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Sample records for erk signaling regulates

  1. SNT-2 interacts with ERK2 and negatively regulates ERK2 signaling in response to EGF stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lin; Gotoh, Noriko; Zhang Shengliang; Shibuya, Masabumi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    The control of cellular responses with fibroblast growth factors and neurotrophins is mediated through membrane-linked docking proteins, SNT (suc1-binding neurotrophic target)-1/FRS2α and SNT-2/FRS2β. ERK1/2 are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that regulate diverse cellular activities in response to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that SNT-2 does not become tyrosine phosphorylated significantly in response to EGF but forms a complex with ERK2 via the region of 186-252 amino acid residues, and the complex formation is enhanced upon EGF stimulation. SNT-2 downregulates ERK2 phosphorylation, suppresses and delays ERK2 nuclear accumulation which occurs following EGF stimulation. In contrast, the mutant SNT-2 which carries deletion of 186-252 amino acids and lacks ERK2 binding does not have these effects. These observations suggest that SNT-2 negatively regulates ERK2 signaling activated via EGF stimulation through direct binding to ERK2

  2. Eight paths of ERK1/2 signalling pathway regulating hepatocyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... This study aims at exploring which paths of ERK1/2 signalling pathway participate in the regulation of rat .... total RNA was used to synthesize the first strand of cDNA. ..... stem cells contribute to regeneration of injured liver.

  3. Trihydrophobin 1 Phosphorylation by c-Src Regulates MAPK/ERK Signaling and Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibin; Sun, Zhichao; Wu, Jingwen; Peng, Xiaomin; Gan, Huacheng; Zhang, Chunyi; Ji, Lingling; Xie, Jianhui; Zhu, Haiyan; Ren, Shifang

    2012-01-01

    c-Src activates Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and regulates cell migration, while trihydrophobin 1 (TH1) inhibits MAPK/ERK activation and cell migration through interaction with A-Raf and PAK1 and inhibiting their kinase activities. Here we show that c-Src interacts with TH1 by GST-pull down assay, coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy assay. The interaction leads to phosphorylation of TH1 at Tyr-6 in vivo and in vitro. Phosphorylation of TH1 decreases its association with A-Raf and PAK1. Further study reveals that Tyr-6 phosphorylation of TH1 reduces its inhibition on MAPK/ERK signaling, enhances c-Src mediated cell migration. Moreover, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TH1 has been found by EGF and estrogen treatments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism for the comprehensive regulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling and cell migration involving tyrosine phosphorylation of TH1 by c-Src. PMID:22238675

  4. PHO-ERK1/2 interaction with mitochondria regulates the permeability transition pore in cardioprotective signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Reséndiz, Sauri; Zazueta, Cecilia

    2014-07-11

    The molecular mechanism(s) by which extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and other kinases communicate with downstream targets have not been fully determined. Multiprotein signaling complexes undergoing spatiotemporal redistribution may enhance their interaction with effector proteins promoting cardioprotective response. Particularly, it has been proposed that some active kinases in association with caveolae may converge into mitochondria. Therefore, in this study we investigate if PHO-ERK1/2 interaction with mitochondria may provide a mechanistic link in the regulation of these organelles in cardioprotective signaling. Using a model of dilated cardiomyopathy followed by ischemia-reperfusion injury, we determined ERK1/2 signaling at the level of mitochondria and evaluated its effect on the permeability transition pore. The most important finding of the present study is that, under cardioprotective conditions, a subpopulation of activated ERK1/2 was directed to the mitochondrial membranes through vesicular trafficking, concurring with increased phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins and inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In addition, our results suggest that vesicles enriched with caveolin-3 could form structures that may drive ERK1/2, GSK3β and Akt to mitochondria. Signaling complexes including PHO-ERK, PHO-Akt, PHO-eNOS and caveolin-3 contribute to cardioprotection by directly targeting the mitochondrial proteome and regulating the opening of the permeability transition pore in this model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: anaraya1@gmu.edu [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  6. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells

  7. Region- or state-related differences in expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs in naïve and pain-experiencing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xiu-Yu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, one member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been suggested to regulate a diverse array of cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, as well as neuronal plasticity. Recent evidence indicates a role for ERKs in nociceptive processing in both dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. However, little literature has been reported to examine the differential distribution and activation of ERK isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, at different levels of pain-related pathways under both normal and pain states. In the present study, quantitative blot immunolabeling technique was used to determine the spatial and temporal expression of ERK1 and ERK2, as well as their activated forms, in the spinal cord, primary somatosensory cortex (SI area of cortex, and hippocampus under normal, transient pain and persistent pain states. Results In naïve rats, we detected regional differences in total expression of ERK1 and ERK2 across different areas. In the spinal cord, ERK1 was expressed more abundantly than ERK2, while in the SI area of cortex and hippocampus, there was a larger amount of ERK2 than ERK1. Moreover, phosphorylated ERK2 (pERK2, not phosphorylated ERK1 (pERK1, was normally expressed with a high level in the SI area and hippocampus, but both pERK1 and pERK2 were barely detectable in normal spinal cord. Intraplantar saline or bee venom injection, mimicking transient or persistent pain respectively, can equally initiate an intense and long-lasting activation of ERKs in all three areas examined. However, isoform-dependent differences existed among these areas, that is, pERK2 exhibited stronger response than pERK1 in the spinal cord, whereas ERK1 was more remarkably activated than ERK2 in the S1 area and hippocampus. Conclusion Taken these results together, we conclude that: (1 under normal state, while ERK immunoreactivity is broadly distributed in the rat

  8. Myostatin regulates miR-431 expression via the Ras-Mek-Erk signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rimao; Li, Hu; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Dahai

    2015-05-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in controlling myogenic development both in vitro and in vivo; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes in skeletal muscle cells are largely unknown. Here, using a microarray hybridization approach, we identified myostatin-regulated miRNA genes in skeletal muscle tissues by systematically searching miRNAs that are differentially expressed between wild-type and myostatin-null mice during development. We found that 116 miRNA genes were differentially expressed in muscles between these mice across different developmental stages. We further characterized myostatin-regulated miR-431 was upregulated in skeletal muscle tissues of myostatin-null mice. In functional studies, we found that overexpression of miR-431 in C2C12 myoblast cells attenuated myostatin-induced suppression of myogenic differentiation. Mechanistic studies further demonstrated that myostatin acted through the Ras-Mek-Erk signaling pathway to transcriptionally regulate miR-431 expression C2C12 cells. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes by myostatin during skeletal muscle development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. P2X7 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 independently of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Jan; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    P2X7 nucleotide receptors modulate a spectrum of cellular events in various cells including epithelia, such as exocrine pancreas. Although the pharmacology and channel properties of the P2X7 receptors have been studied intensively, signal transduction pathways are relatively unknown. In this study...... we applied a heterologous expression system of rat P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells. We followed the receptor expression and function using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag, activation of intracellular proteins and increases in cellular Ca2+. EGFP-P2X7 receptors localized...... to the plasma membrane, clusters within the membrane and intracellularly. Stimulation of P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells led to an activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 and this activation was seen after just 1 min of stimulation with ATP. Using C- and N-terminal P2X7-receptor...

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se-Hee [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Holland, Melinda B. [McAllister Heart Institute, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kim, Jun-Dae [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Jin, Suk-Won, E-mail: suk-won.jin@yale.edu [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J.; Holland, Melinda B.; Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process

  12. Pten Regulates Retinal Amacrine Cell Number by Modulating Akt, Tgfβ, and Erk Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Cantrup, Robert; Dixit, Rajiv; Touahri, Yacine; Kaushik, Gaurav; Zinyk, Dawn; Daftarian, Narsis; Biernaskie, Jeff; McFarlane, Sarah; Schuurmans, Carol

    2016-09-07

    All tissues are genetically programmed to acquire an optimal size that is defined by total cell number and individual cellular dimensions. The retina contains stereotyped proportions of one glial and six neuronal cell types that are generated in overlapping waves. How multipotent retinal progenitors know when to switch from making one cell type to the next so that appropriate numbers of each cell type are generated is poorly understood. Pten is a phosphatase that controls progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in several lineages. Here, using a conditional loss-of-function strategy, we found that Pten regulates retinal cell division and is required to produce the full complement of rod photoreceptors and amacrine cells in mouse. We focused on amacrine cell number control, identifying three downstream Pten effector pathways. First, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling is hyperactivated in Pten conditional knock-out (cKO) retinas, and misexpression of constitutively active Akt (Akt-CA) in retinal explants phenocopies the reduction in amacrine cell production observed in Pten cKOs. Second, Akt-CA activates Tgfβ signaling in retinal explants, which is a negative feedback pathway for amacrine cell production. Accordingly, Tgfβ signaling is elevated in Pten cKO retinas, and epistatic analyses placed Pten downstream of TgfβRII in amacrine cell number control. Finally, Pten regulates Raf/Mek/Erk signaling levels to promote the differentiation of all amacrine cell subtypes, which are each reduced in number in Pten cKOs. Pten is thus a positive regulator of amacrine cell production, acting via multiple downstream pathways, highlighting its diverse actions as a mediator of cell number control. Despite the importance of size for optimal organ function, how individual cell types are generated in correct proportions is poorly understood. There are several ways to control cell number, including readouts of organ function (e.g., secreted hormones reach functional

  13. Neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity as marker and mediator of alcohol and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva R. Zamora-Martinez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early pioneering work in the field of biochemistry identified phosphorylation as a crucial post-translational modification of proteins with the ability to both indicate and arbitrate complex physiological processes. More recent investigations have functionally linked phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK to a variety of neurophysiological mechanisms ranging from acute neurotransmitter action to long-term gene expression. ERK phosphorylation serves as an intracellular bridging mechanism that facilitates neuronal communication and plasticity. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol and opioids, act as artificial yet powerful rewards that impinge upon natural reinforcement processes critical for survival. The graded progression from initial exposure to addiction (or substance dependence is believed to result from drug- and drug context-induced adaptations in neuronal signaling processes across brain reward and stress circuits following excessive drug use. In this regard, commonly abused drugs as well as drug-associated experiences are capable of modifying the phosphorylation of ERK within central reinforcement systems. In addition, chronic drug and alcohol exposure may drive ERK-regulated epigenetic and structural alterations that underlie a long-term propensity for escalating drug use. Under the influence of such a neurobiological vulnerability, encountering drug-associated cues and contexts can produce subsequent alterations in ERK signaling that drive relapse to drug and alcohol seeking. Current studies are determining precisely which molecular and regional ERK phosphorylation-associated events contribute to the addiction process, as well as which neuroadaptations need to be targeted in order to return dependent individuals to a healthy state.

  14. Small G proteins Rac1 and Ras regulate serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5)·extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) complexes involved in the feedback regulation of Raf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazalouskas, Matthew D; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Weber, David J; Zimmer, Danna B; Honkanen, Richard E; Wadzinski, Brian E

    2014-02-14

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, PPP5C) is known to interact with the chaperonin heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular signaling cascades that control diverse cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and apoptosis. Here, we identify PP5 in stable complexes with extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Studies using mutant proteins reveal that the formation of PP5·ERK1 and PP5·ERK2 complexes partially depends on HSP90 binding to PP5 but does not require PP5 or ERK1/2 activity. However, PP5 and ERK activity regulates the phosphorylation state of Raf1 kinase, an upstream activator of ERK signaling. Whereas expression of constitutively active Rac1 promotes the assembly of PP5·ERK1/2 complexes, acute activation of ERK1/2 fails to influence the phosphatase-kinase interaction. Introduction of oncogenic HRas (HRas(V12)) has no effect on PP5-ERK1 binding but selectively decreases the interaction of PP5 with ERK2, in a manner that is independent of PP5 and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) activity, yet paradoxically requires ERK2 activity. Additional studies conducted with oncogenic variants of KRas4B reveal that KRas(L61), but not KRas(V12), also decreases the PP5-ERK2 interaction. The expression of wild type HRas or KRas proteins fails to reduce PP5-ERK2 binding, indicating that the effect is specific to HRas(V12) and KRas(L61) gain-of-function mutations. These findings reveal a novel, differential responsiveness of PP5-ERK1 and PP5-ERK2 interactions to select oncogenic Ras variants and also support a role for PP5·ERK complexes in regulating the feedback phosphorylation of PP5-associated Raf1.

  15. Ethanol negatively regulates hepatic differentiation of hESC by inhibition of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Alcohol insult triggers complex events in the liver, promoting fibrogenic/inflammatory signals and in more advanced cases, aberrant matrix deposition. It is well accepted that the regenerative capacity of the adult liver is impaired during alcohol injury. The liver progenitor/stem cells have been shown to play an important role in liver regeneration -in response to various chronic injuries; however, the effects of alcohol on stem cell differentiation in the liver are not well understood.We employed hepatic progenitor cells derived from hESCs to study the impact of ethanol on hepatocyte differentiation by exposure of these progenitor cells to ethanol during hepatocyte differentiation.We found that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner. There was also a moderate cell cycle arrest at G1/S checkpoint in the ethanol treated cells, which is associated with a reduced level of cyclin D1 in these cells. Ethanol treatment specifically inhibited the activation of the ERK but not JNK nor the p38 MAP signaling pathway. At the same time, the WNT signaling pathway was also reduced in the cells exposed to ethanol. Upon evaluating the effects of the inhibitors of these two signaling pathways, we determined that the Erk inhibitor replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation and attenuated the WNT/β-catenin signaling, however, inhibitors of WNT only partially replicated the effects of ethanol on the hepatocyte differentiation.Our results demonstrated that ethanol negatively regulated hepatic differentiation of hESC-derived hepatic progenitors through inhibiting the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, and subsequently attenuating the WNT signaling pathway. Thus, our finding provides a novel insight into the mechanism by which alcohol regulates cell fate selection of hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells, and the identified pathways may provide therapeutic targets

  16. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu

    2004-01-01

    of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling...

  17. Different Expression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) 1/2 and Phospho-Erk Proteins in MBA-MB-231 and MCF-7 Cells after Chemotherapy with Doxorubicin or Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Aliakbar; Mazoochi, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Curative treatment of breast cancer patients using chemotherapy often fails as a result of intrinsic or acquired resistance of the tumor to the drug. ERK is one of the main components of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, which mediates signal from cell surface receptors to transcription factors to regulate different gene expression. In this study, cytotoxicity and the expression of Erk1/2 and phospho-ERK was compared in MDA-MB-231 (ER-) and MCF-7 (ER+) cell lines after treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) or docetaxel (DOCT). Cell cytotoxicity of DOX or DOCT was calculated using MTT assay. Immonofluorescent technique was used to show MDR-1 protein in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after treatment with DOX or DOCT. The expression of ERK1/2 and phpspho-ERK was assayed with immunoblotting. Comparing IC50 values showed that MDA-MB-231 cells are more sensitive than MCF-7 cells to DOX or DOCT. Immonofluorescent results confirmed the expression of MDR-1 in these two cell lines after DOX or DOCT treatment. In MDA-MB-231 cells the expression of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK was decreased after DOX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast in MCF-7 cells the expression of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK was increased after DOX treatment. DOCT treatment demonstrated the same result with less significant differences than DOX. The heterogeneity seen in cell lines actually reflects the heterogeneity of breast cancers. That is why, patients categorized in one group respond differently to a single treatment. These results emphasize the importance of a more accurate classification and a more specific treatment of breast cancer subtypes.

  18. Crocin Improves the Endothelial Function Regulated by Kca3.1 Through ERK and Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huike Yang

    2018-03-01

    . Conclusion: In the present study, these data strongly support the hypothesis that crocin could improve endothelial function through stimulation of the eNOS/NO pathway and other endothelial markers. This functional improvement is regulated by KCa3.1 via the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  19. MFAP5 promotes tumor progression and bone metastasis by regulating ERK/MMP signaling pathways in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ting; Fang, Meng; Huang, Wending; Sun, Zhengwang; Xiao, Jianru; Yan, Wangjun

    2018-04-06

    Breast cancer accounts for about 30% of all cancers in women, while approximately 70% breast cancer patients developed bone metastases throughout the course of their disease, highlighting the importance of exploring new therapeutic targets. Microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) is a component of extracellular elastic microfibril which has been confirmed to function in tissue development and cancer progression. But the role of MFAP5 in breast cancer remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that MFAP5 was up-regulated in breast cancers compared with that in normal breast tissues, and further increased in breast cancer bone metastasis. Functionally, MFAP5 overexpression accelerated breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, while an opposite effect was observed when MFAP5 was knocked down. In addition, up-regulation of MFAP5 increased the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 and activated the ERK signaling pathway. Conversely, inhibition of MFAP5 suppressed the expression of MMP2, MMP9, p-FAK, p-Erk1/2 and p-cJun. These findings may provide a better understanding about the mechanism of breast cancer and suggest that MFAP5 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer, especially for bone metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Saito, Katsuyoshi; Malik, Bilal; Maquart, Guillaume; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Marambaud, Philippe; Aribi, Mourad; Tordoff, Michael G; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. An in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids may help fight it. Humans and rodents can detect fatty acids via lipido-receptors, such as CD36 and GPR120. We studied the implication of the MAPK pathways, in particular, ERK1/2, in the gustatory detection of fatty acids. Linoleic acid, a dietary fatty acid, induced via CD36 the phosphorylation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-ETS-like transcription factor-1 cascade, which requires Fyn-Src kinase and lipid rafts in human taste bud cells (TBCs). ERK1/2 cascade was activated by Ca 2+ signaling via opening of the calcium-homeostasis modulator-1 (CALHM1) channel. Furthermore, fatty acid-evoked Ca 2+ signaling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were decreased in both human TBCs after small interfering RNA knockdown of CALHM1 channel and in TBCs from Calhm1 -/- mice. Targeted knockdown of ERK1/2 by small interfering RNA or PD0325901 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) in the tongue and genetic ablation of Erk1 or Calhm1 genes impaired preference for dietary fat in mice. Lingual inhibition of ERK1/2 in healthy volunteers also decreased orogustatory sensitivity for linoleic acid. Our data demonstrate that ERK1/2-MAPK cascade is regulated by the opening of CALHM1 Ca 2+ channel in TBCs to modulate orogustatory detection of dietary lipids in mice and humans.-Subramaniam, S., Ozdener, M. H., Abdoul-Azize, S., Saito, K., Malik, B., Maquart, G., Hashimoto, T., Marambaud, P., Aribi, M., Tordoff, M. G., Besnard, P., Khan, N. A. ERK1/2 activation in human taste bud cells regulates fatty acid signaling and gustatory perception of fat in mice and humans. © FASEB.

  1. Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng He

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2 are widely-expressed and they modulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and protein synthesis in multiple cell lineages. Altered ERK1/2 signaling is found in several genetic diseases with skeletal phenotypes, including Noonan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, and Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, suggesting that MEK-ERK signals regulate human skeletal development. Here, we examine the consequence of Erk1 and Erk2 disruption in multiple functions of osteoclasts, specialized macrophage/monocyte lineage-derived cells that resorb bone. We demonstrate that Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast development and bone resorptive activity, as genetic disruption of Erk1 reduced osteoclast progenitor cell numbers, compromised pit formation, and diminished M-CSF-mediated adhesion and migration. Moreover, WT mice reconstituted long-term with Erk1(-/- bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs demonstrated increased bone mineral density as compared to recipients transplanted with WT and Erk2(-/- BMMNCs, implicating marrow autonomous, Erk1-dependent osteoclast function. These data demonstrate Erk1 plays an important role in osteoclast functions while providing rationale for the development of Erk1-specific inhibitors for experimental investigation and/or therapeutic modulation of aberrant osteoclast function.

  2. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2) Phosphorylation Sites and Docking Domain on the Nuclear Pore Complex Protein Tpr Cooperatively Regulate ERK2-Tpr Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomastek, Tomáš; Iwanicky, M. P.; Burack, W. R.; Tiwari, D.; Kumar, D.; Parsons, J. T.; Weber, M. J.; Nandicoori, V. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 22 (2008), s. 6954-6966 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : erk * docking domain * cell growth Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.942, year: 2008

  3. Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP…

  4. ERK phosphorylation regulates sleep and plasticity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Vanderheyden

    Full Text Available Given the relationship between sleep and plasticity, we examined the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in regulating baseline sleep, and modulating the response to waking experience. Both sleep deprivation and social enrichment increase ERK phosphorylation in wild-type flies. The effects of both sleep deprivation and social enrichment on structural plasticity in the LNvs can be recapitulated by expressing an active version of ERK (UAS-ERK(SEM pan-neuronally in the adult fly using GeneSwitch (Gsw Gsw-elav-GAL4. Conversely, disrupting ERK reduces sleep and prevents both the behavioral and structural plasticity normally induced by social enrichment. Finally, using transgenic flies carrying a cAMP response Element (CRE-luciferase reporter we show that activating ERK enhances CRE-Luc activity while disrupting ERK reduces it. These data suggest that ERK phosphorylation is an important mediator in transducing waking experience into sleep.

  5. Exosome uptake depends on ERK1/2-heat shock protein 27 signaling and lipid Raft-mediated endocytosis negatively regulated by caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katrin J; Christianson, Helena C; Wittrup, Anders; Bourseau-Guilmain, Erika; Lindqvist, Eva; Svensson, Lena M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Belting, Mattias

    2013-06-14

    The role of exosomes in cancer can be inferred from the observation that they transfer tumor cell derived genetic material and signaling proteins, resulting in e.g. increased tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the membrane transport mechanisms and the signaling events involved in the uptake of these virus-like particles remain ill-defined. We now report that internalization of exosomes derived from glioblastoma (GBM) cells involves nonclassical, lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Importantly, we show that the lipid raft-associated protein caveolin-1 (CAV1), in analogy with its previously described role in virus uptake, negatively regulates the uptake of exosomes. We find that exosomes induce the phosphorylation of several downstream targets known to associate with lipid rafts as signaling and sorting platforms, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). Interestingly, exosome uptake appears dependent on unperturbed ERK1/2-HSP27 signaling, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation is under negative influence by CAV1 during internalization of exosomes. These findings significantly advance our general understanding of exosome-mediated uptake and offer potential strategies for how this pathway may be targeted through modulation of CAV1 expression and ERK1/2 signaling.

  6. BIG1, a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein regulates neurite development via PI3K-AKT and ERK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Li, C; Li, D; Wang, Y; Shao, W; You, Y; Peng, J; Zhang, X; Lu, L; Shen, X

    2013-12-19

    The elongation of neuron is highly dependent on membrane trafficking. Brefeldin A (BFA)-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (BIG1) functions in the membrane trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. BFA, an uncompetitive inhibitor of BIG1 can inhibit neurite outgrowth and polarity development. In this study, we aimed to define the possible role of BIG1 in neurite development and to further investigate the potential mechanism. By immunostaining, we found that BIG1 was extensively colocalized with synaptophysin, a marker for synaptic vesicles in soma and partly in neurites. The amount of both protein and mRNA of BIG1 were up-regulated during rat brain development. BIG1 depletion significantly decreased the neurite length and inhibited the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Inhibition of BIG1 guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) activity by BFA or overexpression of the dominant-negative BIG1 reduced PI3K and AKT phosphorylation, indicating regulatory effects of BIG1 on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is dependent on its GEF activity. BIG1 siRNA or BFA treatment also significantly reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Overexpression of wild-type BIG1 significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, but the dominant-negative BIG1 had no effect on ERK phosphorylation, indicating the involvement of BIG1 in ERK signaling regulation may not be dependent on its GEF activity. Our result identified a novel function of BIG1 in neurite development. The newly recognized function integrates the function of BIG1 in membrane trafficking with the activation of PI3K-AKT and ERK signaling pathways which are critical in neurite development. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Gita; Mahalingam, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Gita [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500076 (India); Mahalingam, S., E-mail: mahalingam@iitm.ac.in [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500076 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Technology-Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2009-10-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  9. Fisetin inhibits laryngeal carcinoma through regulation of AKT/NF-κB/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Jun; Jia, Shen-Shan

    2016-10-01

    Targeting cancer cells is crucial for improving the efficiency of laryngeal cancer treatment. However, the signaling pathway and therapeutic strategy, related to the tumor, still need further research. Dietary flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) found in many fruits and vegetables has been shown in preclinical studies to inhibit cancer growth through regulating cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis without causing any toxicity to normal cells. PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 have been known as essential signaling pathways to modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis as well as autophagy via mTOR, Caspase-3 and NF-κB signals. In our study, flow cytometry and western blot assays suggested that apoptosis was induced by fisetin administration, promoting Caspase-3 expressions by regulating PI3K/AKT/NF-κB. Additionally, fisetin suppressed TU212 cells proliferation, which was linked with ERK1/2 inactivation. Further, the activation of PI3K/AKT-regulated mTOR was inhibited by fisetin, leading to transcription suppression and proliferation inhibition of TU212 cells. In vivo studies also showed that the tumor volume and weight of nude mice were reduced for fisetin use with KI-67 decrease and LC3II increase in tumor tissue samples. Together, our data indicated that fisetin had a potential role in controlling human laryngeal cancer through inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT/NF-κB/mTOR signaling pathways, which might provide a therapeutic strategy for laryngeal cancer inhibition in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Shengui Sansheng San extraction is an angiogenic switch via regulations of AKT/mTOR, ERK1/2 and Notch1 signal pathways after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bowen; Luo, Cheng; Zheng, Zhaoguang; Xia, Zhenyan; Zhang, Qian; Ke, Chienchih; Liu, Renshyan; Zhao, Yonghua

    2018-05-15

    As a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Shengui Sansheng San (SSS) has been employed for stroke treatment more than 300 years. We hypothesize that SSS extraction is an angiogenic switch in penumbra post-stroke, and corresponding mechanisms are investigated. In present study, rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAo) and were treated with low, middle and high doses of SSS extraction. We assessed neurological function and survival rate, and measured infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining on day 7 after ischemia. von Willebrand factor (vWF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) /chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) as well as protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) /hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Notch1 signaling pathways were respectively investigated by immunofluorescence assay or western blotting in vivo and oxygen-glucose-deprived (OGD) brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs); simultaneously, wound healing of BMECs and tube formation assay were administrated. Compared to MCAo group, SSS extraction could significantly improve neurological functional scores, survival rate and cerebral infarct volume, enhance vWF + vascular density and perimeter, SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis, VEGF expression, as well as activate AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α and ERK1/2 and inhibit Notch1 pathways in penumbra. In vitro, containing SSS extraction serum increased BMEC migration, capillary formation and VEGF expression via up-regulations of AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 pathways in OGD BMECs, but ERK inhibitor (U0126) reversed the result of VEGF expression in high dose of SSS group. Additionally, VEGFR2 and Notch1 expressions were suppressed by containing SSS extraction serum. All results were in dose dependent manner. Our study firstly demonstrates that SSS extraction is an

  11. BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yue; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Leung, Peter C K; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2018-05-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

  12. TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling promotes host resistance against intracellular bacterial infection by negative regulation of type I IFN production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Finlay W; Ewbank, John; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Stavropoulos, Evangelos; Martirosyan, Anna; Redford, Paul S; Wu, Xuemei; Graham, Christine M; Saraiva, Margarida; Tsichlis, Philip; Chaussabel, Damien; Ley, Steven C; O'Garra, Anne

    2013-08-15

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, causing ≈ 1.4 million deaths per year. Key immune components for host protection during tuberculosis include the cytokines IL-12, IL-1, and TNF-α, as well as IFN-γ and CD4(+) Th1 cells. However, immune factors determining whether individuals control infection or progress to active tuberculosis are incompletely understood. Excess amounts of type I IFN have been linked to exacerbated disease during tuberculosis in mouse models and to active disease in patients, suggesting tight regulation of this family of cytokines is critical to host resistance. In addition, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 is known to inhibit the immune response to M. tuberculosis in murine models through the negative regulation of key proinflammatory cytokines and the subsequent Th1 response. We show in this study, using a combination of transcriptomic analysis, genetics, and pharmacological inhibitors, that the TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is important in mediating host resistance to tuberculosis through negative regulation of type I IFN production. The TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulated production by macrophages of several cytokines important in the immune response to M. tuberculosis as well as regulating induction of a large number of additional genes, many in a type I IFN-dependent manner. In the absence of TPL-2 in vivo, excess type I IFN promoted IL-10 production and exacerbated disease. These findings describe an important regulatory mechanism for controlling tuberculosis and reveal mechanisms by which type I IFN may promote susceptibility to this important disease.

  13. fundTPL-2 – ERK1/2 Signaling Promotes Host Resistance against Intracellular Bacterial Infection by Negative Regulation of Type I Interferon Production3

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Finlay W.; Ewbank, John; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Stavropoulos, Evangelos; Martirosyan, Anna; Redford, Paul S.; Wu, Xuemei; Graham, Christine M.; Saraiva, Margarida; Tsichlis, Philip; Chaussabel, Damien; Ley, Steven C.; O’Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, causing approximately 1.4 million deaths per year. Key immune components for host protection during tuberculosis include the cytokines IL-12, IL-1 and TNF-α, as well as IFN-γ and CD4+ Th1 cells. However, immune factors determining whether individuals control infection or progress to active tuberculosis are incompletely understood. Excess amounts of type I interferon have been linked to exacerbated disease during tuberculosis in mouse models and to active disease in patients, suggesting tight regulation of this family of cytokines is critical to host resistance. In addition, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 is known to inhibit the immune response to Mtb in murine models through the negative regulation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent Th1 response. We show here, using a combination of transcriptomic analysis, genetics and pharmacological inhibitors that the TPL-2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is important in mediating host resistance to tuberculosis through negative regulation of type I interferon production. The TPL-2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway regulated production by macrophages of several cytokines important in the immune response to Mtb as well as regulating induction of a large number of additional genes, many in a type I IFN dependent manner. In the absence of TPL-2 in vivo, excess type I interferon promoted IL-10 production and exacerbated disease. These findings describe an important regulatory mechanism for controlling tuberculosis and reveal mechanisms by which type I interferon may promote susceptibility to this important disease. PMID:23842752

  14. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Atri, Deepak; Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1S259A) that is associated with Noonan syndrome. Expression of mutant RAF1S259A in ECs activated ERK and induced SOX18 and PROX1 expression, leading to increased commitment of venous ECs to the lymphatic fate. Excessive production of lymphatic ECs resulted in lymphangiectasia that was highly reminiscent of abnormal lymphatics seen in Noonan syndrome and similar “RASopathies.” Inhibition of ERK signaling during development abrogated the lymphatic differentiation program and rescued the lymphatic phenotypes induced by expression of RAF1S259A. These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases. PMID:23391722

  15. Echinocystic acid inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jian-hui, E-mail: jianhui_yangxa@163.com [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China); Li, Bing [Department of Dermatology, the 451st Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi Province (China); Wu, Qiong; Lv, Jian-guo; Nie, Hui-Yong [Rehabilitation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Health Science Center, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710061, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2016-09-02

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Echinocystic acid (EA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam, was reported to prevent reduction of bone mass and strength and improve the cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties in ovariectomy rats. However, the molecular mechanism of EA on the osteoclast formation has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of EA on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results showed that EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast, as well as the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). At molecular levels, EA inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation in BMMs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that EA can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Moreover, we clarified that these inhibitory effects of EA occur through suppression of NF-κB and ERK activation. Therefore, EA may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast in BMMs. • EA inhibits the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation in BMMs.

  16. Gomisin N Inhibits Melanogenesis through Regulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyoung Chae

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis. Gomisin N downregulated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R, adenylyl cyclase 2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2. In addition, Gomisin N-treated Melan-A cells exhibited increased p-Akt and p-ERK levels, which implies that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways may function to inhibit melanogenesis. We also validated that Gomisin N reduced melanin production by repressing the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in mouse and human cells as well as in developing zebrafish embryos. Collectively, we conclude that Gomisin N inhibits melanin synthesis by repressing the expression of MITF and melanogenic enzymes, probably through modulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways.

  17. Analgesic effect of paeoniflorin in rats with neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral hyperalgesia is mediated through adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Li; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF), a chief active ingredient in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (family Ranunculaceae), is effective in relieving colorectal distention (CRD)-induced visceral pain in rats with visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation (NMS). This study aimed at exploring the underlying mechanisms of PF's analgesic effect on CRD-evoked nociceptive signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) and investigating whether the adenosine A(1) receptor is involved in PF's anti-nociception. CRD-induced visceral pain as well as phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) expression in the CNS structures of NMS rats were suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) and ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126. PF could similarly inhibit CRD-evoked p-ERK and c-Fos expression in laminae I-II of the lumbosacral dorsal horn and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). PF could also reverse the CRD-evoked increased glutamate concentration by CRD as shown by dynamic microdialysis monitoring in ACC, whereas, DPCPX, an antagonist of adenosine A(1) receptor, significantly blocked the analgesic effect of PF and PF's inhibition on CRD-induced p-ERK and p-CREB expression. These results suggest that PF's analgesic effect is possibly mediated by adenosine A(1) receptor by inhibiting CRD-evoked glutamate release and the NMDA receptor dependent ERK signaling.

  18. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3β Ser9 and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3β Thr390 . ► MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K Thr389 and phosphorylation of p70S6K Thr421/Ser424 . ► Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3β Ser9 and phosphorylates GSK3β Thr390 . ► Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K Thr389 and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K Thr421/Ser424 . ► Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3β at Ser 9 and, to a lesser extent, Thr 390 , the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr 389 , and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr 421 and Ser 424 . The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3β Ser9 and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K Thr389 ; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3β Thr390 , and p-70S6K Thr421/Ser424 induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our data show that proteasome inhibition regulates p38/GSK Ser9 /p70S6K Thr380 and ERK/GSK3β Thr390 /p70S6K Thr421/Ser424 kinase signaling, which is involved in cell survival and cell death.

  19. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. TGF-β1 stimulates migration of type II endometrial cancer cells by down-regulating PTEN via activation of SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Siyuan; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Zhao, Jianfang; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-09-20

    PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor primarily by antagonizing the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PTEN is frequently mutated in human cancers; however, in type II endometrial cancers its mutation rate is very low. Overexpression of TGF-β1 and its receptors has been reported to correlate with metastasis of human cancers and reduced survival rates. Although TGF-β1 has been shown to regulate PTEN expression through various mechanisms, it is not yet known if the same is true in type II endometrial cancer. In the present study, we show that treatment with TGF-β1 stimulates the migration of two type II endometrial cancer cell lines, KLE and HEC-50. In addition, TGF-β1 treatment down-regulates both mRNA and protein levels of PTEN. Overexpression of PTEN or inhibition of PI3K abolishes TGF-β1-stimulated cell migration. TGF-β1 induces SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and knockdown of common SMAD4 inhibits the suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on PTEN mRNA and protein. Interestingly, TGF-β1 induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation and pre-treatment with a MEK inhibitor attenuates the suppression of PTEN protein, but not mRNA, by TGF-β1. This study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating TGF-β1-induced down-regulation of PTEN and demonstrates an important role of PTEN in the regulation of type II endometrial cancer cell migration.

  1. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patrick T.; Rubin, Amanda J.; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that might underlie this mnemonic enhancement. We hypothesized that the P-induced enhancement of object recognition would be dependent on activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways. In young ovariectomized mice, we found that bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of P significantly increased levels of phospho-p42 ERK and the mTOR substrate S6K in the dorsal hippocampus 5 minutes after infusion. Phospho-p42 ERK levels were downregulated 15 minutes after infusion and returned to baseline 30 minutes after infusion, suggesting a biphasic effect of P on ERK activation. Dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR activation were necessary for P to facilitate memory consolidation, as suggested by the fact that inhibitors of both pathways infused into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training blocked the P-induced enhancement of object recognition. Collectively, these data provide the first demonstration that the ability of P to enhance memory consolidation depends on the rapid activation of cell signaling and protein synthesis pathways in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:22265866

  2. Rac1 signaling regulates cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in the lung via the Erk1/2 MAPK and STAT3 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Shui-Juan; Shen, Hui-Juan; Guan, Yan; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Shen, Jian; Yan, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-07-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies have indicated that Rac1 is involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary injury and CS-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, the contribution of Rac1 activity to CS-induced lung inflammation remains not fully clear. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Rac1 in CS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Mice or 16HBE cells were exposed to CS or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to induce acute inflammation. The lungs of mice exposed to CS showed an increase in the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), as well as an accumulation of inflammatory cells, indicating high Rac1 activity. The exposure of 16HBE cells to CSE resulted in elevated Rac1 levels, as well as increased release of IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Selective inhibition of Rac1 ameliorated the release of IL-6 and KC as well as inflammation in the lungs of CS-exposed mice. Histological assessment showed that treatment with a Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, led to a decrease in CD68 and CD11b positive cells and the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the alveolar spaces. Selective inhibition or knockdown of Rac1 decreased IL-6 and IL-8 release in 16HBE cells induced by CSE, which correlated with CSE-induced Rac1-regulated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling. Our data suggest an important role for Rac1 in the pathological alterations associated with CS-mediated inflammation. Rac1 may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of CS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  4. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-01-01

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors

  5. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  6. ERK2 dependent signaling contributes to wound healing after a partial-thickness burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Yasushi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Takeuchi, Atsuya; Ojima, Kenichiro; Kouzu, Keita; Kawakami, Saki; Ito, Masataka; Ishihara, Masayuki; Sato, Shunichi; Takishima, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    Burn healing is a complex physiological process involving multiple cell activities, such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Although extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) have a pivotal role in regulating a variety of cellular responses, little is known about the individual functions of ERK isoform for healing in vivo. This study investigated the role of ERK2 in burn healing. To assess this, Erk2 +/- mice generated by gene targeting were used. The resultant mice exhibited significant delay in re-epithelization of partial-thickness burns in the skin in comparison to wild-type. An in vitro proliferation assay revealed that keratinocytes from Erk2 +/- mice grew significantly slower than those prepared from wild-type. These results highlight the importance of ERK2 in the process of burn healing.

  7. MTBP inhibits the Erk1/2-Elk-1 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Atul; Iyer, Swathi V.; Ward, Christopher; Link, Tim; Diaz, Francisco J.; Dhar, Animesh; Tawfik, Ossama W.; Weinman, Steven A.; Azuma, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Tadahide; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the prognosis of HCC patients, especially those with metastasis, remains extremely poor. This is partly due to unclear molecular mechanisms underlying HCC metastasis. Our previous study indicates that MDM2 Binding Protein (MTBP) suppresses migration and metastasis of HCC cells. However, signaling pathways regulated by MTBP remain unknown. To identify metastasis-associated signaling pathways governed by MTBP, we have performed unbiased luciferase reporter-based signal array analyses and found that MTBP suppresses the activity of the ETS-domain transcription factor Elk-1, a downstream target of Erk1/2 MAP kinases. MTBP also inhibits phosphorylation of Elk-1 and decreases mRNA expression of Elk-1 target genes. Reduced Elk-1 activity is caused by inhibited nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk) by MTBP and subsequent inhibition of Elk-1 phosphorylation. We also reveal that MTBP inhibits the interaction of p-Erk with importin-7/RanBP7 (IPO7), an importin family member which shuttles p-Erk into the nucleus, by binding to IPO7. Moreover, high levels of MTBP in human HCC tissues are correlated with cytoplasmic localization of p-Erk1/2. Our study suggests that MTBP suppresses metastasis, at least partially, by down-modulating the Erk1/2-Elk-1 signaling pathway, thus identifying a novel regulatory mechanism of HCC metastasis by regulating the subcellular localization of p-Erk. PMID:29765550

  8. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol-Hee [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Multiscreening Center for Drug Development, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: oshccw@hanmail.net [Research Center for Resistant Cells, Chosun University, Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our

  9. JWA gene regulates PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell behaviors through MEK-ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Tie-Liang; Ge, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Jie; Ding, Wei-Liang; Feng, Jia-Ke; Zhou, Su-Jun; Chen, Guo-Chang; Tan, Yong-Fei; Cui, Guo-Xing

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of JWA gene in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and the effect on the MAPK signaling pathway. Human PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells were cultured in vitro , and small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed for the JWA gene. The siRNA was transfected into PANC-1 cells. Subsequently, the cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay; cell apoptosis was detected by analyzing BAX and Bcl-2 protein expression; cell migration and invasion were measured using Transwell ® chambers; and the protein expression of JWA and ERK1/2, JNK and p38 and their phosphorylated forms were measured by western blotting. By utilizing the MTT assay, the results showed that when JWA protein expression was inhibited, the proliferation of PANC-1 cells was enhanced. In addition, the expression of apoptosis-associated protein (AAP) BAX was substantially decreased, while the expression of the apoptosis inhibitor gene, Bcl-2 , was significantly enhanced. Using Transwell chambers, it was found that the number of penetrating PANC-1 cells was significantly increased after transfection with JWA siRNA, suggesting that the migration and invasion of the cells was substantially increased. By studying the association between JWA and the MAPK pathway in PANC-1 cells, it was found that the expression of p-ERK1/2 of the MAPK pathway was significantly downregulated following JWA siRNA transfection. However, the expression levels of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, p-JNK and p-p38 showed no significant differences. In conclusion, it was shown that JWA affects the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells which could be attributed to effects on the expression of ERK1/2 in the MAPK pathway.

  10. Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6), a negative regulator of FGF2/ERK1/2 signaling, enhances 17β-estradiol-induced cell growth in endometrial adenocarcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Guo, Qiufen; Wang, Chong; Yan, Lei; Fu, Yibing; Fan, Mingjun; Zhao, Xingbo; Li, Mingjiang

    2013-08-25

    Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6) is a negative feedback mechanism of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK1/2 signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of Dusp6 in human endometrial adenocarcinomas and the role of Dusp6 expression in the growth regulation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cell. We found that Dusp6 was over-expressed in human endometrial adenocarcinomas. In Ishikawa cells, plasmid-driven Dusp6 expression efficiently blocked the activity of FGF2-induced MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling. Unexpectedly, Dusp6 expression significantly enhanced the growth of Ishikawa cells. In Dusp6 forced-expression cells, 17β-estradiol stimulation increased the cell growth by all most threefolds. In addition, progesterone treatment reduced the cell growth to about half both in Ishikawa cells with and without forced-Dusp6-expression. Dusp6 over-expression is involved in the pathogenesis and development of human endometrial adenocarcinomas. Dusp6 functions as a negative regulator of FGF2/ERK1/2 signaling but enhances the growth and 17β-estradiol-induced cell growth in endometrial adenocarcinoma cell. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  12. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  13. The ERK5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways play opposing regulatory roles during chondrogenesis of adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Brent E; Matsche, Alexander I; Chen, Faye H; Tuan, Rocky S

    2010-07-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) are able to differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types, including chondrocytes, and are considered a promising candidate cell source for use in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we examined the regulation of MPC chondrogenesis by mitogen-activated protein kinases in an attempt to better understand how to generate hyaline cartilage in the laboratory that more closely resembles native tissue. Specifically, we employed the high-density pellet culture model system to assess the roles of ERK5 and ERK1/2 pathway signaling in MPC chondrogenesis. Western blotting revealed that high levels of ERK5 phosphorylation correlate with low levels of MPC chondrogenesis and that as TGF-beta 3-enhanced MPC chondrogenesis proceeds, phospho-ERK5 levels steadily decline. Conversely, levels of phospho-ERK1/2 paralleled the progression of MPC chondrogenesis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK5 pathway components MEK5 and ERK5 resulted in increased MPC pellet mRNA transcript levels of the cartilage-characteristic marker genes SOX9, COL2A1, AGC, L-SOX5, and SOX6, as well as enhanced accumulation of SOX9 protein, collagen type II protein, and Alcian blue-stainable proteoglycan. In contrast, knockdown of ERK1/2 pathway members MEK1 and ERK1 decreased expression of all chondrogenic markers tested. Finally, overexpression of MEK5 and ERK5 also depressed MPC chondrogenesis, as indicated by diminished activity of a co-transfected collagen II promoter-luciferase reporter construct. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel role for the ERK5 pathway as an important negative regulator of adult human MPC chondrogenesis and illustrate that the ERK5 and ERK1/2 kinase cascades play opposing roles regulating MPC cartilage formation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in rats hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hong-yan; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, Shui-ming; Gao, Ya-bing; Xu, Xin-ping; Ma, Jun-Jie

    2009-05-01

    To study the development of changes for signaling molecules related to Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in hippocampus of rats after electromagnetic radiation, and investigate the mechanisms of radiation injury. Rats were exposed to X-HPM, S-HPM and EMP radiation source respectively, and animal model of electromagnetic radiation was established. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Raf-1, phosphorylated Raf-1 and phospholylated ERK. The expression of Raf-1 down-regulated during 6 h-14 d after radiation, most significantly at 7 d, and recovered at 28 d. There was no significant difference between the radiation groups. The expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 and phosphorylated ERK both up-regulated at 6 h and 7 d after radiation, more significantly at 6 h, and the two microwave groups were more serious for phosphorylated ERK. During 6 h-14 d after S-HPM radiation, the expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 increased continuously, but phosphorylated ERK changed wavily, 6 h and 7 d were expression peak. Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway participates in the hippocampus injury induced by electromagnetic radiation. The excessive activation of ERK pathway may result in the apoptosis and death of neurons, which is the important mechanism of recognition disfunction caused by electromagnetic radiation.

  15. ERK Regulates Renal Cell Proliferation and Renal Cyst Expansion in inv Mutant Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yasuko; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Tanimura, Susumu; Nishida, Masashi; Hamaoka, Kenji; Kohno, Michiaki; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2009-01-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage kidney disease in children and young adults. Inv mice are a model for human nephronophthisis type 2 (NPHP2) and characterized by multiple renal cysts and situs inversus. Renal epithelial cells in inv cystic kidneys show increased cell proliferation. We studied the ERK pathway to understand the mechanisms that induce cell proliferation and renal cyst progression in inv kidneys. We studied the effects of ERK suppression by administering PD184352, an oral mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor on renal cyst expansion, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity, bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and expression of cell-cycle regulators in invΔC kidneys. Phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) level increased along with renal cyst enlargement. Cell-cycle regulators showed a high level of expression in invΔC kidneys. PD184352 successfully decreased p-ERK level and inhibited renal cyst enlargement. The inhibitor also decreased expression of cell-cycle regulators and BrdU incorporation in renal epithelial cells. The present results showed that ERK regulated renal cell proliferation and cyst expansion in inv mutants

  16. The expression of ER, PR in endometrial cancer and analysis of their correlation with ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Xu, Lina; Tang, Liang

    2017-12-12

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a common malignant tumor in gynecology. Its incidence and development are closely associated with the levels of estrogenic and progesterone hormone. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway abnormity is associated with a variety of tumors. This study detected estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), ERK1, and ERK2 expression in EC and analyzed their correlations. A total of 40 EC patients in our hospital were selected as test group, while another 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group. ER, PR, ERK1, and ERK2 expression in EC tissue, para-carcinoma tissue, and normal endometrial tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The positive rate of ER, PR, ERK1, and ERK2 in the test group was 50%, 40%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control (PPR, ERK1, and ERK2 protein expressions in EC cell were significantly higher than those in the control (PPR (PPR, which were correlated with higher levels of ERK1 and ERK2, suggesting they might be involved in the pathogenesis of EC.

  17. MicroRNA-134 regulates lung cancer cell H69 growth and apoptosis by targeting WWOX gene and suppressing the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tianjun; Gao, Fei; Feng, Sifang; Yang, Tian; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been shown to act as crucial modulators during carcinogenesis. Recent studies have implied that miR-134 expression associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and invasive potential of NSCLC cells. Our study investigated the pathogenic implications of miR-134 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Overexpression or inhibition MiR-134 expression by miR-134 mimics or miR-134 inhibitors (anti-miR-134) in SCLC cell lines was detected using qRT-PCR. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, MTT assays and flow cytometry were performed in order to clarify the growth and apoptosis of SCLC cells which had been transfected with miR-134 mimics or anti-miR-134. WWOX expression in H69 cells was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The results showed that overexpression miR-134 was significantly promoting SCLC cells growth and inhibit its apoptosis. In addition, reduced miR-134 expression was significantly correlated with cell growth inhibition and apoptosis promotion. Furthermore, transfection of miR-134 mimics into the SCLC cells markedly down-regulated the level of WWOX, whereas, anti-miR-134 up-regulated WWOX expression. We also found that overexpression WWOX attenuate miR-134 induced H69 cells growth, and promote cell apoptosis. Moreover, miR-134 promoted cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis via the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. These findings suggest that miR-134 may be an ideal diagnostic and prognostic marker, and may be attributed to the molecular therapy of SCLC. - Highlights: • MiR-134 play roles in small cell lung cancer cell growth and apoptosis. • MiR-134 negative regulated the level of WWOX in H69 cells. • WWOX overexpression attenuate miR-134 induced H69 cells growth. • MiR-134 promotes cell growth via the activation of ERK1/2 pathway

  18. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2009-01-01

    muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigate...... agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) caused a time-dependent ERK1/2 activation with a maximal effect by less than 20% of the ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2. Increase in bosentan concentration up to 10 microM further inhibited ET-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 and had a stronger inhibitory effect than BQ123...

  19. Diallyl disulfide suppresses SRC/Ras/ERK signaling-mediated proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer by up-regulating miR-34a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS is one of the major volatile components of garlic oil. DADS has various biological properties, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant effects. However, the anticancer mechanisms of DADS in human breast cancer have not been elucidated, particularly in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-34a was up-regulated in DADS-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-34a not only inhibited breast cancer growth but also enhanced the antitumor effect of DADS, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Src was identified as a target of miR-34a, with miR-34a inhibiting SRC expression and consequently triggering the suppression of the SRC/Ras/ERK pathway. These results suggest that DADS could be a promising anticancer agent for breast cancer. miR-34a may also demonstrate a potential gene therapy agent that could enhance the antitumor effects of DADS.

  20. Kaempferol Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression by Down-Regulating ERK1/2 and the Activator Protein-1 Signaling Pathways in Oral Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Yang, Wei-En; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Hsieh, Yih-Shou

    2013-01-01

    Background Kaempferol has been proposed as a potential drug for cancer chemoprevention and treatment because it is a natural polyphenol contained in plant-based foods. Recent studies have demonstrated that kaempferol protects against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on this finding, we investigated the mechanisms by which kaempferol produces the anti-metastatic effect in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we provided molecular evidence associated with the anti-metastatic effect of kaempferol by demonstrating a substantial suppression of SCC4 cell migration and invasion. This effect was associated with reduced expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein levels. Analysis of the transcriptional regulation indicated that kaempferol inhibited MMP-2 transcription by suppressing c-Jun activity. Kaempferol also produced an inhibitory effect on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Conclusions These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-metastatic effect of kaempferol, and are valuable in the prevention of oral cancer metastasis. PMID:24278338

  1. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2009-01-01

    muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigat...

  2. FGFR2c-mediated ERK-MAPK activity regulates coronal suture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Miles J.; Xue, Ke; Li, Li; Horowitz, Mark C.; Steinbacher, Derek M.; Eswarakumar, Jacob V.P.

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) signaling is critical for proper craniofacial development. A gain-of-function mutation in the 2c splice variant of the receptor’s gene is associated with Crouzon syndrome, which is characterized by craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial vault sutures, leading to craniofacial maldevelopment. Insight into the molecular mechanism of craniosynostosis has identified the ERK-MAPK signaling cascade as a critical regulator of suture patency. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of FGFR2c-induced ERK-MAPK activation in the regulation of coronal suture development. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function Fgfr2c mutant mice have overlapping phenotypes, including coronal synostosis and craniofacial dysmorphia. In vivo analysis of coronal sutures in loss-of-function and gain-of-function models demonstrated fundamentally different pathogenesis underlying coronal suture synostosis. Calvarial osteoblasts from gain-of-function mice demonstrated enhanced osteoblastic function and maturation with concomitant increase in ERK-MAPK activation. In vitro inhibition with the ERK protein inhibitor U0126 mitigated ERK protein activation levels with a concomitant reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity. This study identifies FGFR2c-mediated ERK-MAPK signaling as a key mediator of craniofacial growth and coronal suture development. Furthermore, our results solve the apparent paradox between loss-of-function and gain-of-function FGFR2c mutants with respect to coronal suture synostosis. PMID:27034231

  3. Dynamics and control of the ERK signaling pathway: Sensitivity, bistability, and oscillations.

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    Arkun, Yaman; Yasemi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Cell signaling is the process by which extracellular information is transmitted into the cell to perform useful biological functions. The ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signaling controls several cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The ERK signaling pathway considered in this work starts with an extracellular stimulus and ends with activated (double phosphorylated) ERK which gets translocated into the nucleus. We model and analyze this complex pathway by decomposing it into three functional subsystems. The first subsystem spans the initial part of the pathway from the extracellular growth factor to the formation of the SOS complex, ShC-Grb2-SOS. The second subsystem includes the activation of Ras which is mediated by the SOS complex. This is followed by the MAPK subsystem (or the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) which produces the double phosphorylated ERK upon being activated by Ras. Although separate models exist in the literature at the subsystems level, a comprehensive model for the complete system including the important regulatory feedback loops is missing. Our dynamic model combines the existing subsystem models and studies their steady-state and dynamic interactions under feedback. We establish conditions under which bistability and oscillations exist for this important pathway. In particular, we show how the negative and positive feedback loops affect the dynamic characteristics that determine the cellular outcome.

  4. Altered ERK1/2 Signaling in the Brain of Learned Helpless Rats: Relevance in Vulnerability to Developing Stress-Induced Depression

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    Yogesh Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2- (ERK1/2- mediated cellular signaling plays a major role in synaptic and structural plasticity. Although ERK1/2 signaling has been shown to be involved in stress and depression, whether vulnerability to develop depression is associated with abnormalities in ERK1/2 signaling is not clearly known. The present study examined ERK1/2 signaling in frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats that showed vulnerability (learned helplessness, (LH or resiliency (non-learned helplessness, (non-LH to developing stress-induced depression. In frontal cortex and hippocampus of LH rats, we found that mRNA and protein expressions of ERK1 and ERK2 were significantly reduced, which was associated with their reduced activation and phosphorylation in cytosolic and nuclear fractions, where ERK1 and ERK2 target their substrates. In addition, ERK1/2-mediated catalytic activities and phosphorylation of downstream substrates RSK1 (cytosolic and nuclear and MSK1 (nuclear were also lower in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of LH rats without any change in their mRNA or protein expression. None of these changes were evident in non-LH rats. Our study indicates that ERK1/2 signaling is differentially regulated in LH and non-LH rats and suggests that abnormalities in ERK1/2 signaling may be crucial in the vulnerability to developing depression.

  5. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Regulates Persistent ERK Osciliations in Premaligant but not Malignant JB6 Cells

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    Weber, Thomas J.; Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.; Opresko, Lee K.; Chrisler, William B.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.

    2010-05-02

    basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2) plays an important role in epidermal wound healing in vivo and is associated with a persistent increased in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in vitro. Here we have examined whether bFGF induces the closure of an experimental scratch wound in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and have explored the regulation of the ERK pathway by bFGF in the context of kinase oscillations. bFGF stimulation is associated with increases in cellular phospho-ERK and phospho-c-Jun levels. In addition, bFGF increases cell proliferation and a change in cell morphology (stellate appearance) in a dose-dependent fashion (0.1 – 100 ng/ml). bFGF treatment also promoted the closure of an experimental scratch wound in vitro. JB6 cells were stably transfected with an ERK1-GFP chimera to follow temporal ERK subcellular distribution patterns. We observe a persistent upregulation of the ERK pathway, as evidenced by a significant increase in nuclear ERK1-GFP levels at time points up to 24 hr after bFGF treatment. Interestingly, at the single cell level, ERK is observed to oscillate between nuclear and cytosolic compartments in response to bFGF treatment. Because this oscillatory behavior is asynchronous in the cell population, it is only clearly resolved at the single cell level. Collectively, data presented here are consistent with an important role for bFGF in wound healing and suggest a more complex regulation of the ERK pathway by bFGF than has previously been appreciated.

  6. Roles of 1,25(OH2D3 and Vitamin D Receptor in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Regulating the Activation of CD4+ T Cells and the PKCδ/ERK Signaling Pathway

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    Xiao-Jie He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Density gradient centrifugation was performed to separate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. CD4+ T cells were separated using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS. CD4+T cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected and assigned into 9 groups: the normal control group, the normal negative control (NC group, the VDR siRNA group, the RA control group, the RA NC group, the VDR over-expressed RA group, the SLE control group, the SLE NC group, and the VDR over-expressed SLE group. The mRNA and protein expressions of VDR, PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Bisulfite genomic sequencing was conducted to monitor the methylation status of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L. Results: Compared with healthy controls, serum 1,25(OH2D3 level and VDR mRNA expression in peripheral blood were decreased in SLE patients and RA patients. With the increase of concentrations of 1,25(OH2D3 treatment, the VDR mRNA expression and DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were declined, while the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were elevated in SLE, RA and normal CD4+T cells. Compared with the SLE contro, RA control, SLE NC and RA NC groups, the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L decreased but DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L increased in the VDR over-expressed SLE group and VDR over-expressed RA group. However, compared with the normal

  7. Prohibitin (PHB) inhibits apoptosis in rat granulosa cells (GCs) through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the Bcl family of proteins.

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    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thompson, Winston E; Welch, Crystal; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development is tightly regulated by crosstalk between cell death and survival signals, which include both endocrine and intra-ovarian regulators. Whether the follicle ultimately ovulates or undergoes atresia is dependent on the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is abundantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and associated with GC differentiation and apoptosis. The current study was designed to characterize the regulation of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors in undifferentiated rat GCs (gonadotropin independent phase) governed by PHB. Microarray technology was initially employed to identify potential apoptosis-related genes, whose expression levels within GCs were altered by either staurosporine (STS) alone or STS in presence of ectopically over-expressed PHB. Next, immunoblot studies were performed to examine the expression patterns of selective Bcl-2 family members identified by the microarray analysis, which are commonly regulated in the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. These studies were designed to measure protein levels of Bcl2 family in relation to expression of the acidic isoform (phosphorylated) PHB and the components of MEK-Erk1/2 pathway. These studies indicated that over-expression of PHB in undifferentiated GCs inhibit apoptosis which concomitantly results in an increased level of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bclxl, reduced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and inhibition of caspase-3 activity. In contrast, silencing of PHB expression resulted in change of mitochondrial morphology from the regular reticular network to a fragmented form, which enhanced sensitization of these GCs to the induction of apoptosis. Collectively, these studies have provided new insights on the PHB-mediated anti-apoptotic mechanism, which occurs in undifferentiated GCs through a PHB → Mek-Erk1

  8. Receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits proliferation in osteoblast through suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guofeng; Xu, Jingren; Li, Zengchun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RAGE overexpression suppresses cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► RAGE overexpression decreases Wnt/β-catenin signaling. ► RAGE overexpression decreases ERK and PI3K signaling. ► Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes PI3K signaling restored by RAGE blockade. ► Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes ERK signaling restored by RAGE blockade. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of RAGE in the control of osteoblast proliferation is not yet evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that RAGE overexpression inhibits osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The negative regulation of RAGE on cell proliferation results from suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, and is restored by RAGE neutralizing antibody. Prevention of Wnt signaling using Sfrp1 or DKK1 rescues RAGE-decreased PI3K and ERK signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in RAGE overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signaling. Consistently, RAGE overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt targets cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is partially reversed by RAGE blockade. Overall, these results suggest that RAGE inhibits osteoblast proliferation via suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, which provides novel mechanisms by which RAGE regulates osteoblast growth.

  9. Receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits proliferation in osteoblast through suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guofeng [Department of Emergency Surgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Xu, Jingren [Department of Traditional Chinese Orthopaedics, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Li, Zengchun, E-mail: lizc.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Emergency Surgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression suppresses cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases ERK and PI3K signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes PI3K signaling restored by RAGE blockade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes ERK signaling restored by RAGE blockade. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of RAGE in the control of osteoblast proliferation is not yet evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that RAGE overexpression inhibits osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The negative regulation of RAGE on cell proliferation results from suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, and is restored by RAGE neutralizing antibody. Prevention of Wnt signaling using Sfrp1 or DKK1 rescues RAGE-decreased PI3K and ERK signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in RAGE overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signaling. Consistently, RAGE overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt targets cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is partially reversed by RAGE blockade. Overall, these results suggest that RAGE inhibits osteoblast proliferation via suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, which provides novel mechanisms by which RAGE regulates osteoblast growth.

  10. p53- and ERK7-dependent ribosome surveillance response regulates Drosophila insulin-like peptide secretion.

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    Kiran Hasygar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like signalling is a conserved mechanism that coordinates animal growth and metabolism with nutrient status. In Drosophila, insulin-producing median neurosecretory cells (IPCs regulate larval growth by secreting insulin-like peptides (dILPs in a diet-dependent manner. Previous studies have shown that nutrition affects dILP secretion through humoral signals derived from the fat body. Here we uncover a novel mechanism that operates cell autonomously in the IPCs to regulate dILP secretion. We observed that impairment of ribosome biogenesis specifically in the IPCs strongly inhibits dILP secretion, which consequently leads to reduced body size and a delay in larval development. This response is dependent on p53, a known surveillance factor for ribosome biogenesis. A downstream effector of this growth inhibitory response is an atypical MAP kinase ERK7 (ERK8/MAPK15, which is upregulated in the IPCs following impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as starvation. We show that ERK7 is sufficient and essential to inhibit dILP secretion upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, and it acts epistatically to p53. Moreover, we provide evidence that p53 and ERK7 contribute to the inhibition of dILP secretion upon starvation. Thus, we conclude that a cell autonomous ribosome surveillance response, which leads to upregulation of ERK7, inhibits dILP secretion to impede tissue growth under limiting dietary conditions.

  11. Convergence of BMI1 and CHD7 on ERK Signaling in Medulloblastoma

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    Sara Badodi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe molecular convergence between BMI1 and CHD7 in the initiation of medulloblastoma. Identified in a functional genomic screen in mouse models, a BMI1High;CHD7Low expression signature within medulloblastoma characterizes patients with poor overall survival. We show that BMI1-mediated repression of the ERK1/2 pathway leads to increased proliferation and tumor burden in primary human MB cells and in a xenograft model, respectively. We provide evidence that repression of the ERK inhibitor DUSP4 by BMI1 is dependent on a more accessible chromatin configuration in G4 MB cells with low CHD7 expression. These findings extend current knowledge of the role of BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they raise the possibility that pharmacological targeting of BMI1 or ERK may be particularly indicated in a subgroup of MB with low expression levels of CHD7. : Badodi et al. find convergence of the chromatin modifiers BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they show that this pathway regulates tumor proliferation and growth via ERK signaling. Keywords: BMI1, CHD7, DUSP4, ERK, medulloblastoma, PcG genes, mouse models, epigenetics, chromatin

  12. Coordinating ERK signaling via the molecular scaffold Kinase Suppressor of Ras [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Danielle Frodyma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many cancers, including those of the colon, lung, and pancreas, depend upon the signaling pathways induced by mutated and constitutively active Ras. The molecular scaffolds Kinase Suppressor of Ras 1 and 2 (KSR1 and KSR2 play potent roles in promoting Ras-mediated signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade. Here we summarize the canonical role of KSR in cells, including its central role as a scaffold protein for the Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade, its regulation of various cellular pathways mediated through different binding partners, and the phenotypic consequences of KSR1 or KSR2 genetic inactivation. Mammalian KSR proteins have a demonstrated role in cellular and organismal energy balance with implications for cancer and obesity. Targeting KSR1 in cancer using small molecule inhibitors has potential for therapy with reduced toxicity to the patient. RNAi and small molecule screens using KSR1 as a reference standard have the potential to expose and target vulnerabilities in cancer. Interestingly, although KSR1 and KSR2 are similar in structure, KSR2 has a distinct physiological role in regulating energy balance. Although KSR proteins have been studied for two decades, additional analysis is required to elucidate both the regulation of these molecular scaffolds and their potent effect on the spatial and temporal control of ERK activation in health and disease.

  13. Disruption of MEK/ERK/c-Myc signaling radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Carmela; Di Rocco, Agnese; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mauro, Annunziata; Festuccia, Claudio; Del Fattore, Andrea; Berardinelli, Paolo; De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bouché, Marina; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Zani, Bianca Maria; Marampon, Francesco

    2018-06-29

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cell radioresistance causes the failure of radiation therapy (RT) in localized or locally advanced disease. The aberrant accumulation of c-Myc oncoprotein, known to promote PCa onset and progression, may be due to the control of gene transcription and/or MEK/ERK-regulated protein stabilization. Here, we investigated the role of MEK/ERK signaling in PCa. LnCAP, 22Rv1, DU145, and PC3 PCa cell lines were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. U0126, trametinib MEK/ERK inhibitors, and c-Myc shRNAs were used. Radiation was delivered using an x-6 MV photon linear accelerator. U0126 in vivo activity alone or in combination with irradiation was determined in murine xenografts. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling down-regulated c-Myc protein in PCa cell lines to varying extents by affecting expression of RNA and protein, which in turn determined radiosensitization in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of PCa cells. The crucial role played by c-Myc in the MEK/ERK pathways was demonstrated in 22Rv1 cells by the silencing of c-Myc by means of short hairpin mRNA, which yielded effects resembling the targeting of MEK/ERK signaling. The clinically approved compound trametinib used in vitro yielded the same effects as U0126 on growth and C-Myc expression. Notably, U0126 and trametinib induced a drastic down-regulation of BMX, which is known to prevent apoptosis in cancer cells. The results of our study suggest that signal transduction-based therapy can, by disrupting the MEK/ERK/c-Myc axis, reduce human PCa radioresistance caused by increased c-Myc expression in vivo and in vitro and restores apoptosis signals.

  14. ERK2 protein regulates the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells without affecting their mobilization and differentiation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcamo-Orive, Ivan; Tejados, Naiara; Delgado, Jesus; Gaztelumendi, Ainhoa; Otaegui, David; Lang, Valerie; Trigueros, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), derived mainly from adult bone marrow, are valuable models for the study of processes involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. As the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) signalling pathway is a major contributor to cellular growth, differentiation and survival, we have studied the functions of this kinase in hMSC activity. Ablation of ERK2 gene expression (but not ERK1) by RNA interference significantly reduced proliferation of hMSC. This reduction was due to a defect in Cyclin D1 expression and subsequent arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. hMSC growth is enhanced through culture medium supplementation with growth factors (GFs) such as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) or Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). However, these supplements could not rescue the defect observed after ERK2 knockdown, suggesting a common signalling pathway used by these GFs for proliferation. In contrast, ERK1/2 may be dissociated from chemotactic signalling induced by the same GFs. Additionally, hMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipocytes even in the absence of either ERK1 or ERK2 proteins. Our data show that hMSCs do not require cell division to enter the adipogenic differentiation process, indicating that clonal amplification of these cells is not a critical step. However, cell-cell contact seems to be an essential requirement to be able to differentiate into mature adipocytes

  15. PTK6 promotes cancer migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells dependent on ERK signaling.

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    Hiroaki Ono

    Full Text Available Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 (PTK6 is a non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that may be involved in some cancers. However, the biological role and expression status of PTK6 in pancreatic cancer is unknown. Therefore in this study, we evaluated the functional role of PTK6 on pancreatic cancer invasion. Five pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed PTK6 at varying levels. PTK6 expression was also observed in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PTK6 suppression by siRNA significantly reduced both cellular migration and invasion (0.59/0.49 fold for BxPC3, 0.61/0.62 for Panc1, 0.42/0.39 for MIAPaCa2, respectively, p<0.05 for each. In contrast, forced overexpression of PTK6 by transfection of a PTK6 expression vector in Panc1 and MIAPaCa2 cells increased cellular migration and invasion (1.57/1.67 fold for Panc1, 1.44/1.57 for MIAPaCa2, respectively, p<0.05. Silencing PTK6 reduced ERK1/2 activation, but not AKT or STAT3 activation, while PTK6 overexpression increased ERK1/2 activation. U0126, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2, completely abolished the effect of PTK6 overexpression on cellular migration and invasion. These results suggest that PTK6 regulates cellular migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer via ERK signaling. PTK6 may be a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  16. ERK1/2 mediates glucose-regulated POMC gene expression in hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Yunting; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Feiyuan; Wang, Yun; Gu, Jiang; Ma, Lian; Ho, Guyu

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic glucose-sensing neurons regulate the expression of genes encoding feeding-related neuropetides POMC, AgRP, and NPY - the key components governing metabolic homeostasis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is postulated to be the molecular mediator relaying glucose signals to regulate the expression of these neuropeptides. Whether other signaling mediator(s) plays a role is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of ERK1/2 using primary hypothalamic neurons as the model system. The primary neurons were differentiated from hypothalamic progenitor cells. The differentiated neurons possessed the characteristic neuronal cell morphology and expressed neuronal post-mitotic markers as well as leptin-regulated orexigenic POMC and anorexigenic AgRP/NPY genes. Treatment of cells with glucose dose-dependently increased POMC and decreased AgRP/NPY expression with a concurrent suppression of AMPK phosphorylation. In addition, glucose treatment dose-dependently increased the ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Blockade of ERK1/2 activity with its specific inhibitor PD98059 partially (approximately 50%) abolished glucose-induced POMC expression, but had little effect on AgRP/NPY expression. Conversely, blockade of AMPK activity with its specific inhibitor produced a partial (approximately 50%) reversion of low-glucose-suppressed POMC expression, but almost completely blunted the low-glucose-induced AgRP/NPY expression. The results indicate that ERK1/2 mediated POMC but not AgRP/NPY expression. Confirming the in vitro findings, i.c.v. administration of PD98059 in rats similarly attenuated glucose-induced POMC expression in the hypothalamus, but again had little effect on AgRP/NPY expression. The results are indicative of a novel role of ERK1/2 in glucose-regulated POMC expression and offer new mechanistic insights into hypothalamic glucose sensing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-dose strontium stimulates osteogenesis but high-dose doses cause apoptosis in human adipose-derived stem cells via regulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaiti, Abudousaimi; Maimaitiyiming, Asihaerjiang; Boyong, Xu; Aji, Kaisaier; Li, Cao; Cui, Lei

    2017-12-19

    Strontium is a widely used anti-osteoporotic agent due to its dual effects on inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Thus, we studied the dose response of strontium on osteo-inductive efficiency in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Qualitative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, quantitative ALP activity, Alizarin Red staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to investigate the in vitro effects of a range of strontium concentrations on hASC osteogenesis and associated signaling pathways. In vitro work revealed that strontium (25-500 μM) promoted osteogenic differentiation of hASCs according to ALP activity, extracellular calcium deposition, and expression of osteogenic genes such as runt-related transcription factor 2, ALP, collagen-1, and osteocalcin. However, osteogenic differentiation of hASCs was significantly inhibited with higher doses of strontium (1000-3000 μM). These latter doses of strontium promoted apoptosis, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 signaling was increased and accompanied by the downregulation of Bcl-2 and increased phosphorylation of BAX. The inhibition of ERK1/2 decreased apoptosis in hASCs. Lower concentrations of strontium facilitate osteogenic differentiation of hASCs up to a point; higher doses cause apoptosis of hASCs, with activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributing to this process.

  19. Benzoquinone activates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway via ROS production in HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Garrido, Efrain

    2005-01-01

    Benzene (BZ) is a class I carcinogen and its oxidation to reactive intermediates is a prerequisite of hematoxicity and myelotoxicity. The generated metabolites include hydroquinone, which is further oxidized to the highly reactive 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in bone marrow. Therefore, we explored the mechanisms underlying BQ-induced HL-60 cell proliferation by studying the role of BQ-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway. BQ treatment (0.01-30 μM) showed that doses below 10 μM did not significantly reduce viability. ROS production after 3 μM BQ treatment increased threefold; however, catalase addition reduced ROS generation to basal levels. FACS analysis showed that BQ induced a fivefold increase in the proportion of cells in S-phase. We also observed a high proportion of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. BQ also produced rapid and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins. Simultaneous treatment with catalase or PD98059, a potent MEK protein inhibitor, reduced cell recruitment into the S-phase and also abolished the ERK1/2 protein phosphorylation induced by BQ, suggesting that MEK/ERK is an important pathway involved in BQ-induced ROS mediated proliferation. The prolonged activation of ERK1/2 contributes to explain the increased S-phase cell recruitment and to understand the leukemogenic processes associated with exposure to benzene metabolites. Thus, the possible mechanism by which BQ induce HL-60 cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate is linked to ROS production and its growth promoting effects by specific activation of regulating genes known to be activated by redox mechanisms

  20. BAG3 controls angiogenesis through regulation of ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, A; Festa, M; Basile, A; Rosati, A; Pascale, M; Florenzano, F; Nori, S L; Nicolin, V; Di Benedetto, M; Vecchione, M L; Arra, C; Barbieri, A; De Laurenzi, V; Turco, M C

    2012-12-13

    BAG3 is a co-chaperone of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, is expressed in many cell types upon cell stress, however, its expression is constitutive in many tumours. We and others have previously shown that in neoplastic cells BAG3 exerts an anti-apoptotic function thus favoring tumour progression. As a consequence we have proposed BAG3 as a target of antineoplastic therapies. Here we identify a novel role for BAG3 in regulation of neo-angiogenesis and show that its downregulation results in reduced angiogenesis therefore expanding the role of BAG3 as a therapeutical target. In brief we show that BAG3 is expressed in endothelial cells and is essential for the interaction between ERK and its phosphatase DUSP6, as a consequence its removal results in reduced binding of DUSP6 to ERK and sustained ERK phosphorylation that in turn determines increased levels of p21 and p15 and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase.

  1. SPRY4-mediated ERK1/2 signaling inhibition abolishes 17β-estradiol-induced cell growth in endometrial adenocarcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjiang; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xingbo; Yan, Lei; Wang, Chong; Li, Chunyan; Li, Changzhong

    2014-08-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2)-mediated Extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling is a critical modulator in angiogenesis. SPRY4 has been reported to be a feedback negative regulator of FGFs-induced ERK1/2 signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the role of SPRY4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma cell. The effect of SPRY4 expression on FGF2-mediated ERK1/2 signaling was detected by luciferase assay and Western blot analysis. The growth of Ishikawa cells was detected using colony formation assay and cell number counting experiment. We found that plasmid-driven SPRY4 expression efficiently blocked the activity of FGF2-induced ERK1/2 signaling in Ishikawa cells. SPRY4 expression significantly reduced the proliferation and 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of Ishikawa cells. SPRY4 may function as a tumor suppressor in endometrial adenocarcinoma.

  2. Hypoxia Downregulates MAPK/ERK but Not STAT3 Signaling in ROS-Dependent and HIF-1-Independent Manners in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kučera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is involved in the regulation of stem cell fate, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is the master regulator of hypoxic response. Here, we focus on the effect of hypoxia on intracellular signaling pathways responsible for mouse embryonic stem (ES cell maintenance. We employed wild-type and HIF-1α-deficient ES cells to investigate hypoxic response in the ERK, Akt, and STAT3 pathways. Cultivation in 1% O2 for 24 h resulted in the strong dephosphorylation of ERK and its upstream kinases and to a lesser extent of Akt in an HIF-1-independent manner, while STAT3 phosphorylation remained unaffected. Downregulation of ERK could not be mimicked either by pharmacologically induced hypoxia or by the overexpression. Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP 1, 5, and 6 are hypoxia-sensitive MAPK-specific phosphatases involved in ERK downregulation, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A regulates both ERK and Akt. However, combining multiple approaches, we revealed the limited significance of DUSPs and PP2A in the hypoxia-mediated attenuation of ERK signaling. Interestingly, we observed a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS level in hypoxia and a similar phosphorylation pattern for ERK when the cells were supplemented with glutathione. Therefore, we suggest a potential role for the ROS-dependent attenuation of ERK signaling in hypoxia, without the involvement of HIF-1.

  3. The MAP kinase ERK and its scaffold protein MP1 interact with the chromatin regulator Corto during Drosophila wing tissue development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades (p38, JNK, ERK pathways) are involved in cell fate acquisition during development. These kinase modules are associated with scaffold proteins that control their activity. In Drosophila, dMP1, that encodes an ERK scaffold protein, regulates ERK signaling during wing development and contributes to intervein and vein cell differentiation. Functional relationships during wing development between a chromatin regulator, the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto, ERK and its scaffold protein dMP1, are examined here. Results Genetic interactions show that corto and dMP1 act together to antagonize rolled (which encodes ERK) in the future intervein cells, thus promoting intervein fate. Although Corto, ERK and dMP1 are present in both cytoplasmic and nucleus compartments, they interact exclusively in nucleus extracts. Furthermore, Corto, ERK and dMP1 co-localize on several sites on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that they regulate gene expression directly on chromatin. Finally, Corto is phosphorylated. Interestingly, its phosphorylation pattern differs between cytoplasm and nucleus and changes upon ERK activation. Conclusions Our data therefore suggest that the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto could participate in regulating vein and intervein genes during wing tissue development in response to ERK signaling. PMID:21401930

  4. The MAP kinase ERK and its scaffold protein MP1 interact with the chromatin regulator Corto during Drosophila wing tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; Rougeot, Julien; Decoville, Martine; Peronnet, Frédérique

    2011-03-14

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades (p38, JNK, ERK pathways) are involved in cell fate acquisition during development. These kinase modules are associated with scaffold proteins that control their activity. In Drosophila, dMP1, that encodes an ERK scaffold protein, regulates ERK signaling during wing development and contributes to intervein and vein cell differentiation. Functional relationships during wing development between a chromatin regulator, the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto, ERK and its scaffold protein dMP1, are examined here. Genetic interactions show that corto and dMP1 act together to antagonize rolled (which encodes ERK) in the future intervein cells, thus promoting intervein fate. Although Corto, ERK and dMP1 are present in both cytoplasmic and nucleus compartments, they interact exclusively in nucleus extracts. Furthermore, Corto, ERK and dMP1 co-localize on several sites on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that they regulate gene expression directly on chromatin. Finally, Corto is phosphorylated. Interestingly, its phosphorylation pattern differs between cytoplasm and nucleus and changes upon ERK activation. Our data therefore suggest that the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto could participate in regulating vein and intervein genes during wing tissue development in response to ERK signaling.

  5. The MAP kinase ERK and its scaffold protein MP1 interact with the chromatin regulator Corto during Drosophila wing tissue development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peronnet Frédérique

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades (p38, JNK, ERK pathways are involved in cell fate acquisition during development. These kinase modules are associated with scaffold proteins that control their activity. In Drosophila, dMP1, that encodes an ERK scaffold protein, regulates ERK signaling during wing development and contributes to intervein and vein cell differentiation. Functional relationships during wing development between a chromatin regulator, the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto, ERK and its scaffold protein dMP1, are examined here. Results Genetic interactions show that corto and dMP1 act together to antagonize rolled (which encodes ERK in the future intervein cells, thus promoting intervein fate. Although Corto, ERK and dMP1 are present in both cytoplasmic and nucleus compartments, they interact exclusively in nucleus extracts. Furthermore, Corto, ERK and dMP1 co-localize on several sites on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that they regulate gene expression directly on chromatin. Finally, Corto is phosphorylated. Interestingly, its phosphorylation pattern differs between cytoplasm and nucleus and changes upon ERK activation. Conclusions Our data therefore suggest that the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto could participate in regulating vein and intervein genes during wing tissue development in response to ERK signaling.

  6. PDGFR alpha signaling in the primary cilium regulates NHE1-dependent fibroblast migration via coordinated differential activity of MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p90(RSK) and AKT signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Ditte L.; Mally, Sabine; Stock, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In fibroblasts, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR alpha) is upregulated during growth arrest and compartmentalized to the primary cilium. PDGF-AA mediated activation of the dimerized ciliary receptor produces a phosphorylation cascade through the PI3K-AKT and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 path...

  7. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of polycystin-1 C-terminus induces JAK2 and ERK signal alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunho [Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kang, Ah-Young [Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, Program of Immunology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ah-ra [Clinical Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hayne Cho [Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); So, Insuk [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae Il [Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kidney Research Institute, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Hwan [Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a hereditary renal disease caused by mutations in PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%), is characterized by the development of gradually enlarging multiple renal cysts and progressive renal failure. Polycystin-1 (PC1), PKD1 gene product, is an integral membrane glycoprotein which regulates a number of different biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell polarity, and tubulogenesis. PC1 is a target of various proteolytic cleavages and proteosomal degradations, but its role in intracellular signaling pathways remains poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that PC1 is a novel substrate for μ- and m-calpains, which are calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. Overexpression of PC1 altered both Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signals, which were independently regulated by calpain-mediated PC1 degradation. They suggest that the PC1 function on JAK2 and ERK signaling pathways might be regulated by calpains in response to the changes in intracellular calcium concentration. - Highlights: • Polycystin-1 is a target of ubiquitin-independent degradation by calpains. • The PEST domain is required for calpain-mediated degradation of polycystin-1. • Polycystin-1 may independently regulate JAK2 and ERK signaling pathways.

  8. Stretch activates human myometrium via ERK, caldesmon and focal adhesion signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for myometrial activation from the quiescent pregnant state to the active contractile state during labor has hindered the development of effective therapies for preterm labor. Myometrial stretch has been implicated clinically in the initiation of labor and the etiology of preterm labor, but the molecular mechanisms involved in the human have not been determined. We investigated the mechanisms by which gestation-dependent stretch contributes to myometrial activation, by using human uterine samples from gynecologic hysterectomies and Cesarean sections. Here we demonstrate that the Ca requirement for activation of the contractile filaments in human myometrium increases with caldesmon protein content during gestation and that an increase in caldesmon phosphorylation can reverse this inhibitory effect during labor. By using phosphotyrosine screening and mass spectrometry of stretched human myometrial samples, we identify 3 stretch-activated focal adhesion proteins, FAK, p130Cas, and alpha actinin. FAK-Y397, which signals integrin engagement, is constitutively phosphorylated in term human myometrium whereas FAK-Y925, which signals downstream ERK activation, is phosphorylated during stretch. We have recently identified smooth muscle Archvillin (SmAV as an ERK regulator. A newly produced SmAV-specific antibody demonstrates gestation-specific increases in SmAV protein levels and stretch-specific increases in SmAV association with focal adhesion proteins. Thus, whereas increases in caldesmon levels suppress human myometrium contractility during pregnancy, stretch-dependent focal adhesion signaling, facilitated by the ERK activator SmAV, can contribute to myometrial activation. These results suggest that focal adhesion proteins may present new targets for drug discovery programs aimed at regulation of uterine contractility.

  9. Erk signaling suppresses embryonic stem cell self-renewal to specify endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, William B; Brickman, Joshua M

    2014-01-01

    Fgf signaling via Erk activation has been associated with both neural induction and the generation of a primed state for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to all somatic lineages. To dissect the role of Erk in both ESC self-renewal and lineage specification, we explored...

  10. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  11. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with β-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and β-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation. - Highlights: • CS influences the behavior of hDPCs through fibroblast growth factor receptor. • CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs. • ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the Si-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. • Ca staining shows that FGFR regulates hDPC differentiation on CS, but not on β-TCP

  12. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G., E-mail: bipin@amrita.edu

    2016-08-15

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  13. Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanakuttan, Athira; Bose, Chinchu; Pandurangan, Nanjan; Kumar, Geetha B.; Banerji, Asoke; Nair, Bipin G.

    2016-01-01

    The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′ ,7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. - Highlights: • Ecdysterone significantly enhances cell migration in a dose dependent manner. • Ecdysterone augments cell spreading during the initial phase of cell migration through actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. • Ecdysterone enhances cell proliferation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. • Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide production via activation of EGFR

  14. Layer specific and general requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in the developing neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Larsen, Rylan S; Bjorklund, George Reed; Li, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yaohong; Philpot, Benjamin D; Snider, William D; Newbern, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant signaling through the Raf/MEK/ERK (ERK/MAPK) pathway causes pathology in a family of neurodevelopmental disorders known as 'RASopathies' and is implicated in autism pathogenesis. Here, we have determined the functions of ERK/MAPK signaling in developing neocortical excitatory neurons. Our data reveal a critical requirement for ERK/MAPK signaling in the morphological development and survival of large Ctip2+ neurons in layer 5. Loss of Map2k1/2 (Mek1/2) led to deficits in corticospinal tract formation and subsequent corticospinal neuron apoptosis. ERK/MAPK hyperactivation also led to reduced corticospinal axon elongation, but was associated with enhanced arborization. ERK/MAPK signaling was dispensable for axonal outgrowth of layer 2/3 callosal neurons. However, Map2k1/2 deletion led to reduced expression of Arc and enhanced intrinsic excitability in both layers 2/3 and 5, in addition to imbalanced synaptic excitation and inhibition. These data demonstrate selective requirements for ERK/MAPK signaling in layer 5 circuit development and general effects on cortical pyramidal neuron excitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11123.001 PMID:26848828

  15. [Effect of ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway Inhibitor PD98059 on the Expression of Ras, BRaf, MEK, ERK1/2 in Marrow Nucleated Red Blood Cells of CMS Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuan-Fang; Ji, Lin-Hua; Feng, Ting-Ting; Liu, Fang; Cui, Sen; Su, Juan

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of ERK1 / 2 signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059 on Ras, Raf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 expression in order to explore a new way for basic research and clinical treatment of the chronic mountain sickness(CMS). Sixteen CMS patients were selected, the bone marrow was collected for isolation of monomuclear cells (MNC), the cells were sorted by using CD71 and CD235a antibody magnetic beads, then positive cells were diveded into 5 groups: blank control, DMSO and PD98059 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L, and were cultured in hypoxid condition for 72 hours. The Ras-GTP levels in supernatant was detected by ELISA, the RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of BRaf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA in nucleated red blood cells, and the Western blot method was used to detect expression of BRaf, MEK, ERK1, ERK2 protein. PD98059 had no effect on the level of Ras-GTP in each groups. Compared with the blank control group, the expression levels of BRaf, MEK mRNA in DMSO group were not statistically significant (P values were 0.826, 0.298). Compared with the PD98059 20 mol/L group, the expression level of ERK1/2 mRNA was statistically significant (P=0.001, 0.002). Compared with the blank control group, expression levels of p-BRaf, p-MEK protein in DMSO group were not statistically significant (P=0.370, 0.351). Compared with the PD98059 20 mol/L group, the difference of p-ERK1/2 protein level in other 4 groups were statistically significant (P values were <0.001, 0.007). PD98059 can up-regulate the expressions of ERK1/2 miRNA and p-ERK1/2 protein in bone marrow nucleated red blood cells, the Ras / Raf / MEK / ERK 1/2 pathway is the main signal transduction pathway in regulating bone marrow nucleated red blood cells, suggesting that Ras/Raf /MEK /ERK 1/2 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic mountain sickness process.

  16. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKCα linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W.; Yang, J.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC → ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1 S338 and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKCα using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKCα, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1 S338 and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKCα activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKCα activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKCα and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade

  17. ERK1/2 signaling plays an important role in topoisomerase II poison-induced G2/M checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ryan H; Greer, Patrick M; Cao, Phu T; Cowan, Kenneth H; Yan, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Topo II poisons, which target topoisomerase II (topo II) to generate enzyme mediated DNA damage, have been commonly used for anti-cancer treatment. While clinical evidence demonstrate a capability of topo II poisons in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, accumulating evidence also show that topo II poison treatment frequently results in cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which was associated with subsequent resistance to these treatments. Results in this report indicate that treatment of MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells with topo II poisons resulted in an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and an subsequent induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using specific inhibitors markedly attenuated the topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest and diminished the topo II poison-induced activation of ATR and Chk1 kinases. Moreover, decreased expression of ATR by specific shRNA diminished topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest but had no effect on topo II poison-induced ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling had little, if any, effect on topo II poison-induced ATM activation. In addition, ATM inhibition by either incubation of cells with ATM specific inhibitor or transfection of cells with ATM specific siRNA did not block topo II poison-induced G2/M arrest. Ultimately, inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling greatly enhanced topo II poison-induced apoptosis. These results implicate a critical role for ERK1/2 signaling in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following topo II poison treatment, which protects cells from topo II poison-induced apoptosis.

  18. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-01-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  19. Effect of Repeated Electroacupuncture Intervention on Hippocampal ERK and p38MAPK Signaling in Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of our past studies showed that hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR-1 mRNA and differentially expressed proteins participating in MAPK signaling were involved in electroacupuncture (EA induced cumulative analgesia in neuropathic pain rats, but the underlying intracellular mechanism remains unknown. The present study was designed to observe the effect of EA stimulation (EAS on hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK and p38 MAPK signaling in rats with chronic constrictive injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve, so as to reveal its related intracellular targets in pain relief. After CCI, the thermal pain thresholds of the affected hind were significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05. Following one and two weeks’ EAS of ST 36-GB34, the pain thresholds were significantly upregulated (P<0.05, and the effect of EA2W was remarkably superior to that of EA2D and EA1W (P<0.05. Correspondingly, CCI-induced decreased expression levels of Ras, c-Raf, ERK1 and p-ERK1/2 proteins, and p38 MAPK mRNA and p-p38MAPK protein in the hippocampus tissues were reversed by EA2W (P<0.05. The above mentioned results indicated that EA2W induced cumulative analgesic effect may be closely associated with its function in removing neuropathic pain induced suppression of intracellular ERK and p38MAPK signaling in the hippocampus.

  20. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory responses by Buddleja officinalis extract in BV-2 microglial cells via negative regulation of NF-kB and ERK1/2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Jun; Jung, Uhee; Eom, Hyun-Soo; Shin, Hee-June; Park, Hae-Ran

    2013-07-31

    Buddleja officinalis has been traditionally used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and neuronal diseases in Korea and China. Although several reports have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of Buddleja officinalis, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of flower buds of B. officinalis Maximowicz water extract (BOWE) on LPS-induced inflammatory processes in BV-2 microglial cells. BOWE dose-dependently inhibited the production of nitric oxide as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Moreover, BOWE prevented IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression. However, BOWE had no effect on LPS-induced COX-2 or TNF-a mRNA expression. The extract also had no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK, JNK, and c-Jun phosphorylation, whereas ERK1/2 phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by BOWE. BOWE also inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of IkB-α, and LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 NF-kB protein. These data indicate that BOWE inhibited the nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory gene expression in BV-2 microglial cells, possibly through a negative regulation of the NF-kB and ERK1/2 pathways. Further identification of the direct target molecule(s) of BOWE is required to support its use as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent against the neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Responses by Buddleja officinalis Extract in BV-2 Microglial Cells via Negative Regulation of NF-kB and ERK1/2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ran Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja officinalis has been traditionally used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and neuronal diseases in Korea and China. Although several reports have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of Buddleja officinalis, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of flower buds of B. officinalis Maximowicz water extract (BOWE on LPS-induced inflammatory processes in BV-2 microglial cells. BOWE dose-dependently inhibited the production of nitric oxide as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Moreover, BOWE prevented IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression. However, BOWE had no effect on LPS-induced COX-2 or TNF-a mRNA expression. The extract also had no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK, JNK, and c-Jun phosphorylation, whereas ERK1/2 phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by BOWE. BOWE also inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of IkB-α, and LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 NF-kB protein. These data indicate that BOWE inhibited the nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory gene expression in BV-2 microglial cells, possibly through a negative regulation of the NF-kB and ERK1/2 pathways. Further identification of the direct target molecule(s of BOWE is required to support its use as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent against the neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Metformin induces differentiation in acute promyelocytic leukemia by activating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huai, Lei; Wang, Cuicui; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Qihui; Chen, Yirui; Jia, Yujiao; Li, Yan; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metformin induces differentiation in NB4 and primary APL cells. ► Metformin induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in APL cells. ► Metformin synergizes with ATRA to trigger maturation of NB4 and primary APL cells. ► Metformin induces the relocalization and degradation of the PML-RARα fusion protein. ► The study may be applicable for new differentiation therapy in cancer treatment. -- Abstract: Recent studies have shown that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce the risk of cancer development. In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effect of metformin on both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Metformin induced apoptosis with partial differentiation in an APL cell line, NB4, but only displayed a proapoptotic effect on several non-M3 AML cell lines. Further analysis revealed that a strong synergistic effect existed between metformin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during APL cell maturation and that metformin induced the hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in APL cells. U0126, a specific MEK/ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated metformin-induced differentiation. Finally, we found that metformin induced the degradation of the oncoproteins PML-RARα and c-Myc and activated caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggest that metformin treatment may contribute to the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation in APL, which may deepen the understanding of APL maturation and thus provide insight for new therapy strategies.

  3. Curcumin Inhibits Apoptosis of Chondrocytes through Activation ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways Induced Autophagy

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    Xiaodong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel, safe, and more effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoarthritis and related arthritic diseases. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid and the most active component in turmeric, is a biologically active phytochemical. Evidence from several recent in vitro studies suggests that curcumin may exert a chondroprotective effect through actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-catabolic activity that are critical for mitigating OA disease pathogenesis and symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of curcumin on interleukin 1β (IL-1β-stimulated primary chondrocytes in vitro. The treatment of interleukin (IL-1β significantly reduces the cell viability of chondrocytes in dose and time dependent manners. Co-treatment of curcumin with IL-1β significantly decreased the growth inhibition. We observed that curcumin inhibited IL-1β-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in chondrocytes. Curcumin can increase the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3-II, and Beclin-1 in chondrocytes. The expression of autophagy markers could be decreased when the chondrocytes were incubated with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Our results suggest that curcumin suppresses apoptosis and inflammatory signaling through its actions on the ERK1/2-induced autophagy in chondrocytes. We propose that curcumin should be explored further for the prophylactic treatment of osteoarthritis in humans and companion animals.

  4. Metformin induces differentiation in acute promyelocytic leukemia by activating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

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    Huai, Lei; Wang, Cuicui; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Qihui; Chen, Yirui; Jia, Yujiao; Li, Yan; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020 (China); Wang, Jianxiang, E-mail: wangjx@ihcams.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020 (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces differentiation in NB4 and primary APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin synergizes with ATRA to trigger maturation of NB4 and primary APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces the relocalization and degradation of the PML-RAR{alpha} fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study may be applicable for new differentiation therapy in cancer treatment. -- Abstract: Recent studies have shown that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce the risk of cancer development. In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effect of metformin on both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Metformin induced apoptosis with partial differentiation in an APL cell line, NB4, but only displayed a proapoptotic effect on several non-M3 AML cell lines. Further analysis revealed that a strong synergistic effect existed between metformin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during APL cell maturation and that metformin induced the hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in APL cells. U0126, a specific MEK/ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated metformin-induced differentiation. Finally, we found that metformin induced the degradation of the oncoproteins PML-RAR{alpha} and c-Myc and activated caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggest that metformin treatment may contribute to the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation in APL, which may deepen the understanding of APL maturation and thus provide insight for new therapy strategies.

  5. Fluoxetine increases the activity of the ERK-CREB signal system and alleviates the depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to chronic forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoli; Lin, Wenjuan; Li, Junfa; Li, Huanhuan; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Donglin; Sun, Meng

    2008-08-01

    Our previous research indicates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) signal system may be involved in the molecular mechanism of depression. The present study further investigated the effect of antidepressant fluoxetine on the ERK-CREB signal system and the depressive-like behaviors in rats. Fluoxetine was administrated to either naive rats or stressed rats for 21 days. The results showed that chronic forced swim stress induced depressive-like behaviors and decreased the levels of P-ERK2, P-CREB, ERK1/2 and CREB in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Fluoxetine alleviated the depressive-like behaviors and reversed the disruptions of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in stressed rats. Fluoxetine also exerted mood-elevating effect and increased the levels of the P-ERK2 and P-CREB in naive rats. These results suggest that the ERK-CREB signal system may be the targets of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine and participate in the neuronal mechanism of depression.

  6. Cervical spinal erythropoietin induces phrenic motor facilitation via ERK and Akt signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Erica A.; Satriotomo, Irawan; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is typically known for its role in erythropoiesis, but is also a potent neurotrophic/neuroprotective factor for spinal motor neurons. Another trophic factor regulated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), signals via ERK and Akt activation to elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Since EPO also signals via ERK and Akt activation, we tested the hypothesis that EPO elicits similar pMF. Using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemical techniques, we demonstrate in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats that EPO and its receptor, EPO-R, are expressed in identified phrenic motor neurons. Intrathecal EPO at C4 elicits long-lasting pMF; integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude increased >90 min post-injection (63±12% baseline 90 min post-injection; pphrenic motor neurons; EPO also increased pAkt (1.6 fold vs controls; pphrenic motor neurons (p<0.05), indicating a complex interaction between these kinases. We conclude that EPO elicits spinal plasticity in respiratory motor control. Since EPO expression is hypoxia-sensitive, it may play a role in respiratory plasticity in conditions of prolonged or recurrent low oxygen. PMID:22539857

  7. Lipo-PGE1 suppresses collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts via the ERK/Ets-1 signaling pathway.

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    Yoolhee Yang

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of collagen production contributes to various pathological processes, including tissue fibrosis as well as impaired wound healing. Lipo-prostaglandin E1 (Lipo-PGE1, a lipid microsphere-incorporated prostaglandin E1, is used as a vasodilator for the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. Lipo-PGE1 was recently shown to enhance human dermal fibroblast (HDF migration and in vivo wound healing. No published study has characterized the role of Lipo-PGE1 in collagen regulation in HDFs. Here, we investigated the cellular signaling mechanism by which Lipo-PGE1 regulates collagen in HDFs. Collagen production was evaluated by the Sircol collagen assay, Western blot analysis of type I collagen and real time PCR. Unexpectedly, Lipo-PGE1 decreased mRNA expression of collagen 1A1, 1A2, and 3A1. Lipo-PGE1 markedly inhibited type I collagen and total soluble collagen production. In addition, Lipo-PGE1 inhibited transforming growth factor-β-induced collagen expression via Smad2 phosphorylation. To further investigate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/Ets-1 signaling, a crucial pathway in collagen regulation, is involved in Lipo-PGE1-inhibited collagen production, cells were pretreated with an ERK-specific inhibitor, PD98059, prior to the addition of Lipo-PGE1. Lipo-PGE1-inhibited collagen mRNA expression and total soluble collagen production were recovered by pretreatment with PD98059. Moreover, Lipo-PGE1 directly induced the phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, silencing of Ets-1 recovered Lipo-PGE1-inhibited collagen production and PD98059 blocked Lipo-PGE1-enhanced Ets-1 expression. The present study reveals an important role for Lipo-PGE1 as a negative regulator of collagen gene expression and production via ERK/Ets-1 signaling. These results suggest that Lipo-PGE1 could potentially be a therapeutic target in diseases with deregulated collagen turnover.

  8. Aspirin Reduces Cardiac Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting Erk1/2-Serpine2 and P-Akt Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelian; Wang, GuoYuan; QiLi, MuGe; Liang, HaiHai; Li, TianShi; E, XiaoQiang; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao; Qian, Ming; Xu, BoZhi; Shen, ZhiHang; Gitau, Samuel Chege; Zhao, DanDan; Shan, HongLi

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac interstitial fibrosis is an abnormality of various cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, hypertrophy, and atrial fibrillation, and it can ultimately lead to heart failure. However, there is a lack of practical therapeutic approaches to treat fibrosis and reverse the damage to the heart. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aspirin administration on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis in mice and reveal the underlying mechanisms of aspirin treatment. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and treated with 10 mg·kg-1·day-1 of aspirin for 4 weeks. Masson staining and a collagen content assay were used to detect the effects of aspirin on cardiac fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. Western blot and qRT-PCR were applied to examine the impact of aspirin on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erks), p-Akt/β-catenin, SerpinE2, collagen I, and collagen III levels in the mice heart. Aspirin significantly suppressed the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; 1.19±0.19-fold) and collagen I (0.95±0.09-fold) in TAC mice. Aspirin, at doses of 100 and 1000 µM, also significantly suppressed angiotensin II-induced α-SMA and collagen I in cultured CFs. The enhanced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 caused by TAC (p-Erk1, 1.49±0.19-fold; p-Erk2, 1.96±0.68-fold) was suppressed by aspirin (p-Erk1, 1.04±0.15-fold; p-Erk2, 0.87±0.06-fold). SerpinE2 levels were suppressed via the Erk1/2 signalling pathway following treatment with aspirin (1.36±0.12-fold for TAC; 1.06±0.07-fold for aspirin+TAC). The p-Akt and β-catenin levels were also significantly inhibited in vivo and in vitro. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which aspirin alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis in TAC mice by suppressing the p-Erk1/2 and p-Akt/β-catenin signalling pathways. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Hepatitis C virus E2 protein promotes human hepatoma cell proliferation through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via cellular receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lanjuan; Wang Lu; Ren Hao; Cao Jie; Li Li; Ke Jinshan; Qi Zhongtian

    2005-01-01

    Dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by various viruses has been shown to be responsible for viral pathogenicity. The molecular mechanism by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused human liver diseases has been investigated on the basis of abnormal intracellular signal events. Current data are very limited involved in transmembrane signal transduction triggered by HCV E2 protein. Here we explored regulation of the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway by E2 expressed in Chinese hamster oval cells. In human hepatoma Huh-7 cells, E2 specifically activated the MAPK/ERK pathway including downstream transcription factor ATF-2 and greatly promoted cell proliferation. CD81 and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on the cell surface mediated binding of E2 to Huh-7 cells. The MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation driven by E2 were suppressed by blockage of CD81 as well as LDLR. Furthermore, pretreatment with an upstream kinase MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 also impaired the MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation induced by E2. Our results suggest that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway triggered by HCV E2 via its receptors maintains survival and growth of target cells

  10. Mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism: implications for a direct activation of mTOR by phosphatidic acid.

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    Jae Sung You

    Full Text Available Signaling by mTOR is a well-recognized component of the pathway through which mechanical signals regulate protein synthesis and muscle mass. However, the mechanisms involved in the mechanical regulation of mTOR signaling have not been defined. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that a mechanically-induced increase in phosphatidic acid (PA may be involved. There is also evidence which suggests that mechanical stimuli, and PA, utilize ERK to induce mTOR signaling. Hence, we reasoned that a mechanically-induced increase in PA might promote mTOR signaling via an ERK-dependent mechanism. To test this, we subjected mouse skeletal muscles to mechanical stimulation in the presence or absence of a MEK/ERK inhibitor, and then measured several commonly used markers of mTOR signaling. Transgenic mice expressing a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR were also used to confirm the validity of these markers. The results demonstrated that mechanically-induced increases in p70(s6k T389 and 4E-BP1 S64 phosphorylation, and unexpectedly, a loss in total 4E-BP1, were fully mTOR-dependent signaling events. Furthermore, we determined that mechanical stimulation induced these mTOR-dependent events, and protein synthesis, through an ERK-independent mechanism. Similar to mechanical stimulation, exogenous PA also induced mTOR-dependent signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism. Moreover, PA was able to directly activate mTOR signaling in vitro. Combined, these results demonstrate that mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling, and protein synthesis, via an ERK-independent mechanism that potentially involves a direct interaction of PA with mTOR. Furthermore, it appears that a decrease in total 4E-BP1 may be part of the mTOR-dependent mechanism through which mechanical stimuli activate protein synthesis.

  11. Ferulic acid suppresses activation of hepatic stellate cells through ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianjiao; Pan, Zhi; Dong, Miaoxian; Yu, Chunlei; Niu, Yingcai

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of matrix components in hepatic fibrosis. Ferulic acid (FA) has antifibrotic potential in renal and cardiac disease. However, whether FA comprises inhibitive effects of HSCs activation remains to be clarified. This study aims at evaluating the hypothesis that FA inhibits extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expression by the interruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or/and Smad signaling pathways in HSC-T6. Our results indicated that FA significantly inhibited both viability and activation of HSC-T6 cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that FA dramatically inhibited the expression of α1(I) collagen (Col-I) and fibronectin at levels of transcription and translation. Moreover, FA treatment inhibited Smad transcriptional activity, as evaluated by transient transfection with a plasmid construction containing SMAD response element and the luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, FA inhibition of HSCs activation involved in both focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent ERK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways with independent manner. Blocking transforming growth factor-β by a neutralizing antibody caused a marked reduction in both ERK1/2 and Smad signaling. These results support FA as an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J; Balmanno, Kathryn; Cook, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  13. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

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    Nicola J Darling

    Full Text Available Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  14. RAS/ERK modulates TGFbeta-regulated PTEN expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jimmy Y C; Quach, Khai T; Cabrera, Betty L; Cabral, Jennifer A; Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-11-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is rarely mutated in pancreatic cancers, but its regulation by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta might mediate growth suppression and other oncogenic actions. Here, we examined the role of TGFbeta and the effects of oncogenic K-RAS/ERK upon PTEN expression in the absence of SMAD4. We utilized two SMAD4-null pancreatic cell lines, CAPAN-1 (K-RAS mutant) and BxPc-3 (WT-K-RAS), both of which express TGFbeta surface receptors. Cells were treated with TGFbeta1 and separated into cytosolic/nuclear fractions for western blotting with phospho-SMAD2, SMAD 2, 4 phospho-ATP-dependent tyrosine kinases (Akt), Akt and PTEN antibodies. PTEN mRNA levels were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The MEK1 inhibitor, PD98059, was used to block the downstream action of oncogenic K-RAS/ERK, as was a dominant-negative (DN) K-RAS construct. TGFbeta increased phospho-SMAD2 in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. PD98059 treatment further increased phospho-SMAD2 in the nucleus of both pancreatic cell lines, and DN-K-RAS further improved SMAD translocation in K-RAS mutant CAPAN cells. TGFbeta treatment significantly suppressed PTEN protein levels concomitant with activation of Akt by 48 h through transcriptional reduction of PTEN mRNA that was evident by 6 h. TGFbeta-induced PTEN suppression was reversed by PD98059 and DN-K-RAS compared with treatments without TGFbeta. TGFbeta-induced PTEN expression was inversely related to cellular proliferation. Thus, oncogenic K-RAS/ERK in pancreatic adenocarcinoma facilitates TGFbeta-induced transcriptional down-regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN in a SMAD4-independent manner and could constitute a signaling switch mechanism from growth suppression to growth promotion in pancreatic cancers.

  15. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  16. Plasmalogens rescue neuronal cell death through an activation of AKT and ERK survival signaling.

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    Md Shamim Hossain

    Full Text Available Neuronal cells are susceptible to many stresses, which will cause the apoptosis and neurodegenerative diseases. The precise molecular mechanism behind the neuronal protection against these apoptotic stimuli is necessary for drug discovery. In the present study, we have found that plasmalogens (Pls, which are glycerophospholipids containing vinyl ether linkage at sn-1 position, can protect the neuronal cell death upon serum deprivation. Interestingly, caspse-9, but not caspase-8 and caspase-12, was cleaved upon the serum starvation in Neuro-2A cells. Pls treatments effectively reduced the activation of caspase-9. Furthermore, cellular signaling experiments showed that Pls enhanced phosphorylation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-dependent serine/threonine-specific protein kinase AKT and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2. PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK inhibitor U0126 treatments study clearly indicated that Pls-mediated cell survival was dependent on the activation of these kinases. In addition, Pls also inhibited primary mouse hippocampal neuronal cell death induced by nutrient deprivation, which was associated with the inhibition of caspase-9 and caspase-3 cleavages. It was reported that Pls content decreased in the brain of the Alzheimer's patients, which indicated that the reduction of Pls content could endanger neurons. The present findings, taken together, suggest that Pls have an anti-apoptotic action in the brain. Further studies on precise mechanisms of Pls-mediated protection against cell death may lead us to establish a novel therapeutic approach to cure neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. The Early Dendritic Cell Signaling Induced by Virulent Francisella tularensis Strain Occurs in Phases and Involves the Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERKs) and p38 In the Later Stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabrik, I.; Link, M.; Putzova, D.; Plzakova, L.; Lubovska, Zuzana; Philimonenko, Vlada; Pavkova, I.; Řehulka, P.; Krocová, Z.; Hozák, Pavel; Santic, M.; Stulík, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2018), s. 95-108 ISSN 1535-9476 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : factor-alpha production * live vaccine strain * phosphorylation sites * negative regulator * innate immunity * lvs infection * pathway * identification * reveals * mapk Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 6.540, year: 2016

  18. Different associations of CD45 isoforms with STAT3, PKC and ERK regulate IL-6-induced proliferation in myeloma.

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    Xu Zheng

    Full Text Available In response to interleukin 6 (IL-6 stimulation, both CD45RO and CD45RB, but not CD45RA, translocate to lipid rafts. However, the significance of this distinct translocation and the downstream signals in CD45 isoforms-participated IL-6 signal are not well understood. Using sucrose fractionation, we found that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and STAT1 were mainly localized in lipid rafts in response to IL-6 stimulation, despite both STAT3 and STAT1 localizing in raft and non-raft fractions in the presence or absence of IL-6. On the other hand, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, and phosphorylated ERK were localized in non-raft fractions regardless of the existence of IL-6. The rafts inhibitor significantly impeded the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1 and nuclear translocation, but had little effect on (and only postponing the phosphorylation of ERK. This data suggests that lipid raft-dependent STAT3 and STAT1 pathways are dominant pathways of IL-6 signal in myeloma cells. Interestingly, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 but not STAT1 in CD45+ cells was significantly higher compared to that of CD45- cells, while the phosphorylation level of ERK in CD45+ myeloma cells was relatively low. Furthermore, exogenously expressed CD45RO/RB significantly enhanced STAT3, protein kinase C (PKC and downstream NF-κB activation; however, CD45RA/RB inhibited IL-6-induced ERK phosphorylation. CD45 also enhanced the nuclear localization of STAT3 but not that of STAT1. In response to IL-6 stimulation, CD45RO moved into raft compartments and formed a complex with STAT3 and PKC in raft fraction, while CD45RA remained outside of lipid rafts and formed a complex with ERK in non-raft fraction. This data suggests a different role of CD45 isoforms in IL-6-induced signaling, indicating that while CD45RA/RB seems inhibit the rafts-unrelated ERK pathway, CD45RO/RB may actually work to enhance the rafts-related STAT3 and PKC

  19. PBX3 promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells via activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai-Bo; Gu, Jin; Ji, Deng-Bo; Li, Zhao-Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Qian

    2014-12-28

    To investigate the role of pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX)3 in migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We detected PBX3 expression in five cell lines and surgical specimens from 111 patients with CRC using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We forced expression of PBX3 in low metastatic HT-29 and SW480 cells and knocked down expression of PBX3 in highly metastatic LOVO and HCT-8 cells. Wound healing and Boyden chamber assays were used to detect cell migration and invasion after altered expression of PBX3. Western blot was performed to detect the change of signaling molecule ERK1/2 following PBX3 overexpression. High level of PBX3 expression was correlated with the invasive potential of CRC cells, and significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P = 0.02), distant metastasis (P = 0.04), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.03) and poor overall survival of patients (P migration and invasion, while inhibited PBX3 expression in highly metastatic cells suppressed migration and invasion. Furthermore, upregulation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was found to be one of the targeted molecules responsible for PBX3-induced CRC cell migration and invasion. PBX3 induces invasion and metastasis of CRC cells partially through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

  20. Activation of MAPK/ERK signaling by Burkholderia pseudomallei cycle inhibiting factor (Cif.

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    Mei Ying Ng

    Full Text Available Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs are virulence proteins secreted by the type III secretion system of some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cif is known to function to deamidate Nedd8, leading to inhibition of Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL and consequently induction of cell cycle arrest. Here we show that Cif can function as a potent activator of MAPK/ERK signaling without significant activation of other signaling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Importantly, we found that the ability of Cif to activate ERK is dependent on its deamidase activity, but independent of Cullin E3 ligase inhibition. This suggests that apart from Nedd8, other cellular targets of Cif-dependent deamidation exist. We provide evidence that the mechanism involved in Cif-mediated ERK activation is dependent on recruitment of the Grb2-SOS1 complex to the plasma membrane. Further investigation revealed that Cif appears to modify the phosphorylation status of SOS1 in a region containing the CDC25-H and proline-rich domains. It is known that prolonged Cullin E3 ligase inhibition leads to cellular apoptosis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ERK activation is an important mechanism to counter the pro-apoptotic effects of Cif. Indeed, we show that Cif dependent ERK activation promotes phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, thereby potentially conferring a pro-survival signal. In summary, we identified a novel deamidation-dependent mechanism of action of the B. pseudomallei virulence factor Cif/CHBP to activate MAPK/ERK signaling. Our study demonstrates that bacterial proteins such as Cif can serve as useful molecular tools to uncover novel aspects of mammalian signaling pathways.

  1. Active Erk Regulates Microtubule Stability in H-ras-Transformed Cells

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    Rene E. Harrison

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that activated erk regulates cell functions, at least in part, by mechanisms that do not require gene transcription. Here we show that the map kinase, erk, decorates microtubules (MTs and mitotic spindles in both parental and mutant active rastransfected 10T1 /2 fibroblasts and MCF10A breast epithelial cells. Approximately 20% of total cellular erk decorated MTs in both cell lines. A greater proportion of activated erk was associated with MTs in the presence of mutant active H-ras than in parental cells. Activation of erk by the ras pathway coincided with a decrease in the stability of MT, as detected by a stability marker. The MKK1 inhibitor, PD98059 and transfection of a dominant negative MKK1 blocked ras-induced instability of MTs but did not modify the association of erk with MTs or affect MT stability of the parental cells. These results indicate that the subset of active erk kinase that associates with MTs contributes to their instability in the presence of a mutant active ras. The MT-associated subset of active erk likely contributes to the enhanced invasive and proliferative abilities of cells containing mutant active H-ras.

  2. Dopamine receptors D3 and D5 regulate CD4(+)T-cell activation and differentiation by modulating ERK activation and cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Dafne; Contreras, Francisco; González, Hugo; Prado, Carolina; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Claudio; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine receptors have been described in T-cells, however their signalling pathways coupled remain unknown. Since cAMP and ERKs play key roles regulating T-cell physiology, we aim to determine whether cAMP and ERK1/2-phosphorylation are modulated by dopamine receptor 3 (D3R) and D5R, and how this modulation affects CD4(+) T-cell activation and differentiation. Our pharmacologic and genetic evidence shows that D3R-stimulation reduced cAMP levels and ERK2-phosphorylation, consequently increasing CD4(+) T-cell activation and Th1-differentiation, respectively. Moreover, D5R expression reinforced TCR-triggered ERK1/2-phosphorylation and T-cell activation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate how D3R and D5R modulate key signalling pathways affecting CD4(+) T-cell activation and Th1-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sangivamycin induces apoptosis by suppressing Erk signaling in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakao, Kazufumi [Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu-shi 400-8511 (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Takadama, Tadatoshi; Ui, Sadaharu [Department of Biotechnology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu-shi 400-8511 (Japan); Shigemi, Zenpei; Kagawa, Hiroki [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Ohga, Rie; Taira, Takahiro [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of B cell lymphoma PEL cells. • Sangivamycin suppresses Erk signaling by inhibiting Erk phosphorylation in PEL cells. • The activation of Erk signaling is essential for PEL cell survival. • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of PEL cells without production of progeny virus. • Sangivamycin may serve as a novel drug for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Sangivamycin, a structural analog of adenosine and antibiotic exhibiting antitumor and antivirus activities, inhibits protein kinase C and the synthesis of both DNA and RNA. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients and HIV-infected homosexual males. PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B cells, and are infected with KSHV. Herein, we asked if sangivamycin might be useful to treat PEL. We found that sangivamycin killed PEL cells, and we explored the underlying mechanism. Sangivamycin treatment drastically decreased the viability of PEL cell lines compared to KSHV-uninfected B lymphoma cell lines. Sangivamycin induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-7 and -9. Further, sangivamycin suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, thus inhibiting activation of the proteins. Inhibitors of Akt and MEK suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared to KSHV-uninfected cells. It is known that activation of Erk and Akt signaling inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation in PEL cells. Our data therefore suggest that sangivamycin induces apoptosis by inhibiting Erk and Akt signaling in such cells. We next investigated whether sangivamycin, in combination with an HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) or valproate (valproic acid), potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the latter drugs on PEL cells. Compared to treatment with GA or valproate alone, the addition of sangivamycin enhanced cytotoxic activity. Our data thus indicate that

  4. Sangivamycin induces apoptosis by suppressing Erk signaling in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakao, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Tadashi; Takadama, Tadatoshi; Ui, Sadaharu; Shigemi, Zenpei; Kagawa, Hiroki; Higashi, Chizuka; Ohga, Rie; Taira, Takahiro; Fujimuro, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of B cell lymphoma PEL cells. • Sangivamycin suppresses Erk signaling by inhibiting Erk phosphorylation in PEL cells. • The activation of Erk signaling is essential for PEL cell survival. • Sangivamycin induces the apoptosis of PEL cells without production of progeny virus. • Sangivamycin may serve as a novel drug for the treatment of PEL. - Abstract: Sangivamycin, a structural analog of adenosine and antibiotic exhibiting antitumor and antivirus activities, inhibits protein kinase C and the synthesis of both DNA and RNA. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in immunosuppressed patients and HIV-infected homosexual males. PEL cells are derived from post-germinal center B cells, and are infected with KSHV. Herein, we asked if sangivamycin might be useful to treat PEL. We found that sangivamycin killed PEL cells, and we explored the underlying mechanism. Sangivamycin treatment drastically decreased the viability of PEL cell lines compared to KSHV-uninfected B lymphoma cell lines. Sangivamycin induced the apoptosis of PEL cells by activating caspase-7 and -9. Further, sangivamycin suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, thus inhibiting activation of the proteins. Inhibitors of Akt and MEK suppressed the proliferation of PEL cells compared to KSHV-uninfected cells. It is known that activation of Erk and Akt signaling inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation in PEL cells. Our data therefore suggest that sangivamycin induces apoptosis by inhibiting Erk and Akt signaling in such cells. We next investigated whether sangivamycin, in combination with an HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) or valproate (valproic acid), potentiated the cytotoxic effects of the latter drugs on PEL cells. Compared to treatment with GA or valproate alone, the addition of sangivamycin enhanced cytotoxic activity. Our data thus indicate that

  5. Zinc promotes proliferation and activation of myogenic cells via the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Kazuya, E-mail: asuno10k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yosuke, E-mail: cynagata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Eiji, E-mail: gacchu1@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Zammit, Peter S., E-mail: peter.zammit@kcl.ac.uk [Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King' s College London, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Shiozuka, Masataka, E-mail: cmuscle@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Ryoichi, E-mail: cmatsuda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells named muscle satellite cells are normally quiescent but are activated in response to various stimuli, such as injury and overload. Activated satellite cells enter the cell cycle and proliferate to produce a large number of myogenic progenitor cells, and these cells then differentiate and fuse to form myofibers. Zinc is one of the essential elements in the human body, and has multiple roles, including cell growth and DNA synthesis. However, the role of zinc in myogenic cells is not well understood, and is the focus of this study. We first examined the effects of zinc on differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblasts and found that zinc promoted proliferation, with an increased number of cells incorporating EdU, but inhibited differentiation with reduced myogenin expression and myotube formation. Furthermore, we used the C2C12 reserve cell model of myogenic quiescence to investigate the role of zinc on activation of myogenic cells. The number of reserve cells incorporating BrdU was increased by zinc in a dose dependent manner, with the number dramatically further increased using a combination of zinc and insulin. Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are downstream of insulin signaling, and both were phosphorylated after zinc treatment. The zinc/insulin combination-induced activation involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and ERK cascade. We conclude that zinc promotes activation and proliferation of myogenic cells, and this activation requires phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK as part of the signaling cascade. - Highlights: • Zinc has roles for promoting proliferation and inhibition differentiation of C2C12. • Zinc promotes activation of reserve cells. • Insulin and zinc synergize activation of reserve cells. • PI3K/Akt and ERK cascade affect zinc/insulin-mediated activation of reserve cells.

  6. Inhibition of CD147 expression promotes chemosensitivity in HNSCC cells by deactivating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Jianqi; Fan, Longkun; Guo, Yanjun

    2017-02-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein, has been reported to be correlated with cancer progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance in various cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of CD147 in regulating drug resistance in HNSCC cells. qRT-PCR were used to evaluated the expression of CD147 in 57 HNSCC tumorous tissues and 2 cell lines. Increased expression of CD147 was found in most HNSCC samples, and the expression level of CD147 was correlated with multidrug resistance. CD147 RNA silencing decreased the chemoresistance of HNSCC cells by deactivating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that either rescue expression of CD147 or treatment of MAPK/ERK activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in CD147 knockdown CRC cell line attenuated the decreased chemoresistance in CD147 knockdown cells. Taken together, our results suggest that CD147 promotes chemoresistance by activating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in HNSCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Regulation of CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation by PKC epsilon in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenwei Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK1/2 is activated in pancreatic acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK and other secretagogues with this activation mediated primarily by protein kinase C (PKC. To identify the responsible PKC isoform, we utilized chemical inhibitors, cell permeant inhibitory peptides and overexpression of individual PKC dominant negative variants by means of adenoviral vectors. While the broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor GF109203X strongly inhibited ERK1/2 activation induced by 100 pM CCK, Go6976 which inhibits the classical PKC isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma, as well as Rottlerin, a specific PKC delta inhibitor, had no inhibitory effect. To test the role of PKC epsilon, we used specific cell permeant peptide inhibitors which block PKC interaction with their intracellular receptors or RACKs. Only PP93 (PKC epsilon peptide inhibitor inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation, while PP95, PP101 and PP98, which are PKC alpha, delta and zeta peptide inhibitors respectively, had no effect. We also utilized adenovirus to express dominant negative PKC isoforms in pancreatic acini. Only PKC epsilon dominant negative inhibited CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation. Dominant negative PKC epsilon expression similarly blocked the effect of carbachol and bombesin to activate ERK1/2. Immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that CCK can induce an interaction of c-Raf-1 and PKC epsilon, but not that of other isoforms of Raf or PKC. We conclude that PKC epsilon is the isoform of PKC primarily involved with CCK-induced ERK1/2 activation in pancreatic acinar cells.

  8. ERK5 signaling gets XIAPed: a role for ubiquitin in the disassembly of a MAPK cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Aileen M; Cobb, Melanie H

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are tightly controlled through a series of well-characterized phospho-regulatory events. In this issue, Takeda et al (2014) identify the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, XIAP, as a key regulator of ERK5 activation via uncoupling of upstream kinase activity by non-degradative ubiquitination. PMID:25012518

  9. ERK/CANP rapid signaling mediates 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Sheng; Huang, Yan-Gang; Li, Huan; Bi, Shi-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Long

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) exerts its functions through both genomic and non-genomic signaling pathways. Because E2 is important in breast cancer development, we investigated whether its actions in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation occur through the non-genomic signaling pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP). MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with ERKl/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or CANP inhibitor (calpeptin) before exposure to 1×10(-8) M E2. MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry were used to analyze effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, respectively. Expression of phosphorylated-ERK (p-ERK), total ERK, and Capn4 proteins were assessed by Western blotting. Cell proliferation increased in cells treated with E2 for 24 h (P<0.05), and the proportion of cells in G0/G1 was decreased, accompanied by accelerated G1/S. Calpeptin pre-treatment significantly inhibited the E2-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells (P<0.05), while also ameliorating the effects of E2 on cell cycle progression. Further, expression of p-ERK was rapidly up-regulated (after 10 min) by E2 (P<0.05), an effect that persisted 16 h after E2 exposure but which was significantly inhibited by PD98059 (P<0.05). Finally, expression of Capn4 protein was rapidly up-regulated in E2-exposed cells (P<0.05), but this change was significantly inhibited by PD98059 or calpeptin (P<0.05) pre-treatment. Thus, the rapid, non-genomic ERK/CANP signaling pathway mediates E2-induced proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

  10. Adaptation to TKI Treatment Reactivates ERK Signaling in Tyrosine Kinase-Driven Leukemias and Other Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J Kyle; Ma, Hayley S; Li, Li; Qin, Alice Can Ran; Rudek, Michelle A; Jones, Richard J; Levis, Mark J; Pratz, Keith W; Pratilas, Christine A; Small, Donald

    2017-10-15

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been tested extensively to limited benefit in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD) leukemia cells exhibit mechanisms of intrinsic signaling adaptation to TKI treatment that are associated with an incomplete response. Here, we identified reactivation of ERK signaling within hours following treatment of FLT3/ITD AML cells with selective inhibitors of FLT3. When these cells were treated with inhibitors of both FLT3 and MEK in combination, ERK reactivation was abrogated and anti-leukemia effects were more pronounced compared with either drug alone. ERK reactivation was also observed following inhibition of other tyrosine kinase-driven cancer cells, including EGFR-mutant lung cancer, HER2-amplified breast cancer, and BCR-ABL leukemia. These studies reveal an adaptive feedback mechanism in tyrosine kinase-driven cancers associated with reactivation of ERK signaling in response to targeted inhibition. Cancer Res; 77(20); 5554-63. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Calcium regulation of EGF-induced ERK5 activation: role of Lad1-MEKK2 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Yao

    Full Text Available The ERK5 cascade is a MAPK pathway that transmits both mitogenic and stress signals, yet its mechanism of activation is not fully understood. Using intracellular calcium modifiers, we found that ERK5 activation by EGF is inhibited both by the depletion and elevation of intracellular calcium levels. This calcium effect was found to occur upstream of MEKK2, which is the MAP3K of the ERK5 cascade. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EGF increases MEKK2 binding to the adaptor protein Lad1, and this interaction was reduced by the intracellular calcium modifiers, indicating that a proper calcium concentration is required for the interactions and transmission of EGF signals to ERK5. In vitro binding assays revealed that the proper calcium concentration is required for a direct binding of MEKK2 to Lad1. The binding of these proteins is not affected by c-Src-mediated phosphorylation on Lad1, but slightly affects the Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2, suggesting that the interaction with Lad1 is necessary for full Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2. In addition, we found that changes in calcium levels affect the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of MEKK2 and thereby its effect on the nuclear ERK5 activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium is required for EGF-induced ERK5 activation, and this effect is probably mediated by securing proper interaction of MEKK2 with the upstream adaptor protein Lad1.

  12. Versatile function of the circadian protein CIPC as a regulator of Erk activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ryota; Nishino, Tasuku; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Nakashima, Akio; Kikkawa, Ushio; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The CLOCK-interacting protein, Circadian (CIPC), has been identified as an additional negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. However, recent study on CIPC knockout mice has shown that CIPC is not critically required for basic circadian clock function, suggesting other unknown biological roles for CIPC. In this study, we focused on the cell cycle dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling function of CIPC and on identifying its binding proteins. Lys186 and 187 were identified as the essential amino acid residues within the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of CIPC. We identified CIPC-binding proteins such as the multifunctional enzyme CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), which is a key enzyme for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Compared to control cells, HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type CIPC showed suppressed cell proliferation and retardation of cell cycle. We also found that PMA-induced Erk activation was inhibited with expression of wild-type CIPC. In contrast, the NLS mutant of CIPC, which reduced the ability of CIPC to translocate into the nucleus, did not exhibit these biological effects. Since CAD and Erk have significant roles in cell proliferation and cell cycle, CIPC may work as a cell cycle regulator by interacting with these binding proteins. - Highlights: • CIPC is a cell cycle dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein. • K186 and 187are the essential amino acid residues within the NLS of CIPC. • CAD was identified as a novel CIPC-binding protein. • CIPC might regulate the activity and translocation of CAD in the cells.

  13. Versatile function of the circadian protein CIPC as a regulator of Erk activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Ryota; Nishino, Tasuku [Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Yokoyama, Atsushi [Department of Molecular Endocrinology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakashima, Akio; Kikkawa, Ushio [Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp [Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The CLOCK-interacting protein, Circadian (CIPC), has been identified as an additional negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. However, recent study on CIPC knockout mice has shown that CIPC is not critically required for basic circadian clock function, suggesting other unknown biological roles for CIPC. In this study, we focused on the cell cycle dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling function of CIPC and on identifying its binding proteins. Lys186 and 187 were identified as the essential amino acid residues within the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of CIPC. We identified CIPC-binding proteins such as the multifunctional enzyme CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), which is a key enzyme for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Compared to control cells, HEK293 cells overexpressing wild-type CIPC showed suppressed cell proliferation and retardation of cell cycle. We also found that PMA-induced Erk activation was inhibited with expression of wild-type CIPC. In contrast, the NLS mutant of CIPC, which reduced the ability of CIPC to translocate into the nucleus, did not exhibit these biological effects. Since CAD and Erk have significant roles in cell proliferation and cell cycle, CIPC may work as a cell cycle regulator by interacting with these binding proteins. - Highlights: • CIPC is a cell cycle dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein. • K186 and 187are the essential amino acid residues within the NLS of CIPC. • CAD was identified as a novel CIPC-binding protein. • CIPC might regulate the activity and translocation of CAD in the cells.

  14. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 as regulators of cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMutlak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy results from increased mechanical load on the heart and through the actions of local and systemic neuro-humoral factors, cytokines and growth factors. These mechanical and neuroendocrine effectors act through stretch, G protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases to induce the activation of a myriad of intracellular signaling pathways including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2. Since most stimuli that provoke myocardial hypertrophy also elicit an acute phosphorylation of the threonine-glutamate-tyrosine (TEY motif within the activation loops of ERK1 and ERK2 kinases, resulting in their activation, ERKs have long been considered promotors of cardiac hypertrophy. Several mouse models were generated in order to directly understand the causal role of ERK1/2 activation in the heart. These models include direct manipulation of ERK1/2 such as overexpression, mutagenesis or knockout models, manipulations of upstream kinases such as MEK1 and manipulations of the phosphatases that depohosphorylate ERK1/2 such as DUSP6. The emerging understanding from these studies, as will be discussed here, is more complex than originally considered. While there is little doubt that ERK1/2 activation or the lack of it modulates the hypertrophic process or the type of hypertrophy that develops, it appears that not all ERK1/2 activation events are the same. While much has been learned, some questions remain regarding the exact role of ERK1/2 in the heart, the upstream events that result in ERK1/2 activation and the downstream effector in hypertrophy.

  15. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNFα-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Potts, Jay D.; Tang, Dong-Qi; Li, Dong-Sheng; Cui, Taixing

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNFα-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNFα hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.

  16. Genistein attenuates brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia through up-regulation of ERK activity in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiquan; Wei, Haidong; Cai, Min; Lu, Yan; Hou, Wugang; Yang, Qianzi; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize

    2014-01-01

    Stroke has severe consequences in postmenopausal women. As replacement therapy of estrogen have various adverse effects and the undermined outcomes. Genistein, a natural phytoestrogen, has been suggested to be a potential neuroprotective agent for such stroke patients. However, the role of genistein and its underlying mechanism in ovariectomized mice has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, ovariectomized mice were treated with genistein (10 mg/kg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before developing transient cerebral ischemia (middle cerebral artery occlusion). The neurological manifestation was evaluated, and infarct volumes were demonstrated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 24 h after reperfusion. In addition, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, and cellular apoptosis was evaluated in the ischemic penumbra. We found that treatment with genistein reduced infarct volumes, improved neurological outcomes and attenuated cellular apoptosis at 24 h after reperfusion. ERK1/2 showed increased phosphorylation by genistein treatment after reperfusion, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abolished this protective effect of genistein in terms of infarct volumes, neurological scores and cellular apoptosis. Our findings indicate that treatment with genistein can reduce the severity of subsequent stroke episodes, and that this beneficial function is associated with ERK activation.

  17. BMP Suppresses PTEN Expression via RAS/ERK Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Stayce E.; Carethers, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor β family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects, and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effe...

  18. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  19. Nonmyocyte ERK1/2 signaling contributes to load-induced cardiomyopathy in Marfan mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, Rosanne; MacFarlane, Elena Gallo; Takimoto, Eiki; Chaudhary, Rahul; Nagpal, Varun; Rainer, Peter P; Bindman, Julia G; Gerber, Elizabeth E; Bedja, Djahida; Schiefer, Christopher; Miller, Karen L; Zhu, Guangshuo; Myers, Loretha; Amat-Alarcon, Nuria; Lee, Dong I; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Judge, Daniel P; Kass, David A; Dietz, Harry C

    2017-08-03

    Among children with the most severe presentation of Marfan syndrome (MFS), an inherited disorder of connective tissue caused by a deficiency of extracellular fibrillin-1, heart failure is the leading cause of death. Here, we show that, while MFS mice (Fbn1C1039G/+ mice) typically have normal cardiac function, pressure overload (PO) induces an acute and severe dilated cardiomyopathy in association with fibrosis and myocyte enlargement. Failing MFS hearts show high expression of TGF-β ligands, with increased TGF-β signaling in both nonmyocytes and myocytes; pathologic ERK activation is restricted to the nonmyocyte compartment. Informatively, TGF-β, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), or ERK antagonism (with neutralizing antibody, losartan, or MEK inhibitor, respectively) prevents load-induced cardiac decompensation in MFS mice, despite persistent PO. In situ analyses revealed an unanticipated axis of activation in nonmyocytes, with AT1R-dependent ERK activation driving TGF-β ligand expression that culminates in both autocrine and paracrine overdrive of TGF-β signaling. The full compensation seen in wild-type mice exposed to mild PO correlates with enhanced deposition of extracellular fibrillin-1. Taken together, these data suggest that fibrillin-1 contributes to cardiac reserve in the face of hemodynamic stress, critically implicate nonmyocytes in disease pathogenesis, and validate ERK as a therapeutic target in MFS-related cardiac decompensation.

  20. LIN28 phosphorylation by MAPK/ERK couples signaling to the post-transcriptional control of pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Kaloyan M.; Pearson, Daniel S.; Wu, Zhaoting; Han, Areum; Triboulet, Robinson; Seligson, Marc T.; Powers, John T.; Osborne, Jihan K.; Kane, Susan; Gygi, Steven P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Daley, George Q.

    2016-01-01

    Signaling and post-transcriptional gene control are both critical for the regulation of pluripotency1,2, yet how they are integrated to influence cell identity remains poorly understood. LIN28 (also known as LIN28A), a highly conserved RNA-binding protein (RBP), has emerged as a central post-transcriptional regulator of cell fate through blockade of let-7 microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and direct modulation of mRNA translation3. Here we show that LIN28 is phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which increases its levels via post-translational stabilization. LIN28 phosphorylation had little impact on let-7 but enhanced LIN28’s effect on its direct mRNA targets, revealing a mechanism that uncouples LIN28’s let-7-dependent and independent activities. We have linked this mechanism to the induction of pluripotency by somatic cell reprogramming and the transition from naïve to primed pluripotency. Collectively, our findings indicate that MAPK/ERK directly impacts LIN28, defining an axis that connects signaling, post-transcriptional gene control, and cell fate regulation. PMID:27992407

  1. Secreted Clusterin protein inhibits osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by suppressing ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2018-05-01

    Secreted Clusterin (sCLU, also known as Apolipoprotein J) is an anti-apoptotic glycoprotein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, lipid transport, extracellular tissue remodeling and apoptosis. sCLU is expressed and secreted by mouse bone marrow-derived skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (mBMSCs), but its functional role in MSC biology is not known. In this study, we demonstrated that Clusterin mRNA expression and protein secretion in conditioned medium increased during adipocyte differentiation and decreased during osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Treatment of mBMSC cultures with recombinant sCLU protein increased cell proliferation and exerted an inhibitory effect on the osteoblast differentiation while stimulated adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated silencing of Clu expression in mBMSCs reduced adipocyte differentiation and stimulated osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of sCLU on the osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs was mediated by the suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. In conclusion, we identified sCLU as a regulator of mBMSCs lineage commitment to osteoblasts versus adipocytes through a mechanism mediated by ERK1/2 signaling. Inhibiting sCLU is a possible therapeutic approach for enhancing osteoblast differentiation and consequently bone formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lithium attenuates cannabinoid-induced dependence in the animal model: involvement of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and GSK-3β signaling pathways.

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    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most banned drugs in the world. Cannabinoid-induced dependence or withdrawal signs are indicated by the result of complex molecular mechanisms including upstream protein kinases (PKs, such as an extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and downstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, which lead to neuronal plasticity. In this study, we examined the protective effect of lithium (Li as a potent ERK1/2 and GSK-3β modulator to prevent the development of dependence on cannabinoids. For this purpose, rats were treated twice daily with increasing doses of WIN 55,212-2 (WIN, 2-8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p., for five consecutive days. AM251 (AM, 2 mg/kg, a cannabinoid antagonist, was injected i.p to induce manifestations of abstinence in rat dependency on WIN, and the subsequent withdrawal signs were recorded. To evaluate the preventive effect of Li, the rats were pre-treated with Li (10 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily, 30 minutes before every injection of WIN. SL327, as an ERK1/2 inhibitor, was also injected (SL, 50 mg/kg, i.p. 30 minutes before the last doses of WIN in separate groups. The p-ERK1/2, total ERK1/2, p-GSK-3β and total GSK-3β expressions were determined with Western blot method after 60 minutes, prior to the Li, WIN or AM injections. Li and SL pre-treatment attenuated the global withdrawal signs in regarding their modulation effect on the up-regulation of p-ERK1/2 cascade enhanced by AM injection. Furthermore, the p-GSK-3β expression was up-regulated with SL and Li pre-treatment against AM injection, without alteration on the total contents of ERK1/2 and GSK-3β level. Therefore, p-ERK1/2 and p-GSK-3β pathways are involved in the cannabinoid-induced dependence. However, no crosstalk was indicated between these two pathways. In conclusion, Li neuroprotectionwith regard to cannabinoid abstinence may occur through the regulation of the p-ERK1/2 cascade inconsequent of p-GSK-3β signaling pathways in rats.

  3. Terbinafine stimulates the pro-inflammatory responses in human monocytic THP-1 cells through an ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsuhiko; Fukami, Tatsuki; Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2010-10-23

    Oral antifungal terbinafine has been reported to cause liver injury with inflammatory responses in a small percentage of patients. However the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To examine the inflammatory reactions, we investigated whether terbinafine and other antifungal drugs increase the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines using human monocytic cells. Dose- and time-dependent changes in the mRNA expression levels and the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α from human monocytic THP-1 and HL-60 cells with antifungal drugs were measured. Effects of terbinafine on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 were investigated. The release of IL-8 and TNFα from THP-1 and HL-60 cells was significantly increased by treatment with terbinafine but not by fluconazole, suggesting that terbinafine can stimulate monocytes and increase the pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Terbinafine also significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase in THP-1 cells. Pretreatment with a MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly suppressed the increase of IL-8 and TNFα levels by terbinafine treatment in THP-1 cells, but p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. These results suggested that an ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in the release of IL-8 and TNFα in THP-1 cells treated with terbinafine. The release of inflammatory mediators by terbinafine might be one of the mechanisms underlying immune-mediated liver injury. This in vitro method may be useful to predict adverse inflammatory reactions that lead to drug-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Robustness of MEK-ERK Dynamics and Origins of Cell-to-Cell Variability in MAPK Signaling

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    Sarah Filippi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling processes can exhibit pronounced cell-to-cell variability in genetically identical cells. This affects how individual cells respond differentially to the same environmental stimulus. However, the origins of cell-to-cell variability in cellular signaling systems remain poorly understood. Here, we measure the dynamics of phosphorylated MEK and ERK across cell populations and quantify the levels of population heterogeneity over time using high-throughput image cytometry. We use a statistical modeling framework to show that extrinsic noise, particularly that from upstream MEK, is the dominant factor causing cell-to-cell variability in ERK phosphorylation, rather than stochasticity in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of ERK. We furthermore show that without extrinsic noise in the core module, variable (including noisy signals would be faithfully reproduced downstream, but the within-module extrinsic variability distorts these signals and leads to a drastic reduction in the mutual information between incoming signal and ERK activity.

  5. CTGF enhances resistance to 5-FU-mediating cell apoptosis through FAK/MEK/ERK signal pathway in colorectal cancer

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    Yang K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kai Yang, Kai Gao, Gui Hu, Yanguang Wen, Changwei Lin, Xiaorong Li Department of General Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Central South University, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among both males and females; the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is one of a doctors’ first lines of defense against CRC. However, therapeutic failures are common because of the emergence of drug resistance. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF is a secreted protein that binds to integrins, and regulates the invasiveness and metastasis of certain carcinoma cells. Here, we found that CTGF was upregulated in drug-resistant phenotype of human CRC cells. Overexpression of CTGF enhanced the resistance to 5-FU-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, downregulating the expression of CTGF promoted the curative effect of chemotherapy and blocked the cell cycle in the G1 phase. We also found that CTGF facilitated resistance to 5-FU-induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL and survivin. Then we pharmacologically blocked MEK/ERK signal pathway and assessed 5-FU response by MTT assays. Our current results indicate that the expression of phosphorylated forms of MEK/ERK increased in high CTGF expression cells and MEK inhibited increases in 5-FU-mediated apoptosis of resistant CRC cells. Therefore, our data suggest that MEK/ERK signaling contributes to 5-FU resistance through upstream of CTGF, and supports CRC cell growth. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying 5-FU resistance may ultimately aid the fight against CRC. Keywords: connective tissue growth factor, 5-fluorouracil, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated protein kinases, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase Akt, colorectal cancer

  6. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals MAP kinase phosphatases as key ERK pathway regulators during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

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    Shen-Hsi Yang

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells represent potentially important therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Complex interlinked transcriptional and signaling networks control the fate of these cells towards maintenance of pluripotency or differentiation. In this study we have focused on how mouse embryonic stem cells begin to differentiate and lose pluripotency and, in particular, the role that the ERK MAP kinase and GSK3 signaling pathways play in this process. Through a genome-wide siRNA screen we have identified more than 400 genes involved in loss of pluripotency and promoting the onset of differentiation. These genes were functionally associated with the ERK and/or GSK3 pathways, providing an important resource for studying the roles of these pathways in controlling escape from the pluripotent ground state. More detailed analysis identified MAP kinase phosphatases as a focal point of regulation and demonstrated an important role for these enzymes in controlling ERK activation kinetics and subsequently determining early embryonic stem cell fate decisions.

  7. Glucose dependence of glycogen synthase activity regulation by GSK3 and MEK/ERK inhibitors and angiotensin-(1-7) action on these pathways in cultured human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montori-Grau, Marta; Tarrats, Núria; Osorio-Conles, Oscar; Orozco, Anna; Serrano-Marco, Lucía; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Gómez-Foix, Anna M

    2013-05-01

    Glycogen synthase (GS) is activated by glucose/glycogen depletion in skeletal muscle cells, but the contributing signaling pathways, including the chief GS regulator GSK3, have not been fully defined. The MEK/ERK pathway is known to regulate GSK3 and respond to glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the GSK3 and MEK/ERK pathway contribution to GS activation by glucose deprivation in cultured human myotubes. Moreover, we tested the glucose-dependence of GSK3 and MEK/ERK effects on GS and angiotensin (1-7) actions on these pathways. We show that glucose deprivation activated GS, but did not change phospho-GS (Ser640/1), GSK3β activity or activity-activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. We then treated glucose-replete and -depleted cells with SB415286, U0126, LY294 and rapamycin to inhibit GSK3, MEK1/2, PI3K and mTOR, respectively. SB415286 activated GS and decreased the relative phospho-GS (Ser640/1) level, more in glucose-depleted than -replete cells. U0126 activated GS and reduced the phospho-GS (Ser640/1) content significantly in glucose-depleted cells, while GSK3β activity tended to increase. LY294 inactivated GS in glucose-depleted cells only, without affecting relative phospho-GS (Ser640/1) level. Rapamycin had no effect on GS activation. Angiotensin-(1-7) raised phospho-ERK1/2 but not phospho-GSK3β (Ser9) content, while it inactivated GS and increased GS phosphorylation on Ser640/1, in glucose-replete cells. In glucose-depleted cells, angiotensin-(1-7) effects on ERK1/2 and GS were reverted, while relative phospho-GSK3β (Ser9) content decreased. In conclusion, activation of GS by glucose deprivation is not due to GS Ser640/1 dephosphorylation, GSK3β or ERK1/2 regulation in cultured myotubes. However, glucose depletion enhances GS activation/Ser640/1 dephosphorylation due to both GSK3 and MEK/ERK inhibition. Angiotensin-(1-7) inactivates GS in glucose-replete cells in association with ERK1/2 activation, not with GSK3 regulation, and glucose

  8. Low-level shear stress promotes migration of liver cancer stem cells via the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Lingling; Song, Guanbin

    2018-07-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumour cells that have been proposed to be responsible for cancer initiation, chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. Shear stress activated cellular signalling is involved in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the effects of shear stress on the migration of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). Here, we studied the effects of shear stress that are generated from a parallel plated flow chamber system, on LCSC migration and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), using transwell assay and western blot, respectively. We found that 2 dyne/cm 2 shear stress loading for 6 h promotes LCSC migration and activation of the FAK and ERK1/2 signalling pathways, whereas treatment with the FAK phosphorylation inhibitor PF573228 or the ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the shear stress-promoted migration, indicating the involvement of FAK and ERK1/2 activation in shear stress-induced LCSC migration. Additionally, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that shear stress lowers LCSC stiffness via the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways, suggesting that the mechanism by which shear stress promotes LCSC migration might partially be responsible for the decrease in cell stiffness. Further experiments focused on the role of the actin cytoskeleton, demonstrating that the F-actin filaments in LCSCs are less well-defined after shear stress treatment, providing an explanation for the reduction in cell stiffness and the promotion of cell migration. Overall, our study demonstrates that shear stress promotes LCSC migration through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathways, which further results in a reduction of organized actin and softer cell bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Src-independent ERK signaling through the rat α3 isoform of Na/K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Namrata; Xu, Yunhui; Duan, Qiming; Banerjee, Moumita; Larre, Isabel; Pierre, Sandrine V; Xie, Zijian

    2017-03-01

    The Na/K-ATPase α1 polypeptide supports both ion-pumping and signaling functions. The Na/K-ATPase α3 polypeptide differs from α1 in both its primary structure and its tissue distribution. The expression of α3 seems particularly important in neurons, and recent clinical evidence supports a unique role of this isoform in normal brain function. The nature of this specific role of α3 has remained elusive, because the ubiquitous presence of α1 has hindered efforts to characterize α3-specific functions in mammalian cell systems. Using Na/K-ATPase α1 knockdown pig kidney cells (PY-17), we generated the first stable mammalian cell line expressing a ouabain-resistant form of rat Na/K-ATPase α3 in the absence of endogenous pig α1 detectable by Western blotting. In these cells, Na/K-ATPase α3 formed a functional ion-pumping enzyme and rescued the expression of Na/K-ATPase β1 and caveolin-1 to levels comparable with those observed in PY-17 cells rescued with a rat Na/K-ATPase α1 (AAC-19). The α3-containing enzymes had lower Na + affinity and lower ouabain-sensitive transport activity than their α1-containing counterparts under basal conditions, but showed a greater capacity to be activated when intracellular Na + was increased. In contrast to Na/K-ATPase α1, α3 could not regulate Src. Upon exposure to ouabain, Src activation did not occur, yet ERK was activated through Src-independent pathways involving PI3K and PKC. Hence, α3 expression confers signaling and pumping properties that are clearly distinct from that of cells expressing Na/K-ATPase α1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate movement, attachment, pairing and egg release in Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Margarida Ressurreição

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases C (PKCs and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using 'smart' antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance.

  11. Magnolin inhibits cell migration and invasion by targeting the ERKs/RSK2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Jung; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Yoo, Sun-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Il; Song, Ji-Hong; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Lee, Hye-Suk; Surh, Young-Joon; Cho, Yong-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Magnolin is a natural compound abundantly found in Magnolia flos, which has been traditionally used in oriental medicine to treat headaches, nasal congestion and anti-inflammatory reactions. Our recent results have demonstrated that magnolin targets the active pockets of ERK1 and ERK2, which are important signaling molecules in cancer cell metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of magnolin on cell migration and to further explore the molecular mechanisms involved. Magnolin-mediated signaling inhibition was confirmed by Western blotting using RSK2 +/+ and RSK2 −/− MEFs, A549 and NCI-H1975 lung cancer cells, and by NF-κB and Cox-2 promoter luciferase reporter assays. Inhibition of cell migration by magnolin was examined by wound healing and/or Boyden Chamber assays using JB6 Cl41 and A549 human lung cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in cell migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were determined by zymography, Western blotting, real-time PCR and immunocytofluorescence. Magnolin inhibited NF-κB transactivation activity by suppressing the ERKs/RSK2 signaling pathway. Moreover, magnolin abrogated the increase in EGF-induced COX-2 protein levels and wound healing. In human lung cancer cells such as A549 and NCI-H1975, which harbor constitutive active Ras and EGFR mutants, respectively, magnolin suppressed wound healing and cell invasion as seen by a Boyden chamber assay. In addition, it was observed that magnolin inhibited MMP-2 and −9 gene expression and activity. The knockdown or knockout of RSK2 in A549 lung cancer cells or MEFs revealed that magnolin targeting ERKs/RSK2 signaling suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by modulating EMT marker proteins such as N-cadherin, E-cadherin, Snail, Vimentin and MMPs. These results demonstrate that magnolin inhibits cell migration and invasion by targeting the ERKs/RSK2 signaling pathway. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1580-7) contains

  12. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

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    Kai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.

  13. Gold nanoparticles stimulate differentiation and mineralization of primary osteoblasts through the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Jinchao; Fong, Chichun; Yang, Mengsu

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown great promise for a variety of applications, including chemistry, biology, and medicine. Recently, AuNPs have found promising applications in cartilage and bone repair. However, to realize the above promised applications, more work needs to be carried out to clarify the interactions between biological systems and AuNPs. In the present study, primary osteoblasts were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of 20-nm and 40-nm AuNPs, including morphology, proliferation, differentiation, gene and protein expression, and the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that AuNPs were taken up by osteoblasts and aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures, but no morphological changes were observed. AuNPs could significantly promote the proliferation of osteoblasts, enhance the ALP activities, and increase the number of bone nodules and calcium content in vitro. In addition, the expression of BMP-2, Runx-2, OCN and Col-1 was remarkably up-regulated in the presence of AuNPs. It is noteworthy that 20-nm AuNPs are more potent than 40-nm AuNPs in regulating osteoblast activities. Besides, AuNPs increased the level of ERK phosphorylation/total ERK, suggesting the activation of ERK/MAPK pathway is involved in above activities. In conclusion, AuNPs exhibited great biocompatibility with osteoblasts, and have tremendous potential to be used as drug and/or gene delivery carrier for bone and tissue engineering in the future. - Highlights: • AuNPs aggregated in perinuclear compartment and vescular structures of osteoblasts. • AuNPs up-regulated the expression of Runx-2, BMP-2, OCN and Col I of osteoblasts. • AuNPs enhanced osteoblast differentiation by activating the ERK/MAPK pathway. • The size of nanoparticles may be important to exhibit their biological effects. • AuNPs have tremendous potential in bone and tissue engineering in future

  14. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on Yongquan acupoint reduces CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats via down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Yang, Lianxue; Gao, Xiulai

    2010-07-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and its involvement in regulating gene expression in spinal dorsal horn, cortical and subcortical neurons by peripheral noxious stimulation contribute to pain hypersensitivity. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a treatment used in physiotherapy practice to promote analgesia in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, a total number of 114 rats were used for three experiments. Effects of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and TENS analgesia on ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Fos protein expression were examined by using behavioral test, Western blot, and immunostaining methods. We found that CFA injection caused an area of localized swelling, erythema, hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli, the decreased response time of hind paw licking (HPL), as well as upregulation of c-Fos protein expression and ERK2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn and the contralateral primary somatosensory area of cortex and the amygdala of rats. TENS on Yongquan acupoint for 20 min produced obvious analgesic effects as demonstrated with increased HPL to thermal stimuli of CFA-treated rats. In addition, TENS application suppressed the CFA-induced ERK2 activation and c-Fos protein expression. These results suggest that down-regulation of ERK2 phosphorylation and c-Fos expression were involved in TENS inhibition on CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia of rats.

  15. Sotos syndrome is associated with deregulation of the MAPK/ERK-signaling pathway.

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    Remco Visser

    Full Text Available Sotos syndrome (SoS is characterized by tall stature, characteristic craniofacial features and mental retardation. It is caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. In this study, our objective was to identify downstream effectors of NSD1 and to map these effectors in signaling pathways associated with growth. Genome-wide expression studies were performed on dermal fibroblasts from SoS patients with a confirmed NSD1 abnormality. To substantiate those results, phosphorylation, siRNA and transfection experiments were performed. A significant association was demonstrated with the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathway. Members of the fibroblast growth factor family such as FGF4 and FGF13 contributed strongly to the differential expression in this pathway. In addition, a diminished activity state of the MAPK/ERK pathway was demonstrated in SoS. The Ras Interacting Protein 1 (RASIP1 was identified to exhibit upregulated expression in SoS. It was shown that RASIP1 dose-dependently potentiated bFGF induced expression of the MAPK responsive SBE reporter providing further support for a link between NSD1 and the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Additionally, we demonstrated NSD1 expression in the terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes of normal human epiphyseal growth plates. In short stature syndromes such as hypochondroplasia and Noonan syndrome, the activation level of the FGF-MAPK/ERK-pathway in epiphyseal growth plates is a determining factor for statural growth. In analogy, we propose that deregulation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in SoS results in altered hypertrophic differentiation of NSD1 expressing chondrocytes and may be a determining factor in statural overgrowth and accelerated skeletal maturation in SoS.

  16. Kruppel-like factor 2 inhibit the angiogenesis of cultured human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Qing, E-mail: zeng.xiaoqing@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Na, E-mail: Linala.2009@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Pan, Du-Yi, E-mail: lasikesmi@hotmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing, E-mail: sadsadvenus@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Gui-Fen, E-mail: ma.guifen@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu, Yi-Mei, E-mail: liuyimei1988@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Tseng, Yu-Jen, E-mail: dianatseng14@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Feng, E-mail: li.feng2@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Li-Li, E-mail: xu.lili3@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: chen.shiyao@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Gastroenterology of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Institute of Endoscopic Research of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-09-04

    Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a crucial anti-angiogenic factor. However, its precise role in hepatic angiogenesis induced by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) remain unclear. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of KLF2 on angiogenesis of LSECs and to explore the corresponding mechanism. Cultured human LSECs were infected with different lentiviruses to overexpress or suppress KLF2 expression. The CCK-8 assay, transwell migration assay and tube formation test, were used to investigate the roles of KLF2 in the proliferation, migration and vessel tube formation of LSECs, respectively. The expression and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. We discovered that the up-regulation of KLF2 expression dramatically inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation in treated LSECs. Correspondingly, down-regulation of KLF2 expression significantly promoted proliferation, migration and tube formation in treated LSECs. Additionally, KLF2 inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 pathway, followed by the function of KLF2 in the angiogenesis of LSECs disrupted. In conclusion, KLF2 suppressed the angiogenesis of LSECs through inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and vessel tube formation. These functions of KLF2 may be mediated through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the proliferation and migration of LSECs. • Overexpression of KLF2 inhibits the angiogenesis of LSECs. • ERK1/2 signaling pathway involved in the anti-angiogenic process of KLF2 on LSECs.

  17. Activation of ERK signalling by Src family kinases (SFKs) in DRG neurons contributes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2017-10-01

    Concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species during tissue inflammation has been recognised as a major factor for the development and the maintenance of hyperalgesia, out of which H 2 O 2 is the major player. However, molecular mechanism of H 2 O 2 induced hyperalgesia is still obscure. The aim of present study is to analyse the mechanism of H 2 O 2 -induced hyperalgesia in rats. Intraplantar injection of H 2 O 2 (5, 10 and 20 µmoles/paw) induced a significant thermal hyperalgesia in the hind paw, confirmed by increased c-Fos activity in dorsal horn of spinal cord. Onset of hyperalgesia was prior to development of oxidative stress and inflammation. Rapid increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was observed in neurons of dorsal root ganglia after 20 min of H 2 O 2 (10 µmoles/paw) administration, which gradually returned towards normal level within 24 h, following the pattern of thermal hyperalgesia. The expression of TNFR1 followed the same pattern and colocalised with pERK. ERK phosphorylation was observed in NF-200-positive and -negative neurons, indicating the involvement of ERK in C-fibres as well as in A-fibres. Intrathecal preadministration of Src family kinases (SFKs) inhibitor (PP1) and MEK inhibitor (PD98059) prevented H 2 O 2 induced augmentation of ERK phosphorylation and thermal hyperalgesia. Pretreatment of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor (sodium orthovanadate) also diminished hyperalgesia, although it further increased ERK phosphorylation. Combination of orthovanadate with PP1 or PD98059 did not exhibit synergistic antihyperalgesic effect. The results demonstrate SFKs-mediated ERK activation and increased TNFR1 expression in nociceptive neurons during H 2 O 2 induced hyperalgesia. However, the role of PTPs in hyperalgesic behaviour needs further molecular analysis.

  18. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing, E-mail: allenylq@hotmail.com; Liao, Er-Yuan, E-mail: eyliao@21cn.com

    2013-11-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  19. Ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through ERK and AKT signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Shan-Shan; Cui, Rong-Rong; Yuan, Ling-Qing; Liao, Er-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and strongly stimulates the release of growth hormone from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis. Previous studies have identified the important physiological effects of ghrelin on bone metabolism, such as regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, independent of GH/IGF-1 axis. However, research on effects and mechanisms of ghrelin on osteoblast apoptosis is still rare. In this study, we identified expression of GHSR in MC3T3-E1 cells and determined the effects of ghrelin on the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and the mechanism involved. Our data demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and ELISA assays. Moreover, ghrelin upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our study also showed decreased activated caspase-3 activity under the treatment of ghrelin. Further study suggested that ghrelin stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Pretreatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and GHSR-siRNA blocked the ghrelin-induced activation of ERK and AKT, respectively; however, ghrelin did not stimulate the phosphorylation of p38 or JNK. PD90859, LY294002 and GHSR-siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, ghrelin inhibits the apoptosis of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells induced by serum deprivation, which may be mediated by activating the GHSR/ERK and GHSR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of ghrelin on serum deprivation-induced MC3T3-E1 cells apoptosis. • Both ELISA and TUNEL were used to detect the apoptosis. • The receptor of ghrelin, GHSR, was expressed in MC3T3-E1

  20. Calcineurin inhibitor-induced complement system activation via ERK1/2 signalling is inhibited by SOCS-3 in human renal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeschenberger, Beatrix; Niess, Lea; Würzner, Reinhard; Schwelberger, Hubert; Eder, Iris E; Puhr, Martin; Guenther, Julia; Troppmair, Jakob; Rudnicki, Michael; Neuwirt, Hannes

    2018-02-01

    One factor that significantly contributes to renal allograft loss is chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity (CIN). Among other factors, the complement (C-) system has been proposed to be involved CIN development. Hence, we investigated the impact of CNIs on intracellular signalling and the effects on the C-system in human renal tubule cells. In a qPCR array, CNI treatment upregulated C-factors and downregulated SOCS-3 and the complement inhibitors CD46 and CD55. Additionally, ERK1/-2 was required for these regulations. Following knock-down and overexpression of SOCS-3, we found that SOCS-3 inhibits ERK1/-2 signalling. Finally, we assessed terminal complement complex formation, cell viability and apoptosis. Terminal complement complex formation was induced by CNIs. Cell viability was significantly decreased, whereas apoptosis was increased. Both effects were reversed under complement component-depleted conditions. In vivo, increased ERK1/-2 phosphorylation and SOCS-3 downregulation were observed at the time of transplantation in renal allograft patients who developed a progressive decline of renal function in the follow-up compared to stable patients. The progressive cohort also had lower total C3 levels, suggesting higher complement activity at baseline. In conclusion, our data suggest that SOCS-3 inhibits CNI-induced ERK1/-2 signalling, thereby blunting the negative control of C-system activation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is essential for IL-21-induced signal transduction through ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliana, Farha M.; Nara, Hidetoshi; Onoda, Tadashi; Rahman, Mizanur; Araki, Akemi; Jin, Lianjin; Fujii, Hodaka; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Asao, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IL-21 induces nuclear accumulation of Ape1/Ref-1 protein. ► Ape1/Ref-1 is indispensable in IL-21-induced cell proliferation and survival signal. ► Ape1/Ref-1 is required for IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation. -- Abstract: IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates T-cell and B-cell differentiation, NK-cell activation, and dendritic cell functions. IL-21 activates the JAK-STAT, ERK, and PI3K pathways. We report here that Ape1/Ref-1 has an essential role in IL-21-induced cell growth signal transduction. Overexpression of Ape1/Ref-1 enhances IL-21-induced cell proliferation, but it is suppressed by overexpressing an N-terminal deletion mutant of Ape1/Ref-1 that lacks the redox domain. Furthermore, knockdown of the Ape1/Ref-1 mRNA dramatically compromises IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation with increasing cell death. These impaired activities are recovered by the re-expression of Ape1/Ref-1 in the knockdown cells. Our findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation.

  2. Functional significance of the signal transduction pathways Akt and Erk in ovarian follicles: in vitro and in vivo studies in cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kate E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracellular signalling mechanisms that regulate ovarian follicle development are unclear; however, we have recently shown differences in the Akt and Erk signalling pathways in dominant compared to subordinate follicles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhibiting Akt and Erk phosphorylation on IGF- and gonadotropin- stimulated granulosa and theca cell function in vitro, and on follicle development in vivo. Methods Bovine granulosa and theca cells were cultured for six days and stimulated with FSH and/or IGF, or LH in combination with PD98059 (Erk inhibitor and/or LY294002 (Akt inhibitor and their effect on cell number and hormone secretion (estradiol, activin-A, inhibin-A, follistatin, progesterone and androstenedione determined. In addition, ovarian follicles were treated in vivo with PD98059 and/or LY294002 in ewes on Day 3 of the cycle and follicles were recovered 48 hours later. Results We have shown that gonadotropin- and IGF-stimulated hormone production by granulosa and theca cells is reduced by treatment with PD98059 and LY294002 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with PD98059 and LY294002 reduced follicle growth and oestradiol production in vivo. Conclusion These results demonstrate an important functional role for the Akt and Erk signalling pathways in follicle function, growth and development.

  3. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairkar, Yogesh P; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Diantonio, Aaron

    2009-01-14

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability.

  4. Sulfuretin Attenuates MPP+-Induced Neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Pariyar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Sulfuretin is a potent antioxidant that is reported to be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the protective effect of sulfuretin against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+-induced cell model of PD in SH-SY5Y cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Sulfuretin significantly decreased MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death, accompanied by a reduction in caspase 3 activity and polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. Furthermore, it attenuated MPP+-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Consistently, sulfuretin decreased p53 expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, sulfuretin significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, and ERK. Pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and ERK abolished the cytoprotective effects of sulfuretin against MPP+. An inhibitor of GSK3β mimicked sulfuretin-induced protection against MPP+. Taken together, these results suggest that sulfuretin significantly attenuates MPP+-induced neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK signaling pathways in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that sulfuretin might be one of the potential candidates for the treatment of PD.

  5. Neuronal Orphan G-Protein Coupled Receptor Proteins Mediate Plasmalogens-Induced Activation of ERK and Akt Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamim Hossain

    Full Text Available The special glycerophospholipids plasmalogens (Pls are enriched in the brain and reported to prevent neuronal cell death by enhancing phosphorylation of Akt and ERK signaling in neuronal cells. Though the activation of Akt and ERK was found to be necessary for the neuronal cells survival, it was not known how Pls enhanced cellular signaling. To answer this question, we searched for neuronal specific orphan GPCR (G-protein coupled receptor proteins, since these proteins were believed to play a role in cellular signal transduction through the lipid rafts, where both Pls and some GPCRs were found to be enriched. In the present study, pan GPCR inhibitor significantly reduced Pls-induced ERK signaling in neuronal cells, suggesting that Pls could activate GPCRs to induce signaling. We then checked mRNA expression of 19 orphan GPCRs and 10 of them were found to be highly expressed in neuronal cells. The knockdown of these 10 neuronal specific GPCRs by short hairpin (sh-RNA lentiviral particles revealed that the Pls-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was inhibited in GPR1, GPR19, GPR21, GPR27 and GPR61 knockdown cells. We further found that the overexpression of these GPCRs enhanced Pls-mediated phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in cells. Most interestingly, the GPCRs-mediated cellular signaling was reduced significantly when the endogenous Pls were reduced. Our cumulative data, for the first time, suggest a possible mechanism for Pls-induced cellular signaling in the nervous system.

  6. GLP-1 signals via ERK in peripheral nerve and prevents nerve dysfunction in diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolivalt, CG; Fineman, M; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    not affect blood sugar, insulin levels or paw thermal response latencies in either control or diabetic mice. However, the reductions of motor nerve conduction velocity and paw intraepidermal fibre density seen in diabetic mice were attenuated by exenatide treatment. Conclusions: These data show...... that the peripheral nerve of diabetic rodents exhibits functional GLP-1R and suggest that GLP-1R-mediated ERK-signalling in sciatic nerve of diabetic rodents may protect large motor fibre function and small C fibre structure by a mechanism independent of glycaemic control....

  7. Role of ERK signaling pathway in up-regulation of γ-AChR during development of resistance to non-depolarizing muscular relaxants in skeletal muscles of burned rats%ERK信号通路在烧伤大鼠骨骼肌对非去极化肌松药抵抗形成时γ-AChR上调中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳天; 王宏; 吴进; 李士通

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of ERK signaling pathway in up-regulation of fetal gamma-acetylcholine receptor (μ-AChR) during the development of resistance to non-depolarizing muscular relaxants in skeletal muscles of burned rats.Methods Thirty adult male SPF Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 230-250 g,aged 9-10 weeks,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 each) using a random number table:control group (C group),burn group (B group) and ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 group (U group).The surface area of bilateral hindlimbs was shaved,and the tibialis anterior muscle of the right hiudlimb was exposed to 95 ℃ copper for 12 s in anesthetized rats.At 1.5 h after burn,15 mg/kg U0126 was injected intraperitoneally in group U,and the equal volume of dimethyl sulfoxide was given in C and B groups.The tibialis anterior muscle was obtained on 7th day after establishment of the model for determination of the expression of μ-AChR and adult epsilon-AChR (ε-AChR) mRNA in skeletal muscle cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction.The concentration-effect curve of rocuronium was drawn using muscular tension experiment,and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 95% confidence interval were calculated.Resuits Compared with group C,the expression of μ-AChR mRNA in skeletal muscle cells was significantly up-regulated,and the IC50 was significantly increased in group B (P<0.05).Compared with group B,the expression of γ-AChR mRNA in skeletal muscle cells was significantly down-regulated,and the IC50 was significantly decreased in group U (P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the expression of ε-AChR in skeletal muscle cells between the three groups (P>0.05).Conclusion Up-regulation of μ,-AChR is dependent on activation of ERK signaling pathway during the development of resistance to non-depolarizing muscular relaxants in skeletal muscles of burned rats.%目的 评价细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)信号通路在烧伤大鼠骨骼肌对非去极化肌松药

  8. Inhibition of Spinal Interlukin-33/ST2 Signaling and Downstream ERK and JNK Pathways in Electroacupuncture Analgesia in Formalin Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Han

    Full Text Available Although acupuncture is widely used to manage pain, it remains highly controversial, largely due to the lack of a clear mechanism for its benefits. Here, we investigated the role of IL-33, a novel interleukin (IL-1 family member, and its receptor ST2 in the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA on formalin-induced inflammatory pain. The results showed that 1 EA stimulation of ipsilateral Zusanli (ST 36 and Yanglingquan (GB 34 acupoints for 30 min remarkably suppressed the two phases of formalin-induced spontaneous pain; 2 subcutaneous or intrathecal administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33 significantly inhibited the analgesic effect of EA, whereas the ST2 antibody potentiated EA analgesia in formalin mice; 3 EA treatment decreased the up-regulation of IL-33 and ST2 protein following formalin injection; and 4 the suppression of the formalin-induced expression of spinal phosphorylated ERK and JNK induced by EA treatment was significantly attenuated following subcutaneous rIL-33 delivery, and was further decreased by the ST2 antibody. These data suggest that EA alleviates formalin-induced inflammatory pain, at least partially, by inhibiting of spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling and the downstream ERK and JNK pathways.

  9. Inhibition of Spinal Interlukin-33/ST2 Signaling and Downstream ERK and JNK Pathways in Electroacupuncture Analgesia in Formalin Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yanqing; Wu, Gencheng; Mi, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Although acupuncture is widely used to manage pain, it remains highly controversial, largely due to the lack of a clear mechanism for its benefits. Here, we investigated the role of IL-33, a novel interleukin (IL)-1 family member, and its receptor ST2 in the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on formalin-induced inflammatory pain. The results showed that 1) EA stimulation of ipsilateral Zusanli (ST 36) and Yanglingquan (GB 34) acupoints for 30 min remarkably suppressed the two phases of formalin-induced spontaneous pain; 2) subcutaneous or intrathecal administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) significantly inhibited the analgesic effect of EA, whereas the ST2 antibody potentiated EA analgesia in formalin mice; 3) EA treatment decreased the up-regulation of IL-33 and ST2 protein following formalin injection; and 4) the suppression of the formalin-induced expression of spinal phosphorylated ERK and JNK induced by EA treatment was significantly attenuated following subcutaneous rIL-33 delivery, and was further decreased by the ST2 antibody. These data suggest that EA alleviates formalin-induced inflammatory pain, at least partially, by inhibiting of spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling and the downstream ERK and JNK pathways. PMID:26067287

  10. Hydrogen sulfide protects against chemical hypoxia-induced injury by inhibiting ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Lan

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent. Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2 is a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent. We have demonstrated that H(2S protects against CoCl(2-induced injuries in PC12 cells. However, whether the members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, in particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2(ERK1/2 and p38MAPK are involved in the neuroprotection of H(2S against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries of PC12 cells is not understood. We observed that CoCl(2 induced expression of transcriptional factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α, decreased cystathionine-β synthase (CBS, a synthase of H(2S expression, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to injuries of the cells, evidenced by decrease in cell viability, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP , caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, which were attenuated by pretreatment with NaHS (a donor of H(2S or N-acetyl-L cystein (NAC, a ROS scavenger. CoCl(2 rapidly activated ERK1/2, p38MAPK and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK or JNK with kinase inhibitors (U0126 or SB203580 or SP600125, respectively or genetic silencing of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK by RNAi (Si-ERK1/2 or Si-p38MAPK significantly prevented CoCl(2-induced injuries. Pretreatment with NaHS or NAC inhibited not only CoCl(2-induced ROS production, but also phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. Thus, we demonstrated that a concurrent activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK participates in CoCl(2-induced injuries and that H(2S protects PC12 cells against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries by inhibition of ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK or antioxidants may be useful for preventing and treating hypoxia-induced neuronal injury.

  11. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  12. OCD-like behavior is caused by dysfunction of thalamo-amygdala circuits and upregulated TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a result of SPRED2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, M; Weber, M; Post, A M; Popp, S; Grein, J; Zechner, M; Guerrero González, H; Kreis, A; Schmitt, A G; Üçeyler, N; Lesch, K-P; Schuh, K

    2018-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling. Excessive self-grooming, reflecting OCD-like behavior in rodents, resulted in facial skin lesions in SPRED2 knockout (KO) mice. This was alleviated by treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In addition to the previously suggested involvement of cortico-striatal circuits, electrophysiological measurements revealed altered transmission at thalamo-amygdala synapses and morphological differences in lateral amygdala neurons of SPRED2 KO mice. Changes in synaptic function were accompanied by dysregulated expression of various pre- and postsynaptic proteins in the amygdala. This was a result of altered gene transcription and triggered upstream by upregulated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)/ERK-MAPK signaling in the amygdala of SPRED2 KO mice. Pathway overactivation was mediated by increased activity of TrkB, Ras, and ERK as a specific result of SPRED2 deficiency and not elicited by elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Using the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, we suppressed TrkB/ERK-MAPK pathway activity in vivo and reduced OCD-like grooming in SPRED2 KO mice. Altogether, this study identifies SPRED2 as a promising new regulator, TrkB/ERK-MAPK signaling as a novel mediating mechanism, and thalamo-amygdala synapses as critical circuitry involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

  13. ERK1/2 signalling pathway is involved in CD147-mediated gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 proliferation and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Pan, Yuqin; Gu, Ling; Nie, Zhenlin; He, Bangshun; Song, Guoqi; Li, Rui; Xu, Yeqiong; Gao, Tianyi; Wang, Shukui

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of CD147 in the progression of gastric cancer and the signalling pathway involved in CD147-mediated gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 proliferation and invasion. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors targeting CD147 were constructed to silence CD147, and the expression of CD147 was monitored by quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot and further confirmed by immunohistochemistry in vivo. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography, and the invasion of SGC7901 was determined by invasion assay. The phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), P38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase were examined by Western blot. Additionally, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 were used to confirm the signalling pathway involved in CD147-mediated SGC7901 progression. The BALB/c nude mice were used to study tumour progression in vivo. The results revealed that CD147 silencing inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SGC7901 cells, and down-regulated the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 in SGC7901 cells. ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 decreased the proliferation, and invasion of SGC7901 cells, and down-regulated the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. In a nude mouse model of subcutaneous xenografts, the tumour volume was significantly smaller in the SGC7901/shRNA group compared to the SGC7901 and SGC7901/snc-RNA group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CD147 and p-ERK1/2 protein expressions were down-regulated in the SGC7901/shRNA2 group compared to the SGC7901 and SGC7901/snc-RNA group. These results suggest that ERK1/2 pathway involves in CD147-mediated gastric cancer growth and invasion. These findings further highlight the importance of CD147 in cancer progression

  14. Fisetin Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Gemcitabine by Down-regulating ERK-MYC in MiaPaca-2 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Sang Hyub; Son, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Ji Eun; Paik, Woo Hyun; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2018-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. This study was set up to investigate the combined effect of gemcitabine and fisetin, a natural flavonoid from plants, on human pancreatic cancer cells. Meterials and Methods: Cytotoxic effect of fisetin in combination with gemcitabine on MiaPaca-2 cells was evaluated by the MTT assay, caspase 3/7 assay and propidium iodide/Annexin V. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) pathway was investigated by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Combination treatment with fisetin and gemcitabine inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells within 72 h and induced apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase 3/7. Fisetin down-regulated ERK at the protein and mRNA levels, and reduced ERK-induced MYC instability at the protein level. Fisetin sensitized human pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity through inhibition of ERK-MYC signaling. These results suggest that the combination of fisetin and gemcitabine could be developed as a novel potent therapeutic. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. [Intervention effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast through ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with kidney-Yang-deficiency, kidney-Yin-deficiency osteoporosis syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xin, Jing; Fan, Lian-Xia; Yin, Hua

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the effects of Zuoguiwan containing serum on osteoblast proliferation and alkaline phosphatase(ALP) expression and its effects on the expression of β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein of osteoblast through ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in models with osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yang-deficiency, osteoporosis(OP) kidney-Yin-deficiency syndrome. Rat osteoporosis models were established by ovariectomy surgery, and 10 weeks after surgery, hydrocortisone was injected and thyroxine was administered by intragastric administration to establish OP kidney-Yang-deficiency rat model, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency rat model. Osteoblasts were obtained from 24 h newborn rat skull and were identified by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining. Zuoguiwan containing serum of OP, OP kidney-Yang-deficiency, and OP kidney-Yin-deficiency, as well as the blank serum were used to intervene the osteoblast, and the cells proliferation was detected by MTS. ELISA assay was used to detect ALP expression. RT-PCR assay was used to detect the mRNA expression of ERK1, ERK2, β-catenin and protein expression levels were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Zuoguiwan containing serum in OP kidney-Yin-deficiency model had stronger effect than OP kidney-Yang-deficiency in promoting osteoblast proliferation, ALP expression, osteoblast ERK1/2, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway related factors β-catenin, ERK1, ERK2 mRNA and protein expression levels. This was consistent with the TCM theory of "Zuoguiwan nourishes kidney Yin", providing a scientific basis for the clinical and dialectical treatment of osteoporosis. Zuoguiwan could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of bone cells by ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms of Zuoguiwan for the prevention of osteoporosis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Release of overexpressed CypB activates ERK signaling through CD147 binding for hepatoma cell resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiyoon; Kim, Hunsung; Jeong, Kwon; Jung, Min Hyung; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Jin, Byung Kwan; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kang, Insug; Ha, Joohun; Choe, Wonchae

    2012-08-01

    Cyclophilin, a cytosolic receptor for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A, plays a role in diverse pathophysiologies along with its receptor, CD147. Although the interaction between cyclophilin A and CD147 is well established in inflammatory disease, that of cyclophilin B (CypB) with CD147 has not been fully explored, especially in cancer cell biology, and the exact molecular mechanism underlying such an association is poorly understood. In this study, we first identified high expression levels of CypB in 54 % of hepatocellular carcinoma patient tissues but in only 12.5 % of normal liver tissues. Then, we demonstrated that CypB overexpression protects human hepatoma cells against oxidative stress through its binding to CD147; this protective effect depends on the peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity of CypB. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CypB expression rendered hepatoma cells more vulnerable to ROS-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, we also determined that a direct interaction between secreted CypB and CD147 regulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase intracellular signaling pathway and is indispensible for the protective functions of CypB. For the first time, we demonstrated that CypB has an essential function in protecting hepatoma cells against oxidative stress through binding to CD147 and regulating the ERK pathway.

  17. Role and regulation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Gammeltoft, S

    1999-01-01

    ), which were among the first substrates of ERK to be discovered and which has proven to be a ubiquitous and versatile mediator of ERK signal transduction. RSK is composed of two functional kinase domains that are activated in a sequential manner by a series of phosphorylations. Recently, a family of RSK......-related kinases that are activated by ERK as well as p38 MAPK were discovered and named mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases (MSK). A number of cellular functions of RSK have been proposed. (1) Regulation of gene expression via association and phosphorylation of transcriptional regulators including c...

  18. Interstitial Fluid Flow Increases Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Invasion through CXCR4/CXCL12 and MEK/ERK Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer (~80%), and it is one of the few cancer types with rising incidence in the United States. This highly invasive cancer is very difficult to detect until its later stages, resulting in limited treatment options and low survival rates. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the mechanisms associated with the effects of biomechanical forces such as interstitial fluid flow (IFF) on hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. We hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow enhanced hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through chemokine-mediated autologous chemotaxis. Utilizing a 3D in vitro invasion assay, we demonstrated that interstitial fluid flow promoted invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that autologous chemotaxis influences this interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines via the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) signaling axis. We also demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling affects interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion; however, this pathway was separate from CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of interstitial fluid flow in hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. Uncovering the mechanisms that control hepatocellular carcinoma invasion will aid in enhancing current liver cancer therapies and provide better treatment options for patients. PMID:26560447

  19. Expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat kidneys exposed to high +Gz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to high gravitational acceleration forces acting along the body axis from the head to the feet (+Gz severely reduces blood flow to the visceral organs, including the kidneys. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK figures predominantly in mediating kidney cell responses to a wide variety of stress-related stimuli. Though previous studies have shown the activation of ERK in some experimental models, the regulation of ERK associated with +Gz exposure has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high +Gz exposure on ERK activation in the kidneys. Using a small animal centrifuge, eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to +10Gz or +13Gz three times for 3 minutes each. The bilateral kidneys were obtained from each rat, and the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In the control group, the collecting duct epithelium displayed faint cytoplasmic staining with no nuclear staining of p-ERK. By contrast, rats exposed to +10Gz showed strong nuclear staining intensity for p-ERK. In the renal papilla, the epithelial cells of collecting ducts and thin segments of the loop of Henle exhibited strong nuclear immunoreactivity for p-ERK. Rats exposed to +13Gz also showed the same staining intensity and distribution of p-ERK expression as that of rats exposed to +10Gz. This study is the first to describe +Gz exposure-induced alteration in the expression of p-ERK in the kidneys. Our finding suggests that high +Gz exposure leads to the activation of ERK in the renal papilla.

  20. Sweet Dream Liquid Chinese Medicine Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation through the ERK/CREB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xinyun; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Xiuhua; Han, Fang; Lv, Changjun; Zhang, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Sweet dream oral liquid (SDOL), a traditional Chinese herbal compound contains 17 traditional Chinese medicines. It has various pharmacological effects, such as improving brain dysfunction and increasing sleeping quality. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of SDOL-impaired hippocampus learning and memory-induced paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in rats. Sixty Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Before PSD, SDOL treatment group rats were intragastrically administered SDOL for 25 days at dose of 2.1, 4.2, and 8.4 mL/kg body weight per day. Normal control group, large platform control group, and PSD groups were treated with normal saline instead of SDOL. After 25 days treatment, PSD and SDOL groups were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 72 h. Then two behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory ability using the open field test and Morris water maze test. Expression of the c-fos, c-jun, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK), and p-CREB, p-ERK, and p-MEK in the hippocampus were also assayed by western blot. In this study, PSD decreased the levels of p-CREB, p-ERK, p-MEK, c-fos, and c-jun. However, SDOL treatment increased expressions of these proteins. Our results showed that SDOL improved 72-h PSD-induced cognitive impairment. These affects may be mediated by increasing the contents of c-fos, c-jun, and p-CREB/ERK signaling.

  1. Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Is Critical for Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are recognized as candidate progenitor cells for bone regeneration. However, the mechanism of hUCMSC osteogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling is involved in hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Particularly, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK and p38 signaling pathways maintained a consistent level in hUCMSCs through the entire 21-day osteogenic differentiation period. At the same time, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK signaling significantly increased from day 5, peaked at day 9, and declined thereafter. Moreover, gene profiling of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity measurement, and alizarin red staining demonstrated that the application of U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK activation, completely prohibited hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation. However, when U0126 was removed from the culture at day 9, ERK activation and osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs were partially recovered. Together, these findings demonstrate that the activation of ERK signaling is essential for hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation, which points out the significance of ERK signaling pathway to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs as an alternative cell source for bone tissue engineering.

  2. The CYP2E1 inhibitor DDC up-regulates MMP-1 expression in hepatic stellate cells via an ERK1/2- and Akt-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; Cong, Min; Xu, Youqing; Jia, Jidong; You, Hong

    2013-06-05

    DDC (diethyldithiocarbamate) could block collagen synthesis in HSC (hepatic stellate cells) through the inhibition of ROS (reactive oxygen species) derived from hepatocyte CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E1). However, the effect of DDC on MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), which is the main collagen degrading matrix metalloproteinase, has not been reported. In co-culture experiments, we found that DDC significantly enhanced MMP-1 expression in human HSC (LX-2) that were cultured with hepatocyte C3A cells either expressing or not expressing CYP2E1. The levels of both proenzyme and active MMP-1 enzyme were up-regulated in LX-2 cells, accompanied by elevated enzyme activity of MMP-1 and decreased collagen I, in both LX-2 cells and the culture medium. H2O2 treatment abrogated DDC-induced MMP-1 up-regulation and collagen I decrease, while catalase treatment slightly up-regulated MMP-1 expression. These data suggested that the decrease in ROS by DDC was partially responsible for the MMP-1 up-regulation. ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), Akt (protein kinase B) and p38 were significantly activated by DDC. The ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and Akt inhibitor (T3830) abrogated the DDC-induced MMP-1 up-regulation. In addition, a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) improved MMP-1 up-regulation through the stimulation of ERK1/2. Our data indicate that DDC significantly up-regulates the expression of MMP-1 in LX-2 cells which results in greater MMP-1 enzyme activity and decreased collagen I. The enhancement of MMP-1 expression by DDC was associated with H2O2 inhibition and coordinated regulation by the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways. These data provide some new insights into treatment strategies for hepatic fibrosis.

  3. Lanthanum chloride impairs spatial memory through ERK/MSK1 signaling pathway of hippocampus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Yang, Jinghua; Liu, Qiufang; Jin, Cuihong; Wu, Shengwen; Lu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Linlin; Xi, Qi; Cai, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in many fields for their diverse physical and chemical properties. Surveys have shown that REEs can impair learning and memory in children and cause neurobehavioral defects in animals. However, the mechanism underlying these impairments has not yet been completely elucidated. Lanthanum (La) is often selected to study the effects of REEs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial memory impairments induced by lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and the probable underlying mechanism. Wistar rats were exposed to LaCl3 in drinking water at 0 % (control, 0 mM), 0.25 % (18 mM), 0.50 % (36 mM), and 1.00 % (72 mM) from birth to 2 months after weaning. LaCl3 considerably impaired the spatial learning and memory of rats in the Morris water maze test, damaged the synaptic ultrastructure and downregulated the expression of p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-MSK1, p-CREB, c-FOS and BDNF in the hippocampus. These results indicate that LaCl3 exposure impairs the spatial learning and memory of rats, which may be attributed to disruption of the synaptic ultrastructure and inhibition of the ERK/MSK1 signaling pathway in the hippocampus.

  4. [6]-Gingerol Prevents Disassembly of Cell Junctions and Activities of MMPs in Invasive Human Pancreas Cancer Cells through ERK/NF-κB/Snail Signal Transduction Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ok Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of [6]-gingerol, a ginger phytochemical, on tight junction (TJ molecules, we investigated TJ tightening and signal transduction pathways in human pancreatic duct cell-derived cancer cell line PANC-1. The following methods were utilized: MTT assay to determine cytotoxicity; zymography to examine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activities; transepithelial electrical resistance (TER and paracellular flux for TJ measurement; RT-PCR and immunoblotting for proteins related to TJ and invasion; and EMSA for NF-κB activity in PANC-1 cells. Results revealed that TER significantly increased and claudin 4 and MMP-9 decreased compared to those of the control. TJ protein levels, including zonula occludens (ZO- 1, occludin, and E-cadherin, increased in [6]-gingerol-treated cells, which correlated with a decrease in paracellular flux and MMP activity. Furthermore, NF-κB/Snail nuclear translocation was suppressed via downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway in response to [6]-gingerol treatment. Moreover, treatment with U0126, an ERK inhibitor, completely blocked NF-κB activity. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that [6]-gingerol regulates TJ-related proteins and suppresses invasion and metastasis through NF-κB/Snail inhibition via inhibition of the ERK pathway. Therefore, [6]-gingerol may suppress the invasive activity of PANC-1 cells.

  5. Defined spatiotemporal features of RAS-ERK signals dictate cell fate in MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Ana; Casar, Berta; Colón-Bolea, Paula; Agudo-Ibáñez, Lorena; Crespo, Piero

    2016-06-15

    Signals conveyed through the RAS-ERK pathway are essential for the determination of cell fate. It is well established that signal variability is achieved in the different microenvironments in which signals unfold. It is also known that signal duration is critical for decisions concerning cell commitment. However, it is unclear how RAS-ERK signals integrate time and space in order to elicit a given biological response. To investigate this, we used MCF-7 cells, in which EGF-induced transient ERK activation triggers proliferation, whereas sustained ERK activation in response to heregulin leads to adipocytic differentiation. We found that both proliferative and differentiating signals emanate exclusively from plasma membrane-disordered microdomains. Of interest, the EGF signal can be transformed into a differentiating stimulus by HRAS overexpression, which prolongs ERK activation, but only if HRAS localizes at disordered membrane. On the other hand, HRAS signals emanating from the Golgi complex induce apoptosis and can prevent heregulin-induced differentiation. Our results indicate that within the same cellular context, RAS can exert different, even antagonistic, effects, depending on its sublocalization. Thus cell destiny is defined by the ability of a stimulus to activate RAS at the appropriate sublocalization for an adequate period while avoiding switching on opposing RAS signals. © 2016 Herrero et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Melatonin Attenuates Memory Impairment Induced by Klotho Gene Deficiency Via Interactive Signaling Between MT2 Receptor, ERK, and Nrf2-Related Antioxidant Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Chung, Yoon Hee; Le, Hoang-Lan Thi; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Nam, Yunsung; Wie, Myung Bok; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Background: We demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice, a genetic model of aging. Since down-regulation of melatonin due to aging is well documented, we used this genetic model to determine whether the antioxidant property of melatonin affects memory impairment. Methods: First, we examined the effects of melatonin on hippocampal oxidative parameters and the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio and memory dysfunction of klotho mutant mice. Second, we investigated whether a specific melatonin receptor is involved in the melatonin-mediated pharmacological response by application with melatonin receptor antagonists. Third, we examined phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, Nrf2 DNA binding activity, and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) mRNA expression. Finally, we examined effects of the ERK inhibitor SL327 in response to antioxidant efficacy and memory enhancement mediated by melatonin. Results: Treatment with melatonin resulted in significant attenuations of oxidative damage, a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio, and a significant amelioration of memory impairment in this aging model. These effects of melatonin were significantly counteracted by the selective MT2 receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. Importantly, 4-P-PDOT or SL327 also counteracted melatonin-mediated attenuation in response to the decreases in phospho-ERK expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 DNA-binding activity, and GCL mRNA expression in the hippocampi of klotho mutant mice. SL327 also counteracted the up-regulation of the GSH/GSSG ratio and the memory enhancement mediated by melatonin in klotho mutant mice. Conclusions: Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress and the associated memory impairment induced by klotho deficiency via signaling interaction between the MT2 receptor and ERK- and Nrf2-related antioxidant potential. PMID

  7. Signaling pathways of interleukin-1 actions in the brain: anatomical distribution of phospho-ERK1/2 in the brain of rat treated systemically with interleukin-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjar, A; Combe, C; Busquet, P; Dantzer, R; Parnet, P

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta is released at the periphery during infection and acts on the nervous system to induce fever, neuroendocrine activation, and behavioral changes. These effects are mediated by brain type I IL-1 receptors. In vitro studies have shown the ability of interleukin-1beta to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways including p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). In contrast to other mitogen-activated protein kinases, little is known about ERK1/2 activation in the rat brain in response to interleukin-1beta. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate spatial and temporal activation of ERK1/2 in the rat brain after peripheral administration of interleukin-1beta using immunohistochemistry to detect the phosphorylated form of the kinase. In non-stimulated conditions, phosphorylated ERK1/2 immunoreactivity was observed in neurons throughout the brain. Administration of interleukin-1beta (60 microg/kg, i.p.) induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in areas at the interface between brain and blood or cerebrospinal fluid: meninges, circumventricular organs, endothelial like cells of the blood vessels, and in brain nuclei involved in behavioral depression, fever and neuroendocrine activation: paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus, central amygdala and arcuate nucleus. Double labeling of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and cell markers revealed the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. Since phosphorylated ERK1/2 was found in structures in which type I IL-1 receptor has already been identified as well as in structures lacking this receptor, activation of ERK1/2 is likely to occur in response to both direct and indirect action of interleukin-1beta on its target cells.

  8. The Rab2A GTPase Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumorigenesis via Erk Signaling Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Li Luo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proline-directed phosphorylation is regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1, which plays a fundamental role in driving breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs. Rab2A is a small GTPase critical for vesicle trafficking. Here, we show that Pin1 increases Rab2A transcription to promote BCSC expansion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Rab2A directly interacts with and prevents dephosphorylation/inactivation of Erk1/2 by the MKP3 phosphatase, resulting in Zeb1 upregulation and β-catenin nuclear translocation. In cancer cells, Rab2A is activated via gene amplification, mutation or Pin1 overexpression. Rab2A overexpression or mutation endows BCSC traits to primary normal human breast epithelial cells, whereas silencing Rab2A potently inhibits the expansion and tumorigenesis of freshly isolated BCSCs. Finally, Rab2A overexpression correlates with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Thus, Pin1/Rab2A/Erk drives BCSC expansion and tumorigenicity, suggesting potential drug targets.

  9. GEP100/Arf6 is required for epidermal growth factor-induced ERK/Rac1 signaling and cell migration in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhenZhen Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling is implicated in the invasion and metastasis of hepatoma cells. However, the signaling pathways for EGF-induced motility of hepatoma cells remain undefined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that EGF dose-dependently stimulated the migration of human hepatoma cells HepG2, with the maximal effect at 10 ng/mL. Additionally, EGF increased Arf6 activity, and ectopic expression of Arf6 T27N, a dominant negative Arf6 mutant, largely abolish EGF-induced cell migration. Blocking GEP100 with GEP100 siRNA or GEP100-△PH, a pleckstrin homology (PH domain deletion mutant of GEP100, blocked EGF-induced Arf6 activity and cell migration. EGF also increased ERK and Rac1 activity. Ectopic expression GEP100 siRNA, GEP100-△PH, or Arf6-T27N suppressed EGF-induced ERK and Rac1 activity. Furthermore, blocking ERK signaling with its inhibitor U0126 remarkably inhibited both EGF-induced Rac1 activation as well as cell migration, and ectopic expression of inactive mutant form of Rac1 (Rac1-T17N also largely abolished EGF-induced cell migration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, this study highlights the function of the PH domain of GEP100 and its regulated Arf6/ERK/Rac1 signaling cascade in EGF-induced hepatoma cell migration. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapy based on inhibition of hepatoma metastasis.

  10. Inhibition of the ERK phosphorylation plays a role in terbinafine-induced p21 up-regulation and DNA synthesis inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.-Y.; Hsu, S.-P.; Liang, Y.-C.; Kuo, M.-L.; Ho, Y.-S.; Lee, W.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we showed that terbinafine (TB) induces cell-cycle arrest in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) through an up-regulation of the p21 protein. The aim of this study is to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying TB-induced increase of p21 protein. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the mRNA levels of p21 and p53 were increased in the TB-treated HUVEC. The p21 promoter activity was also increased by TB treatment. Transfection of HUVEC with p53 dominant negative (DN) abolished the TB-induced increases of p21 promoter activity and protein level, suggesting that the TB-induced increase of p21 is p53-dependent. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TB decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Over-expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-1, the immediate upstream activator kinase of ERK, abolished the TB-induced increases of p21 and p53 protein and decrease of thymidine incorporation. The ERK inhibitor (PD98059) enhanced the TB-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation into HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that the decrease of ERK activity plays a role in the TB-induced up-regulation of p21 in HUVEC. On the other hand, pretreatment of the cells with geranylgeraniol (GGOH), farnesol (FOH), or Ras inhibitor peptide did not affect the TB-induced decrease of thymidine incorporation. Taken together, our results suggest that TB might cause a decrease of MEK, which in turn up-regulates p53 through the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, and finally causes an increase of p21 expression and cell-cycle arrest

  11. Inhibiting Src family tyrosine kinase activity blocks glutamate signalling to ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB but not JNK in cultured striatal neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossthwaite, Andrew J; Valli, Haseeb; Williams, Robert J

    2004-03-01

    Glutamate receptor activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling cascades has been implicated in diverse neuronal functions such as synaptic plasticity, development and excitotoxicity. We have previously shown that Ca2+-influx through NMDA receptors in cultured striatal neurones mediates the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-dependent pathway. Exposing neurones to the Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, but not the inactive analogue PP3, inhibited NMDA receptor-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. To establish a link between Src family tyrosine kinase-mediated phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase signalling, affinity precipitation experiments were performed with the SH2 domains of the PI 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85. This revealed a Src-dependent phosphorylation of a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-p85 complex on glutamate stimulation. Demonstrating that PI3-kinase is not ubiquitously involved in NMDA receptor signal transduction, the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 did not prevent NMDA receptor Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2). Further, inhibiting Src family kinases increased NMDA receptor-dependent JNK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that Src family kinase-dependent cascades may physiologically limit signalling to JNK. These results demonstrate that Src family tyrosine kinases and PI3-kinase are pivotal regulators of NMDA receptor signalling to ERK/Akt and JNK in striatal neurones.

  12. M-CSF signals through the MAPK/ERK pathway via Sp1 to induce VEGF production and induces angiogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Curry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M-CSF recruits mononuclear phagocytes which regulate processes such as angiogenesis and metastases in tumors. VEGF is a potent activator of angiogenesis as it promotes endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation. Previously, we reported that in vitro M-CSF induces the expression of biologically-active VEGF from human monocytes. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism of M-CSF-induced VEGF production. Using a construct containing the VEGF promoter linked to a luciferase reporter, we found that a mutation reducing HIF binding to the VEGF promoter had no significant effect on luciferase production induced by M-CSF stimulation. Further analysis revealed that M-CSF induced VEGF through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via the transcription factor, Sp1. Thus, inhibition of either ERK or Sp1 suppressed M-CSF-induced VEGF at the mRNA and protein level. M-CSF also induced the nuclear localization of Sp1, which was blocked by ERK inhibition. Finally, mutating the Sp1 binding sites within the VEGF promoter or inhibiting ERK decreased VEGF promoter activity in M-CSF-treated human monocytes. To evaluate the biological significance of M-CSF induced VEGF production, we used an in vivo angiogenesis model to illustrate the ability of M-CSF to recruit mononuclear phagocytes, increase VEGF levels, and enhance angiogenesis. Importantly, the addition of a neutralizing VEGF antibody abolished M-CSF-induced blood vessel formation. CONCLUSION: These data delineate an ERK- and Sp1-dependent mechanism of M-CSF induced VEGF production and demonstrate for the first time the ability of M-CSF to induce angiogenesis via VEGF in vivo.

  13. Exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field inhibits cell proliferation via cAMP and ERK signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to specific electromagnetic field (EMF) patterns can affect a variety of biological systems. We have shown that exposure to Thomas-EMF, a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern, inhibited growth and altered cell signaling in malignant cells. Exposure to Thomas-EMF for 1 h/day inhibited the growth of malignant cells including B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT-20, and MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa cervical cancer cells but did not affect non-malignant cells. The Thomas-EMF-dependent changes in cell proliferation were mediated by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF transiently changed the level of cellular cAMP and promoted ERK phosphorylation. Pharmacologic inhibitors (SQ22536) and activators (forskolin) of cAMP production both blocked the ability of Thomas-EMF to inhibit cell proliferation, and an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway (PD98059) was able to partially block Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Genetic modulation of protein kinase A (PKA) in B16-BL6 cells also altered the effect of Thomas-EMF on cell proliferation. Cells transfected with the constitutively active form of PKA (PKA-CA), which interfered with ERK phosphorylation, also interfered with the Thomas-EMF effect on cell proliferation. The non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in cAMP levels, ERK phosphorylation, or cell growth. These data indicate that exposure to the specific Thomas-EMF pattern can inhibit the growth of malignant cells in a manner dependent on contributions from the cAMP and MAP kinase pathways. Bioelectromagnetics. 39;217-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  15. Radiotherapy-induced plasticity of prostate cancer mobilizes stem-like non-adherent, Erk signaling-dependent cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyjacová, Lenka; Hubáčková, Soňa; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Strauss, R.; Hanzlíková, Hana; Dzijak, Rastislav; Imrichová, Terezie; Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan; Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 898-911 ISSN 1350-9047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17658S; GA MZd NT14461 EU Projects: European Commission 259893 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Radiotherapy-induced plasticity * prostate cancer * Erk signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.218, year: 2015

  16. RAS/ERK modulates TGFβ-regulated PTEN expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Jimmy Y.C.; Quach, Khai T.; Cabrera, Betty L.; Cabral, Jennifer A.; Beck, Stayce E.; Carethers, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is rarely mutated in pancreatic cancers, but its regulation by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β might mediate growth suppression and other oncogenic actions. Here, we examined the role of TGFβ and the effects of oncogenic K-RAS/ERK upon PTEN expression in the absence of SMAD4. We utilized two SMAD4-null pancreatic cell lines, CAPAN-1 (K-RAS mutant) and BxPc-3 (WT-K-RAS), both of which express TGFβ surface receptors. Cells were t...

  17. Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyugovskaya, Larissa; Polyakov, Andrey; Cohen-Kaplan, Victoria; Lavie, Peretz; Lavie, Lena

    2012-10-22

    Prolonged neutrophil survival is evident in various cardiovascular and respiratory morbidities, in hypoxic conditions in-vitro and in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia (IH). This may lead to persistent inflammation, tissue injury and dysfunction. We therefore investigated by a translational approach the potential contribution of the intrinsic stress-induced mitochondrial pathway in extending neutrophil survival under IH conditions. Thus, neutrophils of healthy individuals treated with IH in-vitro and neutrophils of OSA patients undergoing nightly IH episodes in-vivo were investigated. Specifically, the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein expression, and the potential involvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the control of Mcl-1 expression were investigated. Purified neutrophils were exposed to IH and compared to normoxia and to sustained hypoxia (SH) using a BioSpherix-OxyCycler C42 system. Bax and Mcl-1 levels, and p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Also, Bax/Mcl-1 expression and Bax translocation to the mitochondria were assessed by confocal microscopy in pre-apoptotic neutrophils, before the appearance of apoptotic morphology. Co-localization of Bax and mitochondria was quantified by LSM 510 CarlZeiss MicroImaging using Manders Overlap Coefficient. A paired two-tailed t test, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, was used for statistical analysis. Compared to normoxia, IH and SH up-regulated the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 by about 2-fold, down-regulated the pro-apoptotic Bax by 41% and 27%, respectively, and inhibited Bax co-localization with mitochondria before visible morphological signs of apoptosis were noted. IH induced ERK1/2 and p38MAPKs phosphorylation, whereas SH induced only p38MAPK phosphorylation. Accordingly, both ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors attenuated the IH-induced Mcl-1 increase. In SH, only p38MAPK

  18. Metformin inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in cancer cells through inactivation of Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling and AMPK-independent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Hee; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits HO-1 expression in cancer cells. • Metformin attenuates Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling. • Suppression of HO-1 by metformin is independent of AMPK. • HO-1 inhibition contributes to anti-proliferative effects of metformin

  19. Upregulation of CD147 promotes cell invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and activates MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhou, Mingliang; Peng, Lipan; Kong, Shuai; Miao, Ruizheng; Shi, Yulong; Sheng, Hongguang; Li, Leping

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. CD147, a transmembrane protein, has been reported to be correlated with various cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of CD147 in regulating drug resistance, cell invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC cells. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluated the expression of CD147 in 40 CRC cases and 4 cell lines. Increased expression of CD147 at both mRNA and protein levels was found in CRC samples, and the level of CD147 was correlated with lymph node metastasis. CD147 overexpression increased the 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance, enhanced the invasion and EMT of CRC cells by regulating EMT markers and MMPs. Adverse results were obtained in CD147 knockdown CRC cell line. Further investigation revealed that CD147 activated MAPK/ERK pathway, ERK inhibitor U0126 suppressed the CD147-induced cell invasion, migration and MMP-2, MMP-9 expression. Taken together, our study indicates that CD147 promotes the 5-FU resistance, and MAPK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in CD147-promoted invasion and EMT of CRC cells.

  20. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  1. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  2. Oncogenic Ras-Induced Morphologic Change Is through MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway to Downregulate Stat3 at a Posttranslational Level in NIH3T3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Heng Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ras is a key regulator of the MAP kinase-signaling cascade and may cause morphologic change of Ras-transformed cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 can be activated by cytokine stimulation. In this study, we unravel that Ha-rasV12 overexpression can downregulate the expression of Stat3 protein at a posttranslational level in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Stat3 expression downregulated by Ha-rasV12 overexpression is through proteosome degradation and not through a mTOR/p70S6K-related signaling pathway. The suppression of Stat3 accompanied by the morphologic change induced by Ha-rasV12 was through mitogen extracellular kinase (MEK/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway. Microtubule disruption is involved in Ha-rasV12-induced morphologic change, which could be reversed by overexpression of Stat3. Taken together, we are the first to demonstrate that Stat3 protein plays a critical role in Ha-rasV12-induced morphologic change. Oncogenic Ras-triggered morphologic change is through the activation of MEK/ERK to posttranslationally downregulate Stat3 expression. Our finding may shed light on developing novel therapeutic strategies against Ras-related tumorigenesis.

  3. HSP27 phosphorylation modulates TRAIL-induced activation of Src-Akt/ERK signaling through interaction with β-arrestin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shimei; Xin, Yinqiang; Qi, Zhilin; Xu, Yimiao; Diao, Ying; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2014-03-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) regulates critical cellular functions such as development, differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. A variety of stimuli induce the phosphorylation of HSP27, which affects its cellular functions. However, most previous studies focused on the role of HSP27 protein itself in apoptosis, the particular role of its phosphorylation state in signaling transduction remains largely unclear. In the present study, we reported that HSP27 phosphorylation modulated TRAIL-triggered pro-survival signaling transduction. In HeLa cells, suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation by specific inhibitor KRIBB3 or MAPKAPK2 (MK2) knockdown and by overexpression of non-phosphorylatable HSP27(3A) mutant demonstrated that hindered HSP27 phosphorylation enhanced the TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, reduced HSP27 phosphorylation by KRIBB3 treatment or MK2 knockdown attenuated the TRAIL-induced activation of Akt and ERK survival signaling through suppressing the phosphorylation of Src. By overexpression of HSP27(15A) or HSP27(78/82A) phosphorylation mutant, we further showed that phosphorylation of HSP27 at serine 78/82 residues was essential to TRAIL-triggered Src-Akt/ERK signaling transduction. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy showed that HSP27 interacted with Src and scaffolding protein β-arrestin2 in response of TRAIL stimulation and suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation apparently disrupted the TRAIL-induced interaction of HSP27 and Src or interaction of HSP27 and β-arrestin2. We further demonstrated that β-arrestin2 mediated HSP27 action on TRAIL-induced Src activation, which was achieved by recruiting signaling complex of HSP27/β-arrestin2/Src in response to TRAIL. Taken together, our study revealed that HSP27 phosphorylation modulates TRAIL-triggered activation of Src-Akt/ERK pro-survival signaling via interacting with β-arrestin2 in HeLa cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of HepaCAM inhibits cell viability and motility through suppressing nucleus translocation of androgen receptor and ERK signaling in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuedong; Wang, Yin; Du, Hongfei; Fan, Yanru; Yang, Xue; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Xiaohou; Luo, Chunli

    2014-07-01

    HepaCAM is suppressed in a variety of human cancers, and involved in cell adhesion, growth, migration, invasion, and survival. However, the expression and function of HepaCAM in prostate cancer are still unknown. HepaCAM expression has been detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining in prostate cell lines RWPE-1, LNCap, DU145, PC3, and in 75 human prostate tissue specimens, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell proliferation ability was detected by WST-8 assay. The role of HepaCAM in prostate cancer cell migration and invasion was examined by wound healing and transwell assay. And flow cytometry was used to observe the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Then we detected changes of Androgen Receptor translocation and ERK signaling using immunofluorescence staining and western blot after overexpression of HepaCAM. The HepaCAM expression was significantly down-regulated in prostate cancer tissues and undetected in prostate cancer cells. However, the low HepaCAM expression was not statistically associated with clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer. Overexpression of HepaCAM in prostate cancer cells decreased the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced the cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, HepaCAM prevented the androgen receptor translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and down-regulated the MAPK/ERK signaling. Our results suggested that HepaCAM acted as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. HepaCAM inhibited cell viability and motility which might be through suppressing the nuclear translocation of Androgen Receptor and down-regulating the ERK signaling. Therefore, it was indicated that HepaCAM may be a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The human Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is a membrane scaffold protein for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth; Pedraz Cuesta, Elena; Olesen, Christina Wilkens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is an S/T kinase with more than 200 known substrates, and with critical roles in regulation of cell growth and differentiation and currently no membrane proteins have been linked to ERK2 scaffolding. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we identify...

  6. Icaritin induces MC3T3-E1 subclone14 cell differentiation through estrogen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhidi; Ou, Ling; Wang, Chaopeng; Yang, Li; Wang, Panpan; Liu, Hengrui; Xiong, Yingquan; Sun, Kehuan; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from the genus Epimedium, has many indicated pharmacological and biological activities. Several studies have shown that ICT has potential osteoprotective effects, including stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism for this anabolic action of ICT remains largely unknown. Here, we found that ICT could enhance MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 preosteoblastic cell differentiation associated with increased mRNA levels and protein expression of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COL1), osteocalcin (OC), osteoponin (OPN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and improved mineralization, confirmed by bone nodule formation and collagen synthesis. To characterize the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of ICT on estrogen receptor (ER) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. ICT treatment induced p38 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, but it demonstrated at the same time point no effect on activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). ER antagonist ICI182780, p38 antagonist SB203580 and ERK1/2 antagonist PD98059 markedly inhibited the ICT-induced the mRNA expression of ALP, COL1, OC and OPN. ICI182780 attenuated the ICT-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. These observations indicate a potential mechanism of osteogenic effects of ICT involving the ERK1/2 and p38 pathway activation through the ER. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. In brown adipocytes, adrenergically induced β1-/β3-(Gs)-, α2-(Gi)- and α1-(Gq)-signalling to Erk1/2 activation is not mediated via EGF receptor transactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanling; Fälting, Johanna M.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.; Holmström, Therése E.; Nedergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is unusual in that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine influences cell destiny in ways generally associated with effects of classical growth factors: regulation of cell proliferation, of apoptosis, and progression of differentiation. The norepinephrine effects are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors; further mediation of such stimulation to e.g. Erk1/2 activation is in cell biology in general accepted to occur through transactivation of the EGF receptor (by external or internal pathways). We have examined here the significance of such transactivation in brown adipocytes. Stimulation of mature brown adipocytes with cirazoline (α 1 -adrenoceptor coupled via G q ), clonidine (α 2 via G i ) or CL316243 (β 3 via G s ) or via β 1 -receptors significantly activated Erk1/2. Pretreatment with the EGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG1478 had, remarkably, no significant effect on Erk1/2 activation induced by any of these adrenergic agonists (although it fully abolished EGF-induced Erk1/2 activation), demonstrating absence of EGF receptor-mediated transactivation. Results with brown preadipocytes (cells in more proliferative states) were not qualitatively different. Joint stimulation of all adrenoceptors with norepinephrine did not result in synergism on Erk1/2 activation. AG1478 action on EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed a sharp concentration–response relationship (IC 50 0.3 µM); a minor apparent effect of AG1478 on norepinephrine-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed nonspecific kinetics, implying caution in interpretation of partial effects of AG1478 as reported in other systems. Transactivation of the EGF receptor is clearly not a universal prerequisite for coupling of G-protein coupled receptors to Erk1/2 signalling cascades. - Highlights: • In brown adipocytes, norepinephrine regulates proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation. • EGF receptor transactivation is supposed to mediate GPCR-induced Erk1/2 activation. •

  8. ERK5 pathway regulates the phosphorylation of tumour suppressor hDlg during mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A. [Departamento de Inmunologia y Oncologia, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia-CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco-UAM, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Campbell, David G.; Arthur, J. Simon C. [MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Sir James Black Building, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Cuenda, Ana, E-mail: acuenda@cnb.csic.es [Departamento de Inmunologia y Oncologia, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia-CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco-UAM, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} hDlg is phosphorylated during mitosis in multiple residues. {yields} Prospho-hDlg is excluded from the midbody during mitosis. {yields} hDlg is not phosphorylated by p38{gamma} or JNK1/2 during mitosis. {yields} ERK5 pathway mediates hDlg phosphorylation in mitosis. -- Abstract: Human disc-large (hDlg) is a scaffold protein critical for the maintenance of cell polarity and adhesion. hDlg is thought to be a tumour suppressor that regulates the cell cycle and proliferation. However, the mechanism and pathways involved in hDlg regulation during these processes is still unclear. Here we report that hDlg is phosphorylated during mitosis, and we establish the identity of at least three residues phosphorylated in hDlg; some are previously unreported. Phosphorylation affects hDlg localisation excluding it from the contact point between the two daughter cells. Our results reveal a previously unreported pathway for hDlg phosphorylation in mitosis and show that ERK5 pathway mediates hDlg cell cycle dependent phosphorylation. This is likely to have important implications in the correct timely mitotic entry and mitosis progression.

  9. ERK5 pathway regulates the phosphorylation of tumour suppressor hDlg during mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A.; Campbell, David G.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Cuenda, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → hDlg is phosphorylated during mitosis in multiple residues. → Prospho-hDlg is excluded from the midbody during mitosis. → hDlg is not phosphorylated by p38γ or JNK1/2 during mitosis. → ERK5 pathway mediates hDlg phosphorylation in mitosis. -- Abstract: Human disc-large (hDlg) is a scaffold protein critical for the maintenance of cell polarity and adhesion. hDlg is thought to be a tumour suppressor that regulates the cell cycle and proliferation. However, the mechanism and pathways involved in hDlg regulation during these processes is still unclear. Here we report that hDlg is phosphorylated during mitosis, and we establish the identity of at least three residues phosphorylated in hDlg; some are previously unreported. Phosphorylation affects hDlg localisation excluding it from the contact point between the two daughter cells. Our results reveal a previously unreported pathway for hDlg phosphorylation in mitosis and show that ERK5 pathway mediates hDlg cell cycle dependent phosphorylation. This is likely to have important implications in the correct timely mitotic entry and mitosis progression.

  10. MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK regulate chondrogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through delicate interaction with TGF-beta1/Smads pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Zhao, Z; Liu, J; Huang, N; Long, D; Wang, J; Li, X; Liu, Y

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to reveal functions and mechanisms of MEK/ERK and p38 pathways in chondrogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and to investigate further any interactions between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)/Smads pathway in the process. Chondrogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs was initiated in micromass culture, in the presence of TGF-beta1, for 2 weeks. ERK1/2 and p38 kinase activities were investigated by Western Blot analysis. Specific MAPK inhibitors PD98059 and SB20350 were employed to investigate regulatory effects of MEK/ERK and p38 signals on gene expression of chondrocyte-specific markers, and TGF-beta1 downstream pathways of Smad2/3. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated in a rapid but transient manner, whereas p38 was activated in a slow and sustained way. The two MAPK subtypes played opposing roles in mediating transcription of cartilage-specific genes for Col2alpha and aggrecan. TGF-beta1-stimulated gene expression of chondrogenic regulators, Sox9, Runx2 and Ihh, was also affected by activity of PD98059 and SB203580, to different degrees. However, influences of MAPK inhibitors on gene expression were relatively minor when not treated with TGF-beta1. In addition, gene transcription of Smad2/3 was significantly upregulated by TGF-beta1, but was regulated more subtly by treatment with MAPK inhibitors. MAPK subtypes seemed to regulate chondrogenesis with a delicate balance, interacting with the TGF-beta1/Smads signalling pathway.

  11. Spaced training rescues memory and ERK1/2 signaling in fragile X syndrome model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seese, Ronald R; Wang, Kathleen; Yao, Yue Qin; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M

    2014-11-25

    Recent studies have shown that short, spaced trains of afferent stimulation produce much greater long-term potentiation (LTP) than that obtained with a single, prolonged stimulation episode. The present studies demonstrate that spaced training regimens, based on these LTP timing rules, facilitate learning in wild-type (WT) mice and can offset learning and synaptic signaling impairments in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) knockout (KO) model of fragile X syndrome. We determined that 5 min of continuous training supports object location memory (OLM) in WT but not Fmr1 KO mice. However, the same amount of training distributed across three short trials, spaced by one hour, produced robust long-term memory in the KOs. At least three training trials were needed to realize the benefit of spacing, and intertrial intervals shorter or longer than 60 min were ineffective. Multiple short training trials also rescued novel object recognition in Fmr1 KOs. The spacing effect was surprisingly potent: just 1 min of OLM training, distributed across three trials, supported robust memory in both genotypes. Spacing also rescued training-induced activation of synaptic ERK1/2 in dorsal hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice. These results show that a spaced training regimen designed to maximize synaptic potentiation facilitates recognition memory in WT mice and can offset synaptic signaling and memory impairments in a model of congenital intellectual disability.

  12. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Rönty, Mikko [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sutinen, Eva [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Myllärniemi, Marjukka [Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Koli, Katri, E-mail: katri.koli@helsinki.fi [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  13. Urotensin II contributes to collagen synthesis and up-regulates Egr-1 expression in cultured pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through the ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [Biomedical Engineering Institute, School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Cai, Zhifeng; Liu, Mengmeng [Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Zhao, Cuifen, E-mail: zhaocuifen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Dong [Research Room of Hypothermia Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei [Biomedical Engineering Institute, School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-11-27

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of urotensin II (UII) treatment on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and to explore whether these effects are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and early growth response 1 (Egr-1). Methods: The proliferation of cultured PASMCs stimulated with different doses of UII was detected by BrdU incorporation. The mRNA expression levels of procollagen I (procol I), procollagen III (procol III), extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), stress-stimulated protein kinase (Sapk), p38 MAPK (p38), and Egr-1 mRNA in cultured PASMCs after treatment with UII, the UII-specific antagonist urantide, and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein expression levels of procol I, procol III, phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2, p-Sapk, p-p38, and Egr-1 were detected by Western blotting. Results: Treatment with UII increased the proliferation of cultured PASMCs in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, treatment with urantide and PD98059 inhibited the promoting effect of UII on PASMC proliferation (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR analysis showed that UII up-regulated the expression of procol I, procol III, ERK1/2, Sapk, and Egr-1 mRNA (P < 0.05), but not p38 mRNA. However, the up-regulating effect of UII was inhibited by PD98059 and urantide. Western blotting analysis showed that UII increased the synthesis of collagen I, collagen III, p-ERK1/2, p-Sapk, and Egr-1, and these effects also were inhibited by PD98059 and urantide (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Egr-1 participates in the UII-mediated proliferation and collagen synthesis of cultured rat PASMCs via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  14. Fluid shear stress suppresses TNF-α-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells: Involvement of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin, Geng; Bo, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Jin, Jiang; Xiaoyi, Tan; Cong, Chen; Liping, An; Jinglin, Ma; Cuifang, Wang; Yonggang, Chen [The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, #82 Cuiyingmen, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Yayi, Xia, E-mail: xiayayildey@163.com [The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, #82 Cuiyingmen, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China)

    2016-05-01

    TNF-α is known to induce osteoblasts apoptosis, whereas mechanical stimulation has been shown to enhance osteoblast survival. In the present study, we found that mechanical stimulation in the form of fluid shear stress (FSS) suppresses TNF-α induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family that has been implicated in cell survival. We also demonstrated that FSS imposed by flow chamber in vitro leads to a markedly activation of ERK5, which was shown to be protective against TNF-α-induced apoptosis, whereas the transfection of siRNA against ERK5 (ERK5-siRNA) reversed the FSS-medicated anti-apoptotic effects. An initial FSS-mediated activation of ERK5 that phosphorylates AKT to increase its activity, and a following forkhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) was phosphorylated by activated AKT. Phosphorylated FoxO3a is sequestered in the cytoplasm, and prevents it from translocating to nucleus where it can increase the expression of FasL and Bim. The inhibition of AKT-FoxO3a signalings by a PI3K (PI3-kinase)/AKT inhibitor (LY294002) or the transfection of ERK5-siRNA led to the nuclear translocation of non-phosphorylated FoxO3a, and increased the protein expression of FasL and Bim. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 by TNF-α was significantly inhibited by aforementioned FSS-medicated mechanisms. In brief, the activation of ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a signaling pathways by FSS resulted in a decreased expression of FasL and Bim and an inhibition of caspase-3 activation, which exerts a protective effect that prevents osteoblasts from apoptosis. - Highlights: • Fluid shear stress inhibits osteoblast apoptosis induced by TNF-α. • Inhibition of ERK5 activity by transfection of ERK5 siRNA blocks FSS-mediated anti-apoptotic effect in osteoblast. • Activated ERK5-AKT-FoxO3a-Bim/FasL signaling pathways by FSS is required to protect osteoblast from apoptosis.

  15. Heterotrimeric G protein-dependent WNT-5A signaling to ERK1/2 mediates distinct aspects of microglia proinflammatory transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleskog Carina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WNT-5A signaling in the central nervous system is important for morphogenesis, neurogenesis and establishment of functional connectivity; the source of WNT-5A and its importance for cellular communication in the adult brain, however, are mainly unknown. We have previously investigated the inflammatory effects of WNT/β-catenin signaling in microglia in Alzheimer's disease. WNT-5A, however, generally recruits β-catenin-independent signaling. Thus, we aim here to characterize the role of WNT-5A and downstream signaling pathways for the inflammatory transformation of the brain's macrophages, the microglia. Methods Mouse brain sections were used for immunohistochemistry. Primary isolated microglia and astrocytes were employed to characterize the WNT-induced inflammatory transformation and underlying intracellular signaling pathways by immunoblotting, quantitative mRNA analysis, proliferation and invasion assays. Further, measurements of G protein activation by [γ-35 S]GTP binding, examination of calcium fluxes and cyclic AMP production were used to define intracellular signaling pathways. Results Astrocytes in the adult mouse brain express high levels of WNT-5A, which could serve as a novel astroglia-microglia communication pathway. The WNT-5A-induced proinflammatory microglia response is characterized by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, cytokines, chemokines, enhanced invasive capacity and proliferation. Mapping of intracellular transduction pathways reveals that WNT-5A activates heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins to reduce cyclic AMP levels and to activate a Gi/o protein/phospholipase C/calcium-dependent protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 axis. We show further that WNT-5A-induced ERK1/2 signaling is responsible for distinct aspects of the proinflammatory transformation, such as matrix metalloprotease 9/13 expression, invasion and proliferation. Conclusions

  16. TGF-β1 downregulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production through Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2014-11-01

    Regulation of progesterone production in granulosa cells is important for normal reproductive functions. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is recognized as the key regulatory protein involved in the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. TGF-β1 protein is detected in human follicular fluid, and TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells. However, the functional role of TGF-β1 in the regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells. SVOG cells are human granulosa cells that were obtained from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and immortalized with SV40 large T antigen. SVOG cells were used to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production at an academic research center. Levels of mRNA and protein were examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The accumulation levels of progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-β1 treatment downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production were abolished by the inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with TGF-β1 activated the Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The inhibition of the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. TGF-β1 downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production by activating the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

  17. The MAPK ERK5, but not ERK1/2, inhibits the progression of monocytic phenotype to the functioning macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuening [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, NJ Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Pesakhov, Stella [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Harrison, Jonathan S [Department of Medicine, Rutgers, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kafka, Michael; Danilenko, Michael [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Studzinski, George P, E-mail: studzins@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, NJ Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways present targets for pharmacological agents with potential for treatment of neoplastic diseases, with some disease remissions already recorded. However, cellular compensatory mechanisms usually negate the initial success. For instance, attempts to interrupt aberrant signaling downstream of the frequently mutated ras by inhibiting ERK1/2 has shown only limited usefulness for cancer therapy. Here, we examined how ERK5, that overlaps the functions of ERK1/2 in cell proliferation and survival, functions in a manner distinct from ERK1/2 in human AML cells induced to differentiate by 1,25D-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D). Using inhibitors of ERK1/2 and of MEK5/ERK5 at concentrations specific for each kinase in HL60 and U937 cells, we observed that selective inhibition of the kinase activity of ERK5, but not of ERK1/2, in the presence of 1,25D resulted in macrophage-like cell morphology and enhancement of phagocytic activity. Importantly, this was associated with increased expression of the macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), but was not seen when M-CSFR expression was knocked down. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 led to activation of ERK5 in these cells. Our results support the hypothesis that ERK5 negatively regulates the expression of M-CSFR, and thus has a restraining function on macrophage differentiation. The addition of pharmacological inhibitors of ERK5 may influence trials of differentiation therapy of AML. - Highlights: • ERK5 has at least some functions in AML cells which are distinct from those of ERK1/2. • ERK5 activity negatively controls the expression of M-CSFR. • ERK5 retards the progression of differentiation from monocyte to functional macrophage.

  18. Transcriptional down-regulation of thromboxane A(2) receptor expression via activation of MAPK ERK1/2, p38/NF-kappaB pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    culture of the arteries, VSMC TP receptors were studied by using myography, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. We observed that organ culture for 24 and 48 h resulted in depressed TP receptor-mediated contraction in the VSMC, in parallel with decreased TP receptor mRNA and protein expressions....... Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was seen by Western blot within 1-3 h after organ culture. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 or NF-kappaB reversed depressed contraction as well as decreased receptor mRNA expression. Actinomycin D...

  19. Transcriptional Down-Regulation of Thromboxane A(2) Receptor Expression via Activation of MAPK ERK1/2, p38/NF-kappaB Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    culture of the arteries, VSMC TP receptors were studied by using myography, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. We observed that organ culture for 24 and 48 h resulted in depressed TP receptor-mediated contraction in the VSMC, in parallel with decreased TP receptor mRNA and protein expressions....... Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was seen by Western blot within 1-3 h after organ culture. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 or NF-kappaB reversed depressed contraction as well as decreased receptor mRNA expression. Actinomycin D...

  20. Ell3 stimulates proliferation, drug resistance, and cancer stem cell properties of breast cancer cells via a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hee-Jin [Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwangil [Department of Pathology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung-Soon, E-mail: kspark@cha.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Ell3 enhances proliferation and drug resistance of breast cancer cell lines. •Ell3 is related to the cancer stem cell characteristics of breast cancer cell lines. •Ell3 enhances oncogenicity of breast cancer through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Ell3 is a RNA polymerase II transcription elongation factor that is enriched in testis. The C-terminal domain of Ell3 shows strong similarities to that of Ell (eleven−nineteen lysine-rich leukemia gene), which acts as a negative regulator of p53 and regulates cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that Ell3 induces the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by protecting differentiating cells from apoptosis via the promotion of p53 degradation. In this study, we evaluated the function of Ell3 in breast cancer cell lines. MCF-7 cell lines overexpressing Ell3 were used to examine cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties. Ectopic expression of Ell3 in breast cancer cell lines induces proliferation and 5-FU resistance. In addition, Ell3 expression increases the cancer stem cell population, which is characterized by CD44 (+) or ALDH1 (+) cells. Mammosphere-forming potential and migration ability were also increased upon Ell3 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Through biochemical and molecular biological analyses, we showed that Ell3 regulates proliferation, cancer stem cell properties and drug resistance in breast cancer cell lines partly through the MEK−extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Murine xenograft experiments showed that Ell3 expression promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. These results suggest that Ell3 may play a critical role in promoting oncogenesis in breast cancer by regulating cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  1. Ell3 stimulates proliferation, drug resistance, and cancer stem cell properties of breast cancer cells via a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hee-Jin; Kim, Gwangil; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ell3 enhances proliferation and drug resistance of breast cancer cell lines. •Ell3 is related to the cancer stem cell characteristics of breast cancer cell lines. •Ell3 enhances oncogenicity of breast cancer through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Ell3 is a RNA polymerase II transcription elongation factor that is enriched in testis. The C-terminal domain of Ell3 shows strong similarities to that of Ell (eleven−nineteen lysine-rich leukemia gene), which acts as a negative regulator of p53 and regulates cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that Ell3 induces the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by protecting differentiating cells from apoptosis via the promotion of p53 degradation. In this study, we evaluated the function of Ell3 in breast cancer cell lines. MCF-7 cell lines overexpressing Ell3 were used to examine cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties. Ectopic expression of Ell3 in breast cancer cell lines induces proliferation and 5-FU resistance. In addition, Ell3 expression increases the cancer stem cell population, which is characterized by CD44 (+) or ALDH1 (+) cells. Mammosphere-forming potential and migration ability were also increased upon Ell3 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Through biochemical and molecular biological analyses, we showed that Ell3 regulates proliferation, cancer stem cell properties and drug resistance in breast cancer cell lines partly through the MEK−extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Murine xenograft experiments showed that Ell3 expression promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. These results suggest that Ell3 may play a critical role in promoting oncogenesis in breast cancer by regulating cell proliferation and cancer stem cell properties via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway

  2. Developmental fluoride exposure influenced rat's splenic development and cell cycle via disruption of the ERK signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanqin; Zhang, Kankan; Ren, Fengjun; Wang, Jundong

    2017-11-01

    Excessive fluoride exposure has been reported to cause damage to spleen. Neonatal period is characterized by rapid proliferation and differentiation of lymphocyte in the spleen. Children may be more sensitive to the toxicity of fluoride compared to the adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postnatal exposure (from neonatal period to early adulthood) to fluoride on the development of spleen on a regular basis and the underlying signal pathway. Results showed a marked decrease in spleen weight index and altered morphology in the spleen of fluoride-treated group on PND-84, which reflected fluoride inhibition of the development of spleen. Fluoride exposure induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes and decreased the mRNA expression of IL-2, which indicated compromised baseline lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen. Time course research from 3-wk-of-age until 12-wk-of-age showed an adverse and cumulative impact of fluoride on the development of spleen. In view of the key role of MAPK/ERK pathway in lymphocyte development, Raf-1/MEK-1/ERK-2/c-fos mRNA expression and ERK/p-ERK protein expression were detected. Results showed despite a transitory increase in mRNA expression from PND-42 to PND-63 in fluoride-treated group, the expression of these genes on PND-84 decreased significantly compared with PND-42 or PND-63. NaF significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK protein on PND-84. Taken together, these results emphasized the vital role of ERK pathway in the interfered development of spleen induced by a high dose of fluoride exposure in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shp2-Dependent ERK Signaling Is Essential for Induction of Bergmann Glia and Foliation of the Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kairong; Leung, Alan W.; Guo, Qiuxia; Yang, Wentian

    2014-01-01

    Folding of the cortex and the persistence of radial glia (RG)-like cells called Bergmann glia (BG) are hallmarks of the mammalian cerebellum. Similar to basal RG in the embryonic neocortex, BG maintain only basal processes and continuously express neural stem cell markers. Past studies had focused on the function of BG in granule cell migration and how granule cell progenitors (GCP) regulate cerebellar foliation. The molecular control of BG generation and its role in cerebellar foliation are less understood. Here, we have analyzed the function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in mice by deleting its gene Ptpn11 in the entire cerebellum or selectively in the GCP lineage. Deleting Ptpn11 in the entire cerebellum by En1-cre blocks transformation of RG into BG but preserves other major cerebellar cell types. In the absence of BG, inward invagination of GCP persists but is uncoupled from the folding of the Purkinje cell layer and the basement membrane, leading to disorganized lamination and an absence of cerebellar folia. In contrast, removing Ptpn11 in the GCP lineage by Atoh1-cre has no effect on cerebellar development, indicating that Shp2 is not cell autonomously required in GCP. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ptpn11 interacts with Fgf8 and is essential for ERK activation in RG and nascent BG. Finally, expressing constitutively active MEK1 rescues BG formation and cerebellar foliation in Shp2-deficient cerebella. Our results demonstrate an essential role of Shp2 in BG specification via fibroblast growth factor/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase signaling, and reveal a crucial function of BG in organizing cerebellar foliation. PMID:24431450

  4. Cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and blueberry extracts supplementation improves spatial memory and regulates hippocampal ERK expression in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long; Yang, Hong Peng; Pang, Wei; Lu, Hao; Hu, Yan Dan; Li, Jing; Lu, Shi Jun; Zhang, Wan Qi; Jiang, Yu Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system. 30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected. Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4. Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune responses of mussel hemocyte subpopulations are differentially regulated by enzymes of the PI 3-K, PKC, and ERK kinase families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Erick; Prado-Alvarez, Maria; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Rosales, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Various hemocyte cell types have been described in invertebrates, but for most species a functional characterization of different hemocyte cell types is still lacking. In order to characterize some immunological properties of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) hemocytes, cells were separated by flow cytometry and their capacity for phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and production of nitric oxide (NO), was examined. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase C (PKC), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitors were also used to biochemically characterize these cell responses. Four morphologically distinct subpopulations, designated R1-R4, were detected. R1, R2, and R3 cells presented different levels of phagocytosis towards zymosan, latex beads, and two bacteria species. Similarly, R1 to R3, but not R4, cells produced ROS, while all subpopulations produced NO, in response to zymosan. Internalization of all phagocytic targets was blocked by PI 3-K inhibition. In addition, internalization of latex particles, but not of bacteria, was partially blocked by PKC or ERK inhibition. Interestingly, phagocytosis of zymosan was impaired by PKC, or ERK inhibitors, only in R2 cells. Zymosan-induced ROS production was blocked by PI 3-K inhibition, but not by PKC, or ERK inhibition. In addition, zymosan-stimulated NO production was affected by PI 3-K inhibition in R1 and R2, but not in R3 or R4 cells. NO production in all cell types was unaffected by PKC inhibition, but ERK inhibition blocked it in R2 cells. These data reveal the existence of profound functional and biochemical differences in mussel hemocytes and indicate that M. galloprovincialis hemocytes are specialized cells fulfilling specific tasks in the context of host defense.

  6. HER2 induces cell proliferation and invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer by upregulating COX-2 expression via MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feng Chi, Rong Wu, Xueying Jin, Min Jiang, Xike Zhu Department of Medical Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: HER2 positivity has been well studied in various cancers, but its importance in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is still being explored. In this study, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was performed to detect HER2 and COX-2 expression in NSCLC tissues. Then, pcDNA3.1-HER2 was used to overexpress HER2, while HER2 siRNA and COX-2 siRNA were used to silence HER2 and COX-2 expression. MTT assay and invasion assay were used to detect the effects of HER2 on cell proliferation and invasion. Our study revealed that HER2 and COX-2 expression were upregulated in NSCLC tissues and HER2 exhibited a significant positive correlation with the levels of COX-2 expression. Overexpression of HER2 evidently elevated COX-2 expression, while silencing of HER2 evidently decreased COX-2 expression. Furthermore, overexpressed HER2 induced the ERK phosphorylation, and this was abolished by the treatment with U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK, an upstream kinase of ERK. HER2-induced expression and promoter activity of COX-2 were also suppressed by U0126, suggesting that the MEK/ERK signaling pathway regulates COX-2 expression. In addition, HER2 induced activation of AKT signaling pathway, which was reversed by pretreatment with U0126 and COX-2 siRNA. MTT and invasion assays revealed that HER2 induced cell proliferation and invasion that were reversed by pretreatment with U0126 and COX-2 siRNA. In this study, our results demonstrated for the first time that HER2 elevated COX-2 expression through the activation of MEK/ERK pathway, which subsequently induced cell proliferation and invasion via AKT pathway in NSCLC tissues. Keywords: HER2, MEK/ERK, COX-2, AKT signaling pathway, non-small-cell lung cancer

  7. 3D Organotypic Culture Model to Study Components of ERK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioni, Athina-Myrto; Bajwa, Rabia Tayba; Grose, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Organotypic models are 3D in vitro representations of an in vivo environment. Their complexity can range from an epidermal replica to the establishment of a cancer microenvironment. These models have been used for many years, in an attempt to mimic the structure and function of cells and tissues found inside the body. Methods for developing 3D organotypic models differ according to the tissue of interest and the experimental design. For example, cultures may be grown submerged in culture medium and or at an air-liquid interface. Our group is focusing on an air-liquid interface 3D organotypic model. These cultures are grown on a nylon membrane-covered metal grid with the cells embedded in a Collagen-Matrigel gel. This allows cells to grow in an air-liquid interface to enable diffusion and nourishment from the medium below. Subsequently, the organotypic cultures can be used for immunohistochemical staining of various components of ERK signaling, which is a key player in mediating communication between cells and their microenvironment.

  8. Reactive oxygen species mediate nitric oxide production through ERK/JNK MAPK signaling in HAPI microglia after PFOS exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cheng; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ting; Mao, Jiamin; Liu, Xinhang; Gu, Yiyang; Shi, Jiyun; Xiao, Jing; Wan, Chunhua; Wu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an emerging persistent contaminant that is commonly encountered during daily life, has been shown to exert toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of PFOS remain largely unknown. It has been widely acknowledged that the inflammatory mediators released by hyper-activated microglia play vital roles in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases. In the present study, we examined the impact of PFOS exposure on microglial activation and the release of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxidative species (ROS). We found that PFOS exposure led to concentration-dependent NO and ROS production by rat HAPI microglia. We also discovered that there was rapid activation of the ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway in the HAPI microglia following PFOS treatment. Moreover, the PFOS-induced iNOS expression and NO production were attenuated after the inhibition of ERK or JNK MAPK by their corresponding inhibitors, PD98059 and SP600125. Interestingly, NAC, a ROS inhibitor, blocked iNOS expression, NO production, and activation of ERK and JNK MAPKs, which suggested that PFOS-mediated microglial NO production occurs via a ROS/ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to PFOS-treated microglia-conditioned medium, we demonstrated that NO was responsible for PFOS-mediated neuronal apoptosis. - Highlights: • PFOS exposure induced expression of iNOS and production of NO in HAPI microglia. • PFOS induced the production of ROS in HAPI microglia. • ERK/JNK MAPK pathways were activated following PFOS exposure in HAPI microglia. • NO released by HAPI microglia participated in the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells.

  9. Reactive oxygen species mediate nitric oxide production through ERK/JNK MAPK signaling in HAPI microglia after PFOS exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Nie, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yan [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Li, Ting; Mao, Jiamin [Department of Labor and Environmental Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Liu, Xinhang [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Gu, Yiyang; Shi, Jiyun [Department of Labor and Environmental Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Xiao, Jing [Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Wan, Chunhua [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China); Wu, Qiyun, E-mail: wqy@ntu.edu.cn [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an emerging persistent contaminant that is commonly encountered during daily life, has been shown to exert toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of PFOS remain largely unknown. It has been widely acknowledged that the inflammatory mediators released by hyper-activated microglia play vital roles in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases. In the present study, we examined the impact of PFOS exposure on microglial activation and the release of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxidative species (ROS). We found that PFOS exposure led to concentration-dependent NO and ROS production by rat HAPI microglia. We also discovered that there was rapid activation of the ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway in the HAPI microglia following PFOS treatment. Moreover, the PFOS-induced iNOS expression and NO production were attenuated after the inhibition of ERK or JNK MAPK by their corresponding inhibitors, PD98059 and SP600125. Interestingly, NAC, a ROS inhibitor, blocked iNOS expression, NO production, and activation of ERK and JNK MAPKs, which suggested that PFOS-mediated microglial NO production occurs via a ROS/ERK/JNK MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to PFOS-treated microglia-conditioned medium, we demonstrated that NO was responsible for PFOS-mediated neuronal apoptosis. - Highlights: • PFOS exposure induced expression of iNOS and production of NO in HAPI microglia. • PFOS induced the production of ROS in HAPI microglia. • ERK/JNK MAPK pathways were activated following PFOS exposure in HAPI microglia. • NO released by HAPI microglia participated in the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells.

  10. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 are not required for GnRH neuron development and normal female reproductive axis function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierman, Margaret E; Xu, Mei; Pierce, A; Bliesner, B; Bliss, S P; Roberson, M S

    2012-01-01

    Selective deletion of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and ERK2 in the pituitary gonadotrope and ovarian granulosa cells disrupts female reproductive axis function. Thus, we asked if ERK1 and ERK2 are critical for GnRH neuron ontogeny or the central control of female reproductive function. GnRH-Cre-recombinase (Cre+) expressing mice were crossed with mice with a global deletion of ERK1 and a floxed ERK2 allele (Erk1-/Erk2fl/fl) to selectively delete ERK2 in GnRH neurons. Cre-recombinase mRNA was selectively expressed in the brain of Cre+ mice. GnRH neuron number and location were determined during embryogenesis and in the adult. GnRH neuron counts at E15 did not differ between experimental and control groups (1,198 ± 65 and 1,160 ± 80 respectively, p = NS). In adults, numbers of GnRH neurons in the GnRHCre+Erk1-/Erk2- mice (741 ± 157) were similar to those in controls (756 ± 7), without alteration in their distribution across the forebrain. ERK1 and 2 deficiency did not alter the timing of vaginal opening, age at first estrus, or estrous cyclicity. Although ERK1 and 2 are components of a dominant signaling pathway in GnRH neuronal cells that modulates survival and control of GnRH gene expression, other signaling pathways compensate for their deletion in vivo to allow GnRH neuron survival and targeting and normal onset of female sexual maturation and reproductive function. In contrast to effects at the pituitary and the ovary, ERK1 and ERK2 are dispensable at the level of the GnRH neuron. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. On the nanotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers: Superfect® stimulates the EGFR-ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism in HEK 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saghir; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Attur, Sreeja; Yousif, Mariam H M; Benter, Ibrahim F

    2013-05-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are cationic branch-like macromolecules that may serve as drug delivery systems for gene-based therapies such as RNA interference. For their safe use in the clinic, they should ideally only enhance drug delivery to target tissues and exhibit no adverse effects. However, little is known about their toxicological profiles in terms of their interactions with cellular signal transduction pathways such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The EGFR is an important signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, migration, survival and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the impact of naked, unmodified Superfect (SF), a commercially available generation 6 PAMAM dendrimer, on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase-extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. At concentrations routinely used for transfection, SF exhibited time and dose-dependent stimulation of EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation whereas AG1478, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase antagonist, inhibited EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling. SF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR for 1h was partly reversible upon removal of the dendrimer and examination of cells 24 later. Co-treatment of SF with epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand resulted in greater EGFR stimulation than either agent alone implying that the stimulatory effects of SF and the ligand are synergistic. Dendrimer-induced stimulation of EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling could be attenuated by the antioxidants apocynin, catalase and tempol implying that an oxidative stress dependent mechanism was involved. These results show for the first time that PAMAM dendrimers, aside from their ability to improve drug delivery, can modulate the important EGFR-ERK1/2 cellular signal transduction pathway - a novel finding that may have a bearing on their safe application as drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) positively regulates ERK and Akt activation and TNF-α and NO production in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Jin; Yin, Dan-Dan; Xiang, Jie; He, Fei; Wang, Yao-Chun; Liang, Liang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Li; Liang, Ying-Min; Han, Hua

    2012-05-01

    Macrophage activation is modulated by both environmental cues and endogenous programs. In the present study, we investigated the role of a PAQR family protein, monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD), in macrophage activation and unveiled its underlying molecular mechanism. Our results showed that while MMD expression could be detected in all tissues examined, its expression level is significantly up-regulated upon monocyte differentiation. Within cells, EGFP-MMD fusion protein could be co-localized to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, but not lysosomes and cytoplasm. MMD expression is up-regulated in macrophages after LPS stimulation, and this might be modulated by RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling. Overexpression of MMD in macrophages increased the production of TNF-α and NO upon LPS stimulation. We found that MMD overexpression enhanced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in macrophages after LPS stimulation. Blocking Erk or Akt by pharmacological agent reduced TNF-α or NO production in MMD-overexpressing macrophages, respectively. These results suggested that MMD modulates TNF-α and NO production in macrophages, and this process might involves Erk or Akt.

  13. Involvement of ERK-Nrf-2 signaling in ionizing radiation induced cell death in normal and tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S Patwardhan

    Full Text Available Prolonged oxidative stress favors tumorigenic environment and inflammation. Oxidative stress may trigger redox adaptation mechanism(s in tumor cells but not normal cells. This may increase levels of intracellular antioxidants and establish a new redox homeostasis. Nrf-2, a master regulator of battery of antioxidant genes is constitutively activated in many tumor cells. Here we show that, murine T cell lymphoma EL-4 cells show constitutive and inducible radioresistance via activation of Nrf-2/ERK pathway. EL-4 cells contained lower levels of ROS than their normal counterpart murine splenic lymphocytes. In response to radiation, the thiol redox circuits, GSH and thioredoxin were modified in EL-4 cells. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK and Nrf-2 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity and reduced clonogenic potential of EL-4 cells. Unirradiated lymphoma cells showed nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2, upregulation of its dependent genes and protein levels. Interestingly, MEK inhibitor abrogated its nuclear translocation suggesting role of ERK in basal and radiation induced Nrf-2 activation in tumor cells. Double knockdown of ERK and Nrf-2 resulted in higher sensitivity to radiation induced cell death as compared to individual knockdown cells. Importantly, NF-kB which is reported to be constitutively active in many tumors was not present at basal levels in EL-4 cells and its inhibition did not influence radiosensitivity of EL-4 cells. Thus our results reveal that, tumor cells which are subjected to heightened oxidative stress employ master regulator cellular redox homeostasis Nrf-2 for prevention of radiation induced cell death. Our study reveals the molecular basis of tumor radioresistance and highlights role of Nrf-2 and ERK.

  14. Pioglitazone improves the ability of learning and memory via activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the hippocampus of T2DM rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Zang, L; Wu, D Y; Li, Y J; Zhang, Q; Wang, H B; Tian, G L; Mu, Y M

    2017-06-09

    To explore the correlation between effect of PIO (pioglitazone, PIO) on learning as well as memory and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, ERK1/2) pathway in T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus, T2DM) rats, further to elucidate the potential mechanism of PIO in improvement of learning and memory. 12-week-old male SD rats (number of 10 per group) were randomly divided into control group (CON), T2DM group (DM) and T2DM +PIO group (DM+PG). Rats in DM and DM+PG groups were given high fat diet for 20 weeks, then treated with Streptozotocin (27mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection at 21week. After 72h, the FBG (fasting blood glucose, FBG) was greater than 7.0mmol/L can considered T2DM rats. DM+PG group was treated with PIO (10 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ) by gavage daily. After Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp Study and Morris water maze test at 30-week, all of animals were sacrificed. The expressions of RKIP (Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein, RKIP) and ERK1/2 in hippocampus were detected using Western Blot and real-time PCR. The FBG level: DM group (7.68±0.54mmol/L) was higher than CON group (5.35±0.63mmol/L) and DM+PG group (6.07±0.84mmol/L), the differences were considered statistically significant (P 0.05); The relative content of p-ERK1/2 protein in CON group and DM+PG group rats dorsal were higher than those in group DM, the difference was considered statistically significant (P0.05). Activation of ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway via reducing RKIP in the hippocampus may be one of the mechanisms of PIO to improve the learning and memory of the T2DM rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Kaempferol Inhibits Angiogenesis by Suppressing HIF-1α and VEGFR2 Activation via ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathways in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Dae

    2017-12-01

    Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit vascular formation in endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated whether kaempferol exerts antiangiogenic effects by targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were treated with various concentrations of kaempferol for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by the 3- (4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay; vascular formation was analyzed by tube formation, wound healing, and mouse aortic ring assays. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), ERK/p38 MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR was analyzed by Western blotting. Kaempferol significantly inhibited cell migration and tube formation in endothelial cells, and suppressed microvessel sprouting in the mouse aortic ring assay. Moreover, kaempferol suppressed the activation of HIF-1α, VEGFR2, and other markers of ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in endothelial cells. These results suggest that kaempferol inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1α and VEGFR2 activation via ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in endothelial cells.

  16. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor suppresses osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through the activation of the ERK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haitao; Du, Yuxuan; Zhang, Xulong; Sun, Ying; Li, Shentao; Dou, Yunpeng [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, No. 10 Xitoutiao, You An Men, Beijing 100069 (China); Li, Zhanguo [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Clinical Immunology Center, Peking University People' s Hospital, No. 11 Xizhimen South Street, Beijing 100044 (China); Yuan, Huihui, E-mail: huihui_yuan@163.com [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, No. 10 Xitoutiao, You An Men, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhao, Wenming, E-mail: zhao-wenming@163.com [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, No. 10 Xitoutiao, You An Men, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Ahr activation is known to be associated with synovitis and exacerbated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its contributions to bone loss have not been completely elucidated. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation are abnormal at the erosion site in RA. Here, we reported that the expression of Ahr was increased in the hind paws' bone upon collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, and the levels of Ahr were negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD). In addition, immunofluorescent staining showed that the high expression of Ahr was mainly localized in osteoblasts from the CIA mice compared to normal controls. Moreover, the luciferase intensity of Ahr in the nucleus increased by 12.5% in CIA osteoblasts compared to that in normal controls. In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) activation of the Ahr inhibited pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cellular proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA expression in the osteoblasts of CIA mice were reduced compared to normal controls. In contrast, decreased ALP expression by activated Ahr was completely reversed after pretreatment with an Ahr inhibitor (CH-223191) in MC3T3-E1 cell lines and primary osteoblasts on day 5. Our data further showed that activation of Ahr promoted the phosphorylation of ERK after 5 days. Moreover, Ahr-dependent activation of the ERK signaling pathway decreased the levels of proliferation cells and inhibited ALP activity in MC3T3-E1 cells. These results demonstrated that the high expression of Ahr may suppress osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through activation of the ERK signaling pathway, further enabling bone erosion in CIA mice. - Highlights: • The upregulation of Ahr was localized in osteoblasts of CIA mice. • The overexpression of Ahr suppressed osteoblast development. • The Ahr activated ERK signaling pathway to exacerbate bone erosion.

  17. Expression of FLNa in human melanoma cells regulates the function of integrin α1β1 and phosphorylation and localisation of PKB/AKT/ERK1/2 kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Kristi; Ruusmann, Anu; Simonlatser, Grethel; Velling, Teet

    2015-12-01

    FLNa is a ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that links transmembrane receptors, including integrins, to F-actin and functions as a signalling intermediate. We investigated FLNa's role in the function of integrin-type collagen receptors, EGF-EGFR signalling and regulation of PKB/Akt and ERK1/2. Using FLNa-deficient M2 human melanoma cells, and same cells expressing EGFP-FLNa (M2F) or its Ig-like repeats 1-8+24, 8-15+24 and 16-24, we found that in M2F and M2 8-15+24 cells, EGF induced the increased phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and ERK1/2. In M2F cells EGF induced the localisation of these kinases to cell nucleus and lamellipodia, respectively, and the ERK1/2 phosphorylation-dependent co-immunoprecipitation of FLNa with ERK1/2. Only M2F and M2 8-15+24 cells adhered to and spread on type I collagen whereas on fibronectin all cells behaved similarly. α1β1 and α2β1 were the integrin-type collagen receptors expressed on these cells with primarily α1β1 localising to focal contacts and affecting cell adhesion and migration in a manner dependent on FLNa or its Ig-like repeats 8-15. Our results suggest a role for FLNa repeats 8-15 in the α1-subunit-dependent regulation of integrin α1β1 function, EGF-EGFR signalling to PKB/Akt and ERK1/2, identify ERK1/2 in EGF-induced FLNa-associated protein complexes, and show that the function of different integrins is subjected to differential regulation by FLNa. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  19. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  20. Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metal loproteinase Is Regulated by Sp1 through the Differential Activation of AKT, JNK, and ERK Pathways in Human Prostate Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis C. Sroka

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We and other investigators have previously shown that membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is overexpressed in invasive prostate cancer cells. However, the mechanism for this expression is not known. Here, we show that MT1-MMP is minimally expressed in nonmalignant primary prostate cells, moderately expressed in DU-145 cells, and highly expressed in invasive PC-3 and PC-3N cells. Using human MT1-MMP promoter reporter plasmids and mobility shift assays, we show that Spi regulates MT1-MMP expression in DU-145, PC-3, and PC-3N cells and in PC3-N cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and silencing RNA. Investigation of signaling pathway showed that DU-145 cells express constitutively phosphorylated extracellular stress-regulated kinase (ERK, whereas PC-3 and PC-3N cells express constitutively phosphorylated AKT/PKB and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK. We show that MT1-MMP and Spi levels are decreased in PC-3 and PC-3N cells when phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and JNK are inhibited, and that MT1-MMP levels are decreased in DU-145 cells when MEK is inhibited. Transient transfection of PC-3 and PC-3N cells with a dominant-negative JNK or p85, and of DU-145 cells with a dominant negative ERK, reduces MT1-MMP promoter activity. These results indicate differential signaling control of Spi-mediated transcriptional regulation of MT1-MMP in prostate cancer cell lines.

  1. Verteporfin inhibits papillary thyroid cancer cells proliferation and cell cycle through ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wen, Duo; Hu, Jia-Qian; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ben; Cao, Yi-Min; Xiang, Jun; Guan, Qing; Chen, Jia-Ying; Sun, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Xue; Li, Duan-Shu; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Verteporfin, a FDA approved second-generation photosensitizer, has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in various tumors, but not including papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). In current pre-clinical pilot study, we investigate the effect of verteporfin on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and tumor growth of PTC. Our results indicate verteporfin attenuates cell proliferation, arrests cell cycle in G2/S phase and induces apoptosis of PTC cells. Moreover, treatment of verteporfin dramatically suppresses tumor growth from PTC cells in xenograft mouse model. We further illustrate that exposure to MEK inhibitor U0126 inactivates phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MEK in verteporfin-treated PTC cells. These data suggest verteporfin exhibits inhibitory effect on PTC cells proliferation and cell cycle partially via ERK1/2 signalling pathway, which strongly encourages the further application of verteporfin in the treatment against PTC. PMID:29721041

  2. Amentoflavone protects dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model mice through PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qin; Qin, Liyue; Huang, Fei, E-mail: Fei_H@hotmail.com; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Liu; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Ziyu; Wu, Xiaojun, E-mail: xiaojunwu320@126.com

    2017-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis are suggested to be actively involved in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of amentoflavone (AF), a naturally occurring biflavonoid from Selaginella tamariscina, was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. On SH-SY5Y cells, AF treatment dose-dependently reduced 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +})-induced nuclear condensation and loss of cell viability without obvious cytotoxicity. It inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and p21 but increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further study disclosed that AF enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2 down-regulated by MPP{sup +} in SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of which could be blocked by LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K. Consistently, AF alleviated the behavioral deterioration in pole and traction tests and rescued the loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and fibers in striatum in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mice. It also could enhance the activation of PI3K and Akt as well as Bcl-2/Bax ratio in SN. Moreover, AF alleviated gliosis as well as the gene expression levels of IL-1β and iNOS in SN. Collectively, these results suggested that AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP{sup +}-induced neurotoxicity, which might be mediated through activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in dopaminergic neurons and attenuation of neuroinflammation. - Highlights: • AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP{sup +}-induced neurotoxicity. • AF modulated PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. • AF could alleviate neuroinflammation in SN.

  3. Amentoflavone protects dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model mice through PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qin; Qin, Liyue; Huang, Fei; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Liu; Shi, Hailian; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Ziyu; Wu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis are suggested to be actively involved in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of amentoflavone (AF), a naturally occurring biflavonoid from Selaginella tamariscina, was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. On SH-SY5Y cells, AF treatment dose-dependently reduced 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-induced nuclear condensation and loss of cell viability without obvious cytotoxicity. It inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and p21 but increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further study disclosed that AF enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2 down-regulated by MPP + in SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of which could be blocked by LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K. Consistently, AF alleviated the behavioral deterioration in pole and traction tests and rescued the loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and fibers in striatum in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mice. It also could enhance the activation of PI3K and Akt as well as Bcl-2/Bax ratio in SN. Moreover, AF alleviated gliosis as well as the gene expression levels of IL-1β and iNOS in SN. Collectively, these results suggested that AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP + -induced neurotoxicity, which might be mediated through activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in dopaminergic neurons and attenuation of neuroinflammation. - Highlights: • AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP + -induced neurotoxicity. • AF modulated PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. • AF could alleviate neuroinflammation in SN.

  4. Naringenin modulates the metastasis of human prostate cancer cells by down regulating the matrix metalloproteinases -2/-9 via ROS/ERK1/2 pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er-Jiang Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multifactorial condition that complicates cancer treatment options and widens the target of treatment. Matrix mettalopriteinases (MMPs of the extracellular matrix (ECM are involved in metastasis, thus they present as potential targets in halting cancer metastasis. The study was undertaken to investigate the influence of naringenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid on the metastasis of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU145. Naringenin was observed to be effective in reducing the viability and migratory percentage of PC-3 and DU145 cells. Naringenin significantly reduced the expression and activities of the chief MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9 as assessed by western blotting, real-time PCR and gelatin zymography analysis. The influence of naringenin on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK -ERK1/2 was analysed by western blotting. The results indicated that naringenin was able to effectively inhibit ERK1/2. Naringenin exposure also significantly suppressed the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Naringenin thus stands as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment that could be further explored.

  5. Singapore grouper iridovirus, a large DNA virus, induces nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion and evokes ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Xu, Lixiao; Yan, Yang; Cui, Huachun; Han, Xin; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-08-01

    Virus induced cell death, including apoptosis and nonapoptotic cell death, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel iridovirus of genus Ranavirus, causes high mortality and heavy economic losses in grouper aquaculture. Here, using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and biochemical assays, we found that SGIV infection in host (grouper spleen, EAGS) cells evoked nonapoptotic programmed cell death (PCD), characterized by appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and distended endoplasmic reticulum, in the absence of DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and caspase activation. In contrast, SGIV induced typical apoptosis in non-host (fathead minnow, FHM) cells, as evidenced by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion. Furthermore, viral replication was essential for SGIV induced nonapoptotic cell death, but not for apoptosis. Notably, the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) were not detected in EAGS cells but in FHM cells after SGIV infection. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was involved in SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death and viral replication. This is a first demonstration of ERK-mediated nonapoptotic cell death induced by a DNA virus. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  6. Simulated physiological stretch increases expression of extracellular matrix proteins in human bladder smooth muscle cells via integrin α4/αv-FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulian; Peng, Chuandu; Wei, Xin; Luo, Deyi; Lin, Yifei; Yang, Tongxin; Jin, Xi; Gong, Lina; Li, Hong; Wang, Kunjie

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of simulated physiological stretch on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and the role of integrin α4/αv, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the stretch-induced ECM protein expression of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). HBSMCs were seeded onto silicone membrane and subjected to simulated physiological stretch at the range of 5, 10, and 15% elongation. Expression of primary ECM proteins in HBSMCs was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Specificity of the FAK and ERK1/2 was determined by Western blot with FAK inhibitor and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059). Specificity of integrin α4 and integrin αv was determined with small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) transfection. The expression of collagen I (Col1), collagen III (Col3), and fibronectin (Fn) was increased significantly under the simulated physiological stretch of 10 and 15%. Integrin α4 and αv, FAK, ERK1/2 were activated by 10% simulated physiological stretch compared with the static condition. Pretreatment of ERK1/2 inhibitor, FAK inhibitor, integrin α4 siRNA, or integrin αv siRNA reduced the stretch-induced expression of ECM proteins. And FAK inhibitor decreased the stretch-induced ERK1/2 activity and ECM protein expression. Integrin α4 siRNA or integrin αv siRNA inhibited the stretch-induced activity of FAK. Simulated physiological stretch increases the expression of ECM proteins in HBSMCs, and integrin α4/αv-FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway partly modulates the mechano-transducing process.

  7. Erk5 inhibits endothelial migration via KLF2-dependent down-regulation of PAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaravolu, Ravi K; Adam, Christian; Moonen, Jan-Renier A J; Harmsen, Martin C; Goebeler, Matthias; Schmidt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The MEK5/Erk5 pathway mediates beneficial effects of laminar flow, a major physiological factor preventing vascular dysfunction. Forced Erk5 activation induces a protective phenotype in endothelial cell (EC) that is associated with a dramatically decreased migration capacity of those cells. Transcriptional profiling identified the Krüppel-like transcription factors KLF2 and KLF4 as central mediators of Erk5-dependent gene expression. However, their downstream role regarding migration is unclear and relevant secondary effectors remain elusive. Here, we further investigated the mechanism underlying Erk5-dependent migration arrest in ECs. Our experiments reveal KLF2-dependent loss of the pro-migratory Rac/Cdc42 mediator, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), as an important mechanism of Erk5-induced migration inhibition. We show that endothelial Erk5 activation by expression of a constitutively active MEK5 mutant, by statin treatment, or by application of laminar shear stress strongly decreased PAK1 mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of KLF2 but not of KLF4 prevented Erk5-mediated PAK1 mRNA inhibition, revealing KLF2 as a novel PAK1 repressor in ECs. Importantly, both PAK1 re-expression and KLF2 knockdown restored the migration capacity of Erk5-activated ECs underscoring their functional relevance downstream of Erk5. Our data provide first evidence for existence of a previously unknown Erk5/KLF2/PAK1 axis, which may limit undesired cell migration in unperturbed endothelium and lower its sensitivity for migratory cues that promote vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Biphasic activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liqian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many viruses have been known to control key cellular signaling pathways to facilitate the virus infection. The possible involvement of signaling pathways in bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 infection is unknown. This study indicated that infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-1 induced an early-stage transient and a late-stage sustained activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Analysis with the stimulation of UV-irradiated virus indicated that the virus binding and/or entry process was enough to trigger the early phase activations, while the late phase activations were viral protein expression dependent. Biphasic activation of both pathways was suppressed by the selective inhibitor, Ly294002 for PI3K and U0126 for MAPK kinase (MEK1/2, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of MDBK cells with Ly294002 caused a 1.5-log reduction in virus titer, while U0126 had little effect on the virus production. In addition, the inhibition effect of Ly294002 mainly occurred at the post-entry stage of the virus replication cycle. This revealed for the first time that BoHV-1 actively induced both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways, and the activation of PI3K was important for fully efficient replication, especially for the post-entry stage.

  9. Aurora-A overexpression enhances cell-aggregation of Ha-ras transformants through the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Ya-Shih; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ras (Ras V12 ) together has been detected in human bladder cancer tissue. However, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is a general event or not. Although crosstalk between Aurora-A and Ras signaling pathways has been reported, the role of these two genes acting together in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis were utilized to identify Ha- and Ki-ras mutation (Gly -> Val). Immunohistochemistry staining was used to measure the level of Aurora-A expression in bladder and colon cancer specimens. To reveal the effect of overexpression of the above two genes on cellular responses, mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast derived cell lines over-expressing either Ras V12 and wild-type Aurora-A (designated WT) or Ras V12 and kinase-inactivated Aurora-A (KD) were established. MTT and focus formation assays were conducted to measure proliferation rate and focus formation capability of the cells. Small interfering RNA, pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative genes were used to dissect the signaling pathways involved. Overexpression of wild-type Aurora-A and mutation of Ras V12 were detected in human bladder and colon cancer tissues. Wild-type Aurora-A induces focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. Aurora-A activates Ral A and the phosphorylation of AKT as well as enhances the phosphorylation of MEK, ERK of WT cells. Finally, the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is responsible for Aurora-A induced aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. Wild-type-Aurora-A enhances focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants and the latter occurs through modulating the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway

  10. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Gallic Acid: Possible Involvement of the PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways in B16F10 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Rong; Lin, Jen-Jie; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Huang, Tsu-Kei; Yang, Zih-Yan; Wu, Ming-O; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Su, Ching-Chyuan; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is one of the major flavonoids found in plants. It acts as an antioxidant, and seems to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of gallic acid on melanogenesis, including the activation of melanogenesis signaling pathways. Gallic acid significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct). In addition, gallic acid also acts by phosphorylating and activating melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Using inhibitors against PI3K/Akt (LY294002) or MEK/ERK-specific (PD98059), the hypopigmentation effect was suppressed, and the gallic acid-initiated activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt was also revoked. Gallic acid also increased GSK3β and p-β-catenin expression but down-regulated p-GSK3β. Moreover, GSK3β-specific inhibitor (SB216763) restored gallic acid-induced melanin reduction. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways is involved in the melanogenesis signaling cascade, and that activation by gallic acid reduces melanin synthesis via down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway. In conclusion, gallic acid may be a potentially agent for the treatment of certain skin conditions. PMID:24129178

  11. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Gallic Acid: Possible Involvement of the PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways in B16F10 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid is one of the major flavonoids found in plants. It acts as an antioxidant, and seems to have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of gallic acid on melanogenesis, including the activation of melanogenesis signaling pathways. Gallic acid significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1, and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct. In addition, gallic acid also acts by phosphorylating and activating melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. Using inhibitors against PI3K/Akt (LY294002 or MEK/ERK-specific (PD98059, the hypopigmentation effect was suppressed, and the gallic acid-initiated activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt was also revoked. Gallic acid also increased GSK3β and p-β-catenin expression but down-regulated p-GSK3β. Moreover, GSK3β-specific inhibitor (SB216763 restored gallic acid-induced melanin reduction. These results suggest that activation of the MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways is involved in the melanogenesis signaling cascade, and that activation by gallic acid reduces melanin synthesis via down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway. In conclusion, gallic acid may be a potentially agent for the treatment of certain skin conditions.

  12. Celecoxib induces proliferation and Amphiregulin production in colon subepithelial myofibroblasts, activating erk1-2 signaling in synergy with EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Roberto; Venè, Roberta; Minghelli, Simona; Carlone, Sebastiano; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Ferrari, Nicoletta

    2013-01-01

    The COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib, tested in phase III trials for the prevention of sporadic colon adenomas, reduced the appearance of new adenomas, but was unable to affect the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover the 5years follow-up showed that patients discontinuing Celecoxib treatment had an increased incidence of adenomas as compared to the placebo arm. In the APC(min/+) mouse model short term treatment with Celecoxib reduced gut adenomas, but a prolonged administration of the drug induced fibroblast activation and intestinal fibrosis with a final tumor burden. The way Celecoxib could directly activate human colon myofibroblasts (MF) has not yet been investigated. We found that MF are activated by non toxic doses of Celecoxib. Celecoxib induces erk1-2 and Akt phosphorylation within 5'. This short term activation is apparently insufficient to cause phenotypic changes, but the contemporary triggering of EGFR causes an impressive synergic effect inducing MF proliferation and the neo-expression and release of Amphiregulin (AREG), a well known EGFR agonist involved in colon cancer progression. As a confirm to these observations, the erk inhibitor U0126 and the EGFR inhibitors Tyrphostin and Cetuximab were able to contrast AREG induction. Our data provide evidence that Celecoxib directly activates MF empowering EGFR signaling. According to these results the association with EGFR (or erk1-2) inhibitors could abolish the off-target activity of Celecoxib, possibly extending the potential of this drug for colon cancer prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Curcumin Improves Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42 Induced Spatial Memory Deficits through BDNF-ERK Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the most active component of turmeric, has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have suggested that curcumin reduces the levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevents memory deficits and thus is beneficial to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's effect on cognitive functions are not well-understood. In the present study, we examined the working memory and spatial reference memory in rats that received a ventricular injection of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42, representing a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The rats treated with Aβ1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits in behavioral tasks. Chronic (seven consecutive days, once per day but not acute (once a day curcumin treatments (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg improved the cognitive functions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the beneficial effect of curcumin is accompanied by increased BDNF levels and elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the cognition enhancement effect of curcumin could be mimicked by the overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus and blocked by either bilateral hippocampal injections with lentiviruses that express BDNF shRNA or a microinjection of ERK inhibitor. These findings suggest that chronic curcumin ameliorates AD-related cognitive deficits and that upregulated BDNF-ERK signaling in the hippocampus may underlie the cognitive improvement produced by curcumin.

  14. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan

    2013-05-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan; Lin, Chichuan; George, Roger R.; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E S D

    2013-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and characterization of an alternative splice variant of Mpl with a high affinity for TPO and its activation of ERK1/2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Sun, Rui; Wu, Leyan; Huang, Junfeng; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Hailong; Qiu, Feifei; Xu, Xiaohong; Wu, Di; Yu, Ying; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Qing

    2013-12-01

    The thrombopoietin receptor is a crucial element in thrombopoietin-initiated signaling pathways, which stimulates the differentiation of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, the maturation of megakaryocytes, and the generation of platelets. In this study, we identified a novel activating variant of thrombopoietin receptor, termed Mpl-D, in human megakaryoblastic leukemia Dami cells and demonstrated that the binding affinity of the Mpl-D receptor for thrombopoietin is enhanced. Cell cycle analysis revealed that in the presence of thrombopoietin, most Mpl-D expressing NIH3T3 (NIH3T3/Mpl-D) cells were prevalent in G1 phase while the S and G2/M populations were less frequently observed. Unexpectedly, thrombopoietin induced strong and prolonged ERK1/2 signaling in NIH3T3/Mpl-D cells compared with its receptor wild-type expressing NIH3T3 (NIH3T3/Mpl-F) cells. Further analysis of the mRNA levels of cyclin D1/D2 in NIH3T3/Mpl-D cells demonstrated markedly down-regulated expression compared to NIH3T3/Mpl-F cells in the presence of thrombopoietin. Thus, the prolonged activation of ERK1/2 by Mpl-D might lead to G1 cell cycle arrest through a profound reduction of cyclin D1/D2 in order to support cell survival without proliferation. We also provided tertiary structural basis for the Mpl-D and thrombopoietin interaction, which might provide insights into how Mpl-D effectively increases binding to thrombopoietin and significantly contributes to its specific signaling pathway. These results suggest a new paradigm for the regulation of cytokine receptor expression and function through the alternative splicing variant of Mpl in Dami cells, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of megakaryoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyugovskaya Larissa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged neutrophil survival is evident in various cardiovascular and respiratory morbidities, in hypoxic conditions in-vitro and in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia (IH. This may lead to persistent inflammation, tissue injury and dysfunction. We therefore investigated by a translational approach the potential contribution of the intrinsic stress-induced mitochondrial pathway in extending neutrophil survival under IH conditions. Thus, neutrophils of healthy individuals treated with IH in-vitro and neutrophils of OSA patients undergoing nightly IH episodes in-vivo were investigated. Specifically, the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein expression, and the potential involvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the control of Mcl-1 expression were investigated. Methods Purified neutrophils were exposed to IH and compared to normoxia and to sustained hypoxia (SH using a BioSpherix-OxyCycler C42 system. Bax and Mcl-1 levels, and p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Also, Bax/Mcl-1 expression and Bax translocation to the mitochondria were assessed by confocal microscopy in pre-apoptotic neutrophils, before the appearance of apoptotic morphology. Co-localization of Bax and mitochondria was quantified by LSM 510 CarlZeiss MicroImaging using Manders Overlap Coefficient. A paired two-tailed t test, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, was used for statistical analysis. Results Compared to normoxia, IH and SH up-regulated the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 by about 2-fold, down-regulated the pro-apoptotic Bax by 41% and 27%, respectively, and inhibited Bax co-localization with mitochondria before visible morphological signs of apoptosis were noted. IH induced ERK1/2 and p38MAPKs phosphorylation, whereas SH induced only p38MAPK phosphorylation. Accordingly, both ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors attenuated

  18. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhan [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, 450052 (China); Bu, Yongjun [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); Liu, Xiaozhuan [Medical College, Henan University of Science & Technology, 471023 (China); Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong [The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, 450052 (China); Yu, Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 450001 (China)

    2016-05-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. - Highlights: • TCDD exposure promoted cell proliferation and EMT of hFPECs; • AhR signaling was activated and required for TCDD-induced EMT; • TCDD-mediated EMT of hFPECs involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling; • TCDD exposure had no effect on TGFβ3/Smad pathway.

  19. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhan; Bu, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling; Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. - Highlights: • TCDD exposure promoted cell proliferation and EMT of hFPECs; • AhR signaling was activated and required for TCDD-induced EMT; • TCDD-mediated EMT of hFPECs involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling; • TCDD exposure had no effect on TGFβ3/Smad pathway.

  20. Mineral trioxide aggregate upregulates odonto/osteogenic capacity of bone marrow stromal cells from craniofacial bones via JNK and ERK MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Li, J; Song, W; Yu, J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on odonto/osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from craniofacial bones. Craniofacial BMSCs were isolated from rat mandible and effects of MTA on their proliferation, differentiation and MAPK pathway involvement were subsequently investigated, in vitro. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2,5-tetrazoliumbromide) assay was performed to evaluate proliferation of the MTA-treated cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to assess differentiation capacity as well as MAPK pathway involvement. 0.02 mg/ml MTA-treated BMSCs had significantly higher ALP activity and formed more mineralized nodules than the untreated group. Odonto/osteoblastic marker genes/proteins (Alp, Runx2/RUNX2, Osx/OSX, Ocn/OCN and Dspp/DSP respectively) in MTA-treated cells were remarkably upregulated compared to untreated ones. Mechanistically, phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (P-ERK) in MTA-treated BMSCs increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while inhibition of JNK and ERK MAPK pathways dramatically blocked MTA-induced odonto/osteoblastic differentiation, as indicated by reduced ALP levels, weakened mineralization capacity and downregulated levels of odonto/osteoblastic marker genes (Alp, Runx2, Osx, Ocn and Dspp). Mineral trioxide aggregate promoted odonto/osteogenic capacity of craniofacial BMSCs via JNK and ERK MAPK signalling pathways. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ER-α36 mediates estrogen-stimulated MAPK/ERK activation and regulates migration, invasion, proliferation in cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qing; Liang, Ying; Zhang, Tianli; Wang, Kun; Yang, Xingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ER-α36), a truncated variant of ER-α, is different from other nuclear receptors of the ER-α family. Previous findings indicate that ER-α36 might be involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation in carcinomas and primarily mediates non-genomic estrogen signaling. However, studies on ER-α36 and cervical cancer are rare. This study aimed to detect the expression of ER-α36 in cervical cancer; the role of ER-α36 in 17-β-estradiol (E2)-induced invasion, migration and proliferation of cervical cancer; and their probable molecular mechanisms. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to determine the location of ER-α36 in cervical cancer tissues and cervical cell lines. CaSki and HeLa cell lines were transfected with lentiviruses to establish stable cell lines with knockdown and overexpression of ER-α36. Wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay, and EdU incorporation proliferation assay were performed to evaluate the migration, invasion, and proliferation ability. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling molecules were examined with western blot analysis. Results: ER-α36 expression was detected in both cervical cell lines and cervical cancer tissues. Downregulation of ER-α36 significantly inhibited cell invasion, migration, and proliferation. Moreover, upregulation of ER-α36 increased the invasion, migration, and proliferation ability of CaSki and HeLa cell lines. ER-α36 mediates estrogen-stimulated MAPK/ERK activation. Conclusion: ER-α36 is localized on the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. ER-α36 mediates estrogen-stimulated MAPK/ERK activation and regulates migration, invasion, proliferation in cervical cancer cells. - Highlights: • ER-α36 is expressed on both cervical cell lines and cervical cancer tissues. • ER-α36 mediates estrogen

  2. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-mediated invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae into host cells requires a coordinate signaling of SRC family of protein-tyrosine kinases, ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M; Dierdorf, Nina I; Hauck, Christof R; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-11-12

    Streptococcus pneumoniae are commensals of the human nasopharynx with the capacity to invade mucosal respiratory cells. PspC, a pneumococcal surface protein, interacts with the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) to promote bacterial adherence to and invasion into epithelial cells. Internalization of pneumococci requires the coordinated action of actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and the retrograde machinery of pIgR. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Src protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in pneumococcal invasion via pIgR. Pharmacological inhibitors of PTKs and MAPKs and genetic interference with Src PTK and FAK functions caused a significant reduction of pIgR-mediated pneumococcal invasion but did not influence bacterial adhesion to host cells. Furthermore, pneumococcal ingestion by host cells induces activation of ERK1/2 and JNK. In agreement with activated JNK, its target molecule and DNA-binding protein c-Jun was phosphorylated. We also show that functionally active Src PTK is essential for activation of ERK1/2 upon pneumococcal infections. In conclusion, these data illustrate the importance of a coordinated signaling between Src PTKs, ERK1/2, and JNK during PspC-pIgR-mediated uptake of pneumococci by host epithelial cells.

  3. Inter-domain tagging implicates caveolin-1 in insulin receptor trafficking and Erk signaling bias in pancreatic beta-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Boothe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role and mechanisms of insulin receptor internalization remain incompletely understood. Previous trafficking studies of insulin receptors involved fluorescent protein tagging at their termini, manipulations that may be expected to result in dysfunctional receptors. Our objective was to determine the trafficking route and molecular mechanisms of functional tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods: We generated functional insulin receptors tagged with pH-resistant fluorescent proteins between domains. Confocal, TIRF and STED imaging revealed a trafficking pattern of inter-domain tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors detected with antibodies. Results: Surprisingly, interdomain-tagged and endogenous insulin receptors in beta-cells bypassed classical Rab5a- or Rab7-mediated endocytic routes. Instead, we found that removal of insulin receptors from the plasma membrane involved tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1, prior to trafficking within flotillin-1-positive structures to lysosomes. Multiple methods of inhibiting caveolin-1 significantly reduced Erk activation in vitro or in vivo, while leaving Akt signaling mostly intact. Conclusions: We conclude that phosphorylated caveolin-1 plays a role in insulin receptor internalization towards lysosomes through flotillin-1-positive structures and that caveolin-1 helps bias physiological beta-cell insulin signaling towards Erk activation. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Insulin receptor internalization, Insulin resistance, Pancreatic islet beta-cells, Autocrine insulin signaling

  4. A synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing F-actin formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bingyu; Luo, Qing; Mao, Xinjian; Xu, Baiyao; Yang, Li; Ju, Yang; Song, Guanbin

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common in sports and are frequent reasons for orthopedic consultations. The management of damaged tendons is one of the most challenging problems in orthopedics. Mechano-growth factor (MGF), a recently discovered growth repair factor, plays positive roles in tissue repair through the improvement of cell proliferation and migration and the protection of cells against injury-induced apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether MGF has the potential to accelerate tendon repair. We used a scratch wound assay in this study to demonstrate that MGF-C25E (a synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide) promotes the migration of rat tenocytes and that this promotion is accompanied by an elevation in the expression of the following signaling molecules: focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibitors of the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways inhibited the MGF-C25E-induced tenocyte migration, indicating that MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The analysis of the mechanical properties showed that the Young's modulus of tenocytes was decreased through treatment of MGF-C25E, and an obvious formation of pseudopodia and F-actin was observed in MGF-C25E-treated tenocytes. The inhibition of the FAK or ERK1/2 signals restored the decrease in Young's modulus and inhibited the formation of pseudopodia and F-actin. Overall, our study demonstrated that MGF-C25E promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing pseudopodia formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Mechano-growth factor E peptide (MGF-C25E) promotes migration of rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E activates the FAK-ERK1/2 pathway in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E induces the actin remodeling and the formation of pseudopodia, and decreases the stiffness in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration via altering stiffness and forming pseudopodia by the activation of the

  5. A synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing F-actin formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingyu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Mao, Xinjian [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xu, Baiyao [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yang, Li [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ju, Yang [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Tendon injuries are common in sports and are frequent reasons for orthopedic consultations. The management of damaged tendons is one of the most challenging problems in orthopedics. Mechano-growth factor (MGF), a recently discovered growth repair factor, plays positive roles in tissue repair through the improvement of cell proliferation and migration and the protection of cells against injury-induced apoptosis. However, it remains unclear whether MGF has the potential to accelerate tendon repair. We used a scratch wound assay in this study to demonstrate that MGF-C25E (a synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide) promotes the migration of rat tenocytes and that this promotion is accompanied by an elevation in the expression of the following signaling molecules: focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibitors of the FAK and ERK1/2 pathways inhibited the MGF-C25E-induced tenocyte migration, indicating that MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The analysis of the mechanical properties showed that the Young's modulus of tenocytes was decreased through treatment of MGF-C25E, and an obvious formation of pseudopodia and F-actin was observed in MGF-C25E-treated tenocytes. The inhibition of the FAK or ERK1/2 signals restored the decrease in Young's modulus and inhibited the formation of pseudopodia and F-actin. Overall, our study demonstrated that MGF-C25E promotes rat tenocyte migration by lessening cell stiffness and increasing pseudopodia formation via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Mechano-growth factor E peptide (MGF-C25E) promotes migration of rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E activates the FAK-ERK1/2 pathway in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E induces the actin remodeling and the formation of pseudopodia, and decreases the stiffness in rat tenocytes. • MGF-C25E promotes tenocyte migration via altering stiffness and forming pseudopodia by the activation of the

  6. Laminin isoforms differentially regulate adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and ERK activation of β1 integrin-null cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Yu, Hao; Genersch, Elke; Sanzen, Noriko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Faessler, Reinhard; Campbell, Kevin P.; Talts, Jan F.; Ekblom, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The presence of many laminin receptors of the β1 integrin family on most cells makes it difficult to define the biological functions of other major laminin receptors such as integrin α6β4 and dystroglycan. We therefore tested the binding of a β1 integrin-null cell line GD25 to four different laminin variants. The cells were shown to produce dystroglycan, which based on affinity chromatography bound to laminin-1, -2/4, and -10/11, but not to laminin-5. The cells also expressed the integrin α6Aβ4A variant. GD25 β1 integrin-null cells are known to bind poorly to laminin-1, but we demonstrate here that these cells bind avidly to laminin-2/4, -5, and -10/11. The initial binding at 20 min to each of these laminins could be inhibited by an integrin α6 antibody, but not by a dystroglycan antibody. Hence, integrin α6Aβ4A of GD25 cells was identified as a major receptor for initial GD25 cell adhesion to three out of four tested laminin isoforms. Remarkably, cell adhesion to laminin-5 failed to promote cell spreading, proliferation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, whereas all these responses occurred in response to adhesion to laminin-2/4 or -10/11. The data establish GD25 cells as useful tools to define the role integrin α6Aβ4A and suggest that laminin isoforms have distinctly different capacities to promote cell adhesion and signaling via integrin α6Aβ4A

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP participates in adipogenesis by activating ERK signaling pathway.

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    Tatjana Arsenijevic

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP family. Its action can be mediated by three different receptor subtypes: PAC1, which has exclusive affinity for PACAP, and VPAC1 and VPAC2 which have equal affinity for PACAP and VIP. We showed that all three receptors are expressed in 3T3-L1 cells throughout their differentiation into adipocytes. We established the activity of these receptors by cAMP accumulation upon induction by PACAP. Together with insulin and dexamethasone, PACAP induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line. PACAP increased cAMP production within 15 min upon stimulation and targeted the expression and phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, strengthened by the ERK1/2 phosphorylation being partially or completely abolished by different combinations of PACAP receptors antagonists. We therefore speculate that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for the activation of CCAAT/enhancer- binding protein β (C/EBPβ.

  8. Receptor-interacting Protein 140 Overexpression Promotes Neuro-2a Neuronal Differentiation by ERK1/2 Signaling

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    Xiao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal neuronal differentiation plays an important role in central nervous system (CNS development abnormalities such as Down syndrome (DS, a disorder that results directly from overexpression of genes in trisomic cells. Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140 is significantly upregulated in DS brains, suggesting its involvement in DS CNS development abnormalities. However, the role of RIP140 in neuronal differentiation is still not clear. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of RIP140 overexpression on the differentiation of neuro-2a (N2a neuroblastoma cells, in vitro. Methods: Stably RIP140-overexpressing N2a (N2a-RIP140 cells were used as a neurodevelopmental model, and were constructed by lipofection and overexpression validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Retinoic acid (RA was used to stimulate N2a differentiation. Combining the expression of Tuj1 at the mRNA and protein levels, the percentage of cells baring neurites, and the number of neurites per cell body was semi-quantified to determine the effect of RIP140 on differentiation of N2a cells. Furthermore, western blot and the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 were used to identify the specific signaling pathway by which RIP140 induces differentiation of N2a cells. Statistical significance of the differences between groups was determined by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Dunnett test. Results: Compared to untransfected N2a cells RIPl40 expression in N2a-RIP140 cells was remarkably upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. N2a-RIP140 cells had a significantly increased percentage of cells baring neurites, and numbers of neurites per cell, as compared to N2a cells, in the absence and presence of RA (P < 0.05. In addition, Tuj1, a neuronal biomarker, was strongly upregulated in N2a-RIP140 cells (P < 0.05 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2 levels in N2a-RIP140 cells were dramatically increased, while differentiation was

  9. Proteomic analysis reveals a role for Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 and major vault protein in resistance to apoptosis in senescent cells by regulating ERK1/2 activation.

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    Pasillas, Martina P; Shields, Sarah; Reilly, Rebecca; Strnadel, Jan; Behl, Christian; Park, Robin; Yates, John R; Klemke, Richard; Gonias, Steven L; Coppinger, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Senescence is a prominent solid tumor response to therapy in which cells avoid apoptosis and instead enter into prolonged cell cycle arrest. We applied a quantitative proteomics screen to identify signals that lead to therapy-induced senescence and discovered that Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (Bag3) is up-regulated after adriamycin treatment in MCF7 cells. Bag3 is a member of the BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with Hsp70. Bag3 also regulates major cell-signaling pathways. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Bag3 Complex revealed a novel interaction between Bag3 and Major Vault Protein (MVP). Silencing of Bag3 or MVP shifts the cellular response to adriamycin to favor apoptosis. We demonstrate that Bag3 and MVP contribute to apoptosis resistance in therapy-induced senescence by increasing the level of activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Silencing of either Bag3 or MVP decreased ERK1/2 activation and promoted apoptosis in adriamycin-treated cells. An increase in nuclear accumulation of MVP is observed during therapy-induced senescence and the shift in MVP subcellular localization is Bag3-dependent. We propose a model in which Bag3 binds to MVP and facilitates MVP accumulation in the nucleus, which sustains ERK1/2 activation. We confirmed that silencing of Bag3 or MVP shifts the response toward apoptosis and regulates ERK1/2 activation in a panel of diverse breast cancer cell lines. This study highlights Bag3-MVP as an important complex that regulates a potent prosurvival signaling pathway and contributes to chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Proteomic Analysis Reveals a Role for Bcl2-associated Athanogene 3 and Major Vault Protein in Resistance to Apoptosis in Senescent Cells by Regulating ERK1/2 Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasillas, Martina P.; Shields, Sarah; Reilly, Rebecca; Strnadel, Jan; Behl, Christian; Park, Robin; Yates, John R.; Klemke, Richard; Gonias, Steven L.; Coppinger, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Senescence is a prominent solid tumor response to therapy in which cells avoid apoptosis and instead enter into prolonged cell cycle arrest. We applied a quantitative proteomics screen to identify signals that lead to therapy-induced senescence and discovered that Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (Bag3) is up-regulated after adriamycin treatment in MCF7 cells. Bag3 is a member of the BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with Hsp70. Bag3 also regulates major cell-signaling pathways. Mass spectrometry analysis of the Bag3 Complex revealed a novel interaction between Bag3 and Major Vault Protein (MVP). Silencing of Bag3 or MVP shifts the cellular response to adriamycin to favor apoptosis. We demonstrate that Bag3 and MVP contribute to apoptosis resistance in therapy-induced senescence by increasing the level of activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). Silencing of either Bag3 or MVP decreased ERK1/2 activation and promoted apoptosis in adriamycin-treated cells. An increase in nuclear accumulation of MVP is observed during therapy-induced senescence and the shift in MVP subcellular localization is Bag3-dependent. We propose a model in which Bag3 binds to MVP and facilitates MVP accumulation in the nucleus, which sustains ERK1/2 activation. We confirmed that silencing of Bag3 or MVP shifts the response toward apoptosis and regulates ERK1/2 activation in a panel of diverse breast cancer cell lines. This study highlights Bag3-MVP as an important complex that regulates a potent prosurvival signaling pathway and contributes to chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer. PMID:24997994

  11. Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Ameliorates Hypertension-Induced Renal Vascular Remodeling in Rat Models

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    Li Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on high blood pressure and related vascular changes. Blood pressure was recorded, thicknesses of renal small artery walls were measured and ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in normotensive wistar kyoto (WKY rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and PD98059-treated SHR. Compared with normo-tensive WKY rats, SHR developed hypertension at 8 weeks of age, thickened renal small artery wall and asymmetric arrangement of VSMCs at 16 and 24 weeks of age. Phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA expression levels were increased in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries in the SHR. Treating SHR with PD98059 reduced the spontaneous hypertension-induced vascular wall thickening. This effect was associated with suppressions of erk2 mRNA expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries. It is concluded that inhibition of ERK1/2 ameliorates hypertension induced vascular remodeling in renal small arteries.

  12. Protein kinase D1 stimulates proliferation and enhances tumorigenesis of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a MEK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, Manale; Legay, Christine; Auclair, Christian; Ricort, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase D1, PKD1, is a novel serine/threonine kinase whose altered expression and dysregulation in many tumors as well as its activation by several mitogens suggest that this protein could regulate proliferation and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, the precise signaling pathways used are still unclear and the potential direct role of PKD1 in tumor development and progression has not been yet investigated. In order to clarify the role of PKD1 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, we studied the effects of PKD1 overexpression in a human adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated that overexpression of PKD1 specifically promotes MCF-7 cell proliferation through accelerating G0/G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous PKD1 significantly reduced cell proliferation. Taken together, these results clearly strengthen the regulatory role of PKD1 in cell growth. We also demonstrated that overexpression of PKD1 specifically diminished serum- and anchorage-dependence for proliferation and survival in vitro and allowed MCF-7 cells to form tumors in vivo. Thus, all these data highlight the central role of PKD1 in biological processes which are hallmarks of malignant transformation. Analysis of two major signaling pathways implicated in MCF-7 cell proliferation showed that PKD1 overexpression significantly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation state without affecting Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, PKD1 overexpression-stimulated cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth were totally impaired by inhibition of the MEK/ERK kinase cascade. However, neither of these effects was affected by blocking the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Thus, the MEK/ERK signaling appears to be a determining pathway mediating the biological effects of PKD1 in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, all these data demonstrate that PKD1 overexpression increases the aggressiveness of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through enhancing their oncogenic

  13. Vitamin E and Lycopene Reduce Coal Burning Fluorosis-induced Spermatogenic Cell Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress-mediated JNK and ERK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Xiao, Yuehai; Wang, Bolin; Sun, Chao; Tang, Kaifa; Sun, Fa

    2017-12-22

    Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis. ©2017 The Author(s).

  14. Cryptotanshinone Regulates Androgen Synthesis through the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 Pathway in Porcine Granulosa Cells

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    Danfeng Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism behind androgen reduction in porcine granulosa cells (pGCs with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract cryptotanshinone. PGCs were isolated from porcine ovaries and identified. Androgen excess model of the pGCs was induced with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The testosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture media. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17 in the cells were measured by western blot. Cryptotanshinone decreased the concentration of testosterone and the protein level of CYP17 and increased the protein levels of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos in the androgen excess mode. After the c-Fos gene was silenced by infection with c-Fos shRNA lentivirus, we measured the mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and protein level by western blot of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17. This showed that the mRNA expression and protein level of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos were significantly reduced in the shRNA–c-Fos group compared to the scrambled group, while those of CYP17 were significantly increased. So we concluded that cryptotanshinone can significantly reduce the androgen excess induced by PD98059 in pGCs. The possible molecular mechanism for this activity is regulating the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 pathway.

  15. TGF-β1 is Involved in Vitamin D-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Regulating the ERK/JNK Pathway

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    Xiaorui Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degradation of cartilage, sole cell type of which is chondrocytes. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs possess multipotency and can be directionally differentiated into chondrocytes under stimulation. This study was aimed to explore the possible roles of vitamin D and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from femurs and tibias of rats and characterized by flow cytometry. After stimulation with vitamin D, BMSC proliferation and migration were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Chondrogenic differentiation was estimated through expression levels of specific markers by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. After stable transfection, the effects of aberrantly expressed TGF-β1 on vitamin D-induced alterations, including BMSC viability, migration and chondrogenic differentiation, were all evaluated utilizing CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Finally, the phosphorylation levels of key kinases in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were determined by Western blot analysis. Results: Vitamin D remarkably promoted BMSC viability, migration and chondrogenic differentiation. These alterations of BMSCs induced by vitamin D were reinforced by TGF-β1 overexpression while were reversed by TGF-β1 silencing. Additionally, the phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK and c-Jun were enhanced by TGF-β1 overexpression but were reduced by TGF-β1 knockdown. Conclusion: Vitamin D promoted BMSC proliferation, migration and chondrogenic differentiation. TGF-β1 might be implicated in the vitamin D-induced alterations of BMSCs through regulating ERK/JNK pathway.

  16. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate interstitial flow mechanotransduction regulating MMP-13 expression and cell motility via FAK-ERK in 3D collagen.

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    Zhong-Dong Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial flow directly affects cells that reside in tissues and regulates tissue physiology and pathology by modulating important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the structures that cells utilize to sense interstitial flow in a 3-dimensional (3D environment have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that interstitial flow upregulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts via activation of an ERK1/2-c-Jun pathway, which in turn promotes cell migration in collagen. Herein, we focused on uncovering the flow-induced mechanotransduction mechanism in 3D.Cleavage of rat vascular SMC surface glycocalyx heparan sulfate (HS chains from proteoglycan (PG core proteins by heparinase or disruption of HS biosynthesis by silencing N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1 suppressed interstitial flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, interstitial collagenase (MMP-13 expression, and SMC motility in 3D collagen. Inhibition or knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK also attenuated or blocked flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility. Interstitial flow induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr925, and this activation was blocked when heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs were disrupted. These data suggest that HSPGs mediate interstitial flow-induced mechanotransduction through FAK-ERK. In addition, we show that integrins are crucial for mechanotransduction through HSPGs as they mediate cell spreading and maintain cytoskeletal rigidity.We propose a conceptual mechanotransduction model wherein cell surface glycocalyx HSPGs, in the presence of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeleton organization, sense interstitial flow and activate the FAK-ERK signaling axis, leading to upregulation of MMP expression and cell motility in 3D. This is the first study to describe a flow-induced mechanotransduction

  17. CCN2 is required for the TGF-β induced activation of Smad1-Erk1/2 signaling network.

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    Sashidhar S Nakerakanti

    Full Text Available Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 is a multifunctional matricellular protein, which is frequently overexpressed during organ fibrosis. CCN2 is a mediator of the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β in cultured cells, but the specific function of CCN2 in the fibrotic process has not been elucidated. In this study we characterized the CCN2-dependent signaling pathways that are required for the TGF-β induced fibrogenic response. By depleting endogenous CCN2 we show that CCN2 is indispensable for the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad1 and Erk1/2, but it is unnecessary for the activation of Smad3. TGF-β stimulation triggered formation of the CCN2/β(3 integrin protein complexes and activation of Src signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that signaling through the α(vβ(3 integrin receptor and Src was required for the TGF-β induced Smad1 phosphorylation. Recombinant CCN2 activated Src and Erk1/2 signaling, and induced phosphorylation of Fli1, but was unable to stimulate Smad1 or Smad3 phosphorylation. Additional experiments were performed to investigate the role of CCN2 in collagen production. Consistent with the previous studies, blockade of CCN2 abrogated TGF-β-induced collagen mRNA and protein levels. Recombinant CCN2 potently stimulated collagen mRNA levels and upregulated activity of the COL1A2 promoter, however CCN2 was a weak inducer of collagen protein levels. CCN2 stimulation of collagen was dose-dependent with the lower doses (<50 ng/ml having a stimulatory effect and higher doses having an inhibitory effect on collagen gene expression. In conclusion, our study defines a novel CCN2/α(vβ(3 integrin/Src/Smad1 axis that contributes to the pro-fibrotic TGF-β signaling and suggests that blockade of this pathway may be beneficial for the treatment of fibrosis.

  18. The Fas-associated death domain protein/caspase-8/c-FLIP signaling pathway is involved in TNF-induced activation of ERK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueschen, Silke; Falk, Markus; Scherer, Gudrun; Ussat, Sandra; Paulsen, Maren; Adam-Klages, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine TNF activates multiple signaling pathways leading to cellular responses ranging from proliferation and survival to apoptosis. While most of these pathways have been elucidated in detail over the past few years, the molecular mechanism leading to the activation of the MAP kinases ERK remains ill defined and is controversially discussed. Therefore, we have analyzed TNF-induced ERK activation in various human and murine cell lines and show that it occurs in a cell-type-specific manner. In addition, we provide evidence for the involvement of the signaling components Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), caspase-8, and c-FLIP in the pathway activating ERK in response to TNF. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (I) Overexpression of FADD, caspase-8, or a c-FLIP protein containing the death effector domains only leads to enhanced and prolonged ERK activation after TNF treatment. (II) TNF-induced ERK activation is strongly diminished in the absence of FADD. Interestingly, the enzymatic function of caspase-8 is not required for TNF-induced ERK activation. Additional evidence suggests a role for this pathway in the proliferative response of murine fibroblasts to TNF

  19. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) affects ERK-dependent GDNF signalling in mouse stem-progenitor spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Benjamin E.G.; Fields, Christopher; Joshi, Neeraj; Hofmann, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MEHP affects SSC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ► MEHP does not increase apoptosis, necrosis or the production of ROS in SSCs. ► MEHP reduces the activity of the GDNF/ERK1/2/FOS signalling pathway in SSCs. ► MEHP does not affect the GDNF/SRC/MYCN signalling pathway in SSCs. -- Abstract: Many commercial and household products such as lubricants, cosmetics, plastics, and paint contain phthalates, in particular bis-(2-ethyhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP). As a consequence, phthalates have been found in a number of locations and foods (streambeds, household dust, bottled water and dairy products). Epidemiological and animal studies analysing phthalate exposure in males provide evidence of degradation in sperm quality, associated to an increase in the incidence of genital birth defects and testicular cancers. In the testis, spermatogenesis is maintained throughout life by a small number of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that self-renew or differentiate to produce adequate numbers of spermatozoa. Disruption or alteration of SSC self-renewal induce decreased sperm count and sperm quality, or may potentially lead to testicular cancer. GDNF, or glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor, is a growth factor that is essential for the self-renewal of SSCs and continuous spermatogenesis. In the present study, the SSC-derived cell line C18-4 was used as a model for preliminary assessment of the effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP, main metabolite of DEHP) on spermatogonial stem cells. Our data demonstrate that MEHP disrupts one of the known GDNF signalling pathways in these cells. MEHP induced a decrease of C18-4 cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as well as a disruption of ERK1/2 activation but not of SRC signalling. As a result, we observed a decrease of expression of the transcription factor FOS, which is downstream of the GDNF/ERK1/2 axis in these cells. Taken together, our data suggest that MEHP exposure

  20. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

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    John Paul Christianson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed behavioral immunization. Recent data implicate neuroplasticity within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and one week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL or infralimbic (IL mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent plasticity within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance.

  1. Chlorpyrifos promotes colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth through the activation of EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyo, Tawit; Tachachartvanich, Phum; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-12-02

    Aside from the effects on neuronal cholinergic system, epidemiological studies suggest an association between chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure and cancer risk. This in vitro study examined the effects of CPF and its toxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPF-O), on the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma H508, colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29, normal colon epithelial CCD841, liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and normal liver hepatocyte THLE-3 cells. The results showed that CPF (5-100 μM) concentration-dependently increased viability of H508 and CCD841 cells in serum-free conditions. This increasing trend was not found in HT-29, HepG2 and THLE-3 cells. In contrast, CPF-O (50-100 μM) reduced the viability of all cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed the induction of cells in the S phase, and EdU incorporation assay revealed the induction of DNA synthesis in CPF-treated H508 cells indicating that CPF promotes cell cycle progression. Despite the observation of acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, atropine (a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and N-acetylcysteine (a potent antioxidant) failed to inhibit the growth-promoting effect of CPF. CPF increased the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream effector, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), in H508 cells. AG-1478 (a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and U0126 (a specific MEK inhibitor) completely mitigated the growth promoting effect of CPF. Altogether, these results suggest that EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway involves in CPF-induced colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Reporter for Faithful Monitoring of ERK2 Dynamics in Living Cells and Model Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipieter, François; Cappe, Benjamin; Gonzalez Pisfil, Mariano; Spriet, Corentin; Bodart, Jean-François; Cailliau-Maggio, Katia; Vandenabeele, Peter; Héliot, Laurent; Riquet, Franck B.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling of ERK1/2 phosphorylation from subcellular localization is essential towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms that control ERK1/2-mediated cell-fate decision. ERK1/2 non-catalytic functions and discoveries of new specific anchors responsible of the subcellular compartmentalization of ERK1/2 signaling pathway have been proposed as regulation mechanisms for which dynamic monitoring of ERK1/2 localization is necessary. However, studying the spatiotemporal features of ERK2, for instance, in different cellular processes in living cells and tissues requires a tool that can faithfully report on its subcellular distribution. We developed a novel molecular tool, ERK2-LOC, based on the T2A-mediated coexpression of strictly equimolar levels of eGFP-ERK2 and MEK1, to faithfully visualize ERK2 localization patterns. MEK1 and eGFP-ERK2 were expressed reliably and functionally both in vitro and in single living cells. We then assessed the subcellular distribution and mobility of ERK2-LOC using fluorescence microscopy in non-stimulated conditions and after activation/inhibition of the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Finally, we used our coexpression system in Xenopus laevis embryos during the early stages of development. This is the first report on MEK1/ERK2 T2A-mediated coexpression in living embryos, and we show that there is a strong correlation between the spatiotemporal subcellular distribution of ERK2-LOC and the phosphorylation patterns of ERK1/2. Our approach can be used to study the spatiotemporal localization of ERK2 and its dynamics in a variety of processes in living cells and embryonic tissues. PMID:26517832

  3. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

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    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  4. Effect of mitomycin combined with Nd-YAG laser on cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK signaling pathway in obstructive lacrimal duct model

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    Yu Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of mitomycin (MMC combined with Nd-YAG laser on cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK signaling pathway in obstructive lacrimal duct model. Methods: New Zealand rabbits were selected as experimental animals and divided into model group, laser group and MMC + laser group; obstructive lacrimal duct model was established, then laser group were given Nd-YAG laser intervention, and MMC + laser group were given Nd-YAG laser combined with mitomycin intervention. 2 months after intervention, the expression of proliferation molecules, invasion molecules and MEK-ERK signaling molecules in lacrimal duct tissue were measured. Results: TGF-β, CTGF, PCNA, Ki-67, Col-I, Col-III, MEK, ERK1/2, MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels in lacrimal duct tissue of laser group were significantly higher than those of model group while TSG-6, Cthrc1 and TIMP1 protein levels were significantly lower than those of model group; TGF-β, CTGF, PCNA, Ki- 67, Col-I, Col-III, MEK, ERK1/2, MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels in lacrimal duct tissue of MMC + laser group were significantly lower than those of laser group while TSG-6, Cthrc1 and TIMP1 protein levels were significantly higher than those of laser group. Conclusion: Mitomycin can inhibit cell proliferation and invasion as well as MEK/ERK signaling pathway activation in obstructive lacrimal duct model after Nd-YAG laser treatment.

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation by addictive drugs: a signal toward pathological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Vincent; Cahill, Emma; Bellivier, Frank; Caboche, Jocelyne; Vanhoutte, Peter

    2014-12-15

    Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations. Our laboratory contributed to the identification of salient molecular changes induced by administration of addictive drugs to rodents. We pioneered the observation that a common feature of addictive drugs is to activate, by a double tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the striatum, which control a plethora of substrates, some of them being critically involved in cocaine-mediated molecular and behavioral adaptations. Herein, we review how the interplay between dopamine and glutamate signaling controls cocaine-induced ERK1/2 activation in MSNs. We emphasize the key role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor potentiation by D1 receptor to trigger ERK1/2 activation and its subsequent nuclear translocation where it modulates both epigenetic and genetic processes engaged by cocaine. We discuss how cocaine-induced long-term synaptic and structural plasticity of MSNs, as well as behavioral adaptations, are influenced by ERK1/2-controlled targets. We conclude that a better knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying ERK1/2 activation by drugs of abuse and/or its role in long-term neuronal plasticity in the striatum may provide a new route for therapeutic treatment in addiction. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of chronic sleep deprivation on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in the temporomandibular joint of rats.

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    Chuan Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the possible involvement and regulatory mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ of rats subjected to chronic sleep deprivation (CSD. METHODS: Rats were subjected to CSD using the modified multiple platform method (MMPM. The serum levels of corticosterone (CORT and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH were tested and histomorphology and ultrastructure of the TMJ were observed. The ERK and phospho-ERK (p-ERK expression levels were detected by Western blot analysis, and the MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: The elevated serum CORT and ACTH levels confirmed that the rats were under CSD stress. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed pathological alterations in the TMJ following CSD; furthermore, the p-ERK was activated and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were upregulated after CSD. In the rats administered with the selective ERK inhibitor U0126, decreased tissue destruction was observed. Phospho-ERK activation was visibly blocked and the MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 mRNA and protein levels were lower than the corresponding levels in the CSD without U0126 group. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that CSD activates the ERK pathway and upregulates the MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 mRNA and protein levels in the TMJ of rats. Thus, CSD induces ERK pathway activation and causes pathological alterations in the TMJ. ERK may be associated with TMJ destruction by promoting the expression of MMPs.

  7. Differential roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto-Young, D; Avtanski, D; Varadinova, M; Park, A; Suwandhi, P; Leiser, A; Parikh, G; Poretsky, L

    2011-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like-growth factor-I (IGF-I) participate in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. In insulin resistant states ovaries remain sensitive to insulin because insulin can activate alternative signaling pathways, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) and mitogen-activated protein-kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as insulin receptors and type 1 IGF receptors. We investigated the roles of MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 in insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for progesterone production in human ovarian cells. Human ovarian cells were cultured in tissue culture medium in the presence of varying concentrations of insulin or IGF-I, with or without PD98059, a specific MAPK-Erk1/2 inhibitor, with or without SB203580, a specific MAPK-p38 inhibitor or with or without a specific PI-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. PD98059 alone stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner by up to 65% (pprogesterone production by 13-18% (pprogesterone production by 17-20% (pprogesterone production by 20-30% (pprogesterone production by 40-60% (pprogesterone synthesis while SB203580 abolished insulin-induced progesterone production. Either PD98059 or SB203580 abolished IGF-I-induced progesterone production. Both MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 participate in IGF-I-induced signaling pathways for progesterone production, while insulin-induced progesterone production requires MAPK-p38, but not MAPK-Erk1/2. These studies provide further evidence for divergence of insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways for human ovarian cell steroidogenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. TRPC6 channel-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK, PI3K, and CAMKIV signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Jeanine H; Schuwald, Anita M; Sillani, Giacomo; Ye, Lian; Müller, Walter E; Leuner, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    The non-selective cationic transient receptor canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are involved in synaptic plasticity changes ranging from dendritic growth, spine morphology changes and increase in excitatory synapses. We previously showed that the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the active antidepressant component of St. John's wort, induces neuritic outgrowth and spine morphology changes in PC12 cells and hippocampal CA1 neurons. However, the signaling cascade that transmits the hyperforin-induced transient rise in intracellular calcium into neuritic outgrowth is not yet fully understood. Several signaling pathways are involved in calcium transient-mediated changes in synaptic plasticity, ranging from calmodulin-mediated Ras-induced signaling cascades comprising the mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K signal transduction pathways as well as Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) and CAMKIV. We show that several mechanisms are involved in TRPC6-mediated synaptic plasticity changes in PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons. Influx of calcium via TRPC6 channels activates different pathways including Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and CAMKIV in both cell types, leading to cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation. These findings are interesting not only in terms of the downstream targets of TRPC6 channels but also because of their potential to facilitate further understanding of St. John's wort extract-mediated antidepressant activity. Alterations in synaptic plasticity are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Beside several other proteins, TRPC6 channels regulate synaptic plasticity. This study demonstrates that different pathways including Ras/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and CAMKIV are involved in the improvement of synaptic plasticity by the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the antidepressant active constituent of St. John

  9. Validation of commercial ERK antibodies against the ERK orthologue of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Courtial

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK signalling pathway controls key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination and the response to external stressors. Although ERK functions are well studied in a variety of living organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, its functions in corals are still poorly known. The present work aims to give practical tools to study the expression level of ERK protein and the activity of the ERK signalling pathway in corals. The antibody characterisation experiment was performed five times and identical results were obtained. The present study validated the immune-reactivity of commercially available antibodies directed against ERK and its phosphorylated/activated forms on protein extracts of the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata.

  10. Activation of the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway during the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Substrates Modified with Various Chemical Groups

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    Bing Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the influence of culture substrates modified with the functional groups –OH, –COOH, –NH2, and –CH3 using SAMs technology, in conjunction with TAAB control, on the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit BMSCs. The CCK-8 assay revealed that BMSCs exhibited substrate-dependent cell viability. The cells plated on –NH2- and –OH-modified substrates were well spread and homogeneous, but those on the –COOH- and –CH3-modified substrates showed more rounded phenotype. The mRNA expression of BMSCs revealed that –NH2-modified substrate promoted the mRNA expression and osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. The contribution of ERK1/2 signaling pathway to the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs cultured on the –NH2-modified substrate was investigated in vitro. The –NH2-modified substrate promoted the expression of integrins; the activation of FAK and ERK1/2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the ERK signaling pathway, blocked ERK1/2 activation in a dose-dependent manner, as revealed for expression of Cbfα-1 and ALP. Blockade of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in BMSCs by PD98059 suppressed osteogenic differentiation on chemical surfaces. These findings indicate a potential role for ERK in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on surfaces modified by specific chemical functional groups, indicating that the microenvironment affects the differentiation of BMSCs. This observation has important implications for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Loss of p53 induces cell proliferation via Ras-independent activation of the Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Sum, Eleanor Y. M.; Lechuga, Carmen G.; Simón-Carrasco, Lucía; Jacob, Harrys K. C.; García-Medina, Raquel; Huang, Sidong; Beijersbergen, Roderick L.; Bernards, Rene; Barbacid, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The Ras family of small GTPases constitutes a central node in the transmission of mitogenic stimuli to the cell cycle machinery. The ultimate receptor of these mitogenic signals is the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of pocket proteins, whose inactivation is a required step to license cell proliferation. However, little is known regarding the molecular events that connect Ras signaling with the cell cycle. Here, we provide genetic evidence to illustrate that the p53/p21 Cdk-interacting protein 1 (Cip1)/Rb axis is an essential component of the Ras signaling pathway. Indeed, knockdown of p53, p21Cip1, or Rb restores proliferative properties in cells arrested by ablation of the three Ras loci, H-, N- and K-Ras. Ras signaling selectively inactivates p53-mediated induction of p21Cip1 expression by inhibiting acetylation of specific lysine residues in the p53 DNA binding domain. Proliferation of cells lacking both Ras proteins and p53 can be prevented by reexpression of the human p53 ortholog, provided that it retains an active DNA binding domain and an intact lysine residue at position 164. These results unveil a previously unidentified role for p53 in preventing cell proliferation under unfavorable mitogenic conditions. Moreover, we provide evidence that cells lacking Ras and p53 proteins owe their proliferative properties to the unexpected retroactivation of the Raf/Mek/Erk cascade by a Ras-independent mechanism. PMID:25288756

  12. Thioredoxin-1 promotes survival in cells exposed to S-nitrosoglutathione: Correlation with reduction of intracellular levels of nitrosothiols and up-regulation of the ERK1/2 MAP Kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Roberto J.; Ogata, Fernando T.; Batista, Wagner L.; Masutani, Hiroshi; Yodoi, Junji; Debbas, Victor; Augusto, Ohara; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that post-translational protein modifications by nitric oxide and its derived species are critical effectors of redox signaling in cells. These protein modifications are most likely controlled by intracellular reductants. Among them, the importance of the 12 kDa dithiol protein thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) has been increasingly recognized. However, the effects of TRX-1 in cells exposed to exogenous nitrosothiols remain little understood. We investigated the levels of intracellular nitrosothiols and survival signaling in HeLa cells over-expressing TRX-1 and exposed to S-nitrosoglutahione (GSNO). A role for TRX-1 expression on GSNO catabolism and cell viability was demonstrated by the concentration-dependent effects of GSNO on decreasing TRX-1 expression, activation of caspase-3, and increasing cell death. The over-expression of TRX-1 in HeLa cells partially attenuated caspase-3 activation and enhanced cell viability upon GSNO treatment. This was correlated with reduction of intracellular levels of nitrosothiols and increasing levels of nitrite and nitrotyrosine. The involvement of ERK, p38 and JNK pathways were investigated in parental cells treated with GSNO. Activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases was shown to be critical for survival signaling. In cells over-expressing TRX-1, basal phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 MAP kinases were higher and further increased after GSNO treatment. These results indicate that the enhanced cell viability promoted by TRX-1 correlates with its capacity to regulate the levels of intracellular nitrosothiols and to up-regulate the survival signaling pathway mediated by the ERK1/2 MAP kinases

  13. The D Domain of LRRC4 anchors ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm and competitively inhibits MEK/ERK activation in glioma cells

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    Zeyou Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a well-characterized key player in various signal transduction networks, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 has been widely implicated in the development of many malignancies. We previously found that Leucine-rich repeat containing 4 (LRRC4 was a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of the ERK/MAPK pathway in glioma tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular role of LRRC4 in ERK signal transmission is unclear. Methods The interaction between LRRC4 and ERK1/2 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays in vivo and in vitro. We also investigated the interaction of LRRC4 and ERK1/2 and the role of the D domain in ERK activation in glioma cells. Results Here, we showed that LRRC4 and ERK1/2 interact via the D domain and CD domain, respectively. Following EGF stimuli, the D domain of LRRC4 anchors ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm and abrogates ERK1/2 activation and nuclear translocation. In glioblastoma cells, ectopic LRRC4 expression competitively inhibited the interaction of endogenous mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK and ERK1/2. Mutation of the D domain decreased the LRRC4-mediated inhibition of MAPK signaling and its anti-proliferation and anti-invasion roles. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the D domain of LRRC4 anchors ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm and competitively inhibits MEK/ERK activation in glioma cells. These findings identify a new mechanism underlying glioblastoma progression and suggest a novel therapeutic strategy by restoring the activity of LRRC4 to decrease MAPK cascade activation.

  14. Recognition of ERK MAP kinase by PEA-15 reveals a common docking site within the death domain and death effector domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Justine M.; Vaidyanathan, Hema; Ramos, Joe W.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Werner, Milton H.

    2002-01-01

    PEA-15 is a multifunctional protein that modulates signaling pathways which control cell proliferation and cell death. In particular, PEA-15 regulates the actions of the ERK MAP kinase cascade by binding to ERK and altering its subcellular localization. The three-dimensional structure of PEA-15 has been determined using NMR spectroscopy and its interaction with ERK defined by characterization of mutants that modulate ERK function. PEA-15 is composed of an N-terminal death effector domain (DED...

  15. Reduced juvenile long-term depression in tuberous sclerosis complex is mitigated in adults by compensatory recruitment of mGluR5 and Erk signaling.

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    Wyatt B Potter

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multisystem genetic disease that manifests with mental retardation, tumor formation, autism, and epilepsy. Heightened signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway is involved in TSC pathology, however it remains unclear how other signaling pathways are perturbed and contribute to disease symptoms. Reduced long-term depression (LTD was recently reported in TSC mutant mice. We find that although reduced LTD is a feature of the juvenile mutant hippocampus, heightened expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and constitutively activated Erk signaling in the adult hippocampus drives wild-type levels of LTD. Increased mGluR5 and Erk results in a novel mTOR-independent LTD in CA1 hippocampus of adult mice, and contributes to the development of epileptiform bursting activity in the TSC2(+/- CA3 region of the hippocampus. Inhibition of mGluR5 or Erk signaling restores appropriate mTOR-dependence to LTD, and significantly reduces epileptiform bursting in TSC2(+/- hippocampal slices. We also report that adult TSC2(+/- mice exhibit a subtle perseverative behavioral phenotype that is eliminated by mGluR5 antagonism. These findings highlight the potential of modulating the mGluR5-Erk pathway in a developmental stage-specific manner to treat TSC.

  16. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  17. Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis through ERK5 knockdown Impairs Complex Hippocampus-dependent Spatial Memory Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzsimons, C.P.; Vreugdenhil, E.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the identification of the extracellular MAPK ERK5 as a novel signaling molecule regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The authors use an inducible and conditional mouse line to knockout ERK5 expression, specifically in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain and provide

  18. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yong, E-mail: drbiany@126.com [Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China); Yu, Yun [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China); Wang, Shanshan; Li, Lin [Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. - Highlights: • Increased expression of FASN indicates a poor prognosis in PDAC. • Elevated FASN favors tumor growth in PDAC in vitro. • Activation of EGFR signaling contributes to elevated FASN expression.

  19. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yong; Yu, Yun; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. - Highlights: • Increased expression of FASN indicates a poor prognosis in PDAC. • Elevated FASN favors tumor growth in PDAC in vitro. • Activation of EGFR signaling contributes to elevated FASN expression

  20. Sulforaphane inhibits invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in human glioblastoma U87MG and U373MG cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunliu Li

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma has highly invasive potential, which might result in poor prognosis and therapeutic failure. Hence, the key we study is to find effective therapies to repress migration and invasion. Sulforaphane (SFN was demonstrated to inhibit cell growth in a variety of tumors. Here, we will further investigate whether SFN inhibits migration and invasion and find the possible mechanisms in human glioblastoma U87MG and U373MG cells.First, the optimal time and dose of SFN for migration and invasion study were determined via cell viability and cell morphological assay. Further, scratch assay and transwell invasion assay were employed to investigate the effect of SFN on migration and invasion. Meanwhile, Western blots were used to detect the molecular linkage among invasion related proteins phosphorylated ERK1/2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and CD44v6. Furthermore, Gelatin zymography was performed to detect the inhibition of MMP-2 activation. In addition, ERK1/2 blocker PD98059 (25 µM was integrated to find the link between activated ERK1/2 and invasion, MMP-2 and CD44v6.The results showed that SFN (20 µM remarkably reduced the formation of cell pseudopodia, indicating that SFN might inhibit cell motility. As expected, scratch assay and transwell invasion assay showed that SFN inhibited glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. Western blot and Gelatin zymography showed that SFN phosphorylated ERK1/2 in a sustained way, which contributed to the downregulated MMP-2 expression and activity, and the upregulated CD44v6 expression. These molecular interactions resulted in the inhibition of cell invasion.SFN inhibited migration and invasion processes. Furthermore, SFN inhibited invasion via activating ERK1/2 in a sustained way. The accumulated ERK1/2 activation downregulated MMP-2 expression and decreased its activity and upregulated CD44v6. SFN might be a potential therapeutic agent by activating ERK1/2 signaling against human glioblastoma.

  1. Vanillin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammation-Mediated Cell Death by Inhibiting ERK1/2, P38 and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuan; Liu, Dian-Feng; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Dong; Xu, Shi-Yao; Chen, Guang-Xin; Huang, Bing-Xu; Ren, Wen-Zhi; Wang, Wei; Fu, Shou-Peng; Liu, Ju-Xiong

    2017-02-12

    Neuroinflammation plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). After activation, microglia produce pro-inflammatory mediators that damage surrounding neurons. Consequently, the inhibition of microglial activation might represent a new therapeutic approach of PD. Vanillin has been shown to protect dopaminergic neurons, but the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we further study the underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD models. In vivo, we firstly established rat models of PD by unilateral injection of LPS into substantia nigra (SN), and then examined the role of vanillin in motor dysfunction, microglial activation and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In vitro, murine microglial BV-2 cells were treated with vanillin prior to the incubation of LPS, and then the inflammatory responses and the related signaling pathways were analyzed. The in vivo results showed that vanillin markedly improved the motor dysfunction, suppressed degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited microglial over-activation induced by LPS intranigral injection. The in vitro studies demonstrated that vanillin reduces LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, and IL-6 through regulating ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB signaling. Collectively, these data indicated that vanillin has a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons via inhibiting inflammatory activation.

  2. Vanillin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammation-Mediated Cell Death by Inhibiting ERK1/2, P38 and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. After activation, microglia produce pro-inflammatory mediators that damage surrounding neurons. Consequently, the inhibition of microglial activation might represent a new therapeutic approach of PD. Vanillin has been shown to protect dopaminergic neurons, but the mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we further study the underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced PD models. In vivo, we firstly established rat models of PD by unilateral injection of LPS into substantia nigra (SN, and then examined the role of vanillin in motor dysfunction, microglial activation and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In vitro, murine microglial BV-2 cells were treated with vanillin prior to the incubation of LPS, and then the inflammatory responses and the related signaling pathways were analyzed. The in vivo results showed that vanillin markedly improved the motor dysfunction, suppressed degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited microglial over-activation induced by LPS intranigral injection. The in vitro studies demonstrated that vanillin reduces LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 through regulating ERK1/2, p38 and NF-κB signaling. Collectively, these data indicated that vanillin has a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons via inhibiting inflammatory activation.

  3. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by activating MEK/ERK/MMP-2 signaling pathways via S1P/S1PR1 axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinghua; Pan, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.

  4. Hyperglycemia regulates TXNIP/TRX/ROS axis via p38 MAPK and ERK pathways in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Zheng; Ma, Qingyong; Liu, Jiangbo; Xu, Qinhong; Han, Liang; Duan, Wanxing; Lv, Yunfu; Wang, Fengfei; Reindl, Katie M; Wu, Erxi

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 85% of pancreatic cancer patients suffer from glucose intolerance or even diabetes because high glucose levels can contribute to oxidative stress which promotes tumor development. As one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-regulating factors, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), is involved in the maintenance of thioredoxin (TRX)-mediated redox regulation. In this study, we demonstrated that high glucose levels increased the expression of TXNIP in time- and concentration-dependent manners and modulated the activity of TRX and ROS production in pancreatic cancer cells, BxPC-3 and Panc-1. We also found that glucose activated both p38 MAPK and ERK pathways and inhibitors of these pathways impaired the TXNIP/TRX/ROS axis. Knockdown of TXNIP restored TRX activity and decreased ROS production under high glucose conditions. Moreover, we observed that the integrated optical density (IOD) of TXNIP staining as well as the protein and mRNA expression levels of TXNIP were higher in the tumor tissues of pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes. Taken together, these results indicate that hyperglycemia-induced TXNIP expression is involved in diabetes-mediated oxidative stress in pancreatic cancer via p38 MAPK and ERK pathways.

  5. Icariin stimulates angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Chun-Ki; Kim, Jung Huan; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the molecular effect and signal pathway of icariin, a major flavonoid of Epimedium koreanum Nakai, on angiogenesis. Icariin stimulated in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, which are typical phenomena of angiogenesis, as well as increased in vivo angiogenesis. Icariin activated the angiogenic signal modulators, ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and increased NO production, without affecting VEGF expression, indicating that icariin may directly stimulate angiogenesis. Icariin-induced ERK activation and angiogenic events were significantly inhibited by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, without affecting Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. The PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin suppressed icariin-mediated angiogenesis and Akt and eNOS activation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Moreover, the NOS inhibitor NMA partially reduced the angiogenic activity of icariin. These results suggest that icariin stimulated angiogenesis by activating the MEK/ERK- and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signal pathways and may be a useful drug for angiogenic therapy

  6. Localization of active, dually phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in colorectal cancer with or without activating BRAF and KRAS mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Bonde, Jesper; Pedersen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) often show activating mutations of the KRAS or BRAF genes, which stimulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, thus increasing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. However, immunohistochemical results on ERK activation in such tumors differ...... detectable increases in phosphorylation of ERK (pERK), we stained biopsies from 36 CRC patients with activating mutations in the BRAF gene (BRAFV600E: BRAF(m)), the KRAS gene (KRAS(m)) or in neither (BRAF/KRAS(n)) with this optimized method. Staining was scored in blind-coded specimens by two observers....... Staining of stromal cells was used as a positive control. BRAF(m) or KRAS(m) tumors did not show higher staining scores than BRAF/KRAS(n) tumors. Although BRAFV600E staining occurred in over 90% of cancer cells in all 9 BRAF(m) tumors, 3 only showed staining for pERK in less than 10% of cancer cell nuclei...

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 contributes to inflammatory tongue pain via extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ming-Gang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the orofacial region, limited information is available concerning pathological tongue pain, such as inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain occurring in the tongue. Here, we tried for the first time to establish a novel animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rats and to investigate the roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in this process. Methods Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA was submucosally injected into the tongue to induce the inflammatory pain phenotype that was confirmed by behavioral testing. Expression of phosphorylated ERK (pERK and mGluR5 in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2 were detected with immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. pERK inhibitor, a selective mGluR5 antagonist or agonist was continuously administered for 7 days via an intrathecal (i.t. route. Local inflammatory responses were verified by tongue histology. Results Submucosal injection of CFA into the tongue produced a long-lasting mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia at the inflamed site, concomitant with an increase in the pERK immunoreactivity in the Vc and C1-C2. The distribution of pERK-IR cells was laminar specific, ipsilaterally dominant, somatotopically relevant, and rostrocaudally restricted. Western blot analysis also showed an enhanced activation of ERK in the Vc and C1-C2 following CFA injection. Continuous i.t. administration of the pERK inhibitor and a selective mGluR5 antagonist significantly depressed the mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in the CFA-injected tongue. In addition, the number of pERK-IR cells in ipsilateral Vc and C1-C2 was also decreased by both drugs. Moreover, continuous i.t. administration of a selective mGluR5 agonist induced mechanical allodynia in naive rats. Conclusions The present study constructed a new animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rodents, and

  8. Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment Upregulates the Activity of the ERK1/2-NF-κB Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex of Rats Exposed to Forced-Swimming Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jingqiu; Yang, Kun; Yu, Xue; Wang, Jing-Lan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether or not the antidepressant actions of fluoxetine (FLX) are correlated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats. A total of 108 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 18 rats each. Group 1 was the control group, while group 2 comprised the depressed model in which rats were subjected to 28 days of forced-swimming stress (FST); groups 3-6 were also subjected to 28 days of FST and treated with FLX once a day for 1 day (group 3; F1d), 1 week (group 4; F1w), 2 weeks (group 5; F2w), or 4 weeks (group 6; F4w). The control group was not subjected to FST or treated with FLX. Behavior tests that included the Morris water maze (MWM) and saccharin preference were performed, and ERK1/2 and NF-κB proteins were assayed using Western blot. The rats in the control group and in groups 5 and 6 (F2w and F4w, respectively) had a significantly shorter average escape latency, needed more attempts in order to successfully cross the platform, and had a greater saccharin preference than those in the depressed group (p < 0.05). In the depressed group, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression in the HC and PFC were lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment with FLX reversed the changes in the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-NF-κB in rats in the F2w and F4w groups. In this study, FLX treatment for 2 weeks or longer reversed the impaired spatial learning, memory, and anhedonia observed in the depressed model rats and upregulated the activities of the ERK1/2-NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. In brown adipocytes, adrenergically induced β{sub 1}-/β{sub 3}-(G{sub s})-, α{sub 2}-(G{sub i})- and α{sub 1}-(G{sub q})-signalling to Erk1/2 activation is not mediated via EGF receptor transactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanling; Fälting, Johanna M.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.; Holmström, Therése E.; Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se

    2013-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue is unusual in that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine influences cell destiny in ways generally associated with effects of classical growth factors: regulation of cell proliferation, of apoptosis, and progression of differentiation. The norepinephrine effects are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors; further mediation of such stimulation to e.g. Erk1/2 activation is in cell biology in general accepted to occur through transactivation of the EGF receptor (by external or internal pathways). We have examined here the significance of such transactivation in brown adipocytes. Stimulation of mature brown adipocytes with cirazoline (α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor coupled via G{sub q}), clonidine (α{sub 2} via G{sub i}) or CL316243 (β{sub 3} via G{sub s}) or via β{sub 1}-receptors significantly activated Erk1/2. Pretreatment with the EGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG1478 had, remarkably, no significant effect on Erk1/2 activation induced by any of these adrenergic agonists (although it fully abolished EGF-induced Erk1/2 activation), demonstrating absence of EGF receptor-mediated transactivation. Results with brown preadipocytes (cells in more proliferative states) were not qualitatively different. Joint stimulation of all adrenoceptors with norepinephrine did not result in synergism on Erk1/2 activation. AG1478 action on EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed a sharp concentration–response relationship (IC{sub 50} 0.3 µM); a minor apparent effect of AG1478 on norepinephrine-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed nonspecific kinetics, implying caution in interpretation of partial effects of AG1478 as reported in other systems. Transactivation of the EGF receptor is clearly not a universal prerequisite for coupling of G-protein coupled receptors to Erk1/2 signalling cascades. - Highlights: • In brown adipocytes, norepinephrine regulates proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation. • EGF receptor transactivation is supposed to mediate GPCR

  10. Induction of keratinocyte migration by ECa 233 is mediated through FAK/Akt, ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkhorn, Sawana; Tantisira, Mayuree H; Tanasawet, Supita; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn; Sukketsiri, Wanida

    2018-03-13

    Centella asiatica is widely considered the most important medicinal plant for treating and relieving skin diseases. Recently developed standardized extract of Centella asiatica ECa 233 has demonstrated positive effects on wound healing of incision and burn wound in rats. However, knowledge associated with wound healing mechanism of ECa 233 was scare. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of ECa 233 on the migration of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) using scratch wound healing assay. Formation of filopodia, a key protein in cell migration as well as signaling pathways possibly involved were subsequently assessed. It was found that HaCaT cell migration was significantly enhanced by ECa 233 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The filopodia formations were accordingly increased in exposure to ECa 233 at concentrations of 0.1-100 μg/ml. Furthermore, ECa 233 was found to significantly upregulate the expression of Rac1 and RhoA and to induce phosphorylation of FAK and Akt as well as ERK and p38 MAPK. Taken all together, it is suggestive that ECa 233 induces cell migration and subsequently promotes wound healing activity, through the activation of FAK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways thereby supporting the role of ECa 233 to be further developed for the clinical treatment of wound. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Phosphorylation of paxillin via the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H; Meier, K E

    2000-04-14

    Intracellular signals can regulate cell adhesion via several mechanisms in a process referred to as "inside-out" signaling. In phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 thymoma cells, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases and promotes cell adhesion. In this study, clonal EL4 cell lines with varying abilities to activate ERKs in response to PMA were used to examine signaling events occurring downstream of ERK activation. Paxillin, a multifunctional docking protein involved in cell adhesion, was phosphorylated on serine/threonine residues in response to PMA treatment. This response was correlated with the extent and time course of ERK activation. PMA-induced phosphorylation of paxillin was inhibited by compounds that block the ERK activation pathway in EL4 cells, primary murine thymocytes, and primary murine splenocytes. Paxillin was phosphorylated in vitro by purified active ERK2. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that PMA treatment generated a complex pattern of phosphorylated paxillin species in intact cells, some of which were generated by ERK-mediated phosphorylation in vitro. An ERK pathway inhibitor interfered with PMA-induced adhesion of sensitive EL4 cells to substrate. These findings describe a novel inside-out signaling pathway by which the ERK cascade may regulate events involved in adhesion.

  12. Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs are released. Nitric oxide (NO and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of S. mansoni ESPs on NO production in defence cells (haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and schistosome-resistant B. glabrata strains. As S. mansoni ESPs have previously been shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (activation in haemocytes from susceptible, but not resistant, B. glabrata the regulation of NO output by ERK in these cells was also investigated. Results Haemocytes from resistant snails challenged with S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml over 5 h displayed an increase in NO production that was 3.3 times greater than that observed for unchallenged haemocytes; lower concentrations of ESPs (0.1–10 μg/ml did not significantly increase NO output. In contrast, haemocytes from susceptible snails showed no significant change in NO output following challenge with ESPs at any concentration used (0.1–20 μg/ml. Western blotting revealed that U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM blocked the phosphorylation (activation status of ERK in haemocytes from both snail strains. Inhibition of ERK signalling by U0126 attenuated considerably intracellular NO production in haemocytes from both susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains, identifying ERK as a key regulator of NO output in these cells. Conclusion S. mansoni ESPs differentially influence intracellular NO levels in susceptible and resistant B. glabrata haemocytes, possibly through modulation of the ERK signalling pathway. Such effects might facilitate survival of S. mansoni in its intermediate host.

  13. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

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    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  14. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  15. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Gongming [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Shen, Nan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Nong, Luming, E-mail: lumingnong@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Ren, Kewei, E-mail: keweiren@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  16. Phosphorylation of Rac1 T108 by Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor: a Novel Mechanism To Regulate Rac1 Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has implicated Rho GTPases, including Rac1, in many aspects of cancer development. Recent findings suggest that phosphorylation might further contribute to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Interestingly, sequence analysis of Rac1 shows that Rac1 T108 within the 106PNTP109 motif is likely an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation site and that Rac1 also has an ERK docking site, 183KKRKRKCLLL192 (D site), at the C terminus. Indeed, we show here that both transfected and endogenous Rac1 interacts with ERK and that this interaction is mediated by its D site. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Rac1 is threonine (T) phosphorylated in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF-induced Rac1 threonine phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of ERK. Moreover, mutant Rac1 with the mutation of T108 to alanine (A) is not threonine phosphorylated in response to EGF. In vitro ERK kinase assay further shows that pure active ERK phosphorylates purified Rac1 but not mutant Rac1 T108A. We also show that Rac1 T108 phosphorylation decreases Rac1 activity, partially due to inhibiting its interaction with phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). T108 phosphorylation targets Rac1 to the nucleus, which isolates Rac1 from other guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and hinders Rac1's role in cell migration. We conclude that Rac1 T108 is phosphorylated by ERK in response to EGF, which plays an important role in regulating Rac1. PMID:24043306

  17. IL-1β Upregulates StAR and Progesterone Production Through the ERK1/2- and p38-Mediated CREB Signaling Pathways in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xuan; Zhu, Qinling; He, Yaqiong; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Xiaoxue; Qi, Jia; Wu, Hasiximuke; Sun, Yun

    2017-10-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may be involved in several ovulation-associated events, such as protease synthesis, prostaglandin production, and steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. However, the exact effect of IL-1β on progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. By using cultured granulosa-lutein cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, we found that IL-1β upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone synthesis in granulosa-lutein cells, which was comparable with luteinizing hormone effect and could be abolished by an IL-1 receptor antagonist. Moreover, IL-1β activated the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), and knockdown of CREB attenuated the induction of StAR expression and progesterone synthesis by IL-1β in granulosa-lutein cells. Furthermore, IL-1β activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 pathways and inhibition of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways attenuated the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of CREB, StAR expression, and progesterone synthesis in granulosa-lutein cells. In conclusion, IL-1β could upregulate StAR expression and stimulate progesterone biosynthesis through increase in CREB phosphorylation via activating the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  18. Endothelin B Receptors on Primary Chicken Müller Cells and the Human MIO-M1 Müller Cell Line Activate ERK Signaling via Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors.

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    Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid

    Full Text Available Injury to the eye or retina triggers Müller cells, the major glia cell of the retina, to dedifferentiate and proliferate. In some species they attain retinal progenitor properties and have the capacity to generate new neurons. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR system and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling are key regulators of these processes in Müller cells. The extracellular signals that modulate and control these processes are not fully understood. In this work we studied whether endothelin receptor signaling can activate EGFR and ERK signaling in Müller cells. Endothelin expression is robustly upregulated at retinal injury and endothelin receptors have been shown to transactivate EGFRs in other cell types. We analyzed the endothelin signaling system in chicken retina and cultured primary chicken Müller cells as well as the human Müller cell line MIO-M1. The Müller cells were stimulated with receptor agonists and treated with specific blockers to key enzymes in the signaling pathway or with siRNAs. We focused on endothelin receptor mediated transactivation of EGFRs by using western blot analysis, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and immunocytochemistry. The results showed that chicken Müller cells and the human Müller cell line MIO-M1 express endothelin receptor B. Stimulation by the endothelin receptor B agonist IRL1620 triggered phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and autophosphorylation of (Y1173 EGFR. The effects could be blocked by Src-kinase inhibitors (PP1, PP2, EGFR-inhibitor (AG1478, EGFR-siRNA and by inhibitors to extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (GM6001, consistent with a Src-kinase mediated endothelin receptor response that engage ligand-dependent and ligand-independent EGFR activation. Our data suggest a mechanism for how injury-induced endothelins, produced in the retina, may modulate the Müller cell responses by Src-mediated transactivation of EGFRs. The data give support to a view in

  19. Gravity loading induces adenosine triphosphate release and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mai; Arakawa, Toshiya; Okayama, Miki; Shitara, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Takuma, Taishin

    2014-11-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) receives mechanical stress (MS) from dental occlusion or orthodontic tooth movement. Mechanical stress is thought to be a trigger for remodeling of the PDL and alveolar bone, although its signaling mechanism is still unclear. So we investigated the effect of MS on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in PDL cells. Mechanical stress was applied to human PDL cells as centrifugation-mediated gravity loading. Apyrase, Ca(2+)-free medium and purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists were utilized to analyze the contribution of purinergic receptors to ERK phosphorylation. Gravity loading and ATP increased ERK phosphorylation by 5 and 2.5 times, respectively. Gravity loading induced ATP release from PDL cells by tenfold. Apyrase and suramin diminished ERK phosphorylation induced by both gravity loading and ATP. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions the phosphorylation by gravity loading was partially decreased, whereas ATP-induced phosphorylation was unaffected. Receptors P2Y4 and P2Y6 were prominently expressed in the PDL cells. Gravity loading induced ATP release and ERK phosphorylation in PDL fibroblasts, and ATP signaling via P2Y receptors was partially involved in this phosphorylation, which in turn would enhance gene expression for the remodeling of PDL tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Primary Cilium-Regulated EG-VEGF Signaling Facilitates Trophoblast Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Syu, Jhih-Siang; Chen, Ting-Yu; Su, Mei-Tsz

    2017-06-01

    Trophoblast invasion is an important event in embryo implantation and placental development. During these processes, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is the key regulator mediating the crosstalk at the feto-maternal interface. The primary cilium is a cellular antenna receiving environmental signals and is crucial for proper development. However, little is known regarding the role of the primary cilium in early human pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate that EG-VEGF regulates trophoblast cell invasion via primary cilia. We found that EG-VEGF activated ERK1/2 signaling and subsequent upregulation of MMP2 and MMP9, thereby facilitating cell invasion in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 alleviated the expression of MMPs and trophoblast cell invasion after EG-VEGF treatment. In addition, primary cilia were observed in all the trophoblast cell lines tested and, more importantly, in human first-trimester placental tissue. The receptor of EG-VEGF, PROKR1, was detected in primary cilia. Depletion of IFT88, the intraflagellar transporter required for ciliogenesis, inhibited primary cilium growth, thereby ameliorating ERK1/2 activation, MMP upregulation, and trophoblast cell invasion promoted by EG-VEGF. These findings demonstrate a novel function of primary cilia in controlling EG-VEGF-regulated trophoblast invasion and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1467-1477, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An anti-cancer WxxxE-containing azurin polypeptide inhibits Rac1-dependent STAT3 and ERK/GSK-3β signaling in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Luo, Zhiyong; Min, Wenpu; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Yaqun; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-27

    In our previous study, we characterized a mycoplasmal small GTPase-like polypeptide of 240 amino acids that possesses an N-terminal WVLGE sequence. The N-terminal WVLGE sequence promotes activation of Rac1 and subsequent host cancer cell proliferation. To investigate the function of the WxxxE motif in the interaction with Rac1 and host tumor progression, we synthesized a 35-amino acid WVLGE-containing polypeptide derived from a cell-penetrating peptide derived from the azurin protein. We verified that the WVLGE-containing polypeptide targeted MCF-7 cells rather than MCF-10A cells. However, the WVLGE-containing polypeptide inhibited activation of Rac1 and induced cellular phenotypes that resulted from inhibition of Rac1. In addition, the WVLGE-containing polypeptide down-regulated phosphorylation of the STAT3 and ERK/GSK-3β signaling pathways, and this effect was abolished by either stimulation or inhibition of Rac1 activity. We also found that the WVLGE-containing polypeptide has a Rac1-dependent potential to suppress breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that by acting as a Rac1 inhibitor, this novel polypeptide may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer.

  2. Osteopontin Promotes Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell HEC-1A Through AKT and ERK1/2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghua; Xie, Yunpeng; Cui, Dan; Ma, Yanni; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, Chenyang; Kong, Hui; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM) molecule and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. OPN is a well-known multifunctional factor involved in various aspects of cancer progression, including endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the significance of OPN in endometrial cancer. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of HEC-1A cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Wound scratch assay and transwell. Western blots were employed to detect the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in HEC-1A cells treated with rhOPN. rhOPN promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN influenced EMT-related factors and MMP-2 expression in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN promoted HEC-1A cells migration, invasion and EMT through protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. These results may open up a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer: namely, rhOPN have important roles in controlling growth of endometrial of cancer cells and suggest a novel target pathway for treatment of this cancer. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Osteopontin Promotes Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell HEC-1A Through AKT and ERK1/2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteopontin (OPN is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM molecule and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. OPN is a well-known multifunctional factor involved in various aspects of cancer progression, including endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the significance of OPN in endometrial cancer. Methods: The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of HEC-1A cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, Wound scratch assay and transwell. Western blots were employed to detect the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related factors in HEC-1A cells treated with rhOPN. Results: rhOPN promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN influenced EMT-related factors and MMP-2 expression in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN promoted HEC-1A cells migration, invasion and EMT through protein kinase B (PKB/AKT and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Conclusions: These results may open up a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer: namely, rhOPN have important roles in controlling growth of endometrial of cancer cells and suggest a novel target pathway for treatment of this cancer.

  4. MVP interacts with YPEL4 and inhibits YPEL4-mediated activities of the ERK signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Wan, Yongqi; Yan, Yan; Wang, Yuequn; Luo, Na; Deng, Yun; Fan, Xiongwei; Zhou, Junmei; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Zequn; Yuan, Wuzhou; Tang, Ming; Mo, Xiaoyang; Wu, Xiushan

    2010-06-01

    Human YPEL4 is a member of YPEL family. It contains a Yippee domain, which is a putative zinc-finger-like, metal-binding domain. The human YPEL4 gene maps to chromosome 11q12.1, is ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, and encodes a nuclear protein of 127 amino acids, the function of which remains unknown. To gain insights into the cellular function of this protein, we searched for YPEL4-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid screen. The major vault protein (MVP), a lung resistance associated protein, was identified as a binding partner of YPEL4. The interaction between YPEL4 and MVP in mammalian cells was further demonstrated by a series of biochemical assays including the mammalian two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay, and immunocytochemistry. Using a reporter system, we found that MVP can inhibit YPEL4's ability to activate Elk-1 in the MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides new clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of YPEL4 in cell division and signal transduction pathways and should be helpful for understanding molecular functions of the YPEL family.

  5. Activation of PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signal pathways is required for the induction of lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is causally linked to several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL and a subset of multicentric Castleman's disease. Regulation of viral lytic replication is critical to the initiation and progression of KS. Recently, we reported that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was an important cofactor that activated lytic cycle replication of KSHV. Here, we further investigated the possible signal pathways involved in HSV-1-induced reactivation of KSHV. Results By transfecting a series of dominant negative mutants and protein expressing constructs and using pharmacologic inhibitors, we found that either Janus kinase 1 (JAK1/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 or JAK1/STAT6 signaling failed to regulate HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. However, HSV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB, also called AKT pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β. PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway was found to be involved in HSV-1-induced KSHV reactivation. Additionally, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway also partially contributed to HSV-1-induced KSHV replication. Conclusions HSV-1 infection stimulated PI3K/AKT and ERK MAPK signaling pathways that in turn contributed to KSHV reactivation, which provided further insights into the molecular mechanism controlling KSHV lytic replication, particularly in the context of HSV-1 and KSHV co-infection.

  6. Regulation of Schistosoma mansoni development and reproduction by the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiza Freire de; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Geraldo, Juliana Assis; Coelho, Fernanda Sales; Silva, Larissa Lopes; Neves, Renata Heisler; Volpini, Angela; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Araujo, Neusa; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Caffrey, Conor R; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2014-06-01

    Protein kinases are proven targets for drug development with an increasing number of eukaryotic Protein Kinase (ePK) inhibitors now approved as drugs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members connect cell-surface receptors to regulatory targets within cells and influence a number of tissue-specific biological activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. However, the contributions of members of the MAPK pathway to schistosome development and survival are unclear. We employed RNA interference (RNAi) to elucidate the functional roles of five S. mansoni genes (SmCaMK2, SmJNK, SmERK1, SmERK2 and SmRas) involved in MAPK signaling pathway. Mice were injected with post-infective larvae (schistosomula) subsequent to RNAi and the development of adult worms observed. The data demonstrate that SmJNK participates in parasite maturation and survival of the parasites, whereas SmERK are involved in egg production as infected mice had significantly lower egg burdens with female worms presenting underdeveloped ovaries. Furthermore, it was shown that the c-fos transcription factor was overexpressed in parasites submitted to RNAi of SmERK1, SmJNK and SmCaMK2 indicating its putative involvement in gene regulation in this parasite's MAPK signaling cascade. We conclude that MAPKs proteins play important roles in the parasite in vivo survival, being essential for normal development and successful survival and reproduction of the schistosome parasite. Moreover SmERK and SmJNK are potential targets for drug development.

  7. Loss of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium Leads to RPE65 Decrease and Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Aswin; Balmer, Delphine; Saba-El-Leil, Marc K; Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M; Voisin, Laure; Le, Yun Z; von Lintig, Johannes; Meloche, Sylvain; Roduit, Raphaël

    2017-12-15

    Recent work suggested that the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is increased in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) patients and therefore could be an attractive therapeutic target. Notably, ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors are used in cancer therapy, with severe and noncharacterized ocular side effects. To decipher the role of ERK1/2 in RPE cells, we conditionally disrupted the Erk1 and Erk2 genes in mouse RPE. The loss of ERK1/2 activity resulted in a significant decrease in the level of RPE65 expression, a decrease in ocular retinoid levels concomitant with low visual function, and a rapid disorganization of RPE cells, ultimately leading to retinal degeneration. Our results identify the ERK1/2 pathway as a direct regulator of the visual cycle and a critical component of the viability of RPE and photoreceptor cells. Moreover, our results caution about the need for a very fine adjustment of kinase inhibition in cancer or ARMD treatment in order to avoid ocular side effects. Copyright © 2017 Pyakurel et al.

  8. Signal-regulated systems and networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the use of signal regulatory networks (SRNs), a biologically inspired model based on gene regulatory networks. SRNs are a way of understanding a class of self-organizing IT systems, signal-regulated systems (SRSs). This article...

  9. Coordinated Regulation of Insulin Signaling by the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases PTP1B and TCPTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Sandra; Hauser, Christine; Kahn, Barbara B.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Tiganis, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies have shown that the closely related tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP might also contribute to the regulation of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in vivo (S. Galic, M. Klingler-Hoffmann, M. T. Fodero-Tavoletti, M. A. Puryer, T. C. Meng, N. K. Tonks, and T. Tiganis, Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:2096-2108, 2003). Here we show that PTP1B and TCPTP function in a coordinated and temporally distinct manner to achieve an overall regulation of IR phosphorylation and signaling. Whereas insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling was prolonged in both TCPTP−/− and PTP1B−/− immortalized mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 signaling was elevated only in PTP1B-null MEFs. By using phosphorylation-specific antibodies, we demonstrate that both IR β-subunit Y1162/Y1163 and Y972 phosphorylation are elevated in PTP1B−/− MEFs, whereas Y972 phosphorylation was elevated and Y1162/Y1163 phosphorylation was sustained in TCPTP−/− MEFs, indicating that PTP1B and TCPTP differentially contribute to the regulation of IR phosphorylation and signaling. Consistent with this, suppression of TCPTP protein levels by RNA interference in PTP1B−/− MEFs resulted in no change in ERK1/2 signaling but caused prolonged Akt activation and Y1162/Y1163 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that PTP1B and TCPTP are not redundant in insulin signaling and that they act to control both common as well as distinct insulin signaling pathways in the same cell. PMID:15632081

  10. Lipopolysaccharide can modify differentiation and immunomodulatory potential of periodontal ligament stem cells via ERK1,2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolj, Tamara; Trivanović, Drenka; Djordjević, Ivana Okić; Mojsilović, Slavko; Krstić, Jelena; Obradović, Hristina; Janković, Srdja; Santibanez, Juan Francisco; Jauković, Aleksandra; Bugarski, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a pertinent deleterious factor in oral microenvironment for cells which are carriers of regenerative processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the emerging in vitro effects of LPS (Escherichia coli) on human periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) functions and associated signaling pathways. We demonstrated that LPS did not affect immunophenotype, proliferation, viability, and cell cycle of PDLSCs. However, LPS modified lineage commitment of PDLSCs inhibiting osteogenesis by downregulating Runx2, ALP, and Ocn mRNA expression, while stimulating chondrogenesis and adipogenesis by upregulating Sox9 and PPARγ mRNA expression. LPS promoted myofibroblast-like phenotype of PDLSCs, since it significantly enhanced PDLSC contractility, as well as protein and/or gene expression of TGF-β, fibronectin (FN), α-SMA, and NG2. LPS also increased protein and gene expression levels of anti-inflammatory COX-2 and pro-inflammatory IL-6 molecules in PDLSCs. Inhibition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) transendothelial migration in presence of LPS-treated PDLSCs was accompanied by the reduction of CD29 expression within MNCs. However, LPS treatment did not change the inhibitory effect of PDLSCs on mitogen-stimulated proliferation of CD4 + and the ratio of CD4 + CD25 high /CD4 + CD25 low lymphocytes. LPS-treated PDLSCs did not change the frequency of CD34 + and CD45 + cells, but decreased the frequency of CD33 + and CD14 + myeloid cells within MNCs. Moreover, LPS treatment attenuated the stimulatory effect of PDLSCs on CFC activity of MNCs, predominantly the CFU-GM number. The results indicated that LPS-activated ERK1,2 was at least partly involved in the observed effects on PDLSC differentiation capacity, acquisition of myofibroblastic attributes, and changes of their immunomodulatory features. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modularized Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Minli; Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-12-01

    The transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. TGFβ signaling can be induced by several factors including ionizing radiation. The pathway is regulated in a negative feedback loop through promoting the nuclear import of the regulatory Smads and a subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad7, that forms ubiquitin ligase with Smurf2, targeting active TGFβ receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze mathematically each component subsystem and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, in the TGFβ signaling pathway is discussed and supported as well by numerical simulation, indicating the robustness of the model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by zinc sulphate under electromagnetic field via the PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Fathi

    Full Text Available Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF. The expression of cAMP and PKA was evaluated by ELISA. The expression of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 and reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1 genes were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, resulted in an increase in the expression of osteogenic genes, ALP activity and calcium levels. EMF, in the presence of ZnSO4, increased the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA activity. Treatment of ADSCs with (MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor, or PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the promotion of osteogenic markers, indicating that the induction of osteogenesis was dependent on the ERK and PKA signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, increased the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, LRP5 and DKK1. In this study, it was shown that 0.432 μg/ml ZnSO4, in the presence of 50 Hz, 20 mT EMF, induced the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs via PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

  13. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  14. TGF-β-stimulated aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Jee; Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah; Cho, Jin Won; Lee, Joon H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► TGF-β induces aberrant expression of βIII in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. ► TGF-β increases O-GlcNAc modification of βIII in RPE cells. ► Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-β. -- Abstract: The class III β-tubulin isotype (β III ) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-β on the aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-β-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III β-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-β also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-β-induced aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-β stimulated aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-β stimulation and provide useful information towards understanding the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases.

  15. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  16. GEFs: Dual regulation of Rac1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Malliri, Angeliki

    2017-04-03

    GEFs play a critical role in regulating Rac1 signaling. They serve as signaling nodes converting upstream signals into downstream Rac1-driven cellular responses. Through associating with membrane-bound Rac1, GEFs facilitate the exchange of GDP for GTP, thereby activating Rac1. As a result, Rac1 undergoes conformational changes that mediate its interaction with downstream effectors, linking Rac1 to a multitude of physiological and pathological processes. Interestingly, there are at least 20 GEFs involved in Rac1 activation, suggesting a more complex role of GEFs in regulating Rac1 signaling apart from promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. Indeed, accumulating evidence implicates GEFs in directing the specificity of Rac1-driven signaling cascades, although the underlying mechanisms were poorly defined. Recently, through conducting a comparative study, we highlighted the role of 2 Rac-specific GEFs, Tiam1 and P-Rex1, in dictating the biological outcome downstream of Rac1. Importantly, further proteomic analysis uncovered a GEF activity-independent function for both GEFs in modulating the Rac1 interactome, which results in the stimulation of GEF-specific signaling cascades. Here, we provide an overview of our recent findings and discuss the role of GEFs as master regulators of Rac1 signaling with a particular focus on GEF-mediated modulation of cell migration following Rac1 activation.

  17. Sex differences in social interaction behaviors in rats are mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Nicole; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Considerable sex differences occur in the incidence and prevalence of anxiety disorders where women are more anxious than men, particularly in situations where social interaction is required. In preclinical studies, the social interaction test represents a valid animal model to study sex differences in social anxiety. Indeed, female rats engage less in conspecific interactions than their male counterparts, which are behaviors indicative of higher social anxiety in female rats. In this work, we implicated extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating social interaction. Indeed, female rats’ had lower ERK2 expression compared to male rats, and overexpression of ERK2 in the mPFC increases their social interaction to the level seen in their male counterparts. These data indicate that the sexually dimorphic expression of ERK2 mediates social anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:22521590

  18. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 is Required for Low-Concentration H2O2-Induced Angiogenesis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Dongxin; Huang, Hong; Lei, Yonghong; Han, Yan; Han, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    Background . The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low concentrations of H 2 O 2 on angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods . HUVECs were cultured and stimulated with different concentrations of H 2 O 2 . Flow cytometric analysis was used to select an optimal concentration of H 2 O 2 for the following experiments. Cell proliferation, migration, and tubule formation were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, scratch wound assays, and Matrigel tubule formation assays, respectively. For gain and loss of function studies, constitutively active MEK5 (CA-MEK5) and ERK5 shRNA lentiviruses were used to activate or knock down extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5). Results . We found that low concentrations of H 2 O 2 promoted HUVECs proliferation, migration, and tubule formation. ERK5 in HUVECs was significantly activated by H 2 O 2 . Enhanced ERK5 activity significantly amplified the proangiogenic effects of H 2 O 2 ; in contrast, ERK5 knock-down abrogated the effects of H 2 O 2 . Conclusions . Our results confirmed that low concentrations of H 2 O 2 promoted HUVECs angiogenesis in vitro, and ERK5 is an essential mediator of this process. Therefore, ERK5 may be a potential therapeutic target for promoting angiogenesis and improving graft survival.

  19. Signaling pathways regulating murine pancreatic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The recent decades have seen a huge expansion in our knowledge about pancreatic development. Numerous lineage-restricted transcription factor genes have been identified and much has been learned about their function. Similarly, numerous signaling pathways important for pancreas development have...... been identified and the specific roles have been investigated by genetic and cell biological methods. The present review presents an overview of the principal signaling pathways involved in regulating murine pancreatic growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation....

  20. The mechanism by which MEK/ERK regulates JNK and p38 activity in polyamine depleted IEC-6 cells during apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaria, Mitul N.; Jin, Shi; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine-depletion inhibited apoptosis by activating ERK1/2, while, preventing JNK1/2 activation. MKP-1 knockdown by SiRNA increased ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation and apoptosis. Therefore, we predicted that polyamines might regulate MKP1 via MEK/ERK and thereby apoptosis. We examined the role of MEK/ERK in the regulation of MKP1 and JNK, and p38 activities and apoptosis. Inhibition of MKP-1 activity with a pharmacological inhibitor, sanguinarine (SA), increased JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2 activities without causing apoptosis. However, pre-activation of these kinases by SA significantly increased camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis suggesting different roles for MAPKs during survival and apoptosis. Inhibition of MEK1 activity prevented the expression of MKP-1 protein and augmented CPT-induced apoptosis, which correlated with increased activities of JNK1/2, caspases, and DNA fragmentation. Polyamine depleted cells had higher levels of MKP-1 protein and decreased JNK1/2 activity and apoptosis. Inhibition of MEK1 prevented MKP-1 expression and increased JNK1/2 and apoptosis. Phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-ERK2, MKP-1, and the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac) formed a complex in response to TNF/CPT. Inactivation of PP2Ac had no effect on the association of MKP-1 and JNK1. However, inhibition of MKP-1 activity decreased the formation of the MKP-1, PP2Ac and JNK complex. Following inhibition by SA, MKP-1 localized in the cytoplasm, while basal and CPT-induced MKP-1 remained in the nuclear fraction. These results suggest that nuclear MKP-1 translocates to the cytoplasm, binds phosphorylated JNK and p38 resulting in dephosphorylation and decreased activity. Thus, MEK/ERK activity controls the levels of MKP-1 and, thereby, regulates JNK activity in polyamine-depleted cells. PMID:24253595

  1. Molecular mechanism of ERK dephosphorylation by striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Kang-shuai; Su, Jing; Chen, Lai-Zhong; Xu, Yun-Fei; Wang, Hong-Mei; Gong, Zheng; Cui, Guo-Ying; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Kai; Yao, Wei; Xin, Tao; Li, Min-Yong; Xiao, Kun-Hong; An, Xiao-fei; Huo, Yuqing; Xu, Zhi-gang; Sun, Jin-Peng; Pang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is an important regulator of neuronal synaptic plasticity, and its abnormal level or activity contributes to cognitive disorders. One crucial downstream effector and direct substrate of STEP is extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), which has important functions in spine stabilisation and action potential transmission. The inhibition of STEP activity toward phospho-ERK has the potential to treat neuronal diseases, but the detailed mechanism underlying the dephosphorylation of phospho-ERK by STEP is not known. Therefore, we examined STEP activity toward pNPP, phospho-tyrosine-containing peptides, and the full-length phospho-ERK protein using STEP mutants with different structural features. STEP was found to be a highly efficient ERK tyrosine phosphatase that required both its N-terminal regulatory region and key residues in its active site. Specifically, both KIM and KIS of STEP were required for ERK interaction. In addition to the N-terminal KIS region, S245, hydrophobic residues L249/L251, and basic residues R242/R243 located in the KIM region were important in controlling STEP activity toward phospho-ERK. Further kinetic experiments revealed subtle structural differences between STEP and HePTP that affected the interactions of their KIMs with ERK. Moreover, STEP recognised specific positions of a phospho-ERK peptide sequence through its active site, and the contact of STEP F311 with phospho-ERK V205 and T207 were crucial interactions. Taken together, our results not only provide the information for interactions between ERK and STEP, but will also help in the development of specific strategies to target STEP-ERK recognition, which could serve as a potential therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:24117863

  2. Resveratrol engages AMPK to attenuate ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons and inhibits incision-induced acute and chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillu Dipti V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in our understanding of basic mechanisms driving post-surgical pain, treating incision-induced pain remains a major clinical challenge. Moreover, surgery has been implicated as a major cause of chronic pain conditions. Hence, more efficacious treatments are needed to inhibit incision-induced pain and prevent the transition to chronic pain following surgery. We reasoned that activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK may represent a novel treatment avenue for the local treatment of incision-induced pain because AMPK activators inhibit ERK and mTOR signaling, two important pathways involved in the sensitization of peripheral nociceptors. Results To test this hypothesis we used a potent and efficacious activator of AMPK, resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol profoundly inhibits ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and that these effects are mediated by AMPK activation and independent of sirtuin activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is thought to play an important role in incision-induced pain and resveratrol potently inhibited IL-6-mediated signaling to ERK in sensory neurons and blocked IL-6-mediated allodynia in vivo through a local mechanism of action. Using a model of incision-induced allodynia in mice, we further demonstrate that local injection of resveratrol around the surgical wound strongly attenuates incision-induced allodynia. Intraplantar IL-6 injection and plantar incision induces persistent nociceptive sensitization to PGE2 injection into the affected paw after the resolution of allodynia to the initial stimulus. We further show that resveratrol treatment at the time of IL-6 injection or plantar incision completely blocks the development of persistent nociceptive sensitization consistent with the blockade of a transition to a chronic pain state by resveratrol treatment. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of signaling

  3. Both ERK/MAPK and TGF-Beta/Smad Signaling Pathways Play a Role in the Kidney Fibrosis of Diabetic Mice Accelerated by Blood Glucose Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The notion that diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal fibrosis prompted us to investigate the effects of blood glucose fluctuation (BGF under high glucose condition on kidney in the mice. Methods. The diabetic and BGF animal models were established in this study. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were applied to detect the expression of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, phosphorylated-ERK, p38, smad2/3, and Akt. Results. BGF treatment increased type I collagen synthesis by two times compared with the control. The expression of MMP1 was reduced markedly while TIMP1 synthesis was enhanced after BGF treatment. ERK phosphorylation exhibits a significant increase in the mice treated with BGF. Furthermore, BGF can markedly upregulate TGF-β1 expression. The p-smad2 showed 2-fold increases compared with the only diabetic mice. However, p-AKT levels were unchanged after BGF treatment. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that BGF can accelerate the trend of kidney fibrosis in diabetic mice by increasing collagen production and inhibiting collagen degradation. Both ERK/MAPK and TGF-β/smad signaling pathways seem to play a role in the development of kidney fibrosis accelerated by blood glucose fluctuation.

  4. Mucin 4 Gene Silencing Reduces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Through the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Pathway in Nephrolithiasis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephrolithiasis plagues a great number of patients all over the world. Increasing evidence shows that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC dysfunction and attrition are central to the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Mucin 4 (MUC4 is reported as an activator of ERK signaling pathway in epithelial cells. In this study, using rat models of calcium oxalate (CaOx nephrolithiasis, the present study aims to define the roles of MUC4 and ERK signaling pathway as contributors to oxidative stress and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Methods: Data sets of nephrolithiasis were searched using GEO database and a heat flow map was drawn. Then MUC4 function was predicted. Wistar rats were prepared for the purpose of model establishment of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride induced CaOx nephrolithiasis. In order to assess the detailed regulatory mechanism of MUC4 silencing on the ERK signaling pathway and RTEC, we used recombinant plasmid to downregulate MUC4 expression in Wistar rat-based models. Samples from rat urine, serum and kidney tissues were reviewed to identify oxalic acid and calcium contents, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels, calcium crystal formation in renal tubules and MUC4 positive expression rate. Finally, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA were employed to access oxidative stress state and CaOx crystal formation in RTEC. Results: Initially, MUC4 was found to have an influence on the process of nephrolithiasis. MUC4 was upregulated in the CaOx nephrolithiasis model rats. We proved that the silencing of MUC4 triggered the inactivation of ERK signaling pathway. Following the silencing of MUC4 or the inhibition of ERK signaling pathway, the oxalic acid and calcium contents in rat urine, BUN, Cr, Ca2+ and P3+ levels in rat serum, p-ERK1/2, MCP-1 and OPN expressions in RTEC and H2O2 and MDA levels in the cultured supernatant were downregulated, but the GSH

  5. Ras signaling in aging and metabolic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Cathy

    2017-12-07

    Aberrant signal transduction downstream of the Ras GTPase has a well-established role in tumorigenesis. Mutations that result in hyperactivation of Ras are responsible for a third of all human cancers. Hence, small molecule inhibitors of the Ras signal transduction cascade have been under intense focus as potential cancer treatments. In both invertebrate and mammalian models, emerging evidence has also implicated components of the Ras signaling pathway in aging and metabolic regulation. Here, I review the current evidence for Ras signaling in these newly discovered roles highlighting the interactions between the Ras pathway and other longevity assurance mechanisms. Defining the role of Ras signaling in maintaining age-related health may have important implications for the development of interventions that could not only increase lifespan but also delay the onset and/or progression of age-related functional decline.

  6. RhNRG-1β Protects the Myocardium against Irradiation-Induced Damage via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.

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    Anxin Gu

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD, which is a serious side effect of the radiotherapy applied for various tumors due to the inevitable irradiation of the heart, cannot be treated effectively using current clinical therapies. Here, we demonstrated that rhNRG-1β, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like protein, protects myocardium tissue against irradiation-induced damage and preserves cardiac function. rhNRG-1β effectively ameliorated irradiation-induced myocardial nuclear damage in both cultured adult rat-derived cardiomyocytes and rat myocardium tissue via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. By activating ErbB2, rhNRG-1β maintained mitochondrial integrity, ATP production, respiratory chain function and the Krebs cycle status in irradiated cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the protection of irradiated cardiomyocytes and myocardium tissue by rhNRG-1β was at least partly mediated by the activation of the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway. Long-term observations further showed that rhNRG-1β administered in the peri-irradiation period exerts continuous protective effects on cardiac pump function, the myocardial energy metabolism, cardiomyocyte volume and interstitial fibrosis in the rats receiving radiation via NRG/ErbB2 signaling. Our findings indicate that rhNRG-1β can protect the myocardium against irradiation-induced damage and preserve cardiac function via the ErbB2-ERK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  7. Functional Redundancy of ERK1 and ERK2 MAP Kinases during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Frémin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ERK1 and ERK2 are the effector kinases of the ERK1/2 MAP-kinase signaling pathway, which plays a central role in transducing signals controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Deregulated activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is linked to a group of developmental syndromes and contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases. One fundamental question that remains unaddressed is whether ERK1 and ERK2 have evolved unique physiological functions or whether they are used redundantly to reach a threshold of global ERK activity. Here, we show that the extent of development of the mouse placenta and embryo bearing different combinations of Erk1 and Erk2 alleles is strictly correlated with total ERK1/2 activity. We further demonstrate that transgenic expression of ERK1 fully rescues the embryonic and placental developmental defects associated with the loss of ERK2. We conclude that ERK1 and ERK2 exert redundant functions in mouse development.

  8. Feedback regulation of TGF-β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohua; Xiong, Xiangyang; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional polypeptide that plays a critical role in regulating a broad range of cellular functions and physiological processes. Signaling is initiated when TGF-β ligands bind to two types of cell membrane receptors with intrinsic Ser/Thr kinase activity and transmitted by the intracellular Smad proteins, which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in the nucleus. Although it is relatively simple and straight-forward, this TGF-β/Smad pathway is regulated by various feedback loops at different levels, including the ligand, the receptor, Smads and transcription, and is thus fine-tuned in terms of signaling robustness, duration, specificity, and plasticity. The precise control gives rise to versatile and context-dependent pathophysiological functions. In this review, we firstly give an overview of TGF-β signaling, and then discuss how each step of TGF-β signaling is finely controlled by distinct modes of feedback mechanisms, involving both protein regulators and miRNAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  10. Decreased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for osteopontin-promoted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, Aoli, E-mail: leaf13332@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shi, Yisong, E-mail: shiyis@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ju, Yang, E-mail: ju@mech.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Morita, Yasuyuki, E-mail: morita@mech.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear. In the present study, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that OPN could decrease the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs and reduce the expression of lamin A/C, which is the main determinant of nuclear stiffness. Increased lamin A/C expression attenuates BMSC migration by increasing nuclear stiffness. Decreased lamin A/C expression promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. Furthermore, OPN promotes BMSC migration by diminishing lamin A/C expression and decreasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in BMSC migration as well as new insight into the molecular mechanisms of OPN-promoted BMSC migration. - Highlights: • OPN promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. • Lamin A/C knockdown decreases, while its overexpression enhances, the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs. • Lamin A/C overexpression and downregulation affect the migration of BMSCs. • OPN diminishes lamin A/C expression and decreases nuclear stiffness through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • OPN promotes BMSC migration via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  11. Decreased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for osteopontin-promoted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Aoli; Shi, Yisong; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2017-01-01

    Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear. In the present study, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that OPN could decrease the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs and reduce the expression of lamin A/C, which is the main determinant of nuclear stiffness. Increased lamin A/C expression attenuates BMSC migration by increasing nuclear stiffness. Decreased lamin A/C expression promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. Furthermore, OPN promotes BMSC migration by diminishing lamin A/C expression and decreasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in BMSC migration as well as new insight into the molecular mechanisms of OPN-promoted BMSC migration. - Highlights: • OPN promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. • Lamin A/C knockdown decreases, while its overexpression enhances, the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs. • Lamin A/C overexpression and downregulation affect the migration of BMSCs. • OPN diminishes lamin A/C expression and decreases nuclear stiffness through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • OPN promotes BMSC migration via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  12. Metformin inhibits 17β-estradiol-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via βKlotho-related ERK1/2 signaling and AMPKα signaling in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Qi, Shasha; Zhao, Xingbo; Li, Mingjiang; Ding, Sentai; Lu, Jiaju; Zhang, Hui

    2016-04-19

    The potential role of metformin in treating endometrial cancer remains to be explored. The current study investigated the role of metformin in 17β-estradiol-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. We found that 17β-estradiol promoted proliferation and migration, attenuated apoptosis in both estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative endometrial adenocarcinoma cells (Ishikawa and KLE cells, respectively). Metformin abolished 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and reversed 17β-estradiol-induced EMT in Ishikawa cells. In addition, metformin increased the expression of βKlotho, a fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) coreceptor, and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both Ishikawa and KLE cells. Decreased expression of βKlotho was noted in human endometrial adenocarcinomas, and plasmid-driven expression of βKlotho in Ishikawa cells abolished 17β-estradiol-induced EMT via inhibiting ERK1/2 signaling. βKlotho expression and metformin show synergetic effects on the proliferation and the EMT in Ishikawa cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the anti-EMT effects of metformin could be partly abolished by introducing Compound C, a specific AMPKα signaling inhibitor. In conclusion, metformin abolishes 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and EMT in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells by upregulating βKlotho expression, inhibiting ERK1/2 signaling, and activating AMPKα signaling. Our study provides novel mechanistic insight into the anti-tumor effects of metformin.

  13. ERK-dependent and -independent pathways trigger human neural progenitor cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Michaela; Cline, Jason E.; Abel, Josef; Fritsche, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Besides differentiation and apoptosis, cell migration is a basic process in brain development in which neural cells migrate several centimeters within the developing brain before reaching their proper positions and forming the right connections. For identifying signaling events that control neural migration and are therefore potential targets of chemicals to disturb normal brain development, we developed a human neurosphere-based migration assay based on normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells, in which the distance is measured that cells wander over time. Applying this assay, we investigated the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the regulation of NHNP cell migration. Exposure to model substances like ethanol or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) revealed a correlation between ERK1/2 activation and cell migration. The participation of phospho-(P-) ERK1/2 was confirmed by exposure of the cells to the MEK inhibitor PD98059, which directly prohibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibited cell migration. We identified protein kinase C (PKC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as upstream signaling kinases governing ERK1/2 activation, thereby controlling NHNP cell migration. Additionally, treatments with src kinase inhibitors led to a diminished cell migration without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these results, we postulate that migration of NHNP cells is controlled via ERK1/2-dependent and -independent pathways

  14. Methylcobalamin promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits apoptosis of C2C12 cells via the Erk1/2 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Michio [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki, E-mail: tanahiro-osk@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuroda, Yusuke [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69 Inabaso, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-8511 (Japan); Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Methylcobalamin activated the Erk1/2 signaling pathway in C2C12 cells. •Methylcobalamin promoted the proliferation and migration in C2C12 cells. •C2C12 cell apoptosis during differentiation was inhibited by methylcobalamin. -- Abstract: Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that has some positive effects on peripheral nervous disorders. Although some previous studies revealed the effects of MeCbl on neurons, its effect on the muscle, which is the final target of motoneuron axons, remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of MeCbl on the muscle. We found that MeCbl promoted the proliferation and migration of C2C12 myoblasts in vitro and that these effects are mediated by the Erk1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the activity of the Akt signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that MeCbl inhibits C2C12 cell apoptosis during differentiation. Our results suggest that MeCbl has beneficial effects on the muscle in vitro. MeCbl administration may provide a novel therapeutic approach for muscle injury or degenerating muscle after denervation.

  15. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation independently of beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated FSH receptor internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Vincent; Kara, Elodie; Guillou, Florian; Reiter, Eric; Crepieux, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Background The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) is a seven transmembrane spanning receptor (7TMR) which plays a crucial role in male and female reproduction. Upon FSH stimulation, the FSH-R activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). However, the mechanisms whereby the agonist-stimulated FSH-R activates ERK are poorly understood. In order to activate ERK, some 7 TMRs require beta-arrestin-and dynamin-dependent internalization to occur, whereas some others do not. In the present study, we examined the ability of the FSH-activated FSH-R to induce ERK phosphorylation, in conditions where its beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated internalization was impaired. Methods Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were transiently transfected with the rat FSH-R. Internalization of the FSH-R was manipulated by co-expression of either a beta-arrestin (319–418) dominant negative peptide, either an inactive dynamin K44A mutant or of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2. The outcomes on the FSH-R internalization were assayed by measuring 125I-FSH binding at the cell surface when compared to internalized 125I-FSH binding. The resulting ERK phosphorylation level was visualized by Western blot analysis. Results In HEK 293 cells, FSH stimulated ERK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Co-transfection of the beta- arrestin (319–418) construct, or of the dynamin K44A mutant reduced FSH-R internalization in response to FSH, without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Likewise, overexpression of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2 significantly increased the FSH-R internalization level in response to FSH, without altering FSH-induced ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion From these results, we conclude that the FSH-R does not require beta-arrestin- nor dynamin-mediated internalization to initiate ERK phosphorylation in response to FSH. PMID:16787538

  16. Antimetastatic Therapies of the Polysulfide Diallyl Trisulfide against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC via Suppressing MMP2/9 by Blocking NF-κB and ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Liu

    Full Text Available Migration and invasion are two crucial steps of tumor metastasis. Blockage of these steps may be an effective strategy to reduce the risk. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS, a natural organosulfuric compound with most sulfur atoms found in garlic, on migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of DATS were further investigated.MDA-MB-231 cells and HS 578t breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. DATS obviously suppressed the migration and invasion of two cell lines and changed the morphological. Moreover, DATS inhibited the mRNA/protein/ enzymes activities of MMP2/9 via attenuating the NF-κB pathway. DATS also inhibited ERK/MAPK rather than p38 and JNK.DATS inhibits MMP2/9 activity and the metastasis of TNBC cells, and emerges as a potential anti-cancer agent. The inhibitory effects are associated with down-regulation of the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways.

  17. Long-term potentiation in the CA1 hippocampus induced by NR2A subunit-containing NMDA glutamate receptors is mediated by Ras-GRF2/Erk map kinase signaling.

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    Shan-xue Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs are major contributors to long-term potentiation (LTP, a form of synaptic plasticity implicated in the process of learning and memory. These receptors consist of calcium-permeating NR1 and multiple regulatory NR2 subunits. A majority of studies show that both NR2A and NR2B-containing NMDARs can contribute to LTP, but their unique contributions to this form of synaptic plasticity remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that NR2A and NR2B-containing receptors promote LTP differently in the CA1 hippocampus of 1-month old mice, with the NR2A receptors functioning through Ras-GRF2 and its downstream effector, Erk Map kinase, and NR2B receptors functioning independently of these signaling molecules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that NR2A-, but not NR2B, containing NMDA receptors induce LTP in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 hippocampus from 1 month old mice through Ras-GRF2 and Erk. This difference add new significance to the observation that the relative levels of these NMDAR subtypes is regulated in neurons, such that NR2A-containing receptors become more prominent late in postnatal development, after sensory experience and synaptic activity.

  18. Radiotherapy-induced plasticity of prostate cancer mobilizes stem-like non-adherent, Erk signaling-dependent cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyjacová, Lenka; Hubáčková, Soňa; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Strauss, R; Hanzlíková, Hana; Dzijak, Rastislav; Imrichová, Terezie; Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan; Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    -, July (2014) ISSN 1350-9047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17658S; GA MZd NT14461 Grant - others:Danish Research Council(DK) DFF-1331-00262B; Lundbeck Foundation(DK) (R93-A8990; European Commission DDResponse 259893 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Radiotherapy * induced plasticity * prostate cancer * Erk Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.184, year: 2014

  19. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates trans-synaptic signaling in Drosophila

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    Samuel H. Friedman

    2013-11-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most common inherited determinant of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene product (FMRP, an mRNA-binding translational repressor. A number of conserved FMRP targets have been identified in the well-characterized Drosophila FXS disease model, but FMRP is highly pleiotropic in function and the full spectrum of FMRP targets has yet to be revealed. In this study, screens for upregulated neural proteins in Drosophila fmr1 (dfmr1 null mutants reveal strong elevation of two synaptic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs: GPI-anchored glypican Dally-like protein (Dlp and transmembrane Syndecan (Sdc. Our recent work has shown that Dlp and Sdc act as co-receptors regulating extracellular ligands upstream of intracellular signal transduction in multiple trans-synaptic pathways that drive synaptogenesis. Consistently, dfmr1 null synapses exhibit altered WNT signaling, with changes in both Wingless (Wg ligand abundance and downstream Frizzled-2 (Fz2 receptor C-terminal nuclear import. Similarly, a parallel anterograde signaling ligand, Jelly belly (Jeb, and downstream ERK phosphorylation (dpERK are depressed at dfmr1 null synapses. In contrast, the retrograde BMP ligand Glass bottom boat (Gbb and downstream signaling via phosphorylation of the transcription factor MAD (pMAD seem not to be affected. To determine whether HSPG upregulation is causative for synaptogenic defects, HSPGs were genetically reduced to control levels in the dfmr1 null background. HSPG correction restored both (1 Wg and Jeb trans-synaptic signaling, and (2 synaptic architecture and transmission strength back to wild-type levels. Taken together, these data suggest that FMRP negatively regulates HSPG co-receptors controlling trans-synaptic signaling during synaptogenesis, and that loss of this regulation causes synaptic structure and function defects characterizing the FXS disease state.

  20. NMDA Receptor- and ERK-Dependent Histone Methylation Changes in the Lateral Amygdala Bidirectionally Regulate Fear Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Agarwal, Swati; Jarome, Timothy J.; Fernandez, Jordan; Lubin, Farah D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that fear memory formation requires de novo gene transcription in the amygdala. We provide evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in the form of histone lysine methylation in the lateral amygdala (LA) are regulated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling and involved in gene transcription changes necessary for fear memory…

  1. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation is required for consolidation and reconsolidation of memory at an early stage of ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languille, Solène; Davis, Sabrina; Richer, Paulette; Alcacer, Cristina; Laroche, Serge; Hars, Bernard

    2009-11-01

    The ability to form long-term memories exists very early during ontogeny; however, the properties of early memory processes, brain structures involved and underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we examine the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling cascade, which is crucial for adult memory, in the consolidation and reconsolidation of an early memory using a conditioned taste aversion paradigm in 3-day-old rat pups. We show that intraperitoneal injection of SL327, the upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, impairs both consolidation and reconsolidation of early memory, leaving short-term memory after acquisition and after reactivation intact. The amnesic effect of SL327 diminishes with increasing delays after acquisition and reactivation. Biochemical analyses revealed ERK hyperphosphorylation in the amygdala but not the hippocampus following acquisition, suggesting functional activation of the amygdala as early as post-natal day 3, although there was no clear evidence for amygdalar ERK activation after reactivation. These results indicate that, despite an immature brain, the basic properties of memory and at least some of the molecular mechanisms and brain structures implicated in aversion memory share a number of similarities with the adult and emerge very early during ontogeny.

  2. Regulation of VEGF signaling by membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arie; Seerapu, Himabindu Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Recent findings have drawn attention to the role of membrane traffic in the signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The significance of this development stems from the pivotal function of VEGF in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The outline of the regulation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) signaling by membrane traffic is similar to that of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a prototype of the intertwining between membrane traffic and signaling. There are, however, unique features in VEGFR signaling that are conferred in part by the involvement of the co-receptor neuropilin (Nrp). Nrp1 and VEGFR2 are integrated into membrane traffic through the adaptor protein synectin, which recruits myosin VI, a molecular motor that drives inward trafficking [17,21,64]. The recent detection of only mild vascular defects in a knockin mouse model that expresses Nrp1 lacking a cytoplasmic domain [104], questions the co-receptor's role in VEGF signaling and membrane traffic. The regulation of endocytosis by ephrin-B2 is another feature unique to VEGR2/3 [18,19], but it awaits a mechanistic explanation. Current models do not fully explain how membrane traffic bridges between VEGFR and the downstream effectors that produce its functional outcome, such as cell migration. VEGF-A appears to accomplish this task in part by recruiting endocytic vesicles carrying RhoA to internalized active VEGFR2 [58]. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perlecan Domain V induces VEGf secretion in brain endothelial cells through integrin α5β1 and ERK-dependent signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas N Clarke

    Full Text Available Perlecan Domain V (DV promotes brain angiogenesis by inducing VEGF release from brain endothelial cells (BECs following stroke. In this study, we define the specific mechanism of DV interaction with the α(5β(1 integrin, identify the downstream signal transduction pathway, and further investigate the functional significance of resultant VEGF release. Interestingly, we found that the LG3 portion of DV, which has been suggested to possess most of DV's angio-modulatory activity outside of the brain, binds poorly to α(5β(1 and induces less BEC proliferation compared to full length DV. Additionally, we implicate DV's DGR sequence as an important element for the interaction of DV with α(5β(1. Furthermore, we investigated the importance of AKT and ERK signaling in DV-induced VEGF expression and secretion. We show that DV increases the phosphorylation of ERK, which leads to subsequent activation and stabilization of eIF4E and HIF-1α. Inhibition of ERK activity by U0126 suppressed DV-induced expression and secretion of VEGR in BECs. While DV was capable of phosphorylating AKT we show that AKT phosphorylation does not play a role in DV's induction of VEGF expression or secretion using two separate inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt IV. Lastly, we demonstrate that VEGF activity is critical for DV increases in BEC proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in a BEC-neuronal co-culture system. Collectively, our findings expand our understanding of DV's mechanism of action on BECs, and further support its potential as a novel stroke therapy.

  4. Perlecan Domain V Induces VEGf Secretion in Brain Endothelial Cells through Integrin α5β1 and ERK-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Douglas N.; Al Ahmad, Abraham; Lee, Boyeon; Parham, Christi; Auckland, Lisa; Fertala, Andrezj; Kahle, Michael; Shaw, Courtney S.; Roberts, Jill; Bix, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Perlecan Domain V (DV) promotes brain angiogenesis by inducing VEGF release from brain endothelial cells (BECs) following stroke. In this study, we define the specific mechanism of DV interaction with the α5β1 integrin, identify the downstream signal transduction pathway, and further investigate the functional significance of resultant VEGF release. Interestingly, we found that the LG3 portion of DV, which has been suggested to possess most of DV’s angio-modulatory activity outside of the brain, binds poorly to α5β1 and induces less BEC proliferation compared to full length DV. Additionally, we implicate DV’s DGR sequence as an important element for the interaction of DV with α5β1. Furthermore, we investigated the importance of AKT and ERK signaling in DV-induced VEGF expression and secretion. We show that DV increases the phosphorylation of ERK, which leads to subsequent activation and stabilization of eIF4E and HIF-1α. Inhibition of ERK activity by U0126 suppressed DV-induced expression and secretion of VEGR in BECs. While DV was capable of phosphorylating AKT we show that AKT phosphorylation does not play a role in DV’s induction of VEGF expression or secretion using two separate inhibitors, LY294002 and Akt IV. Lastly, we demonstrate that VEGF activity is critical for DV increases in BEC proliferation, as well as angiogenesis in a BEC-neuronal co-culture system. Collectively, our findings expand our understanding of DV’s mechanism of action on BECs, and further support its potential as a novel stroke therapy. PMID:23028886

  5. Discovery and validation of the tumor-suppressive function of long noncoding RNA PANDA in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma through the inactivation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjun; Zhang, Mingzhi; Xu, Huanan; Wang, Yifei; Li, Zhaoming; Chang, Yu; Wang, Xinhuan; Fu, Xiaorui; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Yang, Siyuan; Wang, Bei; Shang, Yufeng

    2017-09-22

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, and responds badly to existing treatment. Thus, it is of urgent need to identify novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets of DLBCL. Recent studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the development of cancer. By using the next generation HiSeq sequencing assay, we determined lncRNAs exhibiting differential expression between DLBCL patients and healthy controls. Then, RT-qPCR was performed for identification in clinical samples and cell materials, and lncRNA PANDA was verified to be down-regulated in DLBCL patients and have considerable diagnostic potential. In addition, decreased serum PANDA level was correlated to poorer clinical outcome and lower overall survival in DLBCL patients. Subsequently, we determined the experimental role of lncRNA PANDA in DLBCL progression. Luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay suggested that lncRNA PANDA was induced by p53 and p53 interacts with the promoter region of PANDA. Cell functional assay further indicated that PANDA functioned as a tumor suppressor gene through the suppression of cell growth by a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in DLBCL. More importantly, Cignal Signal Transduction Reporter Array and western blot assay showed that lncRNA PANDA inactivated the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, our integrated approach demonstrates that PANDA in DLBCL confers a tumor suppressive function through inhibiting cell proliferation and silencing MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Thus, PANDA may be a promising therapeutic target for patients with DLBCL.

  6. GCN5 Regulates FGF Signaling and Activates Selective MYC Target Genes during Early Embryoid Body Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors and co-regulators including chromatin modifiers. How particular chromatin-modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes is not well defined. Here, we report that GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase essential for embryonic development, is required for proper expression of multiple genes encoding components of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling pathway in early embryoid bodies (EBs. Gcn5−/− EBs display deficient activation of ERK and p38, mislocalization of cytoskeletal components, and compromised capacity to differentiate toward mesodermal lineage. Genomic analyses identified seven genes as putative direct targets of GCN5 during early differentiation, four of which are cMYC targets. These findings established a link between GCN5 and the FGF signaling pathway and highlighted specific GCN5-MYC partnerships in gene regulation during early differentiation.

  7. The atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK3 is essential for establishment of epithelial architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chika; Miyatake, Koichi; Kusakabe, Morioh; Nishida, Eisuke

    2018-06-01

    Epithelia contribute to physical barriers that protect internal tissues from the external environment and also support organ structure. Accordingly, establishment and maintenance of epithelial architecture are essential for both embryonic development and adult physiology. Here, using gene knockout and knockdown techniques along with gene profiling, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3), a poorly characterized atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulates the epithelial architecture in vertebrates. We found that in Xenopus embryonic epidermal epithelia, ERK3 knockdown impairs adherens and tight-junction protein distribution, as well as tight-junction barrier function, resulting in epidermal breakdown. Moreover, in human epithelial breast cancer cells, inhibition of ERK3 expression induced thickened epithelia with aberrant adherens and tight junctions. Results from microarray analyses suggested that transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A), a transcriptional regulator important for epithelial gene expression, is involved in ERK3-dependent changes in gene expression. Of note, TFAP2A knockdown phenocopied ERK3 knockdown in both Xenopus embryos and human cells, and ERK3 was required for full activation of TFAP2A-dependent transcription. Our findings reveal that ERK3 regulates epithelial architecture, possibly together with TFAP2A. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The PreS2 activator MHBs(t) of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Eberhard; Munz, Barbara; Saher, Gesine; Reifenberg, Kurt; Hofschneider, Peter Hans

    2002-02-15

    The large hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (LHBs) and C-terminally truncated middle size surface proteins (MHBs(t)) form the family of the PreS2 activator proteins of HBV. Their transcriptional activator function is based on the cytoplasmic orientation of the PreS2 domain. MHBs(t) activators are paradigmatic for this class of activators. Here we report that MHBs(t) is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependently phosphorylated at Ser28. The integrity of the phosphorylation site is essential for the activator function. MHBs(t) triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBs(t)-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB. To analyze the pathophysiological relevance of these data in vivo, transgenic mice were established that produce the PreS2 activator MHBs(t) specifically in the liver. In these mice, a permanent PreS2-dependent specific activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling was observed, resulting in an increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. In transgenics older than 15 months, an increased incidence of liver tumors occurs. These data suggest that PreS2 activators LHBs and MHBs(t) exert a tumor promoter-like function by activation of key enzymes of proliferation control.

  9. The PreS2 activator MHBst of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Eberhard; Munz, Barbara; Saher, Gesine; Reifenberg, Kurt; Hofschneider, Peter Hans

    2002-01-01

    The large hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (LHBs) and C-terminally truncated middle size surface proteins (MHBst) form the family of the PreS2 activator proteins of HBV. Their transcriptional activator function is based on the cytoplasmic orientation of the PreS2 domain. MHBst activators are paradigmatic for this class of activators. Here we report that MHBst is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependently phosphorylated at Ser28. The integrity of the phosphorylation site is essential for the activator function. MHBst triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBst-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. To analyze the pathophysiological relevance of these data in vivo, transgenic mice were established that produce the PreS2 activator MHBst specifically in the liver. In these mice, a permanent PreS2-dependent specific activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling was observed, resulting in an increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. In transgenics older than 15 months, an increased incidence of liver tumors occurs. These data suggest that PreS2 activators LHBs and MHBst exert a tumor promoter-like function by activation of key enzymes of proliferation control. PMID:11847101

  10. Anchoring Proteins as Regulators of Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Alessia; Ghigo, Alessandra; Scott, John D.; Hirsch, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal organization of signal transduction is coordinated through the segregation of signaling enzymes in selected cellular compartments. This highly evolved regulatory mechanism ensures the activation of selected enzymes only in the vicinity of their target proteins. In this context, cAMP-responsive triggering of protein kinase A is modulated by a family of scaffold proteins referred to as A-kinase anchoring proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins form the core of multiprotein complexes and enable simultaneous but segregated cAMP signaling events to occur in defined cellular compartments. In this review we will focus on the description of A-kinase anchoring protein function in the regulation of cardiac physiopathology. PMID:22859670

  11. β-Adrenergic Receptors Regulate the Acquisition and Consolidation Phases of Aversive Memory Formation Through Distinct, Temporally Regulated Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Hillary C; Johansen, Joshua P; Hou, Mian; Bush, David E A; Smith, Emily K; Klein, JoAnna E; LeDoux, Joseph E; Sears, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms. Specifically, using behavioral pharmacology and biochemistry in adult rats, we determined that βAR activity during, but not after PTC training initiates the activation of two plasticity-related targets: AMPA receptors (AMPARs) for memory acquisition and short-term memory and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) for consolidating the learned association into a long-term memory. These findings reveal that βAR activity during, but not following PTC sets in motion cascading molecular events for the acquisition (AMPARs) and subsequent consolidation (ERK) of learned associations.

  12. Curcumin protects cortical neurons against oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury through flotillin-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yanping; Shi, Yang; Shi, Xinjie; Wang, Xin; Xu, Chuan; Zhao, Hong; Dong, Qiang

    2018-02-05

    In this study, we provided evidence that curcumin could be a promising therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke by activating neuroprotective signaling pathways. Post oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), primary mouse cortical neurons treated with curcumin exhibited a significant decrease in cell death, LDH release and enzyme caspase-3 activity under OGD/R circumstances, which were abolished by flotillin-1 downregulation or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. Moreover, flotillin-1 knockdown led to suppression of curcumin-mediated ERK phosphorylation under OGD/R condition. Based on these findings, we concluded that curcumin could confer neuroprotection against OGD/R injury through a novel flotillin-1 and ERK1/2 pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  14. Desloratadine citrate disodium injection, a potent histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, inhibits chemokine production in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pig model and histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells via inhibiting the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Zhou, Peipei; He, Guangwei; Jie, Qiong; Wu, Yulin

    2015-11-15

    Chemokines have chemotactic properties on leukocyte subsets whose modulation plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory processes. Our present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-allergic effects of DLC were evaluated based on allergic symptoms, serological marker production and histological changes of the nasal mucosa in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were explored by studying the regulation of a set of chemokines and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, after DLC treatment in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis in vivo and histamine-activated human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in vitro. In vivo model in guinea pigs, DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms, inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and histamine, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTEs) and interleukin (IL)-8 release in sera and P-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in nasal mucosa. In vitro, DLC markedly inhibited histamine-induced production of MCP-1, RANTEs and IL-8 and suppressed c-Raf, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation in HNECs. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action underlying DLC in allergic inflammation appears to be inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in addition to blocking of the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Control of density-dependent, cell state-specific signal transduction by the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1, and its influence on cell cycle regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffrahn, Inka; Singer, Bernhard B.; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Lucka, Lothar; Oebrink, Bjoern

    2005-01-01

    Growth factor receptors, extracellular matrix receptors, and cell-cell adhesion molecules co-operate in regulating the activities of intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 co-regulates growth-factor-induced DNA synthesis in NBT-II epithelial cells in a cell-density-dependent manner. CEACAM1 exerted its effects by regulating the activity of the Erk 1/2 MAP kinase pathway and the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 . Interestingly, both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were observed. Confluent cells continuously exposed to fetal calf serum showed little Erk activity and DNA synthesis compared with sparse cells. Under these conditions, anti-CEACAM1 antibodies strongly stimulated Erk activation, decreased p27 expression, and induced DNA synthesis. In serum-starved confluent cells, re-addition of 10% fetal calf serum activated the Erk pathway, decreased p27 expression, and stimulated DNA synthesis to the same levels as in sparse cells. Under these conditions anti-CEACAM1 antibodies de-activated Erk, restored the level of p27, and inhibited DNA synthesis. These data indicate that CEACAM1 mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in cells that are constantly exposed to growth factors, but co-activates growth-factor-induced proliferation in cells that have been starved for growth factors; exposure to extracellular CEACAM1 ligands reverts these responses

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of Δ6-Desaturase by Peroxisome Proliferative-Activated Receptor δ Agonist in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells: Role of MEK/ERK1/2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Darabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Δ6-desaturase (Δ6D, also known as fatty acid desaturase 2, is a regulatory enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which has been linked to obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ (PPARδ agonist and MEK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway on the expression of Δ6D in human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. PANC-1 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and PPARδ agonist GW0742. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of Δ6D were then determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of Δ6D (P40%, P25%, P<0.05 pretreatment. PPARδ and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways affect differentially the expression of Δ6D in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, there may be an inhibitory crosstalk between these two regulatory pathways on the mRNA expression of Δ6D and subsequently on Δ6D protein expression.

  17. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Song

    Full Text Available AIMS: It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. CONCLUSION: CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.

  18. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. produces antidepressant-like effects in rodents, associated with activation of the CREB-BDNF-ERK signaling pathway and reversal of HPA axis hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qu, Fa-Lin; Gao, Yue; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Rahman, Khalid; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2017-03-06

    There are many plants of genus Piper which have been reported to induce antidepressant-like effects, Piper sarmentosum (PS) is one of them. PS is a Chinese herbal medicine and a traditional edible vegetable. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effects of PS extracts and the ethyl acetate fraction of PS extracts (PSY) were assessed using the open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Furthermore, we applied a 4 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as a model of depression in rats, followed by a sucrose preference test. Then we examined the possible mechanisms of this action. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, and the protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the phosphorylated form CREB and ERK1/2 were detected by qRT-PCR or Western blot. The results showed that PS extracts (100, 200mg/kg) and PSY (12.5, 25, 50mg/kg) treatment produced antidepressant-like effects in mice similar to fluoxetine (20mg/kg), indicated by the reduced immobility time in the FST and TST, while both had no influence on the locomotor activity in the OFT. PSY treatment significantly increased sucrose preference and reduced serum CORT levels in CUMS rats. Moreover, PSY up-regulated BDNF protein levels, and increased CREB and ERK phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus on CUMS rats. These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of PS extracts and PSY are mediated, at least in part, by modulating HPA axis, BDNF, CREB and ERK phosphorylation and expression in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  20. ERK and RSK regulate distinct steps of a cellular program that induces transition from multicellular epithelium to single cell phenotype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáslavský, Josef; Klímová, Zuzana; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 12 (2013), s. 2743-2751 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0614; GA ČR GA13-06405S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MAPK/ERK * RSK * Polarity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.471, year: 2013

  1. Didymin Alleviates Hepatic Fibrosis Through Inhibiting ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways via Regulation of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Didymin has been reported to have anti-cancer potential. However, the effect of didymin on liver fibrosis remains illdefined. Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in rats. The effects of didymin on liver pathology and collagen accumulation were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Serum transaminases activities and collagen-related indicators levels were determined by commercially available kits. Moreover, the effects of didymin on hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by using rhodamine-123 dye. The expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP and the phosphorylation of the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were assessed by Western blot. Results: Didymin significantly ameliorated chronic liver injury and collagen deposition. It strongly inhibited hepatic stellate cells proliferation, induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Moreover, didymin notably attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by release of cytochrome C. Didymin significantly inhibited the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The effects of didymin on the collagen accumulation in rats and on the biological behaviors of hepatic stellate cells were largely abolished by the specific RKIP inhibitor locostatin. Conclusion: Didymin alleviates hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways via regulation of RKIP expression.

  2. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviate interstitial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a dilated cardiomyopathy rat model by inhibiting TNF-α and TGF-β1/ERK1/2 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyi; Zhou, Guichi; Chen, Yezeng; Liu, Sizheng; Chen, Fen; Xie, Lichun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Tianyou; Lai, Xiulan; Ma, Lian

    2018-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart characterized by pathological remodeling, including patchy interstitial fibrosis and degeneration of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, the beneficial role of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HuMSCs) derived from Wharton's jelly was evaluated in the myosin-induced rat model of DCM. Male Lewis rats (aged 8-weeks) were injected with porcine myosin to induce DCM. Cultured HuMSCs (1×106 cells/rat) were intravenously injected 28 days after myosin injection and the effects on myocardial fibrosis and the underlying signaling pathways were investigated and compared with vehicle-injected and negative control rats. Myosin injections in rats (vehicle group and experimental group) for 28 days led to severe fibrosis and significant deterioration of cardiac function indicative of DCM. HuMSC treatment reduced fibrosis as determined by Masson's staining of collagen deposits, as well as quantification of molecular markers of myocardial fibrosis such as collagen I/III, profibrotic factors transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). HuMSC treatment restored cardiac function as observed using echocardiography. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that HuMSC injections in DCM rats inhibited the expression of TNF-α, extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and TGF-β1, which is a master switch for inducing myocardial fibrosis. These findings suggested that HuMSC injections attenuated myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in a rat model of DCM, likely by inhibiting TNF-α and the TGF-β1/ERK1/2 fibrosis pathways. Therefore, HuMSC treatment may represent a potential therapeutic method for treatment of DCM. PMID:29115435

  3. Dihydroartemisinin alleviates bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell activation by interfering with the PDGF-βR/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Lianyun; Kong, Desong; Shao, Jiangjuan; Wu, Li; Zheng, Shizhong

    2016-05-01

    Liver fibrosis represents a frequent event following chronic insult to trigger wound healing responses in the liver. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which is a pivotal event during liver fibrogenesis, is accompanied by enhanced expressions of a series of marker proteins and pro-fibrogenic signaling molecules. Artemisinin, a powerful antimalarial medicine, is extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., and can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the major active metabolite of artemisinin, is able to attenuate lung injury and fibrosis. However, the effect of DHA on liver fibrosis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DHA on bile duct ligation-induced injury and fibrosis in rats. DHA improved the liver histological architecture and attenuated collagen deposition in the fibrotic rat liver. Experiments in vitro showed that DHA inhibited the proliferation of HSCs and arrested the cell cycle at the S checkpoint by altering several cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Moreover, DHA reduced the protein expressions of a-SMA, α1 (I) collagen and fibronectin, being associated with interference of the platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGF-βR)-mediated ERK pathway. These data collectively revealed that DHA relieved liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via the PDGF-βR/ERK pathway. DHA may be a therapeutic antifibrotic agent for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Tien, Yin-Jing; Chen, Chun-Houh; Beltran, Francesca N; Amor, Evangeline C; Wang, Ran-Juh; Wu, Den-Jen; Mettling, Clément; Lin, Yea-Lih; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2013-02-23

    Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells.

  5. GLP-1 Treatment Improves Diabetic Retinopathy by Alleviating Autophagy through GLP-1R-ERK1/2-HDAC6 Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiangsheng; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Mingzhu; She, Miaoqin; Tang, Yongming; Li, Jinlong; Li, Hongwei; Hui, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Apoptosis and autophagy of retinal cells, which may be induced by oxidative stress, are tightly associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The autophagy induced by oxidative stress is considered as excessively stimulated autophagy, which accelerates the progression of DR. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of GLP-1 treatment on alleviating apoptosis and autophagy of retinal cells in type 2 diabetic rats and reveals its possible mechanism. Methods: Type 2 diabetic rats were induced by fed with high sugar, high fat diet and followed with streptozotocin injection. GLP-1 was applied to treat the diabetic rats for one week after the onset of diabetes. The expressions of oxidative stress-related enzymes, retinal GLP-1R, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis- related genes, autophagy markers, and autophagy-associated pathway genes were studied by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: GLP-1treatment reduced the levels of NOX3 and SOD2 in DR. The expression of BCL2 was increased, while the levels of caspase3 and LC3B were reduced through GLP-1 treatment in DR . GLP-1 treatment restored the GLP-1R expression and decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated ERK1/2, which was accompanied with the reduction of the HDAC6 levels in DR. Conclusions: GLP-1 treatment can alleviate autophagy which may be induced by oxidative stress; this protective effect is likely through GLP-1R-ERK1/2-HDAC6 signaling pathway.

  6. GCN5L1 modulates cross-talk between mitochondria and cell signaling to regulate FoxO1 stability and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingdi; Scott, Iain; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Kaiyuan; Han, Kim; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N

    2017-09-12

    The mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 (GCN5L1) protein has been shown to modulate mitochondrial protein acetylation, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Here we show that hepatic GCN5L1 ablation reduces fasting glucose levels and blunts hepatic gluconeogenesis without affecting systemic glucose tolerance. PEPCK and G6Pase transcript levels are downregulated in hepatocytes from GCN5L1 liver specific knockout mice and their upstream regulator, FoxO1 protein levels are decreased via proteasome-dependent degradation and via reactive oxygen species mediated ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. ERK inhibition restores FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and glucose production. Reconstitution of mitochondrial-targeted GCN5L1 blunts mitochondrial ROS, ERK activation and increases FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and hepatocyte glucose production. We suggest that mitochondrial GCN5L1 modulates post-translational control of FoxO1, regulates gluconeogenesis and controls metabolic pathways via mitochondrial ROS mediated ERK activation. Exploring mechanisms underpinning GCN5L1 mediated ROS signaling may expand our understanding of the role of mitochondria in gluconeogenesis control.Hepatic gluconeogenesis is tightly regulated at transcriptional level and is essential for survival during prolonged fasting. Here Wang et al. show that the mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 protein controls hepatic glucose production by regulating FoxO1 protein levels via proteasome-dependent degradation and, in turn, gluconeogenic gene expression.

  7. Evolutionarily conserved regulation of TOR signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Terunao; Maeda, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that regulates cell growth in response to various environmental as well as intracellular cues through the formation of 2 distinct TOR complexes (TORC), TORC1 and TORC2. Dysregulation of TORC1 and TORC2 activity is closely associated with various diseases, including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Over the past few years, new regulatory mechanisms of TORC1 and TORC2 activity have been elucidated. Furthermore, recent advances in the study of TOR inhibitors have revealed previously unrecognized cellular functions of TORC1. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of the evolutionarily conserved TOR signalling from upstream regulators to downstream events.

  8. Membrane mechanisms and intracellular signalling in cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Dunham, Philip B.

    1995-01-01

    Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation.......Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation....

  9. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina A. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 regulate signal transduction and angiogenesis, but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell response. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response.

  10. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2017-10-15

    Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) regulate signal transduction and angiogenesis, but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell response. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. SIRT1 induces resistance to apoptosis in human granulosa cells by activating the ERK pathway and inhibiting NF-κB signaling with anti-inflammatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Luo, Haining; Wang, Hui; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yunshan

    2017-10-01

    SIRT1, a member of the sirtuin family, has recently emerged as a vital molecule in controlling ovarian function. The aims of the present study were to investigate SIRT1 expression and analyze SIRT1-mediated apoptosis in human granulosa cells (GCs). Human ovarian tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for localization of SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 knockdown in a human ovarian GC tumor line (COV434) was achieved by small interfering RNA, and the relationship between apoptosis and SIRT1 was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. We further detected SIRT1 expression in human luteinized GCs. Associations among SIRT1 knockdown, SIRT1 stimulation (resveratrol) and expression of ERK1/2 and apoptotic regulatory proteins were analyzed in cell lines and luteinized GCs. Resveratrol downregulated the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB/p65, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by suppressing SIRT1 activity. The NF-κB/p65 inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate achieved similar anti-apoptosis effects. These results suggest that SIRT1 might play an anti-apoptotic role in apoptosis processes in GCs, possibly by sensing and regulating the ERK1/2 pathway, which has important clinical implications. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic link, whereby activation of SIRT1 function might help to sustain human reproduction by maintaining GCs as well as oocytes, offering a novel approach for developing a new class of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents.

  12. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Yoshida, Satoko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Shirasu, Ken; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Asami, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed ( Striga hermonthica ). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Synergistic Inhibition of Thalidomide and Icotinib on Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas Through ERK and AKT Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Chen, Qian; Liu, Liu; Bao, Yangyi

    2018-05-15

    BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive EGFR mutations. However, the survival of patients with EGFR-TKI administration is limited by the inevitable development of acquired drug resistance. Recently, multi-targeted drugs combination has been shown to be a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment and enable the reduction of drug resistance in NSCLC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Humanized NSCLC cell lines PC9 and A549 were co-cultured with thalidomide and/or icotinib to test for anti-tumor efficiency. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, cell apoptosis by flow cytometry and cell migration by wound healing assay. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, EGFR, VEGF-R, AKT, ERK, MMP2, MMP9, and NF-κB. The xenograft mouse model was used to explore the effects of thalidomide and icotinib in vivo. Immunohistochemical testing was used to determine the expression of Ki-67 and TUNEL staining in tumor tissues. RESULTS Treatments of thalidomide and/or icotinib reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis, and suppressed migration. Attenuation of pEGFR and pVEGF-R resulted in deactivation of ERK and AKT pathways, which eventually increased the anti-proliferative response. In PC9 xenograft model, combined administration of thalidomide and icotinib restrained tumor growth with remarkable reduced Ki-67 index and increased TUNEL positive cells. CONCLUSIONS Thalidomide sensitizes icotinib to increase apoptosis and prevent migration, and it may be a potentially promising anti-tumor drug in lung cancer multi-modality therapy.

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Vera J M; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T; Atkins, Annette R; Evans, Ronald M; Jonker, Johan W; Downes, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.

  15. Metabolic signals in sleep regulation: recent insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Charu Shukla, Radhika Basheer Department of Psychiatry, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, West Roxbury, MA, USA Abstract: Sleep and energy balance are essential for health. The two processes act in concert to regulate central and peripheral homeostasis. During sleep, energy is conserved due to suspended activity, movement, and sensory responses, and is redirected to restore and replenish proteins and their assemblies into cellular structures. During wakefulness, various energy-demanding activities lead to hunger. Thus, hunger promotes arousal, and subsequent feeding, followed by satiety that promotes sleep via changes in neuroendocrine or neuropeptide signals. These signals overlap with circuits of sleep-wakefulness, feeding, and energy expenditure. Here, we will briefly review the literature that describes the interplay between the circadian system, sleep-wake, and feeding-fasting cycles that are needed to maintain energy balance and a healthy metabolic profile. In doing so, we describe the neuroendocrine, hormonal/peptide signals that integrate sleep and feeding behavior with energy metabolism. Keywords: sleep, energy balance, hypothalamus, metabolism, homeostasis

  16. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  17. Albumin-induced apoptosis of glomerular parietal epithelial cells is modulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohse, Takamoto; Krofft, Ron D.; Wu, Jimmy S.; Eddy, Allison A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The biological role(s) of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is not fully understood in health or disease. Given its location, PECs are constantly exposed to low levels of filtered albumin, which is increased in nephrotic states. We tested the hypothesis that PECs internalize albumin and increased uptake results in apoptosis. Methods. Confocal microscopy of immunofluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate albumin internalization in PECs and to quantitate albumin uptake in normal mice and rats as well as experimental models of membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and protein overload nephropathy. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed on immortalized cultured PECs exposed to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled albumin in the presence of an endosomal inhibitor or vehicle. Apoptosis was measured by Hoechst staining in cultured PECs exposed to bovine serum albumin. Levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2) were restored by retroviral infection of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) 1/2 and reduced by U0126 in PECs exposed to high albumin levels in culture and apoptosis measured by Hoechst staining. Results. PECs internalized albumin normally, and this was markedly increased in all of the experimental disease models (P PECs also internalize FITC-labeled albumin, which was reduced by endosomal inhibition. A consequence of increased albumin internalization was PEC apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Candidate signaling pathways underlying these events were examined. Data showed markedly reduced levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in PECs exposed to high albumin levels in nephropathy and in culture. A role for ERK1/2 in limiting albumin-induced apoptosis was shown by restoring p-ERK1/2 by retroviral infection, which reduced apoptosis in cultured PECs, while a forced

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Upregulates TNF-α Expression via TLR2/ERK Signaling and Induces MMP-1 and MMP-9 Production in Human Pleural Mesothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are elevated in pleural fluids of tuberculous pleuritis (TBP where pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs conduct the first-line defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. However, the clinical implication of TNF-α and MMPs in TBP and the response of PMCs to MTB infection remain unclear.We measured pleural fluid levels of TNF-α and MMPs in patients with TBP (n = 18 or heart failure (n = 18 as controls. Radiological scores for initial effusion amount and residual pleural fibrosis at 6-month follow-up were assessed. In vitro human PMC experiments were performed to assess the effect of heat-killed M. tuberculosis H37Ra (MTBRa on the expression of TNF-α and MMPs.As compared with controls, the effusion levels of TNF-α, MMP-1 and MMP-9 were significantly higher and correlated positively with initial effusion amount in patients with TBP, while TNF-α and MMP-1, but not MMP-9, were positively associated with residual pleural fibrosis of TBP. Moreover, effusion levels of TNF-α had positive correlation with those of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in TBP. In cultured PMCs, MTBRa enhanced TLR2 and TLR4 expression, activated ERK signaling, and upregulated TNF-α mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of TLR2, but not TLR4, significantly inhibited ERK phosphorylation and TNF-α expression. Additionally, both MTBRa and TNF-α markedly induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 synthesis in human PMCs, and TNF-α neutralization substantially reduced the production of MMP-1, but not MMP-9, in response to MTBRa stimulation.MTBRa activates TLR2/ERK signalings to induce TNF-α and elicit MMP-1 and MMP-9 in human PMCs, which are associated with effusion volume and pleural fibrosis and may contribute to pathogenesis of TBP. Further investigation of manipulation of TNF-α and MMP expression in pleural mesothelium may provide new insights into the mechanisms and rational treatment strategies for TBP.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured under hypoxia escape from senescence via down-regulation of p16 and extracellular signal regulated kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yonghui; Kato, Tomohisa; Furu, Moritoshi; Nasu, Akira; Kajita, Yoichiro; Mitsui, Hiroto; Ueda, Michiko; Aoyama, Tomoki; Nakayama, Tomitaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia has been considered to affect the properties of tissue stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Effects of long periods of exposure to hypoxia on human MSCs, however, have not been clearly demonstrated. MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions (20% pO 2 ) ceased to proliferate after 15-25 population doublings, while MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% pO 2 ) retained the ability to proliferate with an additional 8-20 population doublings. Most of the MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions were in a senescent state after 100 days, while few senescent cells were found in the hypoxic culture, which was associated with a down-regulation of p16 gene expression. MSCs cultured for 100 days under hypoxic conditions were superior to those cultured under normoxic conditions in the ability to differentiate into the chondro- and adipogenic, but not osteogenic, lineage. Among the molecules related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was significantly down-regulated by hypoxia, which helped to inhibit the up-regulation of p16 gene expression. Therefore, the hypoxic culture retained MSCs in an undifferentiated and senescence-free state through the down-regulation of p16 and ERK.

  20. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth through Mechanotransduction-Mediated ERK1/2-CREB-Trx-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Feng, Yi; Hu, Hong; Shi, Aiwei; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-12-01

    Enhancing the action of nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic approach to neural regeneration. To facilitate neural regeneration, we investigated whether combining low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and NGF could promote neurite outgrowth, an essential process in neural regeneration. In the present study, PC12 cells were subjected to a combination of LIPUS (1 MHz, 30 or 50 mW/cm 2 , 20% duty cycle and 100-Hz pulse repetition frequency, 10 min every other day) and NGF (50 ng/mL) treatment, and then neurite outgrowth was compared. Our findings indicated that the combined treatment with LIPUS (50 mW/cm 2 ) and NGF (50 ng/mL) promotes neurite outgrowth that is comparable to that achieved by NGF (100 ng/mL) treatment alone. LIPUS significantly increased NGF-induced neurite length, but not neurite branching. These effects were attributed to the enhancing effects of LIPUS on NGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB and the expression of thioredoxin (Trx-1). Furthermore, blockage of stretch-activated ion channels with Gd 3+ suppressed the stimulating effects of LIPUS on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and the downstream signaling activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LIPUS enhances NGF-induced neurite outgrowth through mechanotransduction-mediated signaling of the ERK1/2-CREB-Trx-1 pathway. The combination of LIPUS and NGF could potentially be used for the treatment of nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. β-arrestin regulates estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in hypothalamic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Wong

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 action in the nervous system is the result of both direct nuclear and membrane-initiated signaling (EMS. E2 regulates membrane estrogen receptor-α (ERα levels through opposing mechanisms of EMS-mediated trafficking and internalization. While ß-arrestin-mediated mERα internalization has been described in the cortex, a role of ß-arrestin in EMS, which underlies multiple physiological processes, remains undefined. In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH, membrane-initiated E2 signaling modulates lordosis behavior, a measure of female sexually receptivity. To better understand EMS and regulation of ERα membrane levels, we examined the role of ß-arrestin, a molecule associated with internalization following agonist stimulation. In the present study, we used an immortalized neuronal cell line derived from embryonic hypothalamic neurons, the N-38 line, to examine whether ß-arrestins mediate internalization of mERα. β-arrestin-1 (Arrb1 was found in the ARH and in N-38 neurons. In vitro, E2 increased trafficking and internalization of full-length ERα and ERαΔ4, an alternatively spliced isoform of ERα, which predominates in the membrane. Treatment with E2 also increased phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 in N-38 neurons. Arrb1 siRNA knockdown prevented E2-induced ERαΔ4 internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo, microinfusions of Arrb1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN into female rat ARH knocked down Arrb1 and prevented estradiol benzoate-induced lordosis behavior compared with nonsense scrambled ODN (lordosis quotient: 3 ± 2.1 vs. 85.0 ± 6.0; p < 0.0001. These results indicate a role for Arrb1 in both EMS and internalization of mERα, which are required for the E2-induction of female sexual receptivity.

  2. Dynamic ubiquitin signaling in cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto, Samuel; Peter, Matthias

    2017-08-07

    The cell division cycle is driven by a collection of enzymes that coordinate DNA duplication and separation, ensuring that genomic information is faithfully and perpetually maintained. The activity of the effector proteins that perform and coordinate these biological processes oscillates by regulated expression and/or posttranslational modifications. Ubiquitylation is a cardinal cellular modification and is long known for driving cell cycle transitions. In this review, we emphasize emerging concepts of how ubiquitylation brings the necessary dynamicity and plasticity that underlie the processes of DNA replication and mitosis. New studies, often focusing on the regulation of chromosomal proteins like DNA polymerases or kinetochore kinases, are demonstrating that ubiquitylation is a versatile modification that can be used to fine-tune these cell cycle events, frequently through processes that do not involve proteasomal degradation. Understanding how the increasing variety of identified ubiquitin signals are transduced will allow us to develop a deeper mechanistic perception of how the multiple factors come together to faithfully propagate genomic information. Here, we discuss these and additional conceptual challenges that are currently under study toward understanding how ubiquitin governs cell cycle regulation. © 2017 Gilberto and Peter.

  3. Agonist-mediated activation of Bombyx mori diapause hormone receptor signals to extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 through Gq-PLC-PKC-dependent cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Yang, Jingwen; Shen, Zhangfei; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Liangen; Zhou, Naiming

    2016-08-01

    Diapause is a developmental strategy adopted by insects to survive in challenging environments such as the low temperatures of a winter. This unique process is regulated by diapause hormone (DH), which is a neuropeptide hormone that induces egg diapause in Bombyx mori and is involved in terminating pupal diapause in heliothis moths. An G protein-coupled receptor from the silkworm, B. mori, has been identified as a specific cell surface receptor for DH. However, the detailed information on the DH-DHR system and its mechanism(s) involved in the induction of embryonic diapause remains unknown. Here, we combined functional assays with various specific inhibitors to elucidate the DHR-mediated signaling pathways. Upon activation by DH, B. mori DHR is coupled to the Gq protein, leading to a significant increase of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP response element-driven luciferase activity in an UBO-QIC, a specific Gq inhibitor, sensitive manner. B. mori DHR elicited ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in response to DH. This effect was almost completely inhibited by co-incubation with UBO-QIC and was also significantly suppressed by PLC inhibitor U73122, PKC inhibitors Gö6983 and the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA. Moreover, DHR-induced activation of ERK1/2 was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Gβγ specific inhibitors gallein and M119K and the PI3K specific inhibitor Wortmannin, but not by the Src specific inhibitor PP2. Our data also demonstrates that the EGFR-transactivation pathway is not involved in the DHR-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Future efforts are needed to clarify the role of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the DH-mediated induction of B. mori embryonic diapause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential phosphorylation of Smad1 integrates BMP and neurotrophin pathways through Erk/Dusp in axon development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Mattéa J; Murphy, Kevin J; Chen, Lei; Zou, Hongyan

    2013-05-30

    Sensory axon development requires concerted actions of growth factors for the precise control of axonal outgrowth and target innervation. How developing sensory neurons integrate different cues is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that Smad1 activation is required for neurotrophin-mediated sensory axon growth in vitro and in vivo. Through differential phosphorylation, Smad1 exerts transcriptional selectivity to regulate the expression and activity of Erk1 and Erk2-two key neurotrophin effectors. Specifically, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signal through carboxy-terminal phosphorylation of Smad1 (pSmad1C) to induce Erk1/2 transcription for enhanced neurotrophin responsiveness. Meanwhile, neurotrophin signaling results in linker phosphorylation of Smad1 (pSmad1L), which in turn upregulates an Erk-specific dual-specificity phosphatase, Dusp6, leading to reduced pErk1/2 and constituting a negative-feedback loop for the prevention of axon overgrowth. Together, the BMP and neurotrophin pathways form a tightly regulated signaling network with a balanced ratio of Erk1/2 and pErk1/2 to direct the precise connections between sensory neurons and peripheral targets. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.