to what extent the recognition of a community langue as a source of adaptive pressure may throw light on different types of deviation, including language handicaps and learner errors....

  3. Errors in causal inference: an organizational schema for systematic error and random error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-11-01

    To provide an organizational schema for systematic error and random error in estimating causal measures, aimed at clarifying the concept of errors from the perspective of causal inference. We propose to divide systematic error into structural error and analytic error. With regard to random error, our schema shows its four major sources: nondeterministic counterfactuals, sampling variability, a mechanism that generates exposure events and measurement variability. Structural error is defined from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning and divided into nonexchangeability bias (which comprises confounding bias and selection bias) and measurement bias. Directed acyclic graphs are useful to illustrate this kind of error. Nonexchangeability bias implies a lack of "exchangeability" between the selected exposed and unexposed groups. A lack of exchangeability is not a primary concern of measurement bias, justifying its separation from confounding bias and selection bias. Many forms of analytic errors result from the small-sample properties of the estimator used and vanish asymptotically. Analytic error also results from wrong (misspecified) statistical models and inappropriate statistical methods. Our organizational schema is helpful for understanding the relationship between systematic error and random error from a previously less investigated aspect, enabling us to better understand the relationship between accuracy, validity, and precision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drought Persistence Errors in Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2018-04-01

    The persistence of drought events largely determines the severity of socioeconomic and ecological impacts, but the capability of current global climate models (GCMs) to simulate such events is subject to large uncertainties. In this study, the representation of drought persistence in GCMs is assessed by comparing state-of-the-art GCM model simulations to observation-based data sets. For doing so, we consider dry-to-dry transition probabilities at monthly and annual scales as estimates for drought persistence, where a dry status is defined as negative precipitation anomaly. Though there is a substantial spread in the drought persistence bias, most of the simulations show systematic underestimation of drought persistence at global scale. Subsequently, we analyzed to which degree (i) inaccurate observations, (ii) differences among models, (iii) internal climate variability, and (iv) uncertainty of the employed statistical methods contribute to the spread in drought persistence errors using an analysis of variance approach. The results show that at monthly scale, model uncertainty and observational uncertainty dominate, while the contribution from internal variability is small in most cases. At annual scale, the spread of the drought persistence error is dominated by the statistical estimation error of drought persistence, indicating that the partitioning of the error is impaired by the limited number of considered time steps. These findings reveal systematic errors in the representation of drought persistence in current GCMs and suggest directions for further model improvement.

  5. Cultural differences in categorical memory errors persist with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela; Boduroglu, Aysecan

    2018-01-02

    This cross-sectional experiment examined the influence of aging on cross-cultural differences in memory errors. Previous research revealed that Americans committed more categorical memory errors than Turks; we tested whether the cognitive constraints associated with aging impacted the pattern of memory errors across cultures. Furthermore, older adults are vulnerable to memory errors for semantically-related information, and we assessed whether this tendency occurs across cultures. Younger and older adults from the US and Turkey studied word pairs, with some pairs sharing a categorical relationship and some unrelated. Participants then completed a cued recall test, generating the word that was paired with the first. These responses were scored for correct responses or different types of errors, including categorical and semantic. The tendency for Americans to commit more categorical memory errors emerged for both younger and older adults. In addition, older adults across cultures committed more memory errors, and these were for semantically-related information (including both categorical and other types of semantic errors). Heightened vulnerability to memory errors with age extends across cultural groups, and Americans' proneness to commit categorical memory errors occurs across ages. The findings indicate some robustness in the ways that age and culture influence memory errors.

  6. Ultrahigh Error Threshold for Surface Codes with Biased Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, David K.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2018-02-01

    We show that a simple modification of the surface code can exhibit an enormous gain in the error correction threshold for a noise model in which Pauli Z errors occur more frequently than X or Y errors. Such biased noise, where dephasing dominates, is ubiquitous in many quantum architectures. In the limit of pure dephasing noise we find a threshold of 43.7(1)% using a tensor network decoder proposed by Bravyi, Suchara, and Vargo. The threshold remains surprisingly large in the regime of realistic noise bias ratios, for example 28.2(2)% at a bias of 10. The performance is, in fact, at or near the hashing bound for all values of the bias. The modified surface code still uses only weight-4 stabilizers on a square lattice, but merely requires measuring products of Y instead of Z around the faces, as this doubles the number of useful syndrome bits associated with the dominant Z errors. Our results demonstrate that large efficiency gains can be found by appropriately tailoring codes and decoders to realistic noise models, even under the locality constraints of topological codes.

  7. Controlling errors in unidosis carts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Díaz Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify errors in the unidosis system carts. Method: For two months, the Pharmacy Service controlled medication either returned or missing from the unidosis carts both in the pharmacy and in the wards. Results: Uncorrected unidosis carts show a 0.9% of medication errors (264 versus 0.6% (154 which appeared in unidosis carts previously revised. In carts not revised, the error is 70.83% and mainly caused when setting up unidosis carts. The rest are due to a lack of stock or unavailability (21.6%, errors in the transcription of medical orders (6.81% or that the boxes had not been emptied previously (0.76%. The errors found in the units correspond to errors in the transcription of the treatment (3.46%, non-receipt of the unidosis copy (23.14%, the patient did not take the medication (14.36%or was discharged without medication (12.77%, was not provided by nurses (14.09%, was withdrawn from the stocks of the unit (14.62%, and errors of the pharmacy service (17.56% . Conclusions: It is concluded the need to redress unidosis carts and a computerized prescription system to avoid errors in transcription.Discussion: A high percentage of medication errors is caused by human error. If unidosis carts are overlooked before sent to hospitalization units, the error diminishes to 0.3%.

  8. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary......Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...

  9. Social aspects of clinical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Joel; Mason, Tom; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh, Annette; Mercer, Dave

    2009-08-01

    Clinical errors, whether committed by doctors, nurses or other professions allied to healthcare, remain a sensitive issue requiring open debate and policy formulation in order to reduce them. The literature suggests that the issues underpinning errors made by healthcare professionals involve concerns about patient safety, professional disclosure, apology, litigation, compensation, processes of recording and policy development to enhance quality service. Anecdotally, we are aware of narratives of minor errors, which may well have been covered up and remain officially undisclosed whilst the major errors resulting in damage and death to patients alarm both professionals and public with resultant litigation and compensation. This paper attempts to unravel some of these issues by highlighting the historical nature of clinical errors and drawing parallels to contemporary times by outlining the 'compensation culture'. We then provide an overview of what constitutes a clinical error and review the healthcare professional strategies for managing such errors.

  10. Errors and discrepancies in the administration of intravenous infusions: a mixed methods multihospital observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, I.; Furniss, D.; Blandford, A.; Chumbley, G.; Iacovides, I.; Wei, L.; Cox, A.; Mayer, A.; Vos, J.; Galal-Edeen, G. H.; Schnock, K. O.; Dykes, P. C.; Bates, D. W.; Franklin, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intravenous medication administration has traditionally been regarded as error prone, with high potential for harm. A recent US multisite study revealed few potentially harmful errors despite a high overall error rate. However, there is limited evidence about infusion practices in England and how they relate to prevalence and types of error. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of errors and discrepancies in infusion administration in English hospitals, an...

  11. A calcineurin inhibitory protein overexpressed in Down's syndrome interacts with the product of a ubiquitously expressed transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C.S. Silveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Down's syndrome candidate region 1 (DSCR1 protein, encoded by a gene located in the human chromosome 21, interacts with calcineurin and is overexpressed in Down's syndrome patients. As an approach to clarifying a putative function for this protein, in the present study we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify DSCR1 partners. The two-hybrid system is a method that allows the identification of protein-protein interactions through reconstitution of the activity of the yeast GAL 4 transcriptional activator. The gene DSCR1 fused to the GAL 4 binding domain (BD was used to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library cloned in fusion with the GAL 4 activation domain (AD. Three positive clones were found and sequence analysis revealed that all the plasmids coded for the ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT. UXT, which is encoded in human Xp11, is a 157-amino acid protein present in both cytosol and nucleus of the cells. This positive interaction of DSCR1 and UXT was confirmed in vivo by mating the yeast strain AH109 (MATaexpressing AD-UXT with the strain Y187 (MATalpha expressing BD-DSCR1, and in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. These results may help elucidate a new function for DSCR1 and its participation in Down's syndrome pathogenesis.

  12. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  13. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  14. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Can human error theory explain non-adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nick; Safdar, A; Franklin, Bryoney D

    2005-08-01

    To apply human error theory to explain non-adherence and examine how well it fits. Patients who were taking chronic medication were telephoned and asked whether they had been adhering to their medicine, and if not the reasons were explored and analysed according to a human error theory. Of 105 patients, 87 were contacted by telephone and they took part in the study. Forty-two recalled being non-adherent, 17 of them in the last 7 days; 11 of the 42 were intentionally non-adherent. The errors could be described by human error theory, and it explained unintentional non-adherence well, however, the application of 'rules' was difficult when considering mistakes. The consideration of error producing conditions and latent failures also revealed useful contributing factors. Human error theory offers a new and valuable way of understanding non-adherence, and could inform interventions. However, the theory needs further development to explain intentional non-adherence.

  16. The current approach to human error and blame in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, Melanie

    There is a large body of research to suggest that serious errors are widespread throughout medicine. The traditional response to these adverse events has been to adopt a 'person approach' - blaming the individual seen as 'responsible'. The culture of medicine is highly complicit in this response. Such an approach results in enormous personal costs to the individuals concerned and does little to address the root causes of errors and thus prevent their recurrence. Other industries, such as aviation, where safety is a paramount concern and which have similar structures to the medical profession, have, over the past decade or so, adopted a 'systems' approach to error, recognizing that human error is ubiquitous and inevitable and that systems need to be developed with this in mind. This approach has been highly successful, but has necessitated, first and foremost, a cultural shift. It is in the best interests of patients, and medical professionals alike, that such a shift is embraced in the NHS.

  17. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  18. Revisiting Frequency Reuse towards Supporting Ultra-Reliable Ubiquitous-Rate Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Dong Min; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    One of the goals of 5G wireless systems stated by the NGMN alliance is to provide moderate rates (50+ Mbps) everywhere and with very high reliability. We term this service Ultra-Reliable Ubiquitous-Rate Communication (UR2C). This paper investigates the role of frequency reuse in supporting UR2C...... in the downlink. To this end, two frequency reuse schemes are considered: user-specific frequency reuse (FRu) and BS-specific frequency reuse (FRb). For a given unit frequency channel, FRu reduces the number of serving user equipments (UEs), whereas FRb directly decreases the number of interfering base stations...

  19. Processing models for conflicting user requests in ubiquitous corporate smart spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levonevskiy Dmitriy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers processing of conflicting user requests in ubiquitous corporate smart spaces. The formulated problem consists in the contradiction between the limitation of available smart space resources to perform the conflicting user requests and necessity to provide the proper quality of service in corporate smart spaces. The principles of constructing the simulation model are described. The experiments were carried out basing on a model of the SPIIRAS digital signage service. Several task management strategies are discussed, an assessment of their effectiveness is given. The research is aimed at improving the quality of service and user experience in human-computer interaction within the corporate smart spaces.

  20. Handling membership dynamicity in service composition for ubiquitous computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

    In ubiquitous computing, as more and more devices are introduced into the environment, new applications are made possible that exploit device capabilities in new ways. Currently, however, there is a mismatch between the effort involved in implementing these applications and the benefit they provide...... to specify which nodes partake in the composite and how they interact. In this paper we introduce mechanisms for handling membership dynamicity in service composition specifications. We demonstrate how an application scenario developed in cooperation with users can be implemented using the mechanisms...

  1. A cloud-based X73 ubiquitous mobile healthcare system: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhanlin; Ganchev, Ivan; O'Droma, Máirtín; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xueji

    2014-01-01

    Based on the user-centric paradigm for next generation networks, this paper describes a ubiquitous mobile healthcare (uHealth) system based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 personal health data (PHD) standards (X73) and cloud computing techniques. A number of design issues associated with the system implementation are outlined. The system includes a middleware on the user side, providing a plug-and-play environment for heterogeneous wireless sensors and mobile terminals utilizing different communication protocols and a distributed "big data" processing subsystem in the cloud. The design and implementation of this system are envisaged as an efficient solution for the next generation of uHealth systems.

  2. Reference model of future ubiquitous convergent network and context-aware telecommunication service platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xiu-quan; LI Xiao-feng; LIANG Shou-qing

    2006-01-01

    A reference model for future ubiquitous convergent network is analyzed. To provide user-centric, intelligent,personalized service, this article presents a context-aware telecommunication service platform (CaTSP) to adapt to dynamically changing context. This article focuses on the new design method of context-aware telecommunication service platform and its architecture. Through the use of model-driven architecture (MDA) and semantic web technologies, CaTSP can enable context reasoning and service personalization adaption.This article explores a new approach for service intelligence,personalization, and adaptability in the semantic web service computing era.

  3. Ubiquitous computing in the workplace what ethical issues? : an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nihan, Céline

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an interdisciplinary collection of views on the ethical challenges and opportunities of workplaces in the Internet of things. Current developments within Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) systems designed for the workplace are introduced and philosophical, organizational and socio-ethical considerations of ubicomp in workplaces are provided. Suggestions regarding the rules that should be respected in order to favor an adequate implementation of ubicomp in the workplace are offered, considering both intra-organizational but also wider societal concerns. The interdisciplinary collection of contributions invites the reader to engage in the discussion of ubicomp in everyday working environments.      

  4. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k2. The specific terms unisim and multisim were coined by Peter Meyers and Steve Brice, respectively, for the MiniBooNE experiment. However, the concepts have been developed over time and have been in general use for some time.

  5. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Byron P. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: byronroe@umich.edu

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k{sup 2}.

  6. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k 2

  7. Architecture design for soft errors

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Shubu

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.

  8. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards?an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less...

  9. Identifying Error in AUV Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Joseph; Merrill, Kaylani; O'Rourke, Michael; Rajala, Andrew G; Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    Mine Countermeasures (MCM) involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are especially susceptible to error, given the constraints on underwater acoustic communication and the inconstancy of the underwater communication channel...

  10. Human Errors in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Shahriari; Aliandrina, Dessy; Feng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify human errors in decision making process. The study was focused on a research question such as: what could be the human error as a potential of decision failure in evaluation of the alternatives in the process of decision making. Two case studies were selected from the literature and analyzed to find the human errors contribute to decision fail. Then the analysis of human errors was linked with mental models in evaluation of alternative step. The results o...

  11. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  12. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  14. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  15. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ubiquitous Paprika Growth Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN technology can facilitate advances in productivity, safety and human quality of life through its applications in various industries. In particular, the application of WSN technology to the agricultural area, which is labor-intensive compared to other industries, and in addition is typically lacking in IT technology applications, adds value and can increase the agricultural productivity. This study attempts to establish a ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of farms that grow paprika by suggesting a ‘Ubiquitous Paprika Greenhouse Management System’ using WSN technology. The proposed system can collect and monitor information related to the growth environment of crops outside and inside paprika greenhouses by installing WSN sensors and monitoring images captured by CCTV cameras. In addition, the system provides a paprika greenhouse environment control facility for manual and automatic control from a distance, improves the convenience and productivity of users, and facilitates an optimized environment to grow paprika based on the growth environment data acquired by operating the system.

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ubiquitous Paprika Growth Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Shin, Changsun; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology can facilitate advances in productivity, safety and human quality of life through its applications in various industries. In particular, the application of WSN technology to the agricultural area, which is labor-intensive compared to other industries, and in addition is typically lacking in IT technology applications, adds value and can increase the agricultural productivity. This study attempts to establish a ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of farms that grow paprika by suggesting a ‘Ubiquitous Paprika Greenhouse Management System’ using WSN technology. The proposed system can collect and monitor information related to the growth environment of crops outside and inside paprika greenhouses by installing WSN sensors and monitoring images captured by CCTV cameras. In addition, the system provides a paprika greenhouse environment control facility for manual and automatic control from a distance, improves the convenience and productivity of users, and facilitates an optimized environment to grow paprika based on the growth environment data acquired by operating the system. PMID:22163543

  18. Automated Construction of Node Software Using Attributes in a Ubiquitous Sensor Network Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woojin; Kim, Juil; Kang, JangMook

    2010-01-01

    In sensor networks, nodes must often operate in a demanding environment facing restrictions such as restricted computing resources, unreliable wireless communication and power shortages. Such factors make the development of ubiquitous sensor network (USN) applications challenging. To help developers construct a large amount of node software for sensor network applications easily and rapidly, this paper proposes an approach to the automated construction of node software for USN applications using attributes. In the proposed technique, application construction proceeds by first developing a model for the sensor network and then designing node software by setting the values of the predefined attributes. After that, the sensor network model and the design of node software are verified. The final source codes of the node software are automatically generated from the sensor network model. We illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique by using a gas/light monitoring application through a case study of a Gas and Light Monitoring System based on the Nano-Qplus operating system. We evaluate the technique using a quantitative metric—the memory size of execution code for node software. Using the proposed approach, developers are able to easily construct sensor network applications and rapidly generate a large number of node softwares at a time in a ubiquitous sensor network environment. PMID:22163678

  19. Analysis of energy efficient routing protocols for implementation of a ubiquitous health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Koo, Sangjun; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    The innovative Ubiquitous-Health was born through convergence of medical service, with development of up to date information technologies and ubiquitous IT. The U-Health can be applied to a variety of special situations for managing functions of each medical center efficiently. This paper focuses on estimation of various routing protocols for implementation of U-health monitoring system. In order to facilitate wireless communication over the network, a routing protocol on the network layer is used to establish precise and efficient route between sensor nodes so that information acquired from sensors may be delivered in a timely manner. A route establishment should be considered to minimize overhead, data loss and power consumption because wireless networks for U-health are organized by a large number of sensor nodes which are small in size and have limited processing power, memory and battery life. In this paper a overview of wireless sensor network technologies commonly known is described as well as evaluation of three multi hop routing protocols which are flooding, gossiping and modified low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy(LEACH) for use with these networks using TOSSIM simulator. As a result of evaluation the integrated wireless sensor board was developed in particular. The board is embedded device based on AVR128 porting TinyOS. Also it employs bio sensor measures blood pressure, pulse frequency and ZigBee module for wireless communication. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related the U-Health.

  20. Ubiquitous Monitoring Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks with Push Notifications and End-to-End Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. L. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs belongs to a new trend in technology in which tiny and resource constrained devices are wirelessly interconnected and are able to interact with the surrounding environment by collecting data such as temperature and humidity. Recently, due to the huge growth in the use of mobile devices with Internet connection, smartphones are becoming the center of future ubiquitous wireless networks. Interconnecting WSNs with smartphones and the Internet is a big challenge and new architectures are required due to the heterogeneity of these devices. Taking into account that people are using smartphones with Internet connection, there is a good opportunity to propose a new architecture for wireless sensors monitoring using push notifications and smartphones. Then, this paper proposes a ubiquitous approach for WSN monitoring based on a REST Web Service, a relational database, and an Android mobile application. Real-time data sensed by WSNs are sent directly to a smartphone or stored in a database and requested by the mobile application using a well-defined RESTful interface. A push notification system was created in order to alert mobile users when a sensor parameter overcomes a given threshold. The proposed architecture and mobile application were evaluated and validated using a laboratory WSN testbed and are ready for use.

  1. A Framework for Real-Time Collection, Analysis, and Classification of Ubiquitous Infrasound Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, A.; Garces, M. A.; Magana-Zook, S. A.; Schnurr, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional infrasound arrays are generally expensive to install and maintain. There are ~10^3 infrasound channels on Earth today. The amount of data currently provided by legacy architectures can be processed on a modest server. However, the growing availability of low-cost, ubiquitous, and dense infrasonic sensor networks presents a substantial increase in the volume, velocity, and variety of data flow. Initial data from a prototype ubiquitous global infrasound network is already pushing the boundaries of traditional research server and communication systems, in particular when serving data products over heterogeneous, international network topologies. We present a scalable, cloud-based approach for capturing and analyzing large amounts of dense infrasonic data (>10^6 channels). We utilize Akka actors with WebSockets to maintain data connections with infrasound sensors. Apache Spark provides streaming, batch, machine learning, and graph processing libraries which will permit signature classification, cross-correlation, and other analytics in near real time. This new framework and approach provide significant advantages in scalability and cost.

  2. The ubiquitous presence of exopolygalacturonase in maize suggests a fundamental cellular function for this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubald, M; Barakate, A; Mandaron, P; Mache, R

    1993-11-01

    Exopolygalacturonase (exoPG) is a pectin-degrading enzyme abundant in maize pollen. Using immunochemistry and in situ hybridization it is shown that in addition to its presence in pollen, exoPG is also present in sporophytic tissues, such as the tapetum and mesophyll cells. The enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of pollen and of some mesophyll cells. In other mesophyll cells, the tapetum and the pollen tube, exoPG is located in the cell wall. The measurement of enzyme activity shows that exoPG is ubiquitous in the vegetative organs. These results suggest a general function for exoPG in cell wall edification or degradation. ExoPG is encoded by a closely related multigene family. The regulation of the expression of one of the exoPG genes was analyzed in transgenic tobacco. Reporter GUS activity was detected in anthers, seeds and stems but not in leaves or roots of transgenic plants. This strongly suggests that the ubiquitous presence of exoPG in maize is the result of the expression of different exoPG genes.

  3. Automated Construction of Node Software Using Attributes in a Ubiquitous Sensor Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JangMook Kang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In sensor networks, nodes must often operate in a demanding environment facing restrictions such as restricted computing resources, unreliable wireless communication and power shortages. Such factors make the development of ubiquitous sensor network (USN applications challenging. To help developers construct a large amount of node software for sensor network applications easily and rapidly, this paper proposes an approach to the automated construction of node software for USN applications using attributes. In the proposed technique, application construction proceeds by first developing a model for the sensor network and then designing node software by setting the values of the predefined attributes. After that, the sensor network model and the design of node software are verified. The final source codes of the node software are automatically generated from the sensor network model. We illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique by using a gas/light monitoring application through a case study of a Gas and Light Monitoring System based on the Nano-Qplus operating system. We evaluate the technique using a quantitative metric—the memory size of execution code for node software. Using the proposed approach, developers are able to easily construct sensor network applications and rapidly generate a large number of node softwares at a time in a ubiquitous sensor network environment.

  4. Clinical decision support systems in hospital care using ubiquitous devices: Current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Moqeem, Aasia A; Mirza, Farhaan; Lindén, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising. In addition, lack of attention to the clinicians' acceptability, as well as the low impact on the medical professionals' decision making, are posing more serious issues on the acceptability of smartphone applications. This article reviews smartphone-based decision support applications, focusing on hospital care settings and their overall impact of these applications on the wider clinical workflow. Additionally, key challenges and barriers of the current ubiquitous device-based healthcare applications are identified. Finally, this article addresses current challenges, future directions, and the adoption of mobile healthcare applications.

  5. HSDPA (3.5G)-based ubiquitous integrated biotelemetry system for emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jaemin; Shin, Il Hyung; Koo, Yoonseo; Jung, Min Yang; Suh, Gil Joon; Kim, Hee Chan

    2007-01-01

    We have developed the second prototype system of Ubiquitous Integrated Biotelemetry System for Emergency Care(UIBSEC) using a HSDPA(High Speed Downlink Packet Access) modem to be used by emergency rescuers to get directions from medical doctors in providing emergency medical services for patients in ambulance. Five vital bio-signal instrumentation modules have been implemented, which include noninvasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), 6-channel electro-cardiogram(ECG), blood glucose level, and body temperature and real-time motion picture of the patient and GPS information are also taken. Measured patient data, captured motion picture and GPS information are then transferred to a doctor's PC through the HSDPA and TCP/IP networks using stand-alone HSDPA modem. Most prominent feature of the developed system is that it is based on the HSDPA backbone networks available in Korea now, through which we will be able to establish a ubiquitous emergency healthcare service system.

  6. Automated construction of node software using attributes in a ubiquitous sensor network environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woojin; Kim, Juil; Kang, JangMook

    2010-01-01

    In sensor networks, nodes must often operate in a demanding environment facing restrictions such as restricted computing resources, unreliable wireless communication and power shortages. Such factors make the development of ubiquitous sensor network (USN) applications challenging. To help developers construct a large amount of node software for sensor network applications easily and rapidly, this paper proposes an approach to the automated construction of node software for USN applications using attributes. In the proposed technique, application construction proceeds by first developing a model for the sensor network and then designing node software by setting the values of the predefined attributes. After that, the sensor network model and the design of node software are verified. The final source codes of the node software are automatically generated from the sensor network model. We illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique by using a gas/light monitoring application through a case study of a Gas and Light Monitoring System based on the Nano-Qplus operating system. We evaluate the technique using a quantitative metric-the memory size of execution code for node software. Using the proposed approach, developers are able to easily construct sensor network applications and rapidly generate a large number of node softwares at a time in a ubiquitous sensor network environment.

  7. A pervasive health monitoring service system based on ubiquitous network technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ren-Guey; Hsiao, Chun-Chieh

    2008-07-01

    The phenomenon of aging society has derived problems such as shortage of medical resources and reduction of quality in healthcare services. This paper presents a system infrastructure for pervasive and long-term healthcare applications, i.e. a ubiquitous network composed of wireless local area network (WLAN) and cable television (CATV) network serving as a platform for monitoring physiological signals. Users can record vital signs including heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature anytime either at home or at frequently visited public places in order to create a personal health file. The whole system was formally implemented in December 2004. Analysis of 2000 questionnaires indicates that 85% of users were satisfied with the provided community-wide healthcare services. Among the services provided by our system, health consultation services offered by family doctors was rated the most important service by 17.9% of respondents, and was followed by control of one's own health condition (16.4% of respondents). Convenience of data access was rated most important by roughly 14.3% of respondents. We proposed and implemented a long-term healthcare system integrating WLAN and CATV networks in the form of a ubiquitous network providing a service platform for physiological monitoring. This system can classify the health levels of the resident according to the variation tendency of his or her physiological signal for important reference of health management.

  8. A SURVEY OF SMART ELECTRICAL BOARDS IN UBIQUITOUS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR GEOMATICS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. R. Moosavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more advanced sensor networks in various fields are developed. There are lots of online sensors spreading around the world. Sensor networks have been used in Geospatial Information Systems (GIS since sensor networks have expanded. Health monitoring, environmental monitoring, traffic monitoring, etc, are the examples of its applications in Geomatics. Sensor network is an infrastructure comprised of sensing (measuring, computing, and communication elements that gives an administrator the ability to instrument, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specified environment. This paper describes about development boards which can be used in sensor networks and their applications in Geomatics and their role in wireless sensor networks and also a comparison between various types of boards. Boards that are discussed in this paper are Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Beagle board, Cubieboard. The Boards because of their great potential are also known as single board computers. This paper is organized in four phases: First, Reviewing on ubiquitous computing and sensor networks. Second, introducing of some electrical boards. Then, defining some criterions for comparison. Finally, comparing the Ubiquitous boards.

  9. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  10. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  11. A theory of human error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  12. Correcting AUC for Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Tworoger, Shelley; Qiu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers are used frequently in epidemiologic and clinical work. The ability of a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between subjects who develop disease (cases) and subjects who do not (controls) is often measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The diagnostic biomarkers are usually measured with error. Ignoring measurement error can cause biased estimation of AUC, which results in misleading interpretation of the efficacy of a diagnostic biomarker. Several methods have been proposed to correct AUC for measurement error, most of which required the normality assumption for the distributions of diagnostic biomarkers. In this article, we propose a new method to correct AUC for measurement error and derive approximate confidence limits for the corrected AUC. The proposed method does not require the normality assumption. Both real data analyses and simulation studies show good performance of the proposed measurement error correction method.

  13. Cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dong Haur; Tan, Nigel C K

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic errors can result in tangible harm to patients. Despite our advances in medicine, the mental processes required to make a diagnosis exhibits shortcomings, causing diagnostic errors. Cognitive factors are found to be an important cause of diagnostic errors. With new understanding from psychology and social sciences, clinical medicine is now beginning to appreciate that our clinical reasoning can take the form of analytical reasoning or heuristics. Different factors like cognitive biases and affective influences can also impel unwary clinicians to make diagnostic errors. Various strategies have been proposed to reduce the effect of cognitive biases and affective influences when clinicians make diagnoses; however evidence for the efficacy of these methods is still sparse. This paper aims to introduce the reader to the cognitive aspect of diagnostic errors, in the hope that clinicians can use this knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy and patient outcomes.

  14. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  15. Neural markers of errors as endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning from errors is fundamental to adaptive human behavior. It requires detecting errors, evaluating what went wrong, and adjusting behavior accordingly. These dynamic adjustments are at the heart of behavioral flexibility and accumulating evidence suggests that deficient error processing contributes to maladaptively rigid and repetitive behavior in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies reveal highly reliable neural markers of error processing. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that abnormalities in these neural markers can serve as sensitive endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the behavioral and neural hallmarks of error processing, their mediation by common genetic polymorphisms, and impairments in schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude that neural markers of errors meet several important criteria as endophenotypes including heritability, established neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates, association with neuropsychiatric disorders, presence in syndromally-unaffected family members, and evidence of genetic mediation. Understanding the mechanisms of error processing deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders may provide novel neural and behavioral targets for treatment and sensitive surrogate markers of treatment response. Treating error processing deficits may improve functional outcome since error signals provide crucial information for flexible adaptation to changing environments. Given the dearth of effective interventions for cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, this represents a promising approach.

  16. Advancing the research agenda for diagnostic error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Laura; Schiff, Gordon D; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an underemphasised and understudied area of patient safety research. We briefly summarise the methods that have been used to conduct research on epidemiology, contributing factors and interventions related to diagnostic error and outline directions for future research. Research methods that have studied epidemiology of diagnostic error provide some estimate on diagnostic error rates. However, there appears to be a large variability in the reported rates due to the heterogeneity of definitions and study methods used. Thus, future methods should focus on obtaining more precise estimates in different settings of care. This would lay the foundation for measuring error rates over time to evaluate improvements. Research methods have studied contributing factors for diagnostic error in both naturalistic and experimental settings. Both approaches have revealed important and complementary information. Newer conceptual models from outside healthcare are needed to advance the depth and rigour of analysis of systems and cognitive insights of causes of error. While the literature has suggested many potentially fruitful interventions for reducing diagnostic errors, most have not been systematically evaluated and/or widely implemented in practice. Research is needed to study promising intervention areas such as enhanced patient involvement in diagnosis, improving diagnosis through the use of electronic tools and identification and reduction of specific diagnostic process 'pitfalls' (eg, failure to conduct appropriate diagnostic evaluation of a breast lump after a 'normal' mammogram). The last decade of research on diagnostic error has made promising steps and laid a foundation for more rigorous methods to advance the field.

  17. Neural markers of errors as endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoach, Dara S; Agam, Yigal

    2013-01-01

    Learning from errors is fundamental to adaptive human behavior. It requires detecting errors, evaluating what went wrong, and adjusting behavior accordingly. These dynamic adjustments are at the heart of behavioral flexibility and accumulating evidence suggests that deficient error processing contributes to maladaptively rigid and repetitive behavior in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies reveal highly reliable neural markers of error processing. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that abnormalities in these neural markers can serve as sensitive endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the behavioral and neural hallmarks of error processing, their mediation by common genetic polymorphisms, and impairments in schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude that neural markers of errors meet several important criteria as endophenotypes including heritability, established neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates, association with neuropsychiatric disorders, presence in syndromally-unaffected family members, and evidence of genetic mediation. Understanding the mechanisms of error processing deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders may provide novel neural and behavioral targets for treatment and sensitive surrogate markers of treatment response. Treating error processing deficits may improve functional outcome since error signals provide crucial information for flexible adaptation to changing environments. Given the dearth of effective interventions for cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, this represents a potentially promising approach.

  18. Residents' numeric inputting error in computerized physician order entry prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Kan; Wei, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system with embedded clinical decision support (CDS) can significantly reduce certain types of prescription error. However, prescription errors still occur. Various factors such as the numeric inputting methods in human computer interaction (HCI) produce different error rates and types, but has received relatively little attention. This study aimed to examine the effects of numeric inputting methods and urgency levels on numeric inputting errors of prescription, as well as categorize the types of errors. Thirty residents participated in four prescribing tasks in which two factors were manipulated: numeric inputting methods (numeric row in the main keyboard vs. numeric keypad) and urgency levels (urgent situation vs. non-urgent situation). Multiple aspects of participants' prescribing behavior were measured in sober prescribing situations. The results revealed that in urgent situations, participants were prone to make mistakes when using the numeric row in the main keyboard. With control of performance in the sober prescribing situation, the effects of the input methods disappeared, and urgency was found to play a significant role in the generalized linear model. Most errors were either omission or substitution types, but the proportion of transposition and intrusion error types were significantly higher than that of the previous research. Among numbers 3, 8, and 9, which were the less common digits used in prescription, the error rate was higher, which was a great risk to patient safety. Urgency played a more important role in CPOE numeric typing error-making than typing skills and typing habits. It was recommended that inputting with the numeric keypad had lower error rates in urgent situation. An alternative design could consider increasing the sensitivity of the keys with lower frequency of occurrence and decimals. To improve the usability of CPOE, numeric keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial

  19. Evaluation of circularity error in drilling of syntactic foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrith H., S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak

    2018-04-01

    Syntactic foams are widely used in structural applications of automobiles, aircrafts and underwater vehicles due to their lightweight properties combined with high compression strength and low moisture absorption. Structural application requires drilling of holes for assembly purpose. In this investigation response surface methodology based mathematical models are used to analyze the effects of cutting speed, feed, drill diameter and filler content on circularity error both at entry and exit level in drilling of glass microballoon reinforced epoxy syntactic foam. Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design using solid coated tungsten carbide twist drills. The parametric analysis reveals that circularity error is highly influenced by drill diameter followed by spindle speed at the entry and exit level. Parametric analysis also reveals that increasing filler content decreases circularity error by 13.65 and 11.96% respectively at entry and exit levels. Average circularity error at the entry level is found to be 23.73% higher than at the exit level.

  20. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human errors in NPP operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jufang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the importance of studying human performance problems is described. Statistical analysis on the significance or frequency of various root-causes and error-modes from a large number of human-error-related events demonstrate that the defects in operation/maintenance procedures, working place factors, communication and training practices are primary root-causes, while omission, transposition, quantitative mistake are the most frequent among the error-modes. Recommendations about domestic research on human performance problem in NPPs are suggested

  2. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  3. AUP1 (Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1) Is a Key Determinant of Hepatic Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Assembly and Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zamani, Mostafa; Thiele, Christoph; Taher, Jennifer; Amir Alipour, Mohsen; Yao, Zemin; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-04-01

    AUP1 (ancient ubiquitous protein 1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein that also localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs), with dual role in protein quality control and LD regulation. Here, we investigated the role of AUP1 in hepatic lipid mobilization and demonstrate critical roles in intracellular biogenesis of apoB100 (apolipoprotein B-100), LD mobilization, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: siRNA (short/small interfering RNA) knockdown of AUP1 significantly increased secretion of VLDL-sized apoB100-containing particles from HepG2 cells, correcting a key metabolic defect in these cells that normally do not secrete much VLDL. Secreted particles contained higher levels of metabolically labeled triglyceride, and AUP1-deficient cells displayed a larger average size of LDs, suggesting a role for AUP1 in lipid mobilization. Importantly, AUP1 was also found to directly interact with apoB100, and this interaction was enhanced with proteasomal inhibition. Knockdown of AUP1 reduced apoB100 ubiquitination, decreased intracellular degradation of newly synthesized apoB100, and enhanced extracellular apoB100 secretion. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of AUP1 knockdown on VLDL assembly was reminiscent of the effect previously observed after MEK-ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase) inhibition; however, further studies indicated that the AUP1 effect was independent of MEK-ERK signaling. In summary, our findings reveal an important role for AUP1 as a regulator of apoB100 stability, hepatic LD metabolism, and intracellular lipidation of VLDL particles. AUP1 may be a crucial factor in apoB100 quality control, determining the rate at which apoB100 is degraded or lipidated to enable VLDL particle assembly and secretion. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Implementing pharmacogenomics decision support across seven European countries: The Ubiquitous Pharmacogenomics (U-PGx) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagec, Kathrin; Koopmann, Rudolf; Crommentuijn-van Rhenen, Mandy; Holsappel, Inge; van der Wouden, Cathelijne H; Konta, Lidija; Xu, Hong; Steinberger, Daniela; Just, Enrico; Swen, Jesse J; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Samwald, Matthias

    2018-02-09

    Clinical pharmacogenomics (PGx) has the potential to make pharmacotherapy safer and more effective by utilizing genetic patient data for drug dosing and selection. However, widespread adoption of PGx depends on its successful integration into routine clinical care through clinical decision support tools, which is often hampered by insufficient or fragmented infrastructures. This paper describes the setup and implementation of a unique multimodal, multilingual clinical decision support intervention consisting of digital, paper-, and mobile-based tools that are deployed across implementation sites in seven European countries participating in the Ubiquitous PGx (U-PGx) project. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  5. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A.; Duro, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location. PMID:27399711

  6. New Challenges for Design Participation in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brereton, Margot; Buur, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of participatory design in the work democracy projects of the 1970’s and 1980’s in Scandinavia, computing technology and people’s engagement with it have undergone fundamental changes. Although participatory design continues to be a precondition for designing computing that aligns...... with human practices, the motivations to engage in participatory design have changed, and the new era requires formats that are different from the original ones. Through the analysis of three case studies this paper seeks to explain why participatory design must be brought to bear on the field of ubiquitous...... computing, and how this challenges the original participatory design thinking. In particular we will argue that more casual, exploratory formats of engagement with people are required, and rather than planning the all-encompassing systems development project, participatory design needs to move towards...

  7. Semantic Brokering of Multimedia Contents for Smart Delivery of Ubiquitous Services in Pervasive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Amato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of modern mobile devices having the capability to interact each other and with the environment in a transparent manner, there is an increase in the development of those applications that are specifically designed for pervasive and ubiquitous environments. Those applications are able to provide a service of interest for the user that depends on context information, such as the user's position, his preferences, the capability of the device and its available resources. Services have to respond in a rational way in manydifferent situations choosing the actions with the best expected result by the user, so making environment not only more connected and efficient, but smarter. Here we present a semantic framework that provides the technology for the development of intelligent, context aware service.

  8. SUPAR: Smartphone as a ubiquitous physical activity recognizer for u-healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Lee, Sungyoung; Yoon, Yongik

    2014-01-01

    Current generation smartphone can be seen as one of the most ubiquitous device for physical activity recognition. In this paper we proposed a physical activity recognizer to provide u-healthcare services in a cost effective manner by utilizing cloud computing infrastructure. Our model is comprised on embedded triaxial accelerometer of the smartphone to sense the body movements and a cloud server to store and process the sensory data for numerous kind of services. We compute the time and frequency domain features over the raw signals and evaluate different machine learning algorithms to identify an accurate activity recognition model for four kinds of physical activities (i.e., walking, running, cycling and hopping). During our experiments we found Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperforms for the aforementioned physical activities as compared to its counterparts. Furthermore, we also explain how smartphone application and cloud server communicate with each other.

  9. DMP: Detouring Using Multiple Paths against Jamming Attack for Ubiquitous Networking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihui Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To successfully realize the ubiquitous network environment including home automation or industrial control systems, it is important to be able to resist a jamming attack. This has recently been considered as an extremely threatening attack because it can collapse the entire network, despite the existence of basic security protocols such as encryption and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of jamming attack tolerant routing using multiple paths based on zones. The proposed scheme divides the network into zones, and manages the candidate forward nodes of neighbor zones. After detecting an attack, detour nodes decide zones for rerouting, and detour packets destined for victim nodes through forward nodes in the decided zones. Simulation results show that our scheme increases the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio and decreases the delay significantly in comparison with rerouting by a general routing protocol on sensor networks, AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector, and a conventional JAM (Jammed Area Mapping service with one reroute.

  10. Special Issue on Entropy-Based Applied Cryptography and Enhanced Security for Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James (Jong Hyuk Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is a basic and important concept in information theory. It is also often used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key in cryptography research areas. Ubiquitous computing (Ubi-comp has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm. In this special issue, we mainly selected and discussed papers related with ore theories based on the graph theory to solve computational problems on cryptography and security, practical technologies; applications and services for Ubi-comp including secure encryption techniques, identity and authentication; credential cloning attacks and countermeasures; switching generator with resistance against the algebraic and side channel attacks; entropy-based network anomaly detection; applied cryptography using chaos function, information hiding and watermark, secret sharing, message authentication, detection and modeling of cyber attacks with Petri Nets, and quantum flows for secret key distribution, etc.

  11. Ubiquitous Green Computing Techniques for High Demand Applications in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Moya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  12. Ubiquitous computing technology for just-in-time motivation of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intille, Stephen S

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a vision of health care where "just-in-time" user interfaces are used to transform people from passive to active consumers of health care. Systems that use computational pattern recognition to detect points of decision, behavior, or consequences automatically can present motivational messages to encourage healthy behavior at just the right time. Further, new ubiquitous computing and mobile computing devices permit information to be conveyed to users at just the right place. In combination, computer systems that present messages at the right time and place can be developed to motivate physical activity and healthy eating. Computational sensing technologies can also be used to measure the impact of the motivational technology on behavior.

  13. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervasio Varela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC and Ambient Intelligence (AmI systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  14. Hospitals of the Future - Ubiquitous Computing support for Medical Work in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the visions and on-going research within creating ubiquitous computing support for medical work in the hospitals of the future. Today, clinical computer systems seldom play any role in the execution of clinical work as such. Electronic Patient Records (EPR) are more often...... located in offices at a hospital rather than at patients' bedside, or in operating theaters. There are a number of challenges to the hardware and software design of contemporary computer systems that make them unsuitable for clinical work. It is, for example, difficult to operate a keyboard and a mouse...... while operating a patient. Research within UbiComp provides a range of new conceptual and technological possibilities, which enable us to move clinical computer support closer to the clinical work setting. An important barnce of the research at the Danish Center for Pervasive Healthcare is to design...

  15. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A; Duro, Richard

    2016-07-07

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  16. Event heap: a coordination infrastructure for dynamic heterogeneous application interactions in ubiquitous computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Fox, Armando; Winograd, Terry A.; Hanrahan, Patrick M.

    2010-04-20

    An efficient and adaptive middleware infrastructure called the Event Heap system dynamically coordinates application interactions and communications in a ubiquitous computing environment, e.g., an interactive workspace, having heterogeneous software applications running on various machines and devices across different platforms. Applications exchange events via the Event Heap. Each event is characterized by a set of unordered, named fields. Events are routed by matching certain attributes in the fields. The source and target versions of each field are automatically set when an event is posted or used as a template. The Event Heap system implements a unique combination of features, both intrinsic to tuplespaces and specific to the Event Heap, including content based addressing, support for routing patterns, standard routing fields, limited data persistence, query persistence/registration, transparent communication, self-description, flexible typing, logical/physical centralization, portable client API, at most once per source first-in-first-out ordering, and modular restartability.

  17. Ubiquitous green computing techniques for high demand applications in Smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater, Marina; Sanchez, Cesar; Ayala, Jose L; Moya, Jose M; Risco-Martín, José L

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  18. DMP: detouring using multiple paths against jamming attack for ubiquitous networking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihui; Chae, Kijoon

    2010-01-01

    To successfully realize the ubiquitous network environment including home automation or industrial control systems, it is important to be able to resist a jamming attack. This has recently been considered as an extremely threatening attack because it can collapse the entire network, despite the existence of basic security protocols such as encryption and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of jamming attack tolerant routing using multiple paths based on zones. The proposed scheme divides the network into zones, and manages the candidate forward nodes of neighbor zones. After detecting an attack, detour nodes decide zones for rerouting, and detour packets destined for victim nodes through forward nodes in the decided zones. Simulation results show that our scheme increases the PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and decreases the delay significantly in comparison with rerouting by a general routing protocol on sensor networks, AODV (Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector), and a conventional JAM (Jammed Area Mapping) service with one reroute.

  19. The Impact of Ubiquitous Technologies on the Art Museum as Urban [Political] Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mogens; Søndergaard, Morten

    art practice. Our hypothesis is that these new domains have a more general existence and ’profile’ in the paradigm of media art – even though the following is based on the process of creating the ‘MAP – Media Art Platform’ at the Museum of Contemporary Art (MFSK) in Roskilde, Denmark, between 2005...... and 2008, a process in which we both were involved as media artist and media art curator, respectively. Our focus in this article is to investigate further the status of these new competencies and roles, and to ask: what are these new domains that emerge with regard to the artist, the software developer......The Museum is part of a ubiquitous framing of cultural production and a common, urban (political) space. In later years, technology has enhanced the ubiquity, as well as challenged the foundation of, the Museum. From this enhancement and challenge, which is transforming the museum itself, new...

  20. Developing a ubiquitous health management system with healthy diet control for metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Kai-Hong; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Self-management in healthcare can allow patients managing their health data anytime and everywhere for prevention of chronic diseases. This study established a prototype of ubiquitous health management system (UHMS) with healthy diet control (HDC) for people who need services of metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan. System infrastructure comprises of three portals and a database tier with mutually supportive components to achieve functionality of diet diaries, nutrition guides, and health risk assessments for self-health management. With the diet, nutrition, and personal health database, the design enables the analytical diagrams on the interactive interface to support a mobile application for diet diary, a Web-based platform for health management, and the modules of research and development for medical care. For database integrity, dietary data can be stored at offline mode prior to transformation between mobile device and server site at online mode. The UHMS-HDC was developed by open source technology for ubiquitous health management with personalized dietary criteria. The system integrates mobile, internet, and electronic healthcare services with the diet diary functions to manage healthy diet behaviors of users. The virtual patients were involved to simulate the self-health management procedure. The assessment functions were approved by capturing the screen snapshots in the procedure. The proposed system development was capable for practical intervention. This approach details the expandable framework with collaborative components regarding the self-developed UHMS-HDC. The multi-disciplinary applications for self-health management can support the healthcare professionals to reduce medical resources and improve healthcare effects for the patient who requires monitoring personal health condition with diet control. The proposed system can be practiced for intervention in the hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Error field considerations for BPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHaye, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Irregularities in the position of poloidal and/or toroidal field coils in tokamaks produce resonant toroidal asymmetries in the vacuum magnetic fields. Otherwise stable tokamak discharges become non-linearly unstable to disruptive locked modes when subjected to low level error fields. Because of the field errors, magnetic islands are produced which would not otherwise occur in tearing mode table configurations; a concomitant reduction of the total confinement can result. Poloidal and toroidal asymmetries arise in the heat flux to the divertor target. In this paper, the field errors from perturbed BPX coils are used in a field line tracing code of the BPX equilibrium to study these deleterious effects. Limits on coil irregularities for device design and fabrication are computed along with possible correcting coils for reducing such field errors

  2. The uncorrected refractive error challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin Naidoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Refractive error affects people of all ages, socio-economic status and ethnic groups. The most recent statistics estimate that, worldwide, 32.4 million people are blind and 191 million people have vision impairment. Vision impairment has been defined based on distance visual acuity only, and uncorrected distance refractive error (mainly myopia is the single biggest cause of worldwide vision impairment. However, when we also consider near visual impairment, it is clear that even more people are affected. From research it was estimated that the number of people with vision impairment due to uncorrected distance refractive error was 107.8 million,1 and the number of people affected by uncorrected near refractive error was 517 million, giving a total of 624.8 million people.

  3. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying

    2009-08-27

    Regression quantiles can be substantially biased when the covariates are measured with error. In this paper we propose a new method that produces consistent linear quantile estimation in the presence of covariate measurement error. The method corrects the measurement error induced bias by constructing joint estimating equations that simultaneously hold for all the quantile levels. An iterative EM-type estimation algorithm to obtain the solutions to such joint estimation equations is provided. The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a longitudinal study with an unusual measurement error structure. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  4. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  5. Numerical optimization with computational errors

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    This book studies the approximate solutions of optimization problems in the presence of computational errors. A number of results are presented on the convergence behavior of algorithms in a Hilbert space; these algorithms are examined taking into account computational errors. The author illustrates that algorithms generate a good approximate solution, if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Known computational errors are examined with the aim of determining an approximate solution. Researchers and students interested in the optimization theory and its applications will find this book instructive and informative. This monograph contains 16 chapters; including a chapters devoted to the subgradient projection algorithm, the mirror descent algorithm, gradient projection algorithm, the Weiszfelds method, constrained convex minimization problems, the convergence of a proximal point method in a Hilbert space, the continuous subgradient method, penalty methods and Newton’s meth...

  6. Dual processing and diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates.

  7. Detecting self-produced speech errors before and after articulation: An ERP investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Michael Trewartha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that speech production errors are monitored by the same neural system involved in monitoring other types of action errors. Behavioral evidence has shown that speech errors can be detected and corrected prior to articulation, yet the neural basis for such pre-articulatory speech error monitoring is poorly understood. The current study investigated speech error monitoring using a phoneme-substitution task known to elicit speech errors. Stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP analyses comparing correct and incorrect utterances were used to assess pre-articulatory error monitoring and response-locked ERP analyses were used to assess post-articulatory monitoring. Our novel finding in the stimulus-locked analysis revealed that words that ultimately led to a speech error were associated with a larger P2 component at midline sites (FCz, Cz, and CPz. This early positivity may reflect the detection of an error in speech formulation, or a predictive mechanism to signal the potential for an upcoming speech error. The data also revealed that general conflict monitoring mechanisms are involved during this task as both correct and incorrect responses elicited an anterior N2 component typically associated with conflict monitoring. The response-locked analyses corroborated previous observations that self-produced speech errors led to a fronto-central ERN. These results demonstrate that speech errors can be detected prior to articulation, and that speech error monitoring relies on a central error monitoring mechanism.

  8. Errors Analysis of Students in Mathematics Department to Learn Plane Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirna, M.

    2018-04-01

    This article describes the results of qualitative descriptive research that reveal the locations, types and causes of student error in answering the problem of plane geometry at the problem-solving level. Answers from 59 students on three test items informed that students showed errors ranging from understanding the concepts and principles of geometry itself to the error in applying it to problem solving. Their type of error consists of concept errors, principle errors and operational errors. The results of reflection with four subjects reveal the causes of the error are: 1) student learning motivation is very low, 2) in high school learning experience, geometry has been seen as unimportant, 3) the students' experience using their reasoning in solving the problem is very less, and 4) students' reasoning ability is still very low.

  9. Ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) to improve engagement and behavior for smart campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, K.; Mardi, S. N. S.; Hariadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    The recent popularity of internet messenger based smartphone technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and ubiquitous learning experience for smart campus development. However, the design ubiquitous learning model using interactive internet messenger group (IIMG) and empirical evidence that would favor a broad application of mobile and ubiquitous learning in smart campus settings to improve engagement and behavior is still limited. In addition, the expectation that mobile learning could improve engagement and behavior on smart campus cannot be confirmed because the majority of the reviewed studies followed instructions paradigms. This article aims to present ubiquitous learning model design and showing learners’ experiences in improved engagement and behavior using IIMG for learner-learner and learner-lecturer interactions. The method applied in this paper includes design process and quantitative analysis techniques, with the purpose of identifying scenarios of ubiquitous learning and realize the impressions of learners and lecturers about engagement and behavior aspect, and its contribution to learning.

  10. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  11. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn DH

    2013-01-01

    David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort syst...

  12. Eliminating US hospital medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Steinebach, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two decades and present a closed-loop mistake-proof operation system for surgery processes that would likely eliminate preventable medical errors. The design method used is a combination of creating a service blueprint, implementing the six sigma DMAIC cycle, developing cause-and-effect diagrams as well as devising poka-yokes in order to develop a robust surgery operation process for a typical US hospital. In the improve phase of the six sigma DMAIC cycle, a number of poka-yoke techniques are introduced to prevent typical medical errors (identified through cause-and-effect diagrams) that may occur in surgery operation processes in US hospitals. It is the authors' assertion that implementing the new service blueprint along with the poka-yokes, will likely result in the current medical error rate to significantly improve to the six-sigma level. Additionally, designing as many redundancies as possible in the delivery of care will help reduce medical errors. Primary healthcare providers should strongly consider investing in adequate doctor and nurse staffing, and improving their education related to the quality of service delivery to minimize clinical errors. This will lead to an increase in higher fixed costs, especially in the shorter time frame. This paper focuses additional attention needed to make a sound technical and business case for implementing six sigma tools to eliminate medical errors that will enable hospital managers to increase their hospital's profitability in the long run and also ensure patient safety.

  13. Approximation errors during variance propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinsmore, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analyses are often performed by constructing and quantifying large fault trees. The inputs to these models are component failure events whose probability of occuring are best represented as random variables. This paper examines the errors inherent in two approximation techniques used to calculate the top event's variance from the inputs' variance. Two sample fault trees are evaluated and several three dimensional plots illustrating the magnitude of the error over a wide range of input means and variances are given

  14. Spelling Errors of Iranian School-Level EFL Learners: Potential Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Saeidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of examining the sources of spelling errors of Iranian school level EFL learners, the present researchers analyzed the dictation samples of 51 Iranian senior and junior high school male and female students majoring at an Iranian school in Baku, Azerbaijan. The content analysis of the data revealed three main sources (intralingual, interlingual, and unique with seven patterns of errors. The frequency of intralingual errors far outnumbers that of interlingual errors. Unique errors were even less. Therefore, in-service training programs may include some instruction on raising the teachers’ awareness of the different sources of errors to focus on during the teaching program.

  15. [Medical errors: inevitable but preventable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, R W

    2001-10-27

    Medical errors are increasingly reported in the lay press. Studies have shown dramatic error rates of 10 percent or even higher. From a methodological point of view, studying the frequency and causes of medical errors is far from simple. Clinical decisions on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions are always taken within a clinical context. Reviewing outcomes of interventions without taking into account both the intentions and the arguments for a particular action will limit the conclusions from a study on the rate and preventability of errors. The interpretation of the preventability of medical errors is fraught with difficulties and probably highly subjective. Blaming the doctor personally does not do justice to the actual situation and especially the organisational framework. Attention for and improvement of the organisational aspects of error are far more important then litigating the person. To err is and will remain human and if we want to reduce the incidence of faults we must be able to learn from our mistakes. That requires an open attitude towards medical mistakes, a continuous effort in their detection, a sound analysis and, where feasible, the institution of preventive measures.

  16. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  17. Medical Error and Moral Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbeling, Dieneke

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the concept of moral luck. Moral luck is discussed in the context of medical error, especially an error of omission that occurs frequently, but only rarely has adverse consequences. As an example, a failure to compare the label on a syringe with the drug chart results in the wrong medication being administered and the patient dies. However, this error may have previously occurred many times with no tragic consequences. Discussions on moral luck can highlight conflicting intuitions. Should perpetrators receive a harsher punishment because of an adverse outcome, or should they be dealt with in the same way as colleagues who have acted similarly, but with no adverse effects? An additional element to the discussion, specifically with medical errors, is that according to the evidence currently available, punishing individual practitioners does not seem to be effective in preventing future errors. The following discussion, using relevant philosophical and empirical evidence, posits a possible solution for the moral luck conundrum in the context of medical error: namely, making a distinction between the duty to make amends and assigning blame. Blame should be assigned on the basis of actual behavior, while the duty to make amends is dependent on the outcome.

  18. Reliability and error analysis on xenon/CT CBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative error analysis of a simulation model of xenon/CT CBF in order to investigate the behavior and effect of different types of errors such as CT noise, motion artifacts, lower percentage of xenon supply, lower tissue enhancements, etc. A mathematical model is built to simulate these errors. By adjusting the initial parameters of the simulation model, we can scale the Gaussian noise, control the percentage of xenon supply, and change the tissue enhancement with different kVp settings. The motion artifact will be treated separately by geometrically shifting the sequential CT images. The input function is chosen from an end-tidal xenon curve of a practical study. Four kinds of cerebral blood flow, 10, 20, 50, and 80 cc/100 g/min, are examined under different error environments and the corresponding CT images are generated following the currently popular timing protocol. The simulated studies will be fed to a regular xenon/CT CBF system for calculation and evaluation. A quantitative comparison is given to reveal the behavior and effect of individual error resources. Mixed error testing is also provided to inspect the combination effect of errors. The experiment shows that CT noise is still a major error resource. The motion artifact affects the CBF results more geometrically than quantitatively. Lower xenon supply has a lesser effect on the results, but will reduce the signal/noise ratio. The lower xenon enhancement will lower the flow values in all areas of brain. (author)

  19. 11th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering & 12th International Conference on Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Choo, Kim-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE2017) and the 12th International Conference on Future Information Technology (FutureTech2017), held in Seoul, South Korea on May 22–24, 2017. These two conferences provided an opportunity for academic and industrial professionals to discuss recent advances in the area of multimedia and ubiquitous environments including models and systems, new directions, and novel applications associated with the utilization and acceptance of ubiquitous computing devices and systems. The resulting papers address the latest technological innovations in the fields of digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience, HCI, and security and trust computing. The book offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, including students, academic researchers, and...

  20. DS-ARP: a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks based on routing trace for ubiquitous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Su; Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Jeong, Hwa-Young; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the convenience, ubiquitous computing suffers from many threats and security risks. Security considerations in the ubiquitous network are required to create enriched and more secure ubiquitous environments. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to identify the IP address and the physical address of the associated network card. ARP is designed to work without problems in general environments. However, since it does not include security measures against malicious attacks, in its design, an attacker can impersonate another host using ARP spoofing or access important information. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks using a routing trace, which can be used to protect the internal network. Tracing routing can find the change of network movement path. The proposed scheme provides high constancy and compatibility because it does not alter the ARP protocol. In addition, it is simple and stable, as it does not use a complex algorithm or impose extra load on the computer system.

  1. Updating expected action outcome in the medial frontal cortex involves an evaluation of error type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin E; Steinhauser, Marco

    2013-10-02

    Forming expectations about the outcome of an action is an important prerequisite for action control and reinforcement learning in the human brain. The medial frontal cortex (MFC) has been shown to play an important role in the representation of outcome expectations, particularly when an update of expected outcome becomes necessary because an error is detected. However, error detection alone is not always sufficient to compute expected outcome because errors can occur in various ways and different types of errors may be associated with different outcomes. In the present study, we therefore investigate whether updating expected outcome in the human MFC is based on an evaluation of error type. Our approach was to consider an electrophysiological correlate of MFC activity on errors, the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), in a task in which two types of errors could occur. Because the two error types were associated with different amounts of monetary loss, updating expected outcomes on error trials required an evaluation of error type. Our data revealed a pattern of Ne/ERN amplitudes that closely mirrored the amount of monetary loss associated with each error type, suggesting that outcome expectations are updated based on an evaluation of error type. We propose that this is achieved by a proactive evaluation process that anticipates error types by continuously monitoring error sources or by dynamically representing possible response-outcome relations.

  2. Learning time-dependent noise to reduce logical errors: real time error rate estimation in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.

  3. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections using mobile devices and ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoain, Felipe; Perez-Navarro, Antoni; Caylà, Joan A; Aviñó, Constanza Jacques; de Olalla, Patricia García

    2015-05-03

    Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social interrelationships, but also sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures. In this paper, we will focus on situations in which people use applications to meet sexual partners nearby, which could increase their chance of exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI). How can we encourage users to adopt preventive measures without violating their privacy or infringing on the character of the application? To achieve the goal of preventing STI, we have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a prototype software package. This prototype follows the RESTful services principles and has two parts: an Android OS application with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and designed according to General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP), and a server with a web page. To choose the preventive messages, we performed a test in 17 men who have sex with men (MSM). Our software sends preventive notifications to users when it detects situations such as the activation of particular applications on their smartphones, or their proximity to areas with a high probability of intercourse (hot zones). The underlying idea is the same as that for warning messages on cigarette packets, since users read the message just when they are going to smoke. The messages used have been selected from a list that has been rated by the users themselves. The most popular message is "Enjoy sex and enjoy life. Do not expose yourself to HIV". The user is unaware of the software, which runs in the background. Ubiquitous computing may be useful for alerting users with preventive and educational messages. The proposed application is non-intrusive because: 1) the users themselves decide to install it and, therefore, users' privacy rights are preserved; 2) it sends a message that helps users think about taking appropriate preventive measures; and 3) it works in the

  4. Introducing laptops to children: An examination of ubiquitous computing in Grade 3 reading, language, and mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Bernard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-called ubiquitous computing program in a Quebec school district. CAT-3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer implementation. Overall gain was found in all three content areas, but was differential when compared with the norms of the CAT-3. Additionally, some evidence suggested a differential gain for lower and middle-level learners during the school year. Teachers were administered an instrument called the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ that assessed the purposes and extent of technology integration. Negative correlations were found in reading achievement gain for items associated with the higher use of communicative, evaluative, and creative uses of computers. Open-ended teacher responses indicated the need for more professional support for instructional implementations of computing. Résumé: Cette étude examine les performances accompagnant l’implantation d’un programme d’ordinateurs portables en 3 ième année du primaire, aussi appelé programme d’ubiquité computationnelle, dans une école d’un district scolaire du Québec. Des batteries de tests, CAT-3 en lecture, en langue et en mathématiques ont été administrées à la fin de la deuxième année du primaire et une autre fois à la fin de la troisième année du primaire, après un an d’implantation des ordinateurs. Un gain fut observé dans les trois matières, mais était différencié lorsque comparé aux normes du CAT-3. De plus, un gain différencié fut mis en évidence pour les apprenants de niveau inférieur et moyen durant l’année scolaire. Les enseignants ont rempli le Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ qui mesure le but et l’étendue de l’intégration technologique. Des corrélations négatives ont été trouvées en

  5. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  6. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn DH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system.Keywords: medical malpractice, tort reform, no fault compensation, alternative dispute resolution, system errors

  7. Spacecraft and propulsion technician error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Clyde

    Commercial aviation and commercial space similarly launch, fly, and land passenger vehicles. Unlike aviation, the U.S. government has not established maintenance policies for commercial space. This study conducted a mixed methods review of 610 U.S. space launches from 1984 through 2011, which included 31 failures. An analysis of the failure causal factors showed that human error accounted for 76% of those failures, which included workmanship error accounting for 29% of the failures. With the imminent future of commercial space travel, the increased potential for the loss of human life demands that changes be made to the standardized procedures, training, and certification to reduce human error and failure rates. Several recommendations were made by this study to the FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, space launch vehicle operators, and maintenance technician schools in an effort to increase the safety of the space transportation passengers.

  8. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Errors of Inference Due to Errors of Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Robert L.; Werts, Charles E.

    Failure to consider errors of measurement when using partial correlation or analysis of covariance techniques can result in erroneous conclusions. Certain aspects of this problem are discussed and particular attention is given to issues raised in a recent article by Brewar, Campbell, and Crano. (Author)

  10. Measurement error models with uncertainty about the error variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberski, D.L.; Satorra, A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that measurement error in observable variables induces bias in estimates in standard regression analysis and that structural equation models are a typical solution to this problem. Often, multiple indicator equations are subsumed as part of the structural equation model, allowing

  11. Reward positivity: Reward prediction error or salience prediction error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Sepideh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-08-01

    The reward positivity is a component of the human ERP elicited by feedback stimuli in trial-and-error learning and guessing tasks. A prominent theory holds that the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal that is sensitive to outcome valence, being larger for unexpected positive events relative to unexpected negative events (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). Although the theory has found substantial empirical support, most of these studies have utilized either monetary or performance feedback to test the hypothesis. However, in apparent contradiction to the theory, a recent study found that unexpected physical punishments also elicit the reward positivity (Talmi, Atkinson, & El-Deredy, 2013). The authors of this report argued that the reward positivity reflects a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. To investigate this finding further, in the present study participants navigated a virtual T maze and received feedback on each trial under two conditions. In a reward condition, the feedback indicated that they would either receive a monetary reward or not and in a punishment condition the feedback indicated that they would receive a small shock or not. We found that the feedback stimuli elicited a typical reward positivity in the reward condition and an apparently delayed reward positivity in the punishment condition. Importantly, this signal was more positive to the stimuli that predicted the omission of a possible punishment relative to stimuli that predicted a forthcoming punishment, which is inconsistent with the salience hypothesis. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. ERROR HANDLING IN INTEGRATION WORKFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Nazarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiments performed while solving multidisciplinary engineering and scientific problems require joint usage of multiple software tools. Further, when following a preset plan of experiment or searching for optimum solu- tions, the same sequence of calculations is run multiple times with various simulation parameters, input data, or conditions while overall workflow does not change. Automation of simulations like these requires implementing of a workflow where tool execution and data exchange is usually controlled by a special type of software, an integration environment or plat- form. The result is an integration workflow (a platform-dependent implementation of some computing workflow which, in the context of automation, is a composition of weakly coupled (in terms of communication intensity typical subtasks. These compositions can then be decomposed back into a few workflow patterns (types of subtasks interaction. The pat- terns, in their turn, can be interpreted as higher level subtasks.This paper considers execution control and data exchange rules that should be imposed by the integration envi- ronment in the case of an error encountered by some integrated software tool. An error is defined as any abnormal behavior of a tool that invalidates its result data thus disrupting the data flow within the integration workflow. The main requirementto the error handling mechanism implemented by the integration environment is to prevent abnormal termination of theentire workflow in case of missing intermediate results data. Error handling rules are formulated on the basic pattern level and on the level of a composite task that can combine several basic patterns as next level subtasks. The cases where workflow behavior may be different, depending on user's purposes, when an error takes place, and possible error handling op- tions that can be specified by the user are also noted in the work.

  13. Medication errors: definitions and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2009-01-01

    To understand medication errors and to identify preventive strategies, we need to classify them and define the terms that describe them. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey–Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). A medication error is ‘a failure in the treatment process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient’. Prescribing faults, a subset of medication errors, should be distinguished from prescription errors. A prescribing fault is ‘a failure in the prescribing [decision-making] process that leads to, or has the potential to lead to, harm to the patient’. The converse of this, ‘balanced prescribing’ is ‘the use of a medicine that is appropriate to the patient's condition and, within the limits created by the uncertainty that attends therapeutic decisions, in a dosage regimen that optimizes the balance of benefit to harm’. This excludes all forms of prescribing faults, such as irrational, inappropriate, and ineffective prescribing, underprescribing and overprescribing. A prescription error is ‘a failure in the prescription writing process that results in a wrong instruction about one or more of the normal features of a prescription’. The ‘normal features’ include the identity of the recipient, the identity of the drug, the formulation, dose, route, timing, frequency, and duration of administration. Medication errors can be classified, invoking psychological theory, as knowledge-based mistakes, rule-based mistakes, action-based slips, and memory-based lapses. This classification informs preventive strategies. PMID:19594526

  14. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  15. Human Error and Organizational Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern for performance is a topic that raises interest in the businessenvironment but also in other areas that – even if they seem distant from thisworld – are aware of, interested in or conditioned by the economy development.As individual performance is very much influenced by the human resource, wechose to analyze in this paper the mechanisms that generate – consciously or not–human error nowadays.Moreover, the extremely tense Romanian context,where failure is rather a rule than an exception, made us investigate thephenomenon of generating a human error and the ways to diminish its effects.

  16. Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error

  17. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intae Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments.

  18. Design and implementation of an architectural framework for web portals in a ubiquitous pervasive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad Taqi; Yoo, Seung-Wha; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Joo, Seong-Soon; Jeong, Wun-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Web Portals function as a single point of access to information on the World Wide Web (WWW). The web portal always contacts the portal's gateway for the information flow that causes network traffic over the Internet. Moreover, it provides real time/dynamic access to the stored information, but not access to the real time information. This inherent functionality of web portals limits their role for resource constrained digital devices in the Ubiquitous era (U-era). This paper presents a framework for the web portal in the U-era. We have introduced the concept of Local Regions in the proposed framework, so that the local queries could be solved locally rather than having to route them over the Internet. Moreover, our framework enables one-to-one device communication for real time information flow. To provide an in-depth analysis, firstly, we provide an analytical model for query processing at the servers for our framework-oriented web portal. At the end, we have deployed a testbed, as one of the world's largest IP based wireless sensor networks testbed, and real time measurements are observed that prove the efficacy and workability of the proposed framework.

  19. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin P. Burmeister

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working. Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  20. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Garcia Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Wistar Kyoto (WKY rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades.

  1. Vertical Handover Algorithm for WBANs in Ubiquitous Healthcare with Quality of Service Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Doan Van

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have become an emerging technology in healthcare, where patients are equipped withwearable and implantable body sensor nodes to gather sensory information for remote monitoring. The increasing development of coordinator devices on patients enables the internetworking of WBANs in heterogeneous wireless networks to deliver physiological information that is collected at remote terminals in a timely fashion. However, in this type of network, providing a seamless handover with a guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS, especially emergency services, is a challenging task. In this paper, we proposed an effective Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM handover algorithm that guarantees seamless connectivity. A patient’s mobile devices automatically connect to the best network that fulfills the QoS requirements of different types of applications. Additionally, we integrated a Content-Centric Networking (CCN processing module into different wireless networks to reduce packet loss, enhance QoS and avoid unnecessary handovers by leveraging in-network caching to achieve efficient content dissemination for ubiquitous healthcare. Simulation results proved that our proposed approach forthe model with CCN outperforms the model without CCN and Received Signal Strength Vertical Handoff (RSS-VHD in terms of the number of handovers, enhancing QoS, packet loss, and energy efficiency.

  2. The ubiquitous reflex and its critics in post-revolutionary Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2009-03-01

    In the last century, the reflex was more than a scientific concept: it was a cultural idiom that could be used to various aims--political, scholarly, and artistic. In Russia in the 1920s, the reflex became a ubiquitous notion and a current word, part of the revolutionary discourse and, finally, a password to modernity. Two major factors contributed to it: physiological theories of the reflex, widespread in Russia at the early twentieth-century, and the materialist philosophy backed after the Revolution by the Communist party. Everybody who wished to be modern and materialist, in conformity with the official communist views, had to refer to reflexes. Yet, even in this period, the concept was not unproblematic and was criticized by some scientists, philosophers, artists and even Party members. In the paper, I describe both the array of uses of the term and the criticism it received in political, scientific and artistic discourses. It is not uncommon that, taking their origins in culture and common language, scientific concepts later return there in the form of metaphors. Similarly, the reflex was made into a rigorous scientific concept in the nineteenth century but, in the next century, it circulated as a cultural idiom penetrating various areas of political, artistic and academic life.

  3. Miscoding and mutagenic properties of 8-oxoguanine and abasic sites: Ubiquitous lesions in damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grollman, A.P.; Takeshita, Masaru

    1995-01-01

    More than twenty oxidatively-damaged bases, including 8-oxoguanine, have been found to occur in genomic DNA. Some of these lesions block DNA replication and are potentially lethal; others generate mutations which can initiate carcinogenesis and promote cellular aging. In this report, the authors focus attention on the mutagenicity and repair of 8-oxoguanine. Kasai and Nishimura's discovery that hydroxyl radicals react with guanine residues in DNA to form 8-oxoguanine and the development of sensitive methods for the detection and quantitation of this modified base led to the observation that approximately 1 in 10 5 guanine residues in mammalian DNA are oxidized at the C-8 position. DNA containing 8-oxoguanine and synthetic analogs of the abasic site have been used to investigate the miscoding and mutagenic potential of these ubiquitous lesions. Studies in the laboratory were facilitated by the development of solid state synthetic methods by which these lesions could be introduced at defined positions in DNA. In this paper, the authors review studies in which 8-oxoguanine and abasic sites have been used in model systems to explore various early events in the replication of selectively damaged DNA

  4. Printable polymer actuators from ionic liquid, soluble polyimide, and ubiquitous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Satoru; Ohtsuki, Yuto; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2013-07-10

    We present here printable high-performance polymer actuators comprising ionic liquid (IL), soluble polyimide, and ubiquitous carbon materials. Polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and reliable mechanical strength are required for high-performance polymer actuators. The developed polymer electrolytes comprised a soluble sulfonated polyimide (SPI) and IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2mim][NTf2]), and they exhibited acceptable ionic conductivity up to 1 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) and favorable mechanical properties (elastic modulus >1 × 10(7) Pa). Polymer actuators based on SPI/[C2mim][NTf2] electrolytes were prepared using inexpensive activated carbon (AC) together with highly electron-conducting carbon such as acetylene black (AB), vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF), and Ketjen black (KB). The resulting polymer actuators have a trilaminar electric double-layer capacitor structure, consisting of a polymer electrolyte layer sandwiched between carbon electrode layers. Displacement, response speed, and durability of the actuators depended on the combination of carbons. Especially the actuators with mixed AC/KB carbon electrodes exhibited relatively large displacement and high-speed response, and they kept 80% of the initial displacement even after more than 5000 cycles. The generated force of the actuators correlated with the elastic modulus of SPI/[C2mim][NTf2] electrolytes. The displacement of the actuators was proportional to the accumulated electric charge in the electrodes, regardless of carbon materials, and agreed well with the previously proposed displacement model.

  5. SiC: An Agent Based Architecture for Preventing and Detecting Attacks to Ubiquitous Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Cristian; de Paz, Yanira; Bajo, Javier; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Juan M.

    One of the main attacks to ubiquitous databases is the structure query language (SQL) injection attack, which causes severe damages both in the commercial aspect and in the user’s confidence. This chapter proposes the SiC architecture as a solution to the SQL injection attack problem. This is a hierarchical distributed multiagent architecture, which involves an entirely new approach with respect to existing architectures for the prevention and detection of SQL injections. SiC incorporates a kind of intelligent agent, which integrates a case-based reasoning system. This agent, which is the core of the architecture, allows the application of detection techniques based on anomalies as well as those based on patterns, providing a great degree of autonomy, flexibility, robustness and dynamic scalability. The characteristics of the multiagent system allow an architecture to detect attacks from different types of devices, regardless of the physical location. The architecture has been tested on a medical database, guaranteeing safe access from various devices such as PDAs and notebook computers.

  6. Ubiquitous expression of MAKORIN-2 in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells and its growth promoting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Yiu Lee

    Full Text Available Makorin-2 (MKRN2 is a highly conserved protein and yet its functions are largely unknown. We investigated the expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1 in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, and leukemia cell lines. We also attempted to delineate the role of MKRN2 in umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem/progenitor cells and K562 cell line by over-expression and inhibition of MKRN2 through lentivirus transduction and shRNA nucleofection, respectively. Our results provided the first evidence on the ubiquitous expression of MKRN2 in normal hematopoietic cells, embryonic stem cell lines, primary leukemia and leukemic cell lines of myeloid, lymphoid, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. The expression levels of MKRN2 were generally higher in primary leukemia samples compared with those in age-matched normal BM cells. In all leukemia subtypes, there was no significant correlation between expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1. sh-MKRN2-silenced CD34+ cells had a significantly lower proliferation capacity and decreased levels of the early stem/progenitor subpopulation (CFU-GEMM compared with control cultures. Over-expression of MKRN2 in K562 cells increased cell proliferation. Our results indicated possible roles of MKRN2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

  7. The New Transparency: Police Violence in the Context of Ubiquitous Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brucato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Media and surveillance scholars often comment on the purported empowering quality of transparency, which they expect participatory media to promote. From its Enlightenment origins, transparency is related to accountability and legitimacy: its increase is believed to promote these. It has earned a position as an unassailed, prime normative value in contemporary liberal and social democracies. Though still valued, transparency is undergoing change in an era of ubiquitous surveillance. Publics still anticipate governmental and corporate self-disclosure and for such entities to operate visibly; but increasingly, deliberate and incidental surveillance by a range of sources, both institutional and informal, documents the activities of such authorities. More often, civilians participate in producing or amplifying transparency. This article explores this new transparency through a study of U.S. police, focusing on the discourse of police accountability activists and cop watchers to describe how their work adapts traditional notions of transparency. Recognizing the resilience of the police institution despite the new visibility of its violence, the article challenges the presumption that increased transparency will promote institutional reform or crisis. It concludes with a critical comment on prominent expectations that promoting the visibility of police can protect publics and ensure police accountability. This conclusion has implications for other forms of the new transparency, including whistleblowing (e.g., Edward Snowden and leaking (e.g., WikiLeaks.

  8. Aldehyde suppression of copepod recruitment in blooms of a ubiquitous planktonic diatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianora, Adrianna; Miralto, Antonio; Poulet, Serge A.; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Casotti, Raffaella; Pohnert, Georg; Wichard, Thomas; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Terrazzano, Giuseppe; Smetacek, Victor

    2004-05-01

    The growth cycle in nutrient-rich, aquatic environments starts with a diatom bloom that ends in mass sinking of ungrazed cells and phytodetritus. The low grazing pressure on these blooms has been attributed to the inability of overwintering copepod populations to track them temporally. We tested an alternative explanation: that dominant diatom species impair the reproductive success of their grazers. We compared larval development of a common overwintering copepod fed on a ubiquitous, early-blooming diatom species with its development when fed on a typical post-bloom dinoflagellate. Development was arrested in all larvae in which both mothers and their larvae were fed the diatom diet. Mortality remained high even if larvae were switched to the dinoflagellate diet. Aldehydes, cleaved from a fatty acid precursor by enzymes activated within seconds after crushing of the cell, elicit the teratogenic effect. This insidious mechanism, which does not deter the herbivore from feeding but impairs its recruitment, will restrain the cohort size of the next generation of early-rising overwinterers. Such a transgenerational plant-herbivore interaction could explain the recurringly inefficient use of a predictable, potentially valuable food resource-the spring diatom bloom-by marine zooplankton.

  9. Ontological knowledge engine and health screening data enabled ubiquitous personalized physical fitness (UFIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu; Chih, Meng-Chun

    2014-03-07

    Good physical fitness generally makes the body less prone to common diseases. A personalized exercise plan that promotes a balanced approach to fitness helps promotes fitness, while inappropriate forms of exercise can have adverse consequences for health. This paper aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge-based system for generating custom-designed exercise plans based on a user's profile and health status, incorporating international standard Health Level Seven International (HL7) data on physical fitness and health screening. The generated plan exposing Representational State Transfer (REST) style web services which can be accessed from any Internet-enabled device and deployed in cloud computing environments. To ensure the practicality of the generated exercise plans, encapsulated knowledge used as a basis for inference in the system is acquired from domain experts. The proposed Ubiquitous Exercise Plan Generation for Personalized Physical Fitness (UFIT) will not only improve health-related fitness through generating personalized exercise plans, but also aid users in avoiding inappropriate work outs.

  10. Fuzzy Computing Model of Activity Recognition on WSN Movement Data for Ubiquitous Healthcare Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shu-Yin; Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Yun-Shan; Tu, Ying-Ching; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2016-12-03

    Ubiquitous health care (UHC) is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN). The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions. Combinations of the features were studied and the proper feature sets were chosen with compatible fuzzy rules. Then, a fuzzy inference system (FIS) can be generated to recognize the assigned movements based on the rules. We thus implemented both fuzzy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems in the model to distinguish static and dynamic movements. The proposed model can effectively reach the recognition scope of the assigned activity. Furthermore, two exercises of upper-limb flexion in physical therapy were applied for the model in which the recognition rate can stand for the passing rate of the assigned motions. Finally, a web-based interface was developed to help remotely measure movement in physical therapy for UHC.

  11. Admission Control Over Internet of Vehicles Attached With Medical Sensors for Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Di; Labeau, Fabrice; Yao, Yuanzhe; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Tang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Wireless technologies and vehicle-mounted or wearable medical sensors are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, a critical issue of using wireless communications under a healthcare scenario rests at the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency transmission. A high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors, and in such a scenario, a few users who are not transmitting emergency data could be required to reduce their transmit power or even temporarily disconnect from the network in order to guarantee the normal operation of medical sensors as well as the transmission of emergency data. In this paper, we propose a joint power and admission control algorithm to schedule the users' transmission of medical data. The objective of this algorithm is to minimize the number of users who are forced to disconnect from the network while keeping the EMI on medical sensors at an acceptable level. We show that a fixed point of proposed algorithm always exists, and at the fixed point, our proposed algorithm can minimize the number of low-priority users who are required to disconnect from the network. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  12. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-07-09

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean requires confirmation. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark ocean. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from a few days to a few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates (124–732 m d−1) comparable to those of fast-sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean.

  13. Efficient Sustainable Operation Mechanism of Distributed Desktop Integration Storage Based on Virtualization with Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid growth of ubiquitous computing, many jobs that were previously manual have now been automated. This automation has increased the amount of time available for leisure; diverse services are now being developed for this leisure time. In addition, the development of small and portable devices like smartphones, diverse Internet services can be used regardless of time and place. Studies regarding diverse virtualization are currently in progress. These studies aim to determine ways to efficiently store and process the big data generated by the multitude of devices and services in use. One topic of such studies is desktop storage virtualization, which integrates distributed desktop resources and provides these resources to users to integrate into distributed legacy desktops via virtualization. In the case of desktop storage virtualization, high availability of virtualization is necessary and important for providing reliability to users. Studies regarding hierarchical structures and resource integration are currently in progress. These studies aim to create efficient data distribution and storage for distributed desktops based on resource integration environments. However, studies regarding efficient responses to server faults occurring in desktop-based resource integration environments have been insufficient. This paper proposes a mechanism for the sustainable operation of desktop storage (SODS for high operational availability. It allows for the easy addition and removal of desktops in desktop-based integration environments. It also activates alternative servers when a fault occurs within a system.

  14. Fuzzy Computing Model of Activity Recognition on WSN Movement Data for Ubiquitous Healthcare Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous health care (UHC is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN. The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions. Combinations of the features were studied and the proper feature sets were chosen with compatible fuzzy rules. Then, a fuzzy inference system (FIS can be generated to recognize the assigned movements based on the rules. We thus implemented both fuzzy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems in the model to distinguish static and dynamic movements. The proposed model can effectively reach the recognition scope of the assigned activity. Furthermore, two exercises of upper-limb flexion in physical therapy were applied for the model in which the recognition rate can stand for the passing rate of the assigned motions. Finally, a web-based interface was developed to help remotely measure movement in physical therapy for UHC.

  15. RIDES: Robust Intrusion Detection System for IP-Based Ubiquitous Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Syed Obaid; Siddiqui, Muhammad Shoaib; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2009-01-01

    The IP-based Ubiquitous Sensor Network (IP-USN) is an effort to build the "Internet of things". By utilizing IP for low power networks, we can benefit from existing well established tools and technologies of IP networks. Along with many other unresolved issues, securing IP-USN is of great concern for researchers so that future market satisfaction and demands can be met. Without proper security measures, both reactive and proactive, it is hard to envisage an IP-USN realm. In this paper we present a design of an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) called RIDES (Robust Intrusion DEtection System) for IP-USN. RIDES is a hybrid intrusion detection system, which incorporates both Signature and Anomaly based intrusion detection components. For signature based intrusion detection this paper only discusses the implementation of distributed pattern matching algorithm with the help of signature-code, a dynamically created attack-signature identifier. Other aspects, such as creation of rules are not discussed. On the other hand, for anomaly based detection we propose a scoring classifier based on the SPC (Statistical Process Control) technique called CUSUM charts. We also investigate the settings and their effects on the performance of related parameters for both of the components.

  16. RIDES: Robust Intrusion Detection System for IP-Based Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available TheIP-based Ubiquitous Sensor Network (IP-USN is an effort to build the “Internet of things”. By utilizing IP for low power networks, we can benefit from existing well established tools and technologies of IP networks. Along with many other unresolved issues, securing IP-USN is of great concern for researchers so that future market satisfaction and demands can be met. Without proper security measures, both reactive and proactive, it is hard to envisage an IP-USN realm. In this paper we present a design of an IDS (Intrusion Detection System called RIDES (Robust Intrusion DEtection System for IP-USN. RIDES is a hybrid intrusion detection system, which incorporates both Signature and Anomaly based intrusion detection components. For signature based intrusion detection this paper only discusses the implementation of distributed pattern matching algorithm with the help of signature-code, a dynamically created attack-signature identifier. Other aspects, such as creation of rules are not discussed. On the other hand, for anomaly based detection we propose a scoring classifier based on the SPC (Statistical Process Control technique called CUSUM charts. We also investigate the settings and their effects on the performance of related parameters for both of the components.

  17. Ubiquitous Creation of Bas-Relief Surfaces with Depth-of-Field Effects Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Soo Sohn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method to automatically generate digital bas-reliefs with depth-of-field effects from general scenes. Most previous methods for bas-relief generation take input in the form of 3D models. However, obtaining 3D models of real scenes or objects is often difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. From this motivation, we developed a method that takes as input a set of photographs that can be quickly and ubiquitously captured by ordinary smartphone cameras. A depth map is computed from the input photographs. The value range of the depth map is compressed and used as a base map representing the overall shape of the bas-relief. However, the resulting base map contains little information on details of the scene. Thus, we construct a detail map using pixel values of the input image to express the details. The base and detail maps are blended to generate a new depth map that reflects both overall depth and scene detail information. This map is selectively blurred to simulate the depth-of-field effects. The final depth map is converted to a bas-relief surface mesh. Experimental results show that our method generates a realistic bas-relief surface of general scenes with no expensive manual processing.

  18. Komunikasi Data Berbasis Protokol UDP pada Sistem Ubiquitous Mobile Sensing Kualitas Sumber Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Widiarti Darsono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for monitoring, effective and efficient control and evaluation of water quality in regional waters Surabaya become a demand for population growth, climate change and variability in the current era of urbanization. The traditional method is done by collecting water samples, test and analyze water in the laboratory has been relatively expensive and do not have the ability to capture real-time data, analysis and information delivery fast in making decisions. On the other hand, the rapid spread in the use of mobile phones in developing countries has increased mobile data management applications. A variety of mobile applications has also increased in recent years. This is because mobile phones cheap, easy to use and can transmit multiple types of information including images and GPS data remotely. In this paper, the author describes a data communication system of  water quality resources based on UDP protocol. This system is called ubiquitous mobile sensing consisting of microcontroller Arduino, water quality sensors, and Android smartphones. It has the ability to detect temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and electrical conductivity (EC in real time. By using this monitoring system, the data result is expected more accurate, faster and cheaper.

  19. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms.

  20. Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. I.; Vaqué , D.; Estrada, M.; Cerezo, M. I.; Salazar, G.; Gasol, J. M.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the ocean as a sink for CO2 is partially dependent on the downward transport of phytoplankton cells packaged within fast-sinking particles. However, whether such fast-sinking mechanisms deliver fresh organic carbon down to the deep bathypelagic sea and whether this mechanism is prevalent across the ocean requires confirmation. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of healthy photosynthetic cells, dominated by diatoms, down to 4,000 m in the deep dark ocean. Decay experiments with surface phytoplankton suggested that the large proportion (18%) of healthy photosynthetic cells observed, on average, in the dark ocean, requires transport times from a few days to a few weeks, corresponding to sinking rates (124–732 m d−1) comparable to those of fast-sinking aggregates and faecal pellets. These results confirm the expectation that fast-sinking mechanisms inject fresh organic carbon into the deep sea and that this is a prevalent process operating across the global oligotrophic ocean.

  1. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Carolin P; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working). Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment ) and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure ) in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a) that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b) that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  2. "I had a dream and i built it": power and self-staging in ubiquitous high-end homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Aviaja Borup; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Hepworth, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Research on smart homes and ubiquitous homes is often highly focused on the challenges and obstacles for establishing and living in smart homes. Few have studied peoples' motivations for establishing smart homes as well as the real life experiences living in such homes. We have had the chance to ...

  3. Mobile Learning as a Method of Ubiquitous Learning: Students' Attitudes, Readiness, and Possible Barriers to Implementation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Riyadh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and level of readiness, and possible barriers to implementing Mobile Learning as a part of ubiquitous learning. In addition, the study attempted to find out to what extent students are interested in mobile learning. It also aimed to answer the question regarding the readiness of college…

  4. A Decision-Tree-Oriented Guidance Mechanism for Conducting Nature Science Observation Activities in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment is an authentic learning environment with personalized digital supports. While showing the potential of applying such a learning environment, researchers have also indicated the challenges of providing adaptive and dynamic support to individual students. In this paper, a decision-tree-oriented…

  5. Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

  6. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Providing Instant Learning Support in Personal Computer Assembly Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…

  7. Evolving Pedagogical Perceptions of Teachers Integrating Ubiquitous Computing in Their Classrooms: A Case Study of the South Dakota Laptop Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogany, Wade S.

    2009-01-01

    With technology changing the world at a rapid rate, the impact of ubiquitous computing in the classroom has had an influence on education. As the number of one-to-one laptop initiatives grows, the need for further research on the effects of teaching and learning also increases. This case study sought to examine changes in teaching that resulted…

  8. Shifting Contexts: Investigating the Role of Context in the Use of Ubiquitous Computing for Design-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Katharine S.; Corino, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    In design teaching ubiquitous technologies can offer new ways of situating learning within real world experiences. Yet they require new types of knowledge; both an understanding of how to work with the technology and also an understanding of how to use the technologies to respond to changing contexts such as the place and the people. We sought to…

  9. Wireless Technologies, Ubiquitous Computing and Mobile Health: Application to Drug Abuse Treatment and Compliance with HIV Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Edward W; Smelson, David; Fletcher, Richard; Ziedonis, Douglas; Picard, Rosalind W

    2010-06-01

    Beneficial advances in the treatment of substance abuse and compliance with medical therapies, including HAART, are possible with new mobile technologies related to personal physiological sensing and computational methods. When incorporated into mobile platforms that allow for ubiquitous computing, these technologies have great potential for extending the reach of behavioral interventions from clinical settings where they are learned into natural environments.

  10. Visibility and accessbility of a component-based approach for ubiquitous computing applications : the e-gadgets case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavrommati, I.; Kameas, A.; Markopoulos, P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper firstly presents the concepts and infrastructure developed within the extrovert-Gadgets research project, which enable end-users to realize Ubiquitous Computing applications. Then, it discusses user-acceptance considerations of the proposed concepts based on the outcome of an early

  11. Exploring the Effects of Web-Mediated Computational Thinking on Developing Students' Computing Skills in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Pei-Di; Tsai, Meng-Chuan; Chen, Wen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Much application software education in Taiwan can hardly be regarded as practical. The researchers in this study provided a flexible means of ubiquitous learning (u-learning) with a mobile app for students to access the learning material. In addition, the authors also adopted computational thinking (CT) to help students develop practical computing…

  12. Learning Potentials of the Ubiquitous Internet: Using Mobile Devices to Support the Individual, Social and Physical Context of the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Pedersen, Nicholai Friis; Aaen, Janus Holst

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the key learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet. Rather than focusing on mobile technology or the mobility of the learner, the paper emphasises the ubiquity of internet access as a paramount catalyst for new learning in the digital age. From a sociocultural perspective the paper discusses different ways…

  13. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Medication errors in pediatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishoej, Rikke Mie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe medication errors (MEs) in hospitalized children reported to the national mandatory reporting and learning system, the Danish Patient Safety Database (DPSD). MEs were extracted from DPSD from the 5-year period of 2010–2014. We included reports from public hospitals on pati...... safety in pediatric inpatients.(Table presented.)...

  15. Learner Corpora without Error Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastelli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibility of adopting a form-to-function perspective when annotating learner corpora in order to get deeper insights about systematic features of interlanguage. A split between forms and functions (or categories is desirable in order to avoid the "comparative fallacy" and because – especially in basic varieties – forms may precede functions (e.g., what resembles to a "noun" might have a different function or a function may show up in unexpected forms. In the computer-aided error analysis tradition, all items produced by learners are traced to a grid of error tags which is based on the categories of the target language. Differently, we believe it is possible to record and make retrievable both words and sequence of characters independently from their functional-grammatical label in the target language. For this purpose at the University of Pavia we adapted a probabilistic POS tagger designed for L1 on L2 data. Despite the criticism that this operation can raise, we found that it is better to work with "virtual categories" rather than with errors. The article outlines the theoretical background of the project and shows some examples in which some potential of SLA-oriented (non error-based tagging will be possibly made clearer.

  16. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  17. and Correlated Error-Regressor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    in queuing theory and econometrics, where the usual assumption of independent error terms may not be plausible in most cases. Also, when using time-series data on a number of micro-economic units, such as households and service oriented channels, where the stochastic disturbance terms in part reflect variables which ...

  18. Rank error-correcting pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Peñas, Umberto; Pellikaan, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Error-correcting pairs were introduced as a general method of decoding linear codes with respect to the Hamming metric using coordinatewise products of vectors, and are used for many well-known families of codes. In this paper, we define new types of vector products, extending the coordinatewise ...

  19. Clinical errors and medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the definition, nature and origins of clinical errors including their prevention. The relationship between clinical errors and medical negligence is examined as are the characteristics of litigants and events that are the source of litigation. The pattern of malpractice claims in different specialties and settings is examined. Among hospitalized patients worldwide, 3-16% suffer injury as a result of medical intervention, the most common being the adverse effects of drugs. The frequency of adverse drug effects appears superficially to be higher in intensive care units and emergency departments but once rates have been corrected for volume of patients, comorbidity of conditions and number of drugs prescribed, the difference is not significant. It is concluded that probably no more than 1 in 7 adverse events in medicine result in a malpractice claim and the factors that predict that a patient will resort to litigation include a prior poor relationship with the clinician and the feeling that the patient is not being kept informed. Methods for preventing clinical errors are still in their infancy. The most promising include new technologies such as electronic prescribing systems, diagnostic and clinical decision-making aids and error-resistant systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Finding errors in big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, Marco; Daas, Piet; de Waal, A.G.

    No data source is perfect. Mistakes inevitably creep in. Spotting errors is hard enough when dealing with survey responses from several thousand people, but the difficulty is multiplied hugely when that mysterious beast Big Data comes into play. Statistics Netherlands is about to publish its first

  1. The Errors of Our Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Errors don't exist in our data, but they serve a vital function. Reality is complicated, but our models need to be simple in order to be manageable. We assume that attributes are invariant over some conditions of observation, and once we do that we need some way of accounting for the variability in observed scores over these conditions of…

  2. Cascade Error Projection Learning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, T. A.; Stubberud, A. R.; Daud, T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed mathematical analysis is presented for a new learning algorithm termed cascade error projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters.

  3. The role of hand of error and stimulus orientation in the relationship between worry and error-related brain activity: Implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanli; Moran, Tim P; Schroder, Hans S; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Anxious apprehension/worry is associated with exaggerated error monitoring; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The current study tested the hypothesis that the worry-error monitoring relationship involves left-lateralized linguistic brain activity by examining the relationship between worry and error monitoring, indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN), as a function of hand of error (Experiment 1) and stimulus orientation (Experiment 2). Results revealed that worry was exclusively related to the ERN on right-handed errors committed by the linguistically dominant left hemisphere. Moreover, the right-hand ERN-worry relationship emerged only when stimuli were presented horizontally (known to activate verbal processes) but not vertically. Together, these findings suggest that the worry-ERN relationship involves left hemisphere verbal processing, elucidating a potential mechanism to explain error monitoring abnormalities in anxiety. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM eBOSS: SIGNATURES OF UBIQUITOUS GALACTIC-SCALE OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Comparat, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Delubac, Timothée; Raichoor, Anand; Yèche, Christophe; Dawson, Kyle S.; Newman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xu; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    We present rest-frame near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectroscopy of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 0.6 < z < 1.2 from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) in SDSS-IV. One of the eBOSS programs is to obtain 2″ (about 15 kpc) fiber spectra of about 200,000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) at redshift z ≳ 0.6. We use the data from the pilot observations of this program, including 8620 spectra of SFGs at 0.6 < z < 1.2. The median composite spectra of these SFGs at 2200 Å < λ < 4000 Å feature asymmetric, preferentially blueshifted non-resonant emission, Fe ii*, and blueshifted resonant absorption, e.g., Fe ii and Mg ii, indicating ubiquitous outflows driven by star formation at these redshifts. For the absorption lines, we find a variety of velocity profiles with different degrees of blueshift. Comparing our new observations with the literature, we do not observe the non-resonant emission in the small-aperture (<40 pc) spectra of local star-forming regions with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find the observed line ratios in the SFG spectra to be different from those in the spectra of local star-forming regions, as well as those of quasar absorption-line systems in the same redshift range. We introduce an outflow model that can simultaneously explain the multiple observed properties and suggest that the variety of absorption velocity profiles and the line ratio differences are caused by scattered fluorescent emission filling in on top of the absorption in the large-aperture eBOSS spectra. We develop an observation-driven, model-independent method to correct the emission infill to reveal the true absorption profiles. Finally, we show that the strengths of both the non-resonant emission and the emission-corrected resonant absorption increase with [O ii] λλ3727, 3730 rest equivalent width and luminosity, with a slightly larger dependence on the former. Our results show that the eBOSS and future dark-energy surveys (e.g., Dark Energy Spectroscopic

  5. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A methodology for translating positional error into measures of attribute error, and combining the two error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohay Carmel; Curtis Flather; Denis Dean

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes our efforts to investigate the nature, behavior, and implications of positional error and attribute error in spatiotemporal datasets. Estimating the combined influence of these errors on map analysis has been hindered by the fact that these two error types are traditionally expressed in different units (distance units, and categorical units,...

  7. Ubiquitous polygenicity of human complex traits: genome-wide analysis of 49 traits in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30% ~ 50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05 proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array ([Formula: see text]. On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of h(G(2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8% of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of h(G(2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r(2 = 0.92. Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs.

  8. Secure Authentication and Prescription Safety Protocol for Telecare Health Services Using Ubiquitous IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mahmood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet-of-Things (IoT include a large number of devices that can communicate across different networks. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS also includes a number of devices connected to the internet where wearable devices are also included. Both systems enable researchers to develop healthcare systems with additional intelligence as well as prediction capabilities both for lifestyle and in hospitals. It offers as much persistence as a platform to ubiquitous healthcare by using wearable sensors to transfer the information over servers, smartphones, and other smart devices in the Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS. Security is a challenging issue in TMIS, and resourceful access to health care services requires user verification and confidentiality. Existing schemes lack in ensuring reliable prescription safety along with authentication. This research presents a Secure Authentication and Prescription Safety (SAPS protocol to ensure secure communication between the patient, doctor/nurse, and the trusted server. The proposed procedure relies upon the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem which can generate a symmetric secure key to ensure secure data exchange between patients and physicians after successful authentication of participants individually. A trusted server is involved for mutual authentication between parties and then generates a common key after completing the validation process. Moreover, the scheme is verified by doing formal modeling using Rubin Logic and validated using simulations in NS-2.35. We have analyzed the SAPS against security attacks, and then performance analysis is elucidated. Results prove the dominance of SAPS over preliminaries regarding mutual authentication, message integrity, freshness, and session key management and attack prevention.

  9. Aquaporin 4 is a Ubiquitously Expressed Isoform in the Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Christopher P; Maciver, Bryce; Cramb, Gordon; Zeidel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The dogfish ortholog of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was amplified from cDNA using degenerate PCR followed by cloning and sequencing. The complete coding region was then obtained using 5' and 3' RACE techniques. Alignment of the sequence with AQP4 amino acid sequences from other species showed that dogfish AQP4 has high levels (up to 65.3%) of homology with higher vertebrate sequences but lower levels of homology to Agnathan (38.2%) or teleost (57.5%) fish sequences. Northern blotting indicated that the dogfish mRNA was approximately 3.2 kb and was highly expressed in the rectal gland (a shark fluid secretory organ). Semi-quantitative PCR further indicates that AQP4 is ubiquitous, being expressed in all tissues measured but at low levels in certain tissues, where the level in liver > gill >  intestine. Manipulation of the external environmental salinity of groups of dogfish showed that when fish were acclimated in stages to 120% seawater (SW) or 75% SW, there was no change in AQP4 mRNA expression in either rectal gland, kidney, or esophagus/cardiac stomach. Whereas quantitative PCR experiments using the RNA samples from the same experiment, showed a significant 63.1% lower abundance of gill AQP4 mRNA expression in 120% SW-acclimated dogfish. The function of dogfish AQP4 was also determined by measuring the effect of the AQP4 expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Dogfish AQP4 expressing-oocytes, exhibited significantly increased osmotic water permeability (P(f)) compared to controls, and this was invariant with pH. Permeability was not significantly reduced by treatment of oocytes with mercury chloride, as is also the case with AQP4 in other species. Similarly AQP4 expressing-oocytes did not exhibit enhanced urea or glycerol permeability, which is also consistent with the water-selective property of AQP4 in other species.

  10. Aquaporin 4 is a ubiquitously expressed isoform in the dogfish (Squalus acanthias shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Cutler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dogfish orthologue of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 was amplified from cDNA using degenerate PCR followed by cloning and sequencing. The complete coding region was then obtained using 5’ and 3’ RACE techniques. Alignment of the sequence with AQP4 amino acid sequences from other species showed that dogfish AQP4 has high levels (up to 65.3% of homology with higher vertebrate sequences but lower levels of homology to agnathan (38.2% or teleost (57.5% fish sequences. Northern blotting indicated that the dogfish mRNA was approximately 3.2 kb and was highly expressed in the rectal gland (a shark fluid secretory organ. Semi-quantitative PCR further indicates that AQP4 is ubiquitous, being expressed in all tissues measured but at low levels in certain tissues, where the level in liver>gill> intestine. Manipulation of the external environmental salinity of groups of dogfish showed that when fish were acclimated in stages to 120% seawater (SW or 75% SW, there was no change in AQP4 mRNA expression in either rectal gland, kidney or esophagus/cardiac stomach. Whereas quantitative PCR experiments using the RNA samples from the same experiment, showed a significant 63.1% lower abundance of gill AQP4 mRNA expression in 120% SW-acclimated dogfish. The function of dogfish AQP4 was also determined by measuring the effect of the AQP4 expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Dogfish AQP4 expressingoocytes, exhibited significantly increased osmotic water permeability (Pf compared to controls, and this was invariant with pH. Permeability was not significantly reduced by treatment of oocytes with mercury chloride, as is also the case with AQP4 in other species. Similarly AQP4 expressing oocytes did not exhibit enhanced urea or glycerol permeability, which is also consistent with the water-selective property of AQP4 in other species.

  11. Saffold virus, a human Theiler's-like cardiovirus, is ubiquitous and causes infection early in life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zoll

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Picornaviridae contains well-known human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and parechovirus. In addition, this family contains a number of viruses that infect animals, including members of the genus Cardiovirus such as Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV and Theiler's murine encephalomyelits virus (TMEV. The latter are important murine pathogens that cause myocarditis, type 1 diabetes and chronic inflammation in the brains, mimicking multiple sclerosis. Recently, a new picornavirus was isolated from humans, named Saffold virus (SAFV. The virus is genetically related to Theiler's virus and classified as a new species in the genus Cardiovirus, which until the discovery of SAFV did not contain human viruses. By analogy with the rodent cardioviruses, SAFV may be a relevant new human pathogen. Thus far, SAFVs have sporadically been detected by molecular techniques in respiratory and fecal specimens, but the epidemiology and clinical significance remained unclear. Here we describe the first cultivated SAFV type 3 (SAFV-3 isolate, its growth characteristics, full-length sequence, and epidemiology. Unlike the previously isolated SAFV-1 and -2 viruses, SAFV-3 showed efficient growth in several cell lines with a clear cytopathic effect. The latter allowed us to conduct a large-scale serological survey by a virus-neutralization assay. This survey showed that infection by SAFV-3 occurs early in life (>75% positive at 24 months and that the seroprevalence reaches >90% in older children and adults. Neutralizing antibodies were found in serum samples collected in several countries in Europe, Africa, and Asia. In conclusion, this study describes the first cultivated SAFV-3 isolate, its full-length sequence, and epidemiology. SAFV-3 is a highly common and widespread human virus causing infection in early childhood. This finding has important implications for understanding the impact of these ubiquitous viruses and their possible

  12. Ubiquitous User Localization in LBS - The Need for Implementing Ethical Thinking in Our Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retscher, Guenther; Obex, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Location-based Services (LBS) influence nowadays every individual's life due to the emerging market penetration of smartphones and other mobile devices. For smartphone Apps localization technologies are developed ranging from GNSS beyond to other alternative ubiquitous positioning methods as well as the use of the in-built inertial sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometer, barometer, etc. Moreover, signals-of-opportunity which are not intended for positioning at the first sight but are receivable in many environments such as in buildings and public spaces are more and more utilized for positioning and navigation. The use of Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a typical example. These technologies, however, have become very powerful tools as the enable to track an individual or even a group of users. Most technical researchers imply that it is mainly about further enhancing technologies and algorithms including the development of new advanced Apps to improve personal navigation and to deliver location oriented information just in time to a single LBS user or group of users. The authors claim that there is a need that ethical and political issues have to be addressed within our research community from the very beginning. Although there is a lot of research going on in developing algorithms to keep ones data and LBS search request in private, researchers can no longer keep their credibility without cooperating with ethical experts or an ethical committee. In a study called InKoPoMoVer (Cooperative Positioning for Real-time User Assistance and Guidance at Multi-modal Public Transit Junctions) a cooperation with social scientists was initiated for the first time at the Vienna University of Technology, Austria, in this context. The major aims of this study in relation to ethical questions are addressed in this paper.

  13. CIMS: A Context-Based Intelligent Multimedia System for Ubiquitous Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Sreeramaneni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile users spend a tremendous amount of time surfing multimedia contents over the Internet to pursue their interests. A resource-constrained smart device demands more intensive computing tasks and lessens the battery life. To address the resource limitations (i.e., memory, lower maintenance cost, easier access, computing tasks in mobile devices, mobile cloud computing is needed. Several approaches have been proposed to confront the challenges of mobile cloud computing, but difficulties still remain. However, in the coming years, context collecting, processing, and interchanging the results on a heavy network will cause vast computations and reduce the battery life in mobiles. In this paper, we propose a “context-based intelligent multimedia system” (CIMS for ubiquitous cloud computing. The main goal of this research is to lessen the computing percentage, storage complexities, and battery life for mobile users by using pervasive cloud computing. Moreover, to reduce the computing and storage concerns in mobiles, the cloud server collects several groups of user profiles with similarities by executing K-means clustering on users’ data (context and multimedia contents. The distribution process conveys real-time notifications to smartphone users, according to what is stated in his/her profile. We considered a mobile cloud offloading system, which decides the offloading actions to/from cloud servers. Context-aware decision-making (CAD customizes the mobile device performance with different specifications such as short response time and lesser energy consumption. The analysis says that our CIMS takes advantage of cost-effective features to produce high-quality information for mobile (or smart device users in real time. Moreover, our CIMS lessens the computation and storage complexities for mobile users, as well as cloud servers. Simulation analysis suggests that our approach is more efficient than existing domains.

  14. Flexible thin film circuitry enabling ubiquitous electronics via post-fabrication customization (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Brian

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the electronics industry has been accurately described by Moore's Law, where the march towards increasing density and smaller feature sizes has enabled continuous cost reductions and performance improvements. With flexible electronics, this perpetual scaling is not foreseen to occur. Instead, the industry will be dominated by Wright's Law, first proposed in 1936, where increasing demand for high volumes of product will drive costs down. We have demonstrated thin film based circuitry compatible with flexible substrates with high levels of functionality designed for such a high volume industry. This includes a generic 8-bit microprocessor totaling more than 3.5k TFTs operating at 2.1 kHz. We have also developed a post fabrication programming technique via inkjet printing of conductive spots to form a one-time programmable instruction generator, allowing customization of the processor for a specific task. The combination demonstrates the possibility to achieve the high volume production of identical products necessary to reap the benefits promised by Wright's Law, while still retaining the individualization necessary for application differentiation. This is of particular importance in the area of item level identification via RFID, where low cost and individualized identification are necessary. Remotely powered RFID tags have been fabricated using an oxide semiconductor based TFT process. This process is compatible with the post-fabrication printing process to detail individual identification codes, with the goal of producing low cost, high volume flexible tags. The goal is to produce tags compatible with existing NFC communication protocols in order to communicate with readers that are already ubiquitous in the market.

  15. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  16. Discretization vs. Rounding Error in Euler's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Carlos F.

    2011-01-01

    Euler's method for solving initial value problems is an excellent vehicle for observing the relationship between discretization error and rounding error in numerical computation. Reductions in stepsize, in order to decrease discretization error, necessarily increase the number of steps and so introduce additional rounding error. The problem is…

  17. Total Survey Error for Longitudinal Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynn, Peter; Lugtig, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of the total survey error paradigm to longitudinal surveys. Several aspects of survey error, and of the interactions between different types of error, are distinct in the longitudinal survey context. Furthermore, error trade-off decisions in survey design and

  18. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, David H

    2013-01-01

    Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system. PMID:23426783

  19. Robot learning and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L.

    1977-01-01

    A model of robot learning is described that associates previously unknown perceptions with the sensed known consequences of robot actions. For these actions, both the categories of outcomes and the corresponding sensory patterns are incorporated in a knowledge base by the system designer. Thus the robot is able to predict the outcome of an action and compare the expectation with the experience. New knowledge about what to expect in the world may then be incorporated by the robot in a pre-existing structure whether it detects accordance or discrepancy between a predicted consequence and experience. Errors committed during plan execution are detected by the same type of comparison process and learning may be applied to avoiding the errors.

  20. Error studies of Halbach Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-02

    These error studies were done on the Halbach magnets for the CBETA “First Girder” as described in note [CBETA001]. The CBETA magnets have since changed slightly to the lattice in [CBETA009]. However, this is not a large enough change to significantly affect the results here. The QF and BD arc FFAG magnets are considered. For each assumed set of error distributions and each ideal magnet, 100 random magnets with errors are generated. These are then run through an automated version of the iron wire multipole cancellation algorithm. The maximum wire diameter allowed is 0.063” as in the proof-of-principle magnets. Initially, 32 wires (2 per Halbach wedge) are tried, then if this does not achieve 1e-­4 level accuracy in the simulation, 48 and then 64 wires. By “1e-4 accuracy”, it is meant the FOM defined by √(Σn≥sextupole an 2+bn 2) is less than 1 unit, where the multipoles are taken at the maximum nominal beam radius, R=23mm for these magnets. The algorithm initially uses 20 convergence interations. If 64 wires does not achieve 1e-­4 accuracy, this is increased to 50 iterations to check for slow converging cases. There are also classifications for magnets that do not achieve 1e-4 but do achieve 1e-3 (FOM ≤ 10 units). This is technically within the spec discussed in the Jan 30, 2017 review; however, there will be errors in practical shimming not dealt with in the simulation, so it is preferable to do much better than the spec in the simulation.