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Sample records for erinaceus europaeus iv

  1. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havé, D' H.; Scheirs, J.; Covaci, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Verhagen, R.; Coen, De W.

    2007-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

  2. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R

    2016-01-01

    glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. DISCUSSION: New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures......INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology...... and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. RESULTS: Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones. In addition there was a paraplacenta incorporating Reichert's membrane and a largely detached...

  3. Relevance of hair and spines of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) as biomonitoring tissues for arsenic and metals in relation to blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, F.; Havé, D' H.; Mubiana, V.K.; Brink, van den N.W.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, De W.

    2009-01-01

    Hair has been proven to be suitable for non-destructive and non-invasive exposure assessments in human and mammal populations. A previous study with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) showed that, for some metals, hair and spine metal concentrations were positively correlated to levels in

  4. Parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I; Zujar, M J; Admella, C; Alcantara, S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the morphology and distribution of nonpyramidal neurons in the brain of insectivores, parvalbumin and calbindin 28 kDa immunoreactivity was examined in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were found in all layers of the isocortex, but in contrast to other mammals, a laminar organisation or specific regional distribution was not seen. Characteristic parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were multipolar cells with large ascending and descending dendrites extending throughout several layers. Calbindin-immunoreactive neurons were similar to those found in other species, although appearing in smaller numbers than in the cerebral cortex of more advanced mammals. The morphology and distribution of parvalbumin- and calbindin-immunoreactive cells in the piriform and entorhinal cortices were similar in hedgehogs and rodents. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampal complex were pyramidal-like and bitufted neurons, which were mainly found in the stratum oriens and stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus, and in the stratum moleculare and hilus of the fascia dentata. Heavily stained cells were found in the deep part of the stratum granulare. Intense calbindin immunoreactivity occurred mainly in the granule cell and molecular layers of the dentate gyrus and in the mossy fibre layer. The most outstanding feature in the hippocampal complex of the hedgehog was the extension of calbindin immunoreactivity to CA1 field of the hippocampus, suggesting, in agreement with other reports, that mossy fibres can establish synaptic contacts throughout the pyramidal cell layer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1452472

  5. Neocortical layers I and II of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). I. Intrinsic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, F; Facal-Valverde, M V

    1986-01-01

    The intrinsic organization and interlaminar connections in neocortical layers I and II have been studied in adult hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) using the Golgi method. Layer I contains a dense plexus of horizontal fibers, the terminal dendritic bouquets of pyramidal cells of layer II and of underlying layers, and varieties of intrinsic neurons. Four main types of cells were found in layer I. Small horizontal cells represent most probably persisting foetal horizontal cells described for other mammals. Large horizontal cells, tufted cells, and spinous horizontal cells were also found in this layer. Layer II contains primitive pyramidal cells representing the most outstanding feature of the neocortex of the hedgehog. Most pyramidal cells in layer II have two, three or more apical dendrites, richly covered by spines predominating over the basal dendrites. These cells resemble pyramidal cells found in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and other olfactory areas. It is suggested that the presence of these neurons reflects the retention of a primitive character in neocortical evolution. Cells with intrinsic axons were found among pyramidal cells in layer II. These have smooth dendrites penetrating layer I and local axons forming extremely complex terminal arborizations around the bodies and proximal dendritic portions of pyramidal cells. They most probably effect numerous axo-somatic contacts resembling basket cells. The similarity of some axonal terminals with the chandelier type of axonal arborization is discussed. Other varieties of cells located in deep cortical layers and having ascending axons for layers I and II were also studied. It is concluded that the two first neocortical layers represent a level of important integration in this primitive mammal.

  6. Comparison of two systemic antifungal agents, itraconazole and terbinafine, for the treatment of dermatophytosis in European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexton, Steve; Nelson, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei is a common scaling and crusting skin disease affecting European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) admitted to wildlife rescue centres. The application of topical therapy can be challenging because wild hedgehogs are subject to stress and often roll into a ball when handled. Systemic antifungal therapy is more convenient but has not been evaluated in this species. To compare the efficacy of oral itraconazole versus oral terbinafine for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs. A treatment trial was undertaken in a wildlife hospital involving 165 hedgehogs with naturally occurring dermatophytosis. Animals were randomly divided into two groups and treated with either itraconazole or terbinafine orally for 28 days. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after 14 and 28 days by mycological culture and clinical dermatological lesion scores. Both drugs were well tolerated and clinically effective. After 14 and 28 days of treatment, the respective mycological cure rate was 36.6% and 65.9% for the itraconazole-treated group and 92.8% and 98.8% for the terbinafine-treated group. Itraconazole and terbinafine were both effective for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs; however, terbinafine was more effective. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Sex, age, and tissue specific accumulation of eight metals, arsenic, and selenium in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Anni; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, Anu; Ikonen, Mirva; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Holopainen, Ismo J; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2010-11-01

    Many insectivores have been shown to be sensitive to heavy metals and therefore suitable for biomonitoring purposes. In Finland, the hibernation period of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is long, and during hibernation the stress caused by environmental toxins may be crucial. Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se) were measured in a population of hedgehogs in the town of Joensuu in eastern Finland during the summers of 2004 and 2005. The analyzed tissues were kidney, liver, hair, and spine. The sampled hedgehogs (n = 65) were mainly road-killed animals. As expected, the concentrations of heavy metals were low because the hedgehogs were living in a comparatively unpolluted area. Significant increases with age were found in Cd concentrations (kidney, liver, and spine) and some essential elements (Se in spine, kidney, and liver; Mo in kidney and liver; Cu in spine; Fe in liver; and Mn in spine). Age accumulation and correlations between Se and Cd and between Mo and Cd may indicate the protective roles of Se and Mo against Cd toxicity in hedgehogs, in which Cd is already at comparatively low concentrations. Sex had no significant effect on concentrations of the elements studied. In conclusion, age is an important parameter to be taken into account when studying heavy-metal concentrations in hedgehogs and other insectivores.

  8. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): I. Relationships between concentrations of metals and arsenic in hair, spines, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2005-09-01

    Conventional metal exposure assessment in terrestrial mammals is generally based on organ analyses of sacrificed animals. Few studies on mammals use nondestructive methodologies despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling. Nondestructive methods involve minimal stress to populations and permit successive biomonitoring of the same populations and individuals. In the present study we assessed metal exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) by investigating relationships between concentrations of metals (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As in soil samples and in hair and spines of hedgehogs. Samples were collected in seven study sites along a metal pollution gradient, characterized by decreasing total soil Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb concentrations with increasing distance from a nonferrous metallurgic factory. For a number of elements, soil contamination was related both to distance to the smelter and to habitat. Soil concentrations were positively related to levels in hair and spines for Ag, As, Cd, and Pb and thus to hedgehog exposure. Metal concentrations in soil did not relate to metal concentrations in hair and spines for essential elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn), except Co in hair and soil. Our results demonstrate that, at least for nonessential elements, concentrations in soils can be used to predict contamination of these elements in hedgehogs or vice versa. Furthermore, hedgehog exposure increased toward the smelter and was higher for hedgehogs foraging in grasslands than for animals foraging in the forest. Moreover, we believe that hair and spines are promising tools in terrestrial wildlife exposure assessment studies of metals and As.

  9. Flavonoids from Ulex airensis and Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, Patrícia; Lourenço, Ana; Feio, Sónia Savluchinske; Roseiro, José Carlos

    2002-02-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Ulex airensis three new isoflavonoids, ulexin C (1), ulexin D (2), and 7-O-methylisolupalbigenin (3), were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Ulexin D (2) was also identified from the dichloromethane extract of Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus. Together with these new metabolites, 18 compounds of previously known structures were isolated and identified from both species. The antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Cladosporium cucumerinum by a bioautographic TLC assay.

  10. Breast abscess due to Actinomyces europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W A; Pinheiro, A M; Jahns, B; Bögli-Stuber, K; Droz, S; Zimmerli, S

    2011-06-01

    Actinomyces europaeus was first described in 1997 as a new species causing predominantly skin and soft-tissue infections. Mastitis due to A. europaeus is an unusual condition. This article reports a case of primary breast abscess caused by A. europaeus in a postmenopausal woman.

  11. The gross anatomy of the male reproductive system of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, G; Babaei, M; Kianifard, D; Mohebi, D

    2018-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small spiny-coated insectivores. Due to their low body weight, calm character, and easy maintenance, they are kept as pets. It is therefore worthwhile to care about hedgehogs' health problems and to provide pet owners with information about their reproduction. Moreover, it is necessary to be familiar with their anatomy so as to satisfy the need to improve nutrition and medical care, even surgery. This study was carried out on five adult male European hedgehogs euthanased in a chloroform chamber. The European hedgehog's oval testes are invisible in inguinal region because they have no true scrotal sac. The testes are located in the craniocaudal direction with dorsolateral epididymal attachments. The vesicular glands, the European hedgehog's largest accessory sex glands, are lobulated structures containing dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts on each side. The prostate is an oval gland with right and left lobes. The paired bulbourethral glands are laid on the ischiocavernosus muscle. Histologically the vesicular, prostate gland ducts and ductus deferens as well as urethra separately were discharged in a diverticlum at the level of the pelvic urethra end. A sigmoid flexure exists in the proximal part of shaft body of the penis. There are two retractor penile muscles. In dorsal end of the penile glans, there is a small urethral process with two nail- -like, needle-shaped structures. They are on both sides of the urethral process. Furthermore, there are two intromittent sacs (Sacculus urethralis) in the ventral part of the end of the penis. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 36-43).

  12. Integument Mycobiota of Wild European Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, R A; Adelantado, C; Arosemena, E L; Obón, E; Darwich, L; Calvo, M A

    2012-01-01

    There are some reports about the risk of manipulating wild hedgehogs since they can be reservoirs of potential zoonotic agents like dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to describe the integument mycobiota, with special attention to dermatophytes of wild European hedgehogs. Samples from spines and fur were cultured separately in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with antibiotic and dermatophyte test medium (DTM) plates. Nineteen different fungal genera were isolated from 91 cultures of 102 hedgehogs. The most prevalent genera were Cladosporium (79.1%), Penicillium (74.7%), Alternaria (64.8%), and Rhizopus (63.7%). A lower prevalence of Aspergillus (P = 0,035; χ (2) = 8,633) and Arthrinium (P = 0,043; χ (2) = 8,173) was isolated during the spring time and higher frequencies of Fusarium (P = 0,015; χ (2) = 10,533) during the autumn. The prevalence of Acremonium was significantly higher in young animals (70%, 26/37) than in adults (30%, 11/37) (P = 0,019; χ (2) = 5,915). Moreover, the majority of the saprophytic species that grew at the SDA culture were also detected at the DTM. Finally, no cases of ringworm were diagnosed and no dermatophytes spp. were isolated. Concluding, this study provides the first description of fungal mycobiota of the integument of wild European hedgehogs in Spain, showing a large number of saprophytic species and the absence of dermatophytes.

  13. Characterizing Cellulosic Fibers from Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Celis; Marco Torres; Paulina Valenzuela; Rolando Rios; William Gacitúa; Héctor Pesenti

    2014-01-01

    Information on the morphological and physical properties of biofibers is necessary to support the mechanical understanding of the biological design of plants, as well as for the development of new technology that adds value to non-traditional bioresources, such as those based on Ulex europaeus fibers. Ulex europaeus fibers were extracted through a chemical pulping process at 170 °C and with 40 g/L NaOH. The dimensions of the fibers produced were 0.97 ± 0.1 mm in length and 13 ± 2 μm in diamet...

  14. Anti-hyperglycemic property of Hericium erinaceus – A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat Chaiyasut

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus is one of the widely used edible mushrooms around the world, primarily in Asian countries. H. erinaceus is used in traditional medicines, and mushroom based foods. The fruiting body and mycelia of H. erinaceus are extracted using the solvents, and several bioactive compounds were identified. Several studies have reported that those bioactive compounds exhibit many health benefits such as hemagglutinating, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-aging activities, etc. This manuscript consciously updated the information about the composition of H. erinaceus, H. erinaceus based foods, and anti-hyperglycemic property of H. erinaceus.

  15. New sesquiterpenes from Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descoins, Charles; Bazzocchi, Isabel López; Ravelo, Angel Gutiérrez

    2002-02-01

    A new sesquiterpene evoninate alkaloid (1), and two sesquiterpenes (2, 3) with a dihydro-beta-agarofuran skeleton, along with three known sesquiterpenes (4-6), were isolated from the seeds of Euonymus europaeus. Their structures were elucidated by high resolution mass analysis, and one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation [correlation spectroscopy (COSY), rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC)] experiments.

  16. Anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchen; Zhang Huijuan; Luo Chuanhuan; Wang Bingji

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on irradiated mice. Methods: 520 female mice were randomized to several groups and exposed to 6.25-8.5 Gy whole-body γ-rays. The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was injected i.p before or after irradiation. The 30-day survival rate of mice was determined, and DNA content of bone marrow was observed as well at seventh day after irradiation. Results: It was showed that the 30-day survival rate and DNA content of bone marrow were all significantly higher in 30 mg or 15 mg hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-treated groups than those in the corresponding irradiated controls (P < 0.01). The 30-day survival rate increased from 35% to 97.5%. Conclusion: The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide has marked anti-radiation effect. Further investigation is worthwhile

  17. Chemical Compositions and Macrophage Activation of Polysaccharides from Leon's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Different Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Cui, Fengjie

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits.

  18. Crystallization of Ulex europaeus lectin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    1994-10-21

    The lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UEAI) has a strong affinity for the H-type 2 human blood group determinant. Single crystals of UEAI have been grown in the monoclinic crystal system. Initial crystals were obtained after 11 months from a solution of 10 mg/ml protein, 40% 2,4-methylpentanediol and 0.1 N acetate buffer at pH 5.2. The technique of washing and reseeding was used to generate large suitable crystals. The space group is C2 with a = 78.84 A, b = 69.85 A, c = 120.62 A, beta = 108.74 degrees and Z = 4; there is one molecular dimer per asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 58%. The crystals diffract to at least 2.8 A d spacings and are stable in the X-ray beam for more than three days.

  19. Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus as a Source of Ectoparasites in Urban-suburban Areas of Northwest of Iran

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    Nasser Hajipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals which become popular in the world and have important role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Thus, the present study aimed to survey ectoparasite infestation from April 2010 to December 2011 in urban and suburban parts of Urmia and Tabriz Cities, Northwest of Iran.Methods: A total number of 84 hedgehogs (40 females and 44 males were examined. They have been carefully inspected for ectoparasites and collected arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol solution. The identification of arthropods was carried out using morphological diagnostic keys.Results: The occurrence of ticks on hedgehogs was 23 (67.7% with Rhipicephalus turanicus in Urmia and 11 (22% as well as 1(2% with Rh. turanicus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Tabriz, respectively. One flea species, Archaeopsylla erinacei, was found with prevalence of 19 (55.9% and 27 (54% in Urmia and Tabriz Cities, respectively. Prevalence of infestation with Rh. turanicus and A. erinacei were not different (P> 0.05 between sexes of hedgehogs in two study areas. Highest prevalence of tick and flea infestation was in June in Urmia, whereas it was observed in August in Tabriz. Both tick and flea parasitizing hedgehogs showed seasonal difference in prevalence (P< 0.05 in Urmia, but it was not detected in Tabriz (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The result showed the high occurrence of ectoparasites in hedgehog population and according to the zoonotic potential of these animals as vector of some agents further studies are needed to investigate in different parts of Iran.

  20. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Kunca; Marek Čiliak

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ?Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia? (Kunca and ?iliak, 2016) [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status,...

  1. Anti-obesity activity of Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) powder in ovariectomized mice, and its potentially active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Eri; Furuta, Shoko; Kuwahara, Rika; Takemoto, Naomichi; Nagata, Toshiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) improves the symptoms of menopause. In this study, using ovariectomized mice as a model of menopause, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of this mushroom in menopause. Mice fed diets containing H. erinaceus powder showed significant decreases in the amounts of fat tissue, plasma levels of total cholesterol, and leptin. To determine the mechanism, groups of mice were respectively fed a diet containing H. erinaceus powder, a diet containing ethanol extract of H. erinaceus, and a diet containing a residue of the extract. As a result, H. erinaceus powder was found to increase fecal lipid levels in excreted matter. Further in vitro investigation showed that ethanol extract inhibited the activity of lipase, and four lipase-inhibitory compounds were isolated from the extract: hericenone C, hericenone D, hericenone F, and hericenone G. In short, we suggest that H. erinaceus has an anti-obesity effect during menopause because it decreases the ability to absorb lipids.

  2. Lithium biofortification of medicinal mushrooms Agrocybe cylindracea and Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Siwulski, Marek; Mleczek, Mirosław; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Gąsecka, Monika; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Although an increase in dietary lithium (Li) has been suggested as a possible method for mood stabilization and for decreasing violence and suicidal rates, no Li-enriched food has entered the market. Here we continue to explore the feasibility of mushrooms in this respect and have investigated the growth, accumulation and mineral content (Ca, K, Mg and Na) of Agrocybe cylidracea and Hericium erinaceus cultivated on substrates supplemented with 0.25-1.0 mM of Li as acetate or chloride. As demonstrated, supplementation with LiCl yielded more satisfactory results, did not alter mushroom biomass, appearance, shape or size regardless of Li concentration. It also had no significant effect on mineral composition and resulted in a concentration-dependent uptake of Li and its accumulation in fruiting bodies. More promising results were found for H. erinaceus . As calculated, consumption of 100 g dw of its fruiting bodies obtained from cultivation with 1.0 mM of Li (as acetate or chloride) would constitute 69% of the provisional recommended dietary daily intake of Li set at 1.0 mg. The study highlights that H. erinaceus could be selected for further studies on Li-enriched food that concern the bioavailability of Li from mushrooms, their safety and activity in animal experimental models and eventually, human studies.

  3. Genotoxicity profile of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium

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    I-Chen Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders. Recently, it has become a well-established candidate in causing positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing nerve growth factor (NGF from its bioactive ingredient, erinacine A. This active compound, which exists only in fermented mycelium but not in its fruiting body, increases NGF levels in astroglial cells in vitro as well as catecholamine and NGF levels in vivo. With increasing recognition of erinacine A in H. erinaceus (EAHE mycelium improving neurodegenerative diseases, numerous products are being marketed based on these functional claims. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on the mutagenicity of EAHE prior to this paper. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the mutagenicity and genotoxicity effects of EAHE mycelium conducted in three standard battery of tests (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests according to the latest guidelines in order to meet all international regulatory requirements and provide information on the safety of this new and promising natural remedy. Our results have indicated that EAHE mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the bacterial reverse mutation test nor induce higher frequency of aberrations in the chromosome aberration test. Moreover, no statistically significant EAHE mycelium-related increase was observed in the incidence of reticulocytes per 1000 red blood cells and micronucleated reticulocytes per 1000 reticulocytes. In conclusion, the three standard battery of tests suggested that EAHE mycelium was devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity in the tested doses and experimental conditions.

  4. Genotoxicity profile of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Chen; Chen, Yen-Lien; Chen, Wan-Ping; Lee, Li-Ya; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh

    2014-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus ( H. erinaceus ) has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders. Recently, it has become a well-established candidate in causing positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing nerve growth factor (NGF) from its bioactive ingredient, erinacine A. This active compound, which exists only in fermented mycelium but not in its fruiting body, increases NGF levels in astroglial cells in vitro as well as catecholamine and NGF levels in vivo . With increasing recognition of erinacine A in H. erinaceus (EAHE) mycelium improving neurodegenerative diseases, numerous products are being marketed based on these functional claims. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on the mutagenicity of EAHE prior to this paper. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the mutagenicity and genotoxicity effects of EAHE mycelium conducted in three standard battery of tests (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests) according to the latest guidelines in order to meet all international regulatory requirements and provide information on the safety of this new and promising natural remedy. Our results have indicated that EAHE mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the bacterial reverse mutation test nor induce higher frequency of aberrations in the chromosome aberration test. Moreover, no statistically significant EAHE mycelium-related increase was observed in the incidence of reticulocytes per 1000 red blood cells and micronucleated reticulocytes per 1000 reticulocytes. In conclusion, the three standard battery of tests suggested that EAHE mycelium was devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity in the tested doses and experimental conditions.

  5. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Vladimír; Čiliak, Marek

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia" (Kunca and Čiliak, 2016) [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status, host tree position and intensity of management of forest stands were evaluated in this study. All surveys were based on basidioma occurrence and some result from targeted searches.

  6. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kunca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia” (Kunca and Čiliak, 2016 [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status, host tree position and intensity of management of forest stands were evaluated in this study. All surveys were based on basidioma occurrence and some result from targeted searches.

  7. Structure elucidation of a bioactive polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus in different maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yan-Fang; Li, Zheng-Peng; Feng, Jie; Yang, Yan

    2016-06-25

    HPB-3, a heteropolysaccharide, with a mean molecular weight of 1.5×10(4)Da, was obtained from the maturating-stage IV, V and VI fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus, exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities, was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide (NO). Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that HPB-3 comprised l-fucose, d-galactose and d-glucose in the ratio of 5.2:23.9:1. Its chemical structure was characterized by sugar and methylation analysis, along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. The results indicated that HPB-3 contained a-(1/6)-linked galactopyranosyl backbone, partially with a side chain composed of α-l-fucopyranose at the O-2 position. The predicted primary structure of the polysaccharide was established as below. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Callus induction and plant regeneration of Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez,Ingrid; Dorta,Fernando; Cuadros-Inostroza,Álvaro; Peña-Cortés,Hugo

    2012-01-01

    A callus induction and plant regeneration protocol was developed from leaf and thorn explants for the plant Ulex europaeus. Explants were incubated on 2% sucrose half-strength Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS) with various combinations of plant growth regulators and antioxidants. The best frequency of callus and shoot formation was obtained with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1 mg/l x kinetin (Kin) 0.2 mg/l (DK Medium; callus induction) and zeatin (Z) 1 mg/l (DK medium; shoot induction)...

  9. Hericium erinaceus extracts alter behavioral rhythm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Shoko; Kuwahara, Rika; Hiraki, Eri; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Yasuo, Shinobu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE), an edible mushroom, has been used as a herbal medicine in several Asian countries since ancient times. HE has potential as a medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia, a disorder closely linked with circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effects of the intake of HE extracts on behavioral rhythm, photosensitivity of the circadian clock, and clock gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock, in mice. Although the HE ethanol extract only affected the offset time of activity, the HE water extract advanced the sleep-wake cycle without affecting the free-running period, photosensitivity, or the clock gene mRNA expression in SCN. In addition, both extracts decreased wakefulness around end of active phase. The findings of the present study suggest that HE may serve as a functional food in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and delayed sleep phase syndrome.

  10. Purification and characterization of a new type lactose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin by affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T

    1991-02-01

    A new type lactose-binding lectin was purified from extracts of Ulex europaeus seeds by affinity chromatography on a column of galactose-Sepharose 4B, followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. This lectin, designated as Ulex europaeus lectin III (UEA-III), was found to be inhibited by lactose. The dimeric lectin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 70,000 Da; it consists of two apparently identical subunits of a molecular mass of 34,000 Da. Compositional analysis showed that this lectin contains 30% carbohydrate and a large amount of aspartic acid, serine and valine, but no sulfur-containing amino acids. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I) and di-N-acetylchitobiose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin II (UEA-II), both of which we have already purified and characterized, and that of UEA-III were determined and compared.

  11. Identification of novel small-molecule Ulex europaeus I mimetics for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashin, Christa; Spindler, Lisa; Russell, Shannon; Schink, Amy; Lambkin, Imelda; O'Mahony, Daniel; Houghten, Richard; Pinilla, Clemencia

    2003-11-17

    Lectin mimetics have been identified that may have potential application towards targeted drug delivery. Synthetic multivalent polygalloyl constructs effectively competed with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1) for binding to intestinal Caco-2 cell membranes.

  12. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  13. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs.

  14. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Have, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe; Verhagen, Ron; Blust, Ronny; Coen, Wim de

    2006-01-01

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 < r < 0.85). Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 < r < 0.62). Hair Ag, As, Fe and Zn and spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 < r < 0.45). The regression models presented here may be used to predict metal and As concentrations in internal tissues of hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs. - Hedgehog hair and spines are promising non-destructive biomonitoring tools of terrestrial metal pollution

  15. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): II. Hair and spines as indicators of endogenous metal and As concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Have, Helga [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: helga.dhave@ua.ac.be; Scheirs, Jan [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Mubiana, Valentine Kayawe [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verhagen, Ron [Evolutionary Biology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The role of hair and spines of the European hedgehog as non-destructive monitoring tools of metal (Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and As pollution in terrestrial ecosystems was investigated. Our results showed that mean pollution levels of a random sample of hedgehogs in Flanders are low to moderate. Yet, individual hedgehogs may be at risk for metal toxicity. Tissue distribution analyses (hair, spines, liver, kidney, muscle and fat tissue) indicated that metals and As may reach considerable concentrations in external tissues, such as hair and spines. Positive relationships were observed between concentrations in hair and those in liver, kidney and muscle for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, and Pb (0.43 < r < 0.85). Spine concentrations were positively related to liver, kidney and muscle concentrations for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb (0.37 < r < 0.62). Hair Ag, As, Fe and Zn and spine Ag, Al, As and Fe were related to metal concentrations in one or two of the investigated internal tissues (0.31 < r < 0.45). The regression models presented here may be used to predict metal and As concentrations in internal tissues of hedgehogs when concentrations in hair or spines are available. The present study demonstrated the possibility of using hair and spines for non-destructive monitoring of metal and As pollution in hedgehogs. - Hedgehog hair and spines are promising non-destructive biomonitoring tools of terrestrial metal pollution.

  16. Radiological investigations of the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) appendicular skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Javadi, Shahram; Hadian, Mojtaba; Pourreza, Behzad; Behfar, Mahdi

    2009-03-01

    The normal radiographic anatomy of the healthy hedgehog can help to identify anatomic features unique to the hedgehog while comparing it with other small mammals, such as the dog and cat. Radiographic examination is a method that can play an important role in the diagnosis of a wide variety of skeletal diseases. Seven (2 males, 5 females) free-living hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from the Urmia region of Iran were selected for this study. Lateral and craniocaudal radiographs from the front and hind limbs were obtained. The radiographs from these hedgehogs were compared with the normal canine and feline skeletal radiographic anatomy. On the forelimb radiographs, the clavicle was observed as a complete bone connected to the scapula and manubrium. There are three and five carpal bones in the proximal and distal rows, respectively, as in the dog and cat. The pelvis has a larger obturator foramen when compared with the dog and cat. In the lateral view, the pubis and ischium are relatively larger than in the dog and cat and have a more ventral position. The tarsal bones are similar to those of the dog and cat. The number of phalanges and sesamoid bones in the forelimb and hindlimb are likewise similar to those found in the dog and cat.

  17. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianqing; DU, Congxin; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Zhihua

    2015-02-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition.

  18. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, JIANQING; DU, CONGXIN; WANG, YIFEI; YU, ZHIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition. PMID:25574220

  19. Mechanism of Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake) Mushroom-Induced Apoptosis of U937 Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemicals in some foods are a potential source of bioactive safe compounds for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we evaluated hot water (HWE), microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE), acidic (ACE), and alkaline (AKE) extracts of the fruit body (sporocarp) of edible Hericium erinaceus (Yamabus...

  20. Proteome analysis provides insight into the regulation of bioactive metabolites in Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xu; Ling, Hong; Yang, Jianwen; Chen, Juan; Guo, Shunxing

    2018-05-05

    Hericium erinaceus, a famous edible mushroom, is also a well-known traditional medicinal fungus. To date, a large number of bioactive metabolites with antitumor, antibacterial, and immune-boosting effects were isolated from the free-living mycelium and fruiting body of H. erinaceus. Here we used the proteomic approach to explore proteins involved in the regulation of bioactive metabolites, including terpenoid, polyketide, sterol and etc. RESULTS: Using mass spectrometry, a total of 2543 unique proteins were identified using H. erinaceus genome, of which 2449, 1855, 1533 and 690 proteins were successfully annotated in Nr, KOG, KEGG and GO databases. Among them, 722 proteins were differentially expressed (528 up- and 194 down-regulated) in fruiting body compared with mycelium. Most of differentially expressed proteins were putatively involved in energy metabolism, molecular signaling, and secondary metabolism. Additionally, numerous proteins involved in terpenoid, polyketide, and sterol biosynthesis were identified. Our data revealed that proteins involved in polyketide biosynthesis were up-regulated in the fruiting body, while some proteins in mevalonate (MEP) pathway from terpenoid biosynthesis were generally up-regulated in mycelium. The present study suggested that the differential regulation of biosynthesis genes could produce various bioactive metabolites with pharmacological effects in H. erinaceus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Two new isobenzofuranone derivatives from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xu-Li; Li, Guang; Xu, Ping-Sheng; Xu, Kang-Ping; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2017-11-01

    Two new isobenzofuranone derivatives erinaceolactones G and H (1 and 2) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. Compound 2 was suggested to be racemic by specific rotation, which was resolved by chiral HPLC into enantiomers.

  2. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  3. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention.

  4. Arsenic deposition in tissues of the European hare (Lepus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Bukovjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with arsenic deposition in individual biological matrices of the European hare (Lepus europaeus Pall.. The aim of this work was to evaluate the arsenic deposition in biological matrices of adult hares distributed by sex, and to highlight the need for monitoring this element in the natural environment. Determination of arsenic concentration was carried out on 11 biomarkers in 105 adult hares from variously loaded areas of the Czech Republic. Individual matrices include the liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue, reproductive organs, bone, fur, faeces, lungs, skeletal muscle and the heart. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed as a method to detect arsenic concentrations in the tissues. Arsenic deposition in the monitored biological matrices of adult animals showed no significant differences between sexes. The ratio of arsenic concentration in the skeletal muscle as compared with concentration in other tissues was 1:2.96 in the liver, followed by 1:4.35 in kidneys, 1:1.07 in the heart, 1:2.73 in lungs, 1:3.12 in ovaries, 1:3.30 in testicles, 1:5.90 in bones, 1:114.68 in fur, and 1:60.05 in faeces. Deposition of this element in matrices has a similar character and only differs in concentrations.

  5. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binds to developing gastrin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Z H; Blom, J; Larsson, L I

    1998-03-01

    We have previously reported that antropyloric gastrin (G) and somatostatin (D) cells derive from precursor (G/D) cells that coexpress both hormones. We have now analyzed this endocrine cell pedigree for binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), which previously has been reported to represent a useful marker for cell differentiation. Subpopulations of G/D, D, and G cells were all found to express UEA-I binding. Labelling with bromodeoxyuridine showed that UEA-I positive G cells possessed a higher labelling index than UEA-I negative G cells. These data suggest that the UEA-I positive G cells represent maturing cells still involved in DNA synthesis and cell division. Electron microscopically, specific UEA-I binding sites were localized to the secretory granules and the apical cell membrane of G cells. We conclude that UEA-I represents a differentiation marker for G cells. Moreover, the presence of UEA-I binding sites in these cells may be relevant for Helicobacter pylori-mediated disturbances of gastric acid secretion and gastrin hypersecretion.

  6. Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against particular human cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis AM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer resulted in 8.2 million human deaths in 2012. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2013 to 22 million within the next two decades. Mushrooms are extensively used as nutritional supplements in many countries. Moreover, mushrooms have many medicinal properties, including anticancer activity. In this study, the anticancer activity of different polar and non-polar extracts of Hericium erinaceus were evaluated against different human cancer cell lines including human liver carcinoma (Hep G2, the human colonic epithelial carcinoma (HCT 116, the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore, as a control, the cytotoxicity effect of the different extracts were tested against isolated mouse hepatocytes. It was observed that the extracts by water and methanol from fresh and lyophilized fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had the strongest anticancer effect. In contrast, the extracts by ether and ethyl acetate from mycelia and broth of H. erinaceus showed lower anticancer activity against the tested carcinoma cell lines. The highest anticancer activity was recorded for aqueous extract of lyophilized fruiting bodies with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 6.1±0.2, 5.1±0.1, 5.7±0.2 and 5.8±0.3 µg/ml against Hep G2, HCT 116, HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively with non-significant effect on the normal mouse hepatocytes. To summarise, polar extracts of H. erinaceus can be good sources for isolating natural anticancer compounds. I recommend further chemical studies to isolate the active principles of the extract of H. erinaceus evaluated in the present.

  7. TTrichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800 (Nematoda, Trichostrongyloidea in Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778 in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Farias dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of helminthes parasitizing hares (Lepus europaeus in southern Brazil. The intestinal tracts of seven hares were opened and the contents were sieved. Among the seven animals in the study, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis parasitized six (85.7%. This study will be expanded and more animals captured to evaluate the occurrence of other helminthes and to assess whether the high prevalence of T. retortaeformis is accurate, as well as to assess the abundance and intensity of parasites. To our knowledge, this is the first record of T.retortaeformis parasitizing L. europaeus in southern Brazil.

  8. [Undifferentiated cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head: identification by the endothelial marker Ulex europaeus agglutinin I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, K; Fries, J; Hoede, N; Korting, G W; Dienes, P

    1985-06-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head is a rare tumor of the elderly and can occur in an undifferentiated form without any clinical or histological signs of the vascular origin of this tumor. In these cases, the tumor can be identified by using endothelial cell markers, such as factor-VIII-related antigen and ulex europaeus agglutinin I, in an immunofluorescence technique or a peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. A 78-year-old patient is described who died within 18 months from such a tumor, which was diagnosed using the endothelial cell marker, ulex europaeus agglutinin I.

  9. An evaluation system for characterization of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and identification of its commercial product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Li, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Jun; Zhong, Qian-Xia; Ju, Yao-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bzhelyansky, Anton; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-25

    An evaluation system including colorimetric assay with iodine and potassium iodide, HPSEC-MALLS-RID analysis, GC-MS analysis, and saccharide mapping based on PACE analysis was proposed for the identification and discrimination of commercial product of Hericium erinaceus based on the chemical characters of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus fruiting body collected from different regions of China. The results showed that the molecular weights, the compositional monosaccharides and the glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus collected from different regions of China were similar, respectively. However, polysaccharides in the widely consumed product of H. erinaceus in China were significantly different from those of H. erinaceus fruiting body. The implications from these results were found to be beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from the H. erinaceus fruiting body, and suggest that the proposed evaluation system could be used as a routine approach for the quality control of polysaccharides in other edible and medicinal mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Cultivation Techniques and Processing on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr. Pers. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Hui Wong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As cultivation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fungus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of β-carotene bleaching. The total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard’s reaction products (MRPs, which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.

  11. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  12. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  13. Endoparasites of the European hare (Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778 in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi V.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown hare (Lepus europaeus populations in Europe have declined through decades due to several, but not clear yet, factors. Parasite infections and diseases are some of the causes that directly affected the survival and breeding rates of animal population.

  14. Demonstration of vascular endothelium in thyroid carcinomas using Ulex europaeus I agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cámpora, R; Montero, C; Martin-Lacave, I; Galera, H

    1986-03-01

    The usefulness of using peroxidase-labelled Ulex europaeus agglutinin I for the staining of small vessels and capillaries in the capsule of thyroid tumours is demonstrated. With this procedure the scanning for small tumour deposits in those vessels and, consequently, the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is facilitated.

  15. Status of biological control of the shrub gorse (Ulex europaeus) on the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Markin; P. Conant

    2013-01-01

    On the island of Hawaii, gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) is limited to an isolated core infestation of approximately 2000 hectares with scattered plants and small patches in the surrounding 10,000 hectares. Between 1985 and 2000, seven biological control agents were introduced, five of which successfully established. By 2000, their combined impact had reduced the yearly...

  16. Vegetative Growth of Four Strains of Hericium erinaceus Collected from Different Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo; Shim, Mi Ja; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative growth of four different strains of Hericium erinaceus was observed. The temperature suitable for optimal mycelial growth was determined to be 25℃, with growth observed in the extend temperature range of 20~30℃. The different strains of this mushroom showed distinct pH requirements for their optimum vegetative growth, with the most favorable growth observed at pH 6. Considering vegetative mycelial growth, PDA, YM, Hennerberg, Hamada, and Glucose peptone were the most favorable media, and Czapek Dox, Hoppkins, Glucose tryptone, and Lilly were the most unfavorable media for these mushroom strains. With the exception of lactose, most of the carbon sources assayed demonstrated favorable vegetative growth of H. erinaceus. For mycelial growth, the most suitable nitrogen source was alanine and the most unsuitable was histidine. Oak sawdust medium supplemented with 10~20% rice bran was the best for mycelial growth of the mushroom. PMID:23990739

  17. Erinacine S, a Rare Sesterterpene from the Mycelia of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Chen, Chin-Chu; Ni, Ching-Li; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Shiao, Young-Ji; Shen, Chien-Chang

    2016-02-26

    A new sesterterpene, erinacine S, and one cyathane diterpene xyloside, erinacine A, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the mycelia of Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and X-ray analysis. A 30-day oral course of erinacines A and S attenuated Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 5-month-old female APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, erinacines A and S significantly increased the level of insulin-degrading enzyme in cerebral cortex.

  18. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5?g/kg?BW) by gavage every 12?hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200?mg/kg?BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activat...

  19. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers., a medicinal mushroom, activates peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2016-10-01

    To study the ability of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus was given by daily oral administration following peroneal nerve crush injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways; and c-Jun and c-Fos genes were studied in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) whereas the activity of protein synthesis was assessed in peroneal nerves by immunohistochemical method. Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the axonal site of injury and remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory afferent neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that DRG neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt, MAPK, c-Jun and c-Fos as compared with negative control group (P <0.05). The intensity of nuclear ribonucleoprotein in the distal segments of crushed nerves of treated groups was significantly higher than in the negative control group (P <0.05). H. erinaceus is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. Potential signaling pathways include Akt, MAPK, c-Jun, and c-Fos, and protein synthesis have been shown to be involved in its action.

  20. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Li, Qian; Mao, Guanghua; Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Zheng, Daheng; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Lulu; Zhang, Tianxiu; Yang, Jun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-30

    The enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from the fruits of Hericium erinaceus was studied. In this study, response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken design based on single-factor and orthogonal experiments were applied to optimize the EAE conditions. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: a pH of 5.71, a temperature of 52.03°C and a time of 33.79 min. The optimal extraction conditions resulted in the highest H. erinaceus polysaccharides (HEP) yield, with a value 13.46 ± 0.37%, which represented an increase of 67.72% compared to hot water extraction (HWE). The polysaccharides were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, CD, AFM, and GC. The results showed that HEP was composed of mannose, glucose, xylose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 15.16:5.55:4.21:1. The functional groups of the H. erinaceus polysaccharides extracted by HWE and EAE were fundamentally identical but had apparent conformational changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of bioactive components isolated from Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hui; Li, Liang; Shang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Tan, Qi

    2016-05-13

    The fungus Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers is used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat symptoms related to gastric ulcers. Different extracts from the fungus were assessed for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity to investigate the antibacterial activity of the ethanol extracts from H. erinaceus and verify the traditional indication of use. The fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus were concentrated with ethanol by HPD-100 macroporous resin and the whole extract was partitioned by petroleum ether and chloroform to afford fractions with using a silica gel column. Several pure compounds of petroleum ether extracts were obtained and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The activity of the extracts and fractions towards H. pylori was assessed by the microdilution assay and by the disk diffusion assay in vitro. From the most active fraction, two pure compounds were isolated and identified as the main components with anti-H. pylori activity from the fungus H. erinaceus. The cytotoxicity of these two compounds against the human erythroleu-kemia cell line K562 was also evaluated. The crude ethanol extracts from the fungus H. erinaceus were inhibitory to H. pylori. The petroleum ether extracts (PE1s, PE2s) and the chloroform extracts (TEs) demonstrated strong inhibition to H. pylori. The inhibition of H. pylori was observed through an agar dilution test with minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values from 400μg/mL to 12.5µg/mL. Two pure compounds, 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-butanone and 2,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)terephthalic acid were isolated from the petroleum ether fractions and identified using (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra analysis. The MIC value for 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-butanone was 12.5-50µg/mL and the MIC value for 2,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)terephthalic acid was 6.25-25µg/mL. Both two compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against K562 with IC50<200mM. This study revealed that the extracts from petroleum ether contribute to

  2. Improvement of Nutritional and Bioactive Compound Production by Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), by Spraying Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vi, Minhthuan; Yang, Xueqin; Zeng, Xianlu; Chen, Rui'an; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; He, Qianyun; Zheng, Qianwang; Wei, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a popular culinary and medicinal mushroom in China because of its broad beneficial effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of stimulation with 7 growth regulators at 5 different concentrations on improving the production of nutritional and bioactive compounds by H. erinaceus. Results showed that among all the tested regulators, gibberellic acid (GA) increased protein content (165%), free amino acids (100%), polysaccharides (108%), and polyphenols (26%). Spraying nephthyl acetic acid increased polysaccharides and triterpenoids to 4.37 and 17.27 g/100 g, respectively. Spraying chitosan significantly increased polyphenols by 42%. The addition of triacontanol, indole acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid improved the production of proteins, free amino acids, polysaccharides, and polyphenols, but not to the extent that GA did. These results indicate that adding certain growth regulators can effectively improve the production of nutritional and bioactive compounds in H. erinaceus.

  3. Structures, biological activities, and industrial applications of the polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) mushroom: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xirui; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Chang, Yu; Ning, Ning; Guo, Hao; Huang, Linhong; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Zefeng

    2017-04-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers., also known as Yamabushitake, Houtou and Lion's Mane, is capable of fortifying the spleen and nourishing the stomach, tranquilizing the mind, and fighting cancer. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that H. erinaceus polysaccharides possess various promising bioactivities, including antitumor and immunomodulation, anti-gastric ulcer, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, anti-oxidation and hepatoprotection, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-fatigue and anti-aging. The purpose of the present review is to provide systematically reorganized information on extraction and purification, structure characteristics, biological activities, and industrial applications of H. erinaceus polysaccharides to support their therapeutic potentials and sanitarian functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villesen Palle

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus. During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation of introgressed brown hares from Sweden. The impurity of hare populations has implications for conservation and population genetics.

  5. Ulex europaeus I lectin as a marker for vascular endothelium in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthöfer, H; Virtanen, I; Kariniemi, A L; Hormia, M; Linder, E; Miettinen, A

    1982-07-01

    Ulex europaeus I agglutinin, a lectin specific for some alpha-L-fucose-containing glycocompounds, was used in fluorescence microscopy to stain cryostat sections of human tissues. The endothelium of vessels of all sizes was stained ubiquitously in all tissues studied as judged by double staining with a known endothelial marker, antibodies against human clotting factor VIII. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but not fibroblasts, also bound Ulex lectin. The staining was not affected by the blood group type of the tissue donor. In some tissues Ulex lectin presented additional binding to epithelial structures. Also, this was independent on the blood group or the ability of the tissue donor to secrete soluble blood group substances. Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, another lectin specific for some alpha-L-fucose-containing moieties failed to react with endothelial cells. Our results suggest that Ulex europaeus I agglutinin is a good histologic marker for endothelium in human tissues.

  6. Invasive plants and enemy release: Evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Hornoy , Benjamin; Tarayre , Michèle; Hervé , Maxime; Gigord , Luc; Atlan , Anne

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction a...

  7. Operation Atalanta and the Protection of EU Citizens: Civis Europaeus unheeded?

    OpenAIRE

    LARIK, Joris

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the EU’s anti-piracy operation Atalanta in the light of the protection of Union citizens. The main question is to which extent a Union citizen threatened by pirates off the coast of Somalia could rely on the promise of civis europaeus sum. The paper discusses the various legal aspects pertaining to the forceful protection of EU citizens in international law, EU constitutional law and the operational parameters of Atalanta. It argues that within the particular fr...

  8. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin targets microspheres to mouse Peyer's patch M-cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N; Clark, M A; Jepson, M A; Hirst, B H

    1998-03-01

    The interaction of latex microspheres with mouse Peyer's patch membranous M-cells was studied in a mouse gut loop model after the microspheres were coated with a variety of agents. Carboxylated microspheres (diameter 0.5 micron) were covalently coated with lectins Ulex europaeus 1, Concanavalin A, Euonymus europaeus and Bandeiraea simplicifolia 1 isolectin-B4, human immunoglobulin A or bovine serum albumin. Of the treatments examined, only Ulex europaeus (UEA1) resulted in significant selective binding of microspheres to M-cells. UEA1-coated microspheres bound to M-cells at a level 100-fold greater than BSA-coated microspheres, but binding to enterocytes was unaffected. Incubation of UEA1-coated microspheres with alpha-L-fucose reduced M-cell binding to a level comparable with BSA-coated microspheres. This indicated that targeting by UEA1 was via a carbohydrate receptor on the M-cell surface. Adherence of UEA1-coated microspheres to M-cells occurred within 10 min of inoculation into mouse gut loops and UEA1-coated microspheres were transported to 10 microns below the apical surface of M-cells within 60 min of inoculation. UEA1-coated microspheres also targeted mouse Peyer's patch M-cells after intragastric administration. These results demonstrated that altering the surface chemistry of carboxylated polystyrene microspheres increased M-cell targeting, suggesting a strategy to enhance delivery of vaccine antigens to the mucosal immune system.

  9. Preparation of Ulex europaeus lectin-gliadin nanoparticle conjugates and their interaction with gastrointestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezpeleta, I; Arangoa, M A; Irache, J M; Stainmesse, S; Chabenat, C; Popineau, Y; Orecchioni, A M

    1999-11-25

    One approach to improve the bioavailability and efficiency of drugs consists of the association of a ligand (i.e. lectins), showing affinity for biological structures located on the mucosa surfaces, to nanoparticulate drug delivery systems. In this context, Ulex europaeus lectin-gliadin nanoparticle conjugates (UE-GNP) were prepared with the aim of evaluating their in vitro bioadhesive properties. The lectin was fixed by a covalent procedure to gliadin nanoparticles by a two-stage carbodiimide method. Typically, the amount of bound lectin was calculated to be approximately 15 microg lectin/mg nanoparticle, which represented a coupling efficiency of approximately 16% of the initial lectin concentration. In addition, the activity of these conjugates was tested with bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) and the level of binding to this mucin was always much greater with UE-GNP than with controls (gliadin nanoparticles). However, the presence of 50 micromol fucose, which is the reported specific sugar for U. europaeus lectin, specifically inhibited the activity of these conjugates and, therefore, the UE-GNP binding to BSM was attenuated by 70%. These results clearly showed that the activity and specificity of U. europaeus lectin was preserved after covalent coupling to these biodegradable carriers.

  10. Systemic Screening of Strains of the Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Its Protective Effects on Aβ-Triggered Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongying; Wang, Qinglong; Cui, Jian; Wang, Lili; Xiong, Lili; Wang, Wei; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Na; Wu, Yiran; Mao, Canquan

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus possesses multiple medicinal values. To date, however, there have been few studies of the systemic screening of H. erinaceus strains, and the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies are not fully understood. In this study, 4 random primers were selected and used in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen and evaluate the genetic diversity of 19 commercial strains of H. erinaceus from different localities in China. A total of 66 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic loci reached 80.30%. Five dendrograms were constructed based on RAPD by Jaccard cluster and within-group linkage analysis. Primer S20 as well as all 4 primers had great potential as specific primers for RAPD-PCR molecular identification and differentiation of H. erinaceus strains. Based on the results of submerged culture and fruiting body cultivation, strains HT-N, HT-J1, HT-C, and HT-M were identified as superior among the 19 H. erinaceus strains. Further study showed that the oral preparation of homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus could attenuate the Aβ25-35-triggered damage in PC12 cells by significantly increasing cell viability and by decreasing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR combined with liquid and solid cultures can be used well in the screening and identification of H. erinaceus strains, and products prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells.

  11. Anticancer potential of Hericium erinaceus extracts against human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Yu, Kai; Li, Fushuang; Xu, Kangping; Li, Jing; He, Shujin; Cao, Shousong; Tan, Guishan

    2014-04-28

    Hericium is a genus of mushrooms (fungus) in the Hericiaceae family. Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used for the treatment of digestive diseases for over 2000 years in China. HE possesses many beneficial functions such as anticancer, antiulcer, antiinflammation and antimicrobial effects, immunomodulation and other activities. The aim of the studies was to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of two extracts (HTJ5 and HTJ5A) from the culture broth of HE against three gastrointestinal cancers such as liver, colorectal and gastric cancers in both of in vitro of cancer cell lines and in vivo of tumor xenografts and discover the active compounds. Two HE extracts (HTJ5 and HTJ5A) were used for the studies. For the study of chemical constituents, the HTJ5 and HTJ5A were separated using a combination of macroporous resin with silica gel, HW-40 and LH-20 chromatography then purified by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. For the in vitro cytotoxicity studies, HepG2 and Huh-7 liver, HT-29 colon, and NCI-87 gastric cancer cell lines were used and MTT assay was performed to determine the in vitro cytotoxicity. For in vivo antitumor efficacy and toxicity studies, tumor xenograft models of SCID mice bearing liver cancer HepG2 and Huh-7, colon cancer HT-29 and gastric cancer NCI-87 subcutaneously were used and the mice were treated with the vehicle control, HTJ5 and HTJ5A orally (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) and compared to 5-fluorouraci (5-FU) at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD, 25-30 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally daily for 5 days when the tumors reached about 180-200 mg (mm(3)). Tumor volumes and body weight were measured daily during the first 10 days and 2-3 times a week thereafter to assess the tumor growth inhibition, tumor doubling time, partial and complete tumor response and toxicity. Twenty-two compounds were obtained from the fractions of HTJ5/HTJ5A including seven cycli dipeptides, five

  12. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  13. Extracts from Hericium erinaceus relieve inflammatory bowel disease by regulating immunity and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diling, Chen; Xin, Yang; Chaoqun, Zheng; Jian, Yang; Xiaocui, Tang; Jun, Chen; Ou, Shuai; Yizhen, Xie

    2017-10-17

    Hericium erinaceus (HE), a traditional edible mushroom, is known as a medicine food homology to ameliorate gastrointestinal diseases. To investigate whether HE is clinically effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), HE extracts (polysaccharide, alcoholic extracts and whole extracts were prepared using solvent extraction methods) were administrated for 2 weeks in rats with IBD induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema (150 mg/kg). Significant clinical and histological changes in IBD rats were identified, including damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa ( P <0.05) were improved, MPO activities were decreased. Inflammatory factors were also differentially expressed in colonic mucosa in IBD rats, including serum cytokines, Foxp3 and interleukin (IL)-10 were increased while NF-κB p65 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were decreased ( P <0.05), and T cells were activated ( P <0.05), especially in the alcohol extracts-treated group. We also found that the structure of gut microbiota of the H. erinaceus extracts-treated groups changed significantly by compared with the model group. Further studies revealed that the polysaccharides in HE extracts may play a prebiotic role, whereas the alcoholic extracts show bactericidin-like and immunomodulatory effects. Taken together, we demonstrated that H. erinaceus extracts could promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and improve the host immunity in vivo IBD model, which shows clinical potential in relieving IBD by regulating gut microbiota and immune system.

  14. A new cerebroside from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus and its applicability to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Jung, Kiwon; Noh, Hyung Jun; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Kang Ro; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-15

    A new cerebroside, cerebroside E (1) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus (Hericiaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including extensive 2D NMR, HR-MS, and chemical reactions. Compound 1 was evaluated for its applicability to medicinal use in several human diseases using cell-based assays. As a result, compound 1 attenuated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells and exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in HUVECs. These results collectively reflect the beneficial effects of compound 1 in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Three new cyathane diterpenes with neurotrophic activity from the liquid cultures of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; Liu, Li; Bao, Li; Yang, Yanlong; Ma, Ke; Liu, Hongwei

    2018-05-21

    Three new cyathane diterpenes erinacines T-V (1-3), and two known cyathane diterpenes erinacine A (4) and erinacine P (5) were isolated from the liquid cultures of Hericium erinaceus. The structures of 1-3 were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity, and neurite-promoting activities using PC12 cell line. Compounds 1-3, and 5 exhibited pronounced neurite outgrowth-promoting effects on PC12 cells in the range of 2.5-10 μM. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxicity against PC12 cells with IC 50 of 73.7 μM.

  16. Three new isobenzofuranone derivatives from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Li; Gao, Jie; Li, Jing; Long, Hong-Ping; Xu, Ping-Sheng; Xu, Kang-Ping; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2017-02-01

    Three new isobenzofuranone derivatives erinaceolactones D-F (1-3), together with four known ones (4-7), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including UV, 1D, 2D NMR and HR-TOF-MS. The absolute configuration of erinaceolactone D (1) and erinaceolactone E (2) were assigned by comparing their specific rotation with those of analogs in literatures. The four known compounds were isomers with each other and were isolated simultaneously for the first time.

  17. Dietas de Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia y Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha en un ambiente altoandino de Chile Feeding habits of Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia and Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha in an Andean environment of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO LÓPEZ-CORTÉS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los roedores nativos Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus y el lagomorfo introducido Lepus europaeus, coexisten en ambientes altoandinos del centro-norte de Chile, donde la disponibilidad de alimento es escasa y distribuida heterogéneamente en el paisaje. Propusimos que en estos ambientes las especies en estudio se comportarían como herbívoros generalistas y que existiría una alta sobreposición en la dieta entre la liebre y los roedores nativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la composición de la dieta de las tres especies y determinar su amplitud, preferencia y sobreposición en la dieta a partir del análisis microhistológico de heces frescas. Los resultados indican que las tres especies se comportaron como herbívoros-folívoros, siendo la dieta de L. europaeus la de mayor amplitud trófica. Abrothrix andinus seleccionó todos los ítemes que consume, mientras que P. xanthopygus y L. europaeus realizaron un consumo más oportunista. La mayor sobreposición en la dieta se observó entre los roedores nativosThe native rodents Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus and the introduced lagomorph Lepus europaeus coexist in the highlands of north-central Chile, where food availability is scarce. We hypothesized that in these environments, the studied species would behave as generalist herbivores and where the diet of native rodents would overlap that of hares greatly. The aim of this study was to quantify feeding habits, amplitude, diet preferences and overlap of these three species through microhistological analysis of fresh faeces. While all three species behaved as herbivore-folivores, L. europaeus showed the largest niche breath. Abrothrix andinus selected all consumed items, while P. xanthopygus and L. europaeus exhibited a more opportunistic consumption food items. The highest diet overlap was observed between native rodents

  18. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological aspects of Hericium erinaceus ingestion in a rodent model: A sub-chronic toxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; Raman, Jegadeesh; David, Pamela; Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2016-12-24

    Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom and has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic for stomach disorders, ulcers and gastrointestinal ailments. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the potential toxic effects of the aqueous extract from the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus in rats by a sub-chronic oral toxicity study. In this sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered with the aqueous extract of H. erinaceus (HEAE) at doses of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 90 days. Body weights were recorded on a weekly basis and general behavioural changes were observed. The blood samples were subjected to haematological, biochemical, serum electrolyte, and antioxidant enzyme estimations. The rats were sacrificed and organs were processed and examined for histopathological changes. No mortality or morbidity was observed in all the treated and control rats. The results showed that the oral administration of HEAE daily at three different doses for 90 days had no adverse effect on the general behaviour, body weight, haematology, clinical biochemistry, and relative organ weights. Histopathological examination at the end of the study showed normal architecture except for few non-treatment related histopathological changes observed in liver, heart and spleen. The results of this sub-chronic toxicity study provides evidence that oral administration of HEAE is safe up to 1000mg/kg and H. erinaceus consumption is relatively non-toxic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Composition and mechanism of anti-tumor effects of Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts in tumor-bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated anti-tumor effects of the following four extracts of freeze-dried Hericium erinaceus mushrooms in Balb/c mice intracutaneously transplanted on the backs with CT-26 colon cancer cells: HWE, hot-water extraction by boiling in water for 3 h; MWE, microwaving in 50% ethanol/water at 60 W...

  20. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal differential regulation of diverse terpenoid and polyketides secondary metabolites in Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zeng, Xu; Yang, Yan Long; Xing, Yong Mei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Jia Mei; Ma, Ke; Liu, Hong Wei; Guo, Shun Xing

    2017-08-31

    The lion's mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus is a famous traditional medicinal fungus credited with anti-dementia activity and a producer of cyathane diterpenoid natural products (erinacines) useful against nervous system diseases. To date, few studies have explored the biosynthesis of these compounds, although their chemical synthesis is known. Here, we report the first genome and tanscriptome sequence of the medicinal fungus H. erinaceus. The size of the genome is 39.35 Mb, containing 9895 gene models. The genome of H. erinaceus reveals diverse enzymes and a large family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid backbones, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenes and polyketides. Three gene clusters related to terpene biosynthesis and one gene cluster for polyketides biosynthesis (PKS) were predicted. Genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis were generally upregulated in mycelia, while the PKS gene was upregulated in the fruiting body. Comparative genome analysis of 42 fungal species of Basidiomycota revealed that most edible and medicinal mushroom show many more gene clusters involved in terpenoid and polyketide biosynthesis compared to the pathogenic fungi. None of the gene clusters for terpenoid or polyketide biosynthesis were predicted in the poisonous mushroom Amanita muscaria. Our findings may facilitate future discovery and biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites from H. erinaceus and provide fundamental information for exploring the secondary metabolites in other Basidiomycetes.

  1. Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), Modulates Purinoceptor-Coupled Calcium Signaling and Murine Nociceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Shan; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Shiu, Li-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is well known for the neurotrophic effect it confers by promoting nerve growth factor biosynthesis. We discovered a novel bioactivity of H. erinaceus in its ability to suppress adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced calcium signaling in neuronal PC12 cells. ATP, known primarily as a neurotransmitter, also acts on purinoceptors (P2 purinergic receptor [P2R]) to generate the cellular calcium signaling and secretion that mediate P2R physiological manifestations, including pain. Chronic pain reduces quality of life. However, constant analgesic administration can cause liver and kidney injury, as well as loss of the analgesic effect because of desensitization. In this study we investigated the analgesic potential of H. erinaceus through measurements of ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in cell lines and observation of pain behaviors in mice. In P2R-coupled Ca2+ signaling measurements, extracts of H. erinaceus mycelia (HEEs) blocked ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in both rat PC12 cells and human HOS cells. HEEs completely blocked ATP-induced Ca2+ signaling in human HOS cells, suggesting that this effect of HEEs is exerted through the P2R subtypes present in HOS cells, which include the P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y4 subtypes. In observations of animal behavior during pain, HEEs significantly reduced heat-induced pain, including postponing both the tail-flick response to heat stimulation and the paw-lifting response to a hot plate. This study demonstrates novel characteristics of H. erinaceus in reducing nociceptive behavior and blocking the functional activity of P2R. Further studies are required to verify this linkage and its molecular mechanisms.

  2. Enhancement of the neuroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus mycelium co-cultivated with Allium sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong Ki; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enriched with garlic extract (HGE) on rat pheochromocytoma nerve cells (PC12). The survival rates of the PC12 nerve cells and the neurite-bearing cells after the addition of HGE were estimated as 3.5 × 10(3) viable cells/ml and 2.3 × 10(3) viable cells/ml, respectively, which were 50% and 30% higher, respectively, compared with the untreated group. For the in vivo ischemia experiments, after treatment with the HGE extract, the hippocampal CA1 region was more strongly stained (>20%) than the control group, and the HGE extract also promoted higher staining levels than HFB, HM and HGEF, and even the garlic extract. This result indicates that HGE must have neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, HGE greatly decreased p21 gene expression to approximately 70% of the control and decreased p21 gene expression to even lower levels compared with HM, HGEF and the garlic extract. This work suggests that a synergistic effect of the H. erinaceus mycelium and the garlic extract (mainly allicin) exist because the amount of allicin in HGE (5.81 µg/ml) was lower than the garlic extract itself (6.89 µg/ml).

  3. Composition and antioxidant activity of water-soluble oligosaccharides from Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru

    2015-05-01

    Oligosaccharide are carbohydrate molecules, comprising repeating units joined together by glycosidic bonds. In recent years, an increasing number of oligosaccharides have been reported to exhibit various biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation effects. In the present study, crude water‑soluble oligosaccharides were extracted from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus with water and then successively purified by diethylaminoethyl‑cellulose 52 and Sephadex G‑100 column chromatography, yielding one major oligosaccharide fraction: Hericium erinaceus oligosaccharide (HEO‑A). The structural features of HEO‑A were investigated by a combination of monosaccharide component analysis by thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high‑performance gel permeation chromatography. The results indicated that HEO‑A was composed of D‑xylose and D‑glucose, and the average molecular size was ~1,877 Da. The antioxidant activity of HEO‑A was evaluated using three biochemical methods to determine the scavenging activity of HEO‑A on 1,1‑diphenyl‑2‑picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide and 2,2'‑azino‑bis(3‑ethylbenzthiazoline‑6‑sufonic acid) diammonium radicals. The results indicated that HEO‑A may serve as an effective healthcare food and source of natural antioxidant compounds.

  4. Immunomodulatory Activities of a Fungal Protein Extracted from Hericium erinaceus through Regulating the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Diling

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A single-band protein (HEP3 was isolated from Hericium erinaceus using a chemical separation combined with pharmacodynamic evaluation methods. This protein exhibited immunomodulatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by decreasing the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-6, and downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-κB p65. Further researches revealed that HEP3 could improve the immune system via regulating the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota to activate the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, stimulate the intestinal antigen-presenting cells in high-dose cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity in mice, and play a prebiotic role in the case of excessive antibiotics in inflammatory bowel disease model mice. Aided experiments also showed that HEP3 could be used as an antitumor immune inhibitor in tumor-burdened mice. The results of the present study suggested that fungal protein from H. erinaceus could be used as a drug or functional food ingredient for immunotherapy because of its immunomodulatory activities.

  5. Comparative study of physicochemical properties and bioactivity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides at different solvent extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Ding, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Xianli; Wang, Yao-Yao; Yang, Yan; Wu, Di; Zhang, He-Nan

    2018-08-01

    In this study, hot water, 0.9% NaCl, citric acid, and 1.25 M NaOH/0.05% NaBH 4 were separately used for the extraction of water-soluble H. erinaceus polysaccharides (HEPs; HEP-W, HEP-S, HEP-C, and HEP-A) from the fruit body of Hericium erinaceus. The physicochemical properties and biological activities were then investigated and compared. Results showed that the extraction solvents exhibited significant effects on the extraction yields, molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions, preliminary structural characteristics, microstructures of HEPs and on their contents, such as neutral sugar, uronic acid, protein, and β-(1 → 3)-glucan. In vitro antioxidant activity assays indicated that HEP-C extracted with citric acid solution showed stronger scavenging abilities on hydroxyl and DPPH radicals and antioxidant capacities than HEP-W and HEP-S. Moreover, HEP-C exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on α-glycosidase and α-amylase activities. Therefore, HEP-C extracted with citric acid can be developed as a potential bioactive ingredient for applications in food, medicine, and cosmetics industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective Effects of Extracellular and Intracellular Polysaccharides on Hepatotoxicity by Hericium erinaceus SG-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Nuo; Zhao, Huajie; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Meng; Jia, Le

    2016-09-01

    The protective effects of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 on the CCl4-induced hepatic injury of mice were investigated in this work. By the analysis of GC, the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 1:7:14:52, and the composition of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) was rhamnose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 3:4:7:14:137. The model of hepatic injury of mice was induced by CCl4 and three tested levels (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of EPS and IPS were set as the experimental group. Results showed that the aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in serum were reduced by the supplement of EPS and IPS, while the blood lipid levels including cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin were improved. In liver tissue, the lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde were largely decreased, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased. The evidence demonstrated that the EPS and IPS of H. erinaceus SG-02 were protective for liver injury. The histopathological observations of mice liver slices indicated that EPS and IPS had obvious effects on liver protection.

  7. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Guo, Zhengdong; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Ainong

    2013-10-03

    Hericium erinaceus, as a commonly used medicine or food, has attracted much attention due to its health effects when used as a home remedy for some diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus (AEHE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (55 mg/kg BW.) intraperitoneally. AEHE (100 and 200 mg/kg BW.) was administered for a period of 28 days. The effects of AEHE on glucose, insulin, and lipid files in blood, and oxidative stress parameters in the liver were evaluated. The body weights of rats were recorded at day 0, 14 and 28th days. The administration of AEHE for 28 days in STZ diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in serum glucose level and a significant rise in serum insulin level. AEHE treatment attenuated lipid disorders. In addition, AEHE administration increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px, and GSH level, and reduced MDA level in the liver tissue significantly. Our results suggest that AEHE possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties in STZ-induced diabetes rats.

  8. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 μg/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Erinacine C: A novel approach to produce the secondary metabolite by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Erinacine C is a cyathane scaffold-based secondary metabolite, which is naturally produced by the filamentous fungus Hericium erinaceus and has a high potential to treat nervous diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The investigated approach consists of combining an optimised precultivation of H. erinaceus with an enhanced erinacine C production by developing a suitable main cultivation medium enabling the utilisation of high biomass contents. The final erinacine C production medium is buffered by 100 mM HEPES to ensure a stable pH value of 7.5 during main cultivation at inoculation ratios of up to 5:10 (v/v). The medium components, such as 5.0 g L(-1) oatmeal, 1.5 g L(-1) calcium carbonate, and 0.5 g L(-1) Edamin(®) K are crucial for an increased erinacine C production. Besides, different carbon to nitrogen ratios of 25, 64, and 103 do not affect the erinacine C synthesis. The investigated approach enables the production of 2.73 g erinacine C per litre main cultivation broth, which is tenfold higher than published data. In addition, erinacine C biosynthesis is determined to occur mainly in the first six days of main cultivation. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulatory Activities of a Fungal Protein Extracted from Hericium erinaceus through Regulating the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diling, Chen; Chaoqun, Zheng; Jian, Yang; Jian, Li; Jiyan, Su; Yizhen, Xie; Guoxiao, Lai

    2017-01-01

    A single-band protein (HEP3) was isolated from Hericium erinaceus using a chemical separation combined with pharmacodynamic evaluation methods. This protein exhibited immunomodulatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by decreasing the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-κB p65. Further researches revealed that HEP3 could improve the immune system via regulating the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota to activate the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, stimulate the intestinal antigen-presenting cells in high-dose cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity in mice, and play a prebiotic role in the case of excessive antibiotics in inflammatory bowel disease model mice. Aided experiments also showed that HEP3 could be used as an antitumor immune inhibitor in tumor-burdened mice. The results of the present study suggested that fungal protein from H. erinaceus could be used as a drug or functional food ingredient for immunotherapy because of its immunomodulatory activities.

  11. [Improvement of symptoms in mild hyperthyroidism with an extract of Lycopus europaeus (Thyreogutt® mono)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiling, Rudolf; Wieland, Veronika; Niestroj, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Extracts of Lycopus europaeus are used clinically for the control of vegetative and irritative symptoms in mild hyperthyroidism. This study assessed the effects and safety of an extract of Lycopus europaeus (Thyreogutt® mono tablets or drops) in a general practice setting. The study was conducted as an open post-marketing surveillance study consisting of three cohorts, i.e. a prolective assessment in patients receiving Thyreogutt® mono for 4 weeks, a retrolective documentation of data from patients who had received at least one course (4 weeks) of Thyreogutt® mono therapy during the previous 2 years, and a control cohort receiving no drug treatment. Assessments comprised symptoms of mild hyperthyroidism, laboratory tests of thyroid function and adverse events surveillance. Response was defined as normal thyroid hormone values at the end of therapy or a reduction of at least 20% in the number of symptoms after treatment. Responder rates were calculated. Four hundred and three patients with mild symptomatic hyperthyroidism were observed. The prolective assessment included 146 patients, the retrolective assessment 171 patients, and the control cohort 86 untreated patients. The responder rate was 72.6% in the prolective assessment and 96.5% in the retrolective assessment whereas the responder rate in the untreated control cohort amounted to 41.2%. No adverse events were reported. The extract of Lycopus europaeus was well tolerated and associated with a statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement of the symptoms in mild hyperthyroidism. The improvement was markedly better in both Thyreogutt® mono cohorts than in the control cohort.

  12. European hare Lepus europaeus(Lagomorpha: Leporidae an invasive species in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Zeballos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current distribution of the European hare, Lepus europaeus, in Peru which currently covers the highlands, Andean valleys, surrounding areas of the Titicaca Lake and coastal irrigations; in Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno and Tacna departments. Based on its current distribution we developed models of potential distribution of this species, which would forecast this species in northern Peru. We make recommendations on the main issues that should be studied in Peru, and the possible consequences of their invasive process of in Peru.

  13. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Tina; Jensen, Trine-Lee Wincentz; Villesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus......). During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype...

  14. Field effect of P fertilization on N$_{2}$ fixation rate of Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Cavard , Xavier; Augusto , Laurent; Saur , Etienne; Trichet , Pierre

    2007-01-01

    European gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) N-2 fixation rate (% Ndfa) was studied in a maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) oligotrophic forest. Fertilization field trials were carried out on 5 sites with various inputs of phosphorus (0-240 kg P2O5. ha(-1)). Seven to ten years after pine planting, gorse were sampled to evaluate the effect of P fertilization on gorse % Ndfa, determined using the N-15 natural abundance method. One of the prerequisites of this method is the existence of a significant dif...

  15. Ulex europaeus I and glycine max bind to the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Oka, N; Kamo, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1993-12-24

    The distribution of binding sites for the fucose-selective lectin Ulex europaeus I and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-selective lectin glycine max in the human olfactory bulb were studied. These lectins bound to primary olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. They also bound to fibers located in the deeper layers such as the external plexiform layer and the granular layer. Furthermore they projected to the olfactory stalk but not in the cerebrum. The deeper projections of the lectin binding fibers may affect the function of the olfactory bulb in humans.

  16. The effect of landscape heterogeneity on population density and habitat preferences of the European hare (Lepus europaeus) in contrasting farmlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavliska, P. L.; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.; Šálek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 88, January (2018), s. 8-15 ISSN 1616-5047 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lepus europaeus * Field size * Agricultural policy * Conservation measures * Density-dependent habitat selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2016

  17. Tularaemia in a brown hare (lepus europaeus) in 2013: first case in the netherlands in 60 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, J.M.; Kik, M.; Koene, M.G.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Tulden, van P.W.; Montizaan, M.G.; Oomen, T.; Spierenburg, M.A.H.; Ijzer, J.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Gröne, A.; Roest, H.I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tularaemia has not been reported in Dutch wildlife since 1953. To enhance detection, as of July 2011, brown hares (Lepus europaeus) submitted for post-mortem examination in the context of non-targeted wildlife disease surveillance, were routinely tested for tularaemia by polymerase chain reaction

  18. [Binding studies with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) of the vascular endothelium of the synovial membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschäbitz, A; Stofft, E

    1988-01-01

    The lectin binding sites of the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were investigated. It was shown that Ulex europaeus agglutinin is a constant marker of the vascular endothelium and is not induced during the course of inflammatory process in rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Identification of the NADPH Oxidase 4 Inhibiting Principle of Lycopus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Revoltella

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4 has recently been implicated as driving force in cellular senescence. Thus, there is growing interest to develop Nox4 inhibitors, which might be valuable agents for cosmeceutical applications. Alpine plants represent a valuable source for the identification of novel bioactive natural products with anti-ageing effects, especially substances that protect plants against UV radiation, which is also known to contribute to the ageing of human skin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel Nox4 inhibitors from alpine plants. Within an initial screening of extracts of alpine plants on their ability to inhibit Nox4 activity in HEK cells, the methanolic extract of the subaerial parts of Lycopus europaeus showed a strong inhibition of Nox4 (81% chemiluminescence quenching and a simultaneously high cell viability (91% vitality. Rosmarinic acid was isolated and identified as the major compound in this bioactive extract. It showed a dose dependent inhibitory activity on Nox4 with an IC50 of 1 µM. Moreover, it also showed a significant inhibitory activity on Nox2 in the low micromolar range, whereas no inhibition of Nox5 was detected. Further investigations confirmed that the observed effects of rosmarinic acid on Nox2 and Nox4 are real inhibitory activities, and not due to ROS scavenging effects. Therefore, L. europaeus, which we demonstrated to be a good source of rosmarinic acid, has great potential for usage in cosmeceutical products with anti-ageing activity.

  20. Extract of Lycopus europaeus L. reduces cardiac signs of hyperthyroidism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhoff, Christian; Baumgartner, Andreas; Hegger, Mirjam; Korte, Brigitte; Biller, Andreas; Winterhoff, Hilke

    2006-02-02

    Extracts from the plant Lycopus europaeus L. are traditionally used in mild forms of hyperthyroidism. High doses caused a reduction of TSH or thyroid hormone levels in animal experiments, whereas in hyperthyroid patients treated with low doses of Lycopus an improvement of cardiac symptoms was reported without major changes in TSH or thyroid hormone concentrations. Lycopus extract was tested in thyroxine treated hyperthyroid rats (0.7 mg/kg BW i.p.). Co-treatment with an hydroethanolic extract from L. europaeus L. started one week later than T4-application and lasted 5.5 weeks. As reference substance atenolol was used. The raised body temperature was reduced very effectively even by the low dose of the plant extract, whereas the reduced gain of body weight and the increased food intake remained unaffected by any treatment. No significant changes of thyroid hormone concentrations or TSH levels were observed. Lycopus extract and atenolol reduced the increased heart rate and blood pressure. The cardiac hypertrophy was alleviated significantly by both treatment regimes. beta-Adrenoceptor density in heart tissue was significantly reduced by the Lycopus extract or the beta-blocking agent showing an almost equal efficacy. Although the mode of action remains unclear, these organo-specific anti-T4-effects seem to be of practical interest, for example in patients with latent hyperthyroidism.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of Hericium erinaceus derived polysaccharides are mediated by intestinal immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaotong; Yan, Jingmin; Meng, Yue; Kang, Yuying; Han, Zhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Cheng, Hairong

    2017-03-22

    This study was aimed at investigating the immunomodulating activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) in mice, by assessing splenic lymphocyte proliferation (cell-mediated immunity), serum hemolysin levels (humoral immunity), phagocytic capacity of peritoneal cavity phagocytes (macrophage phagocytosis), and NK cell activity. ELISA of immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in the lamina propria, and western blotting of small intestinal proteins were also performed to gain insight into the mechanism by which HEP affects the intestinal immune system. Here, we report that HEP improves immune function by functionally enhancing cell-mediated and humoral immunity, macrophage phagocytosis, and NK cell activity. In addition, HEP was found to upregulate the secretion of SIgA and activate the MAPK and AKT cellular signaling pathways in the intestine. In conclusion, all these results allow us to postulate that the immunomodulatory effects of HEP are most likely attributed to the effective regulation of intestinal mucosal immune activity.

  2. Pantoea hericii sp. nov., Isolated from the Fruiting Bodies of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Chengbo; Ma, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Chen, Sanfeng; Huang, Bin; Wang, Jing; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Three Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hericium erinaceus showing symptoms of soft rot disease in Beijing, China. Sequences of partial 16S rRNA gene placed these isolates in the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on the partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB revealed P. eucalypti and P. anthophila as their closest phylogenetic relatives and indicated that these isolates constituted a possible novel species. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of these isolates as a novel species and phenotypic tests allowed for differentiation from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Pantoea hericii sp. nov. [Type strain LMG 28847(T) = CGMCC 1.15224(T) = JZB 2120024(T)] is proposed.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of hydroxyethylated Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on macrophages RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhe; Qin, Tao; Qiu, Fuan; Song, Yulong; Lin, Dandan; Ma, Yufang; Li, Jian; Huang, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. In present study, HEP was successfully modified to obtain its hydroxyethylated derivative hHEP. Its potential immunomodulatory activities on RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the hHEP were significantly stronger than that of the corresponding unmodified polysaccharide, HEP. Meanwhile, the NO, IL-6 and TNF-α production activities of macrophages were enhanced in the RAW264.7 macrophages by stimulation of hHEP. In addition, the hHEP increase significantly higher iNOS expression than HEP. These results indicated that the hydroxyethylated derivative hHEP could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages, and hydroxyethylation modification can enhance the immunomodulation function of HEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure.

  5. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS, and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P<0.05 decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure.

  6. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Wamtinga, Sawadogo Richard; André, Tibiri; Christine, Bayet; Marius, Lompo; Emmanuelle, Hay A; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Geneviève, Dijoux; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2012-01-01

    To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional Requirements for the Mycelial Biomass and Exopolymer Production by Hericium erinaceus CZ-2

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    Daming Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of medium composition and fermentation parameters on the simultaneous production of mycelial biomass and exopolymer by medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus CZ-2 were investigated in shake flask cultures using one-factor-at-a-time method and orthogonal array design. Results showed that the most suitable carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and cofactors for the mycelial biomass and exopolymer production were: corn flour combined with 1 % glucose, yeast extract, KH2PO4 and corn steep liquor. The intuitive analysis of orthogonal array design results indicated that the effects of nutritional requirement on the mycelial growth of Hericium erinaceus CZ-2 were in regular sequence of corn flour combined with 1 % glucose > yeast extract > corn steep liquor > KH2PO4, and those on exopolymer production were in the order of corn flour combined with glucose > KH2PO4 > yeast extract > corn steep liquor. The maximal yield of mycelial biomass (16.07 g/L was obtained when the composition of the culture medium was (in g/L: corn flour 30, glucose 10, yeast extract 3, KH2PO4 1, CaCO3 0.5, and 15 mL/L of corn steep liquor; while the maximal exopolymer yield (1.314 g/L was achieved when the composition of medium was (in g/L: corn flour 30, glucose 10, yeast extract 5, KH2PO4 3, CaCO3 0.5, and 15 mL/L of corn steep liquor. In the 15-litre scale-up fermentation, the maximum mycelial biomass yield of 20.50 g/L was achieved using the optimized medium.

  8. Regeneración de un "aulagar" con Ulex europaeus después de un incendio en el norte de España

    OpenAIRE

    Vera de la Fuente, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The recuperation of a shrubland characterized by the presence of Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis, Ulex europaeus and Erica vagans after of a fire, near Oviedo (North Spain) is studied. The regeneration strategy of Erica vagans was by means of vegetative regrowth. The recolonization of Ulex europaeus and Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis was both vegetative and from seed, although in the last species the establishment by seedlings was very infrequent. The post-fire vegetation development...

  9. Recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. fruiting bodies in aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalu, Devamalini; Show, Pau Loke; Tan, Yee Shin; Muniandy, Sekaran; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The feasible use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to establish a viable protocol for the recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. fruiting bodies was evaluated. Cold-stored (4.00±1.00°C) H. erinaceus recorded the highest laccase activities of 2.02±0.04 U/mL among all the processed techniques. The evaluation was carried out in twenty-five ATPSs, which composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with various molecular weights and potassium phosphate salt solution to purify the protein from H. erinaceus. Optimum recovery condition was observed in the ATPS which contained 17% (w/w) PEG with a molecular weight of 8000 and 12.2% (w/w) potassium phosphate solution, at a volume ratio (VR) of 1.0. The use of ATPS resulted in one-single primary recovery stage process that produced an overall yield of 99% with a purification factor of 8.03±0.46. The molecular mass of laccases purified from the bottom phase was in the range of 55-66 kDa. The purity of the partitioned laccase was confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Soils affect Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus abundance in agricultural habitats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Santilli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, much research on brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 ecology has been conducted in Europe to identify habitat-species relationships and the reasons for the decline in hare populations that have occurred since the 1960s. However, very few studies have considered the influence of soil texture on the abundance of this species in agricultural habitats. In this paper we examine the relationship between winter brown hare density in protected areas (game refuges in four provinces of the Tuscany region (central Italy and soil texture. Results show that hares reach higher densities in areas characterized by "loam" soils compared to areas where soils are richer in clay. Although this relationship is probably complex, soil texture may indirectly affect brown hare populations by influencing the temperature and moisture of the ground and influencing the timing of farming operations (tillage. Riassunto Il suolo influenza l’abbondanza della lepre Lepus europaeus negli ambienti agricoli? Negli ultimi anni sono state effettuate numerose ricerche sull’ecologia della lepre europea Lepus europaeus, al fine di evidenziare le relazioni fra questa specie ed il tipo di habitat e di comprendere i motivi del declino avvenuto a partire dagli anni ’60. Ciononostante pochi studi hanno preso in considerazione l’influenza del tipo di suolo sulla consistenza di questo lagomorfo negli ambienti agricoli. Nel presente lavoro viene esaminata la relazione fra la densità invernale della lepre all’interno delle zone di ripopolamento e cattura di quattro province toscane e la tessitura del suolo di queste aree. E’ stato riscontrato che le lepri raggiungono densità più elevate in aree dove predominano i suoli franchi rispetto ad aree dove risultano più argillosi. Sebbene questa relazione sia probabilmente complessa, la tessitura del suolo potrebbe influenzare

  11. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  12. Piezoelectric Biosensor for a Simple Serological Diagnosis of Tularemia in Infected European Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pikula

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric biosensor was used for diagnosis of infection by Francisellatularensis subsp. holarctica in European brown hares. Two kinds of experiments wereperformed in this study. First, sera from experimentally infected European brown hares(Lepus europaeus were assayed by piezoelectric biosensor and the seventh day postinfection was found as the first one when statistically significant diagnosis of tularemia waspossible; all other sera collected from hares later than on day 7 following the infection werefound tularemia positive. Typing to classify the field strain of F. tularensis used for theexperimental infection was confirmed by proteome study. Second, sera from 35 Europeanbrown hare specimens sampled at hunting grounds and tested as tularemia positive by slowagglutination allowed diagnosis of tularemia by the piezoelectric biosensor. All these sera ofnaturally infected hares were found as tularemia positive, too. Efficacy of the piezoelectricbiosensor for the serological diagnosis of tularemia is discussed.

  13. Molecular Markers for Genetic Diversity Studies of European Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 Populations

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    Noémi Soós

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give an overview of different molecular techniques which have been used in studies concerning population genetic issues of Lepus species and specifically of L. europaeus. The importance of these researches is ever-growing as the European populations of the brown hare have suffered several falloffs as a consequent upon both natural and anthropogenic effects. With developing tools and techniques molecular genetics have become the centrepiece of population genetics and conservation biology. Nucleic acid methods based on both bi- and uniparentally inherited DNA (allozymes, microsatellites, Y chromosome, mtDNA are often used to study genetic structure, diversity and phylogeography of different species’ populations due to their effectiveness in identifying genetic variability

  14. Ulex europaeus I lectin induces activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, D E; Yoshiji, H; Kim, J C; Thorgeirsson, U P

    1995-11-02

    In this report, we show that the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I), which binds to alpha-linked fucose residues on the surface of endothelial cells, mediates activation of the 72-kDa matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). A dose-dependent increase in the active 62-kDa form of MMP-2 was observed in conditioned medium from monkey aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) following incubation with concentrations of UEA I ranging from 2 to 100 micrograms/ml. The increase in the 62-kDa MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity was not reflected by a rise in MMP-2 gene expression. The UEA I-mediated activation of MMP-2 was blocked by L-fucose, which competes with UEA I for binding to alpha-fucose. These findings may suggest that a similar in vivo mechanism exists, whereby adhesive interactions between tumor cell lectins and endothelial cells can mediate MMP-2 activation.

  15. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  16. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hornoy

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  17. Antihyperglycaemic and organic protective effects on pancreas, liver and kidney by polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Juan; Hu, Chunlong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Ren, Zhenzhen; Song, Xinling; Jia, Le

    2017-09-07

    The present work was designed to investigate the antihyperglycaemic and protective effects of two Hericium erinaceus intracellular polysaccharide (HIPS) purified fractions (HIPS1 and HIPS2) from mycelia of H. erinaceus SG-02 on pancreas, liver and kidney in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The supplementation of HIPS1 and HIPS2 significantly decreased the blood glucose (GLU) levels; suppressed the abnormal elevations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels in serum; improved the antioxidant enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)) activities; and attenuated the pathological damage to these organs. The HIPS1 showed superior effects in antihyperglycaemia and organic protection than HIPS2 possible owing to the abundant functional groups (-NH 2 , -COOH and S=O) in HIPS1, indicating that H. erinaceus SG-02 could be used as a functional food and natural drug for the prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  18. Ulex europaeus Lektininin Kan Grubu Bağlama Özgüllüğü

    OpenAIRE

    ATEŞ, Ali; ÖZGÜR, Yeşim

    2002-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Ulex europaeus bitkisinden elde edilen Ulex europaeus Aglutinin-I (UEA-I)’in insan kan grubu bağlama özgüllüğü ölçüldü. Bu deney için U tabanlı mikrotitrasyon kabı kullanıldı. 50µg/ml lektin çözeltisi, PBS (phosphate buffered saline) ile hazırlanarak başlangıç konsantrasyonu olarak alındı ve UEA-I’in seri sulandırılması ile insan kan grubu özgüllüğü belirlendi. Sonuç olarak, UEA-I’in %2’lik A grubu eritrositlerini 25µg/ml konsantrasyonda, B grubu eritrositlerini 6.25µg/ml konsan...

  19. First report of Actinomyces europaeus bacteraemia result from a breast abscess in a 53-year-old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Nielsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Actinomyces europaeus bacteraemia in a 53-year-old man. The bacteraemia was the result of a breast abscess. Identification was established by matrix-assisted desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated with surgical drainage and penicillin for 4 weeks; the patient did not experience any relapse during 6 months of follow-up.

  20. Home-range size and habitat use of European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus nesting in a complex plantation-forest landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sharps, Katrina; Henderson, Ian; Conway, Greg; Armour-Chelu, Neal; Dolman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the consequences of commercial plantation management for birds of conservation concern are poorly understood. The European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus is a species of conservation concern across Europe due to population depletion through habitat loss. Pine plantation-forest is now a key Nightjar nesting habitat, particularly in northwestern Europe, and increased understanding of foraging habitat selection is required. We radiotracked 31 Nightjars in an extensive (185-km2) comple...

  1. [Inhibition by cysteine of the carbohydrate-binding activity of lectins from Ricinus communis, Canavalia ensiformis and Euonymus europaeus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, V M

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation induced by different lectins has been studied in the presence of some aminoacids. It was shown that precipitates formed by lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA1), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Euonymus europaeus (Eel) in the presence of appropriate carbohydrate-containing molecules disappeared after cysteine addition, like after addition of specific carbohydrate precipitation inhibitors. It is assumed that cysteine residues of RCA1, Con A and Eel lectins are essential for their carbohydrate binding activity.

  2. Surface reaction of Leishmania. III. Ulex europaeus II lectin affinity for excreted factor (EF) serotype A strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, C L; Meline, D; Slutzky, G M; Schnur, L F; Levene, C

    1984-04-01

    Eukaryotic parasites, including species of Leishmania, acquire or synthesize carbohydrate moieties similar to human blood group antigens. Leishmanial strains separate into three serotypes: A, B and AB. All strains containing the A component are agglutinated by Ulex europaeus lectin. Inhibition by haptene sugar suggests that a Ulex II-like receptor is involved. Organic solvents, but not protease treatment, remove its reactivity, suggesting that the receptor is a glycolipid.

  3. Karyological comparisons of the European hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 from the Asian part of Turkey, with morphological contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tez C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focused on a comparison of karyological data for the European brown hare Lepus europaeus, from the Asian part of Turkey. In Turkish L. europaeus, the diploid number (2n, the fundamental number of chromosomal arms (FN and the number of autosomal arms (FNa were determined to be 2n=48, 84 and 80, respectively. The autosomes are composed of three pairs of metacentric chromosomes, four pairs of submetacentric chromosomes, ten pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was a medium-large submetacentric and the Y chromosome was a very small acrocentric. This is the third report for L. europaeus from Turkey and confirmed the previous results with regard to 2n. However, when comparing our findings with those of other authors, there were karyotypic differences among the chromosomes. These differences were related to the number of chromosome arms. Additionally, we present the skull measurements of seven samples for the Turkish brown hare collected from three localities, and these measurements conformed to those of previous studies.

  4. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  5. Structure characterization of a novel polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies and its immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangfang; Zhou, Chunhui; Zhou, Dandan; Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaoai; Huang, Huihua

    2018-01-24

    A novel polysaccharide fraction (HEP-S) was extracted and isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus. Structural characterization revealed that HEP-S had an average molecular weight of 1.83 × 10 4 Da and consisted of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.47 : 0.93 : 1.36 : 8.68 : 4.08. Periodate oxidation-Smith degradation and NMR analysis showed that the main linkage types of HEP-S were composed of (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→3,4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Gal, (1→3,4)-β-d-Man, (1→3,6)-α-Rha and (1→2)-β-l-Fuc. The immunomodulatory assay indicated that HEP-S could significantly enhance the pinocytic and phagocytic capacity and promote the secretion of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines by activating the corresponding mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells involving a toll-like receptor 2 membrane receptor. Besides, HEP-S was also found to improve the adaptive immune function by enhancing T and B lymphocyte proliferation and increasing the interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ secretion in spleen lymphocytes. These results suggested that HEP-S could be used as a potential immunoregulatory agent in functional foods.

  6. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A polysaccharide from cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus and its anti-chronic atrophic gastritis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Qipin

    2015-11-01

    A polysaccharide named EP-1 was found by screening cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus, which was extracted and subjected to precipitation with ethanol, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The polysaccharide has a molecular weight of approximately 3100Da and is composed of glucose, mannose and galactose, thus being a heteroglycan. EP-1 has a backbone of α-d-Glc(1→3) and β-d-Glc(1→3). The β-d-Glc(1→3) and α-d-Gal-(1→3) were regarded as branches attached to the C-4 position. The α-d-Man was regarded as a terminal residue. The anti-CAG activity was evaluated in experimental systems using a cell model for identification. The polysaccharide significantly inhibited the growth of MC cells obtained from human gastric mucosa epithelium (GES-1) cells transformed by MNNG, which were used as a chronic atrophic gastritis cell model. It also interfered with the MC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Thus, EP-1 shows potential for the development of new functional foods and drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A novel core 1 O-linked glycan-specific binding lectin from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun

    2018-02-01

    Mucin-type O-glycans are involved in biological functions on the cell surface as well as the glycoproteins and can also be used as specific carbohydrate biomarkers of many diseases. In this study, I purified a novel core 1 O-linked glycan specific lectin, Hericium erinaceus lecin (HeL), from the fruiting body of the mushroom Hericium erinaceus, which is known as the natural source for a sialic acid-binding lectin. Upon optimization of the purification conditions, a sequence of ion exchange, affinity, ion exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography resulted in the highest yield and best quality of lectin without protease activity. The resulting purified HeL is an apparent hexameric protein with a subunit molecular weight of 15kDa, and a pI of 4.3. In hemagglutination inhibition assay, the purified lectin was only inhibited by glycoproteins containing mucin-type O-glycans and reacted weakly with Galβ(1,3)GalNAc. Glycan array analyses showed that HeL specifically interacts with core 1 O-linked glycans as well as extended O-glycan structures containing sialylation or fucosylation. The glycan binding specificity of HeL is comparable to that of peanut agglutinin for detection of a broader range of extended core 1 O-glycan structures. Taken together, these results provide an efficient and optimized procedure for the purification of HeL from the fruiting body of the mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Moreover, HeL represents a powerful tool for analyzing core 1 and extended core 1 O- glycan structures in diagnosis assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brandalise

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  12. Gastroprotective Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr. Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yang Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity.

  13. Gastroprotective Effects of Lion's Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jing-Yang; Raman, Jegadeesh; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity. PMID:24302966

  14. Chemistry, nutrition, and health-promoting properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) mushroom fruiting bodies and Mycelia and their bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culinary–medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattere...

  15. Survey on the role of brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mancianti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 986 apparently healthy brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 caught in 9 restocking and capture zones in Central Italy. Overall, 7.5% hair samples gave positive results. Trichophyton terrestre (2.1%, Chrysosporium sp, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton gloriae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.6% each, Trichophyton erinacei and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (0.4% each, Chrysosporium asperatum (0.3%, Arthroderma sp and Microsporum canis (0.1% each were identified in cultures with single isolates, whereas Chrysosporium sp/T. mentagrophytes (0.3%, Chrysosporium sp/T. terrestre and M. gypseum/T. terrestre (0.2% each, Chrysosporium tropicum/T. terrestre, M. canis/T. terrestre and T. ajelloi/T. terrestre (0.1% each were identified in cultures with mixed isolates. T. erinacei and M. canis have not previously been isolated from hares. M. canis, T. erinacei and T. mentagrophytes were the most clinically important dermatophytes found. Altogether, they were isolated only from 1.5% hair samples. Thus, it is concluded that brown hares may play a limited epidemiological role as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes. Nevertheless, this should be taken into consideration as many people may be exposed to zoonotic agents from brown hares during hunting and trapping activities.

  16. Preparation and investigation of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-conjugated liposomes as potential oral vaccine carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, KeXin; Chen, DaWei; Zhao, XiuLi; Hu, HaiYang; Yang, ChunRong; Pang, DaHai

    2011-11-01

    We prepared and optimized Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI)-modified Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-encapsulating liposomes (UEAI-LIP) as oral vaccine carriers and examined the feasibility of inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses by oral administration of UEAILIP. The prepared systems were characterized in vitro for their average size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and conjugation efficiency (CE%). In vitro release studies indicated that the presence of UEAI around the optimized liposomes was able to prevent a burst release of loaded BSA and provide sustained release of the encapsulated protein. In vivo immune-stimulating results in KM mice showed that BSA given intramuscularly generated systemic response only but both systemic and mucosal immune responses could be induced simultaneously in the groups in which BSA-loaded liposomes (LIP) and UEAI-LIP were administered intragastrically. Furthermore, the modification of UEAI on the surface of liposomes could further enhance the IgA and IgG levels obviously. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the high potential of lectin-modified liposomes containing the antigen as carriers for oral vaccine.

  17. Association of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I binding with invasion in endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, R A; Kurman, R J

    1993-10-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), a lectin which specifically binds L-fucose, has been shown to extensively bind endometrial carcinoma cells but not benign endometrial glands. Patterns of UEA-I binding were examined in five cases of uteri containing proliferative endometrium, five cases of endometrial hyperplasia, and 54 cases of endometrioid (typical) carcinoma of the endometrium and correlated with the histologic features of the tumor and its behavior. Whereas proliferative endometrium showed luminal staining only, diffuse cytoplasmic staining was frequently seen in hyperplasia and carcinoma. Carcinomas with a high percentage of tumor cells staining with UEA-I tended to be high-grade with a greater tendency to deep myometrial and vascular invasion than tumors with little or no staining. By univariate survival analysis, the extent of UEA-I binding was found to correlate with patient survival. By multivariate analysis, however, survival correlated most closely with the presence of deep myometrial and vascular invasion, and UEA-I binding was not found to be an independent prognostic indicator. This study suggests that increased fucosylation of proteins in endometrioid cancer cells may play a role in myometrial and vascular invasion.

  18. Genetic variation in flowering phenology and avoidance of seed predation in native populations of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, A; Barat, M; Legionnet, A S; Parize, L; Tarayre, M

    2010-02-01

    The genetic variation in flowering phenology may be an important component of a species' capacity to colonize new environments. In native populations of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, flowering phenology has been shown to be bimodal and related to seed predation. The aim of the present study was to determine if this bimodality has a genetic basis, and to investigate whether the polymorphism in flowering phenology is genetically linked to seed predation, pod production and growth patterns. We set up an experiment raising maternal families in a common garden. Based on mixed analyses of variance and correlations among maternal family means, we found genetic differences between the two main flowering types and confirmed that they reduced seed predation in two different ways: escape in time or predator satiation. We suggest that this polymorphism in strategy may facilitate maintain high genetic diversity for flowering phenology and related life-history traits in native populations of this species, hence providing high evolutionary potential for these traits in invaded areas.

  19. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  20. [Enhancing effect of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I modified liposomes on oral insulin absorption in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Ping, Qi-neng; Xu, Wen-fang

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the enhancing effect on insulin absorption through GI. tract in mice by using the Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1) modified liposomes as the carrier. UEA1 modified phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was prepared by conjugating method of 1-ethyl-3-(3'-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC), then the modified compound (PE-UEA1) was incorporated into the conventional liposomes of insulin to obtain UEA1 modified liposomes. The agglutination test was performed to examine the UEA1 biological activities after synthesis and modification. When liposomes were applied to healthy mice or diabetic mice at insulin dose of 350 u x kg(-1) orally, the hypoglycemic effect was investigated according to the blood glucose level determination. The blood glucose levels of the healthy mice reduced by UEA1 modified liposomes were (84 +/- 15)% at 4 h, (78 +/- 11)% at 8 h and (90 +/- 12)% at 12 h after oral administration. The conventional liposomes and saline showed no effect. The blood glucose levels of the diabetic mice reduced by UEA1 modified liposomes were (73 +/- 7)% at 4 h, (74 +/- 9)% at 8 h, (86 +/- 9)% at 12 h after oral administration. The UEA1 modified liposomes promote the oral absorption of insulin due to the specific-site combination on M cell membrane.

  1. [The significance of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I lectin binding fibers in various muscular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, K; Hiraguri, M; Sueishi, M; Takeuchi, M; Nonaka, I; Kawai, M

    1998-05-01

    In the present study, we have reported that Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) lectin labeled muscle fibers in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation (DMRV). UEA I binding to muscle fibers was also observed in a small number of biopsies with inflammatory myopathy, but not in other diseases, including neurogenic muscular atrophies and muscular dystrophies. In order to elucidate the relationship between this UEA I binding, rimmed vacuole formation and active autophagocytosis, we examined the UEA I binding fibers in other myopathies which frequently showed rimmed vacuoles, including adult onset acid maltase deficiency, oculo-pharyngo-distal type myopathy and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. No UEA I lectin labeling fiber was observed in the diseases examined. We then studied UEA I binding behavior on 70 biopsies of inflammatory myopathy to characterize the clinical features of UEA I binding positive patients. UEA I binding fibers were observed in 3 of 28 patients (11%) with other collagen diseases, 11 of 36 (31%) without these disorders, and 2 of 6 (33%) with inclusion body myositis. There were no common clinical histories, complications or laboratory findings among the UEA I binding positive patients. In conclusion, a common process may exist between the muscle fiber degeneration in DMRV and subgroups of inflammatory myopathy patients, but the basic mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  2. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-1 Is a Reliable Taste Bud Marker for In Situ Hybridization Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Joto; Okada, Shinji; Kishi, Mikiya; Misaka, Takumi

    2016-03-01

    Taste signals are received by taste buds. To better understand the taste reception system, expression patterns of taste-related molecules are determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses at the histological level. Nevertheless, even though ISH is essential for determining mRNA expression, few taste bud markers can be applied together with ISH. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) appears to be a reliable murine taste bud marker based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. However, there is no evidence as to whether UEA-1 can be used for ISH. Thus, the present study evaluated UEA-1 using various histochemical methods, especially ISH. When lectin staining was performed after ISH procedures, UEA-1 clearly labeled taste cellular membranes and distinctly indicated boundaries between taste buds and the surrounding epithelial cells. Additionally, UEA-1 was determined as a taste bud marker not only when used in single-colored ISH but also when employed with double-labeled ISH or during simultaneous detection using IHC and ISH methods. These results suggest that UEA-1 is a useful marker when conducting analyses based on ISH methods. To clarify UEA-1 staining details, multi-fluorescent IHC (together with UEA-1 staining) was examined, resulting in more than 99% of cells being labeled by UEA-1 and overlapping with KCNQ1-expressing cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  3. Lactobacillus fermentum HP3-Mediated Fermented Hericium erinaceus Juice as a Health Promoting Food Supplement to Manage Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Woraharn, Sasimar; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Lailerd, Narissara; Kesika, Periyanaina; Peerajan, Sartjin

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the antidiabetic property of Lactobacillus fermentum HP3-mediated fermented Hericium erinaceus juice (FHJ) using male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). FHJ was prepared using boiled mushroom juice and L. fermentum HP3. Amino acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of FHJ was analyzed. Streptozotocin-induced DM rats were supplemented with FHJ in a pre- and posttreatment method. The changes in plasma insulin, plasma glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), representative cytokines, and the antioxidant system were assessed in experimental rats using spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The supplementation of FHJ improved the body mass, insulin level, and recovery progress of hyperglycemia. HbA1c level was altered by the FHJ intervention. The inflammatory cytokines level was suppressed in FHJ supplemented group compared with control. Intervention of FHJ and insulin improved the production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor--β1 in DM rat. The study suggested that fermented H erinaceus juice may be used as one of the food-based health-promoting supplement to manage DM along with medication.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mingming; Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Xin; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of Hericium erinaceus in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for 7 d to induce acute intestinal inflammation. Orally administrated ethanol extract of H. erinaceus (HEEE) (250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d body weight) could significantly (P < 0.05) improve body weight and colon length and decreased the intestinal bleeding of DSS-treated mice compared with DSS-treated mice not given HEEE. HEEE markedly reduced DSS-induced myeloperoxidase accumulation in colon tissues, attenuated histological change in the neutrophils and lymphocyte infiltration, and protected the mucosal epithelium. Mechanistically, HEEE ameliorated colitis not only by suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in colon tissues but also by adjusting the production of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase in serum to suppress the oxidative stress. These results suggest that HEEE can be applied as a protective agent in the treatment of IBDs.

  5. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junrong; An, Shengshu; Hu, Wenji; Teng, Meiyu; Wang, Xue; Qu, Yidi; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Di

    2016-11-01

    Hericium erinaceus , an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE) on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl₃ combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The data revealed that HE successfully induced PC12 cell differentiation. A 3 h HE incubation at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL before 25 mM of l-Glu effectively reversed the reduction of cell viability and the enhancement of the nuclear apoptosis rate in DPC12 cells. Compared with l-Glu-damaged cells, in PC12 cells, HE suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, blocked Ca 2+ overload and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization. In the Alzheimer's disease mouse model, HE administration enhanced the horizontal and vertical movements in the autonomic activity test, improved the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the water maze test. It also improved the central cholinergic system function in the Alzheimer's mice, demonstrated by the fact that it dose-dependently enhanced the acetylcholine (Ach) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentrations in both the serum and the hypothalamus. Our findings provide experimental evidence that HE may provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-06-07

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese food and medicine. HE extracts from the fruiting body and mycelia not only exhibit immunomodulatory, antimutagenic and antitumor activity but also have neuroprotective properties. Here, we purified HE polysaccharides (HEPS), composed of two high molecular weight polysaccharides (1.7 × 10(5) Da and 1.1 × 10(5) Da), and evaluated their protective effects on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. HEPS were prepared and purified using a 95 % ethanol extraction method. The components of HEPS were analyzed and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The neuroprotective effects of the polysaccharides were evaluated through a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and an MTT assay and by quantifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cells. Our results showed that 250 μg/ml HEPS was harmless and promoted cell viability with 1.2 μM Aβ treatment. We observed that the free radical scavenging rate exceeded 90 % when the concentration of HEPS was higher than 1 mg/mL in cells. The HEPS decreased the production of ROS from 80 to 58 % in a dose-dependent manner. Cell pretreatment with 250 μg/mL HEPS significantly reduced Aβ-induced high MMPs from 74 to 51 % and 94 to 62 % at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Finally, 250 μg/mL of HEPS prevented Aβ-induced cell shrinkage and nuclear degradation of PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that HEPS exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in neurons.

  7. Cytology of cardiac myxomas: presence of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin by immunoperoxidase staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwa, N; Yutani, C

    1993-12-01

    Cytological findings are presented of seven cases of cardiac myxomas. Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method was employed to demonstrate Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin in imprint smears as well as in paraffin-embedded tissue sections in cardiac myxomas. The cytology was characterized by tumor cells with polyhedral or stellate and mucinous background with lymphocytes, neutrophils, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. In smears as well as tissue sections, UEA-I lectin was detected throughout the cytoplasm of myxoma cells. This study established the applicability of the immunoperoxidase staining for cardiac myxoma as an aid in cytopathological diagnosis.

  8. Selective binding and transcytosis of Ulex europaeus 1 lectin by mouse Peyer's patch M-cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M A; Jepson, M A; Simmons, N L; Hirst, B H

    1995-12-01

    The in vivo interaction of the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 with mouse Peyer's patch follicle-associated epithelial cells was studied in the mouse Peyer's patch gut loop model by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The lectin targets to mouse Peyer's patch M-cells and is rapidly endocytosed and transcytosed. These processes are accompanied by morphological changes in the M-cell microvilli and by redistribution of polymerised actin. The demonstration of selective binding and uptake of a lectin by intestinal M-cells in vivo suggests that M-cell-specific surface glycoconjugates might act as receptors for the selective adhesion/uptake of microorganisms.

  9. First contribute to the characterization of coat in Lepus corsicanus and Lepus europaeus by colorimetric determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Freschi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thetrial wascarriedout on12sympatricadult females: 6Italianhares(Lepus Thetrial wascarriedout on12sympatricadult females: 6Italianhares(Lepus trial was carried out on 12 sympatric adult females: 6 Italian hares (Lepus corsicanus and 6 Brown hares (Lepus europaeus. Colour characteristics were studied by CIEL*a*b* methodonthefollowinganatomicalregions:forehead,subocularpatch,nape,withers,rump,hindleg, onthefollowinganatomicalregions:forehead,subocularpatch,nape,withers,rump,hindleg, on the following anatomical regions: forehead, subocular patch, nape, withers, rump, hind leg, knee, and belly. Differences between means were tested by t test. The most striking differences were observed in a* and in C indexes. Italian hares resulted more reddish in knee (5.22 vs. 3.93, P≤0.001 and in hind leg (2.96 vs. 1.34, P≤0.01 and less reddish (P≤0.001 in the regions of subocular patch (3.35 vs. 5.34, nape (3.24 vs. 6.05 and withers (3.25 vs. 4.81 than Brown hare. Colour saturation was lower (nearer to the grey in the regions forehead (4.78 vs. 6.41 P P≤0.01,subocularpatch(8.91 , subocular patch(8.91 (8.91 vs. 11.24, P≤0.05, nape (4.82 vs. 10.56, P≤0.001, withers (4.63 vs. 8.91, P≤0.001, and rump (5.81 vs. 8.30, P≤0.05 and higher in the regions hind leg (11.07 vs. 4.46, P≤0.001, knee (15.45 vs. 11.14, P≤0.001, and belly (3.30 vs. 2.15, P≤0.05 in Italian hare than in Brown hare. These differences are consistent with colour pattern of coat describedinliterature. described in literature.

  10. Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) is a novel, potent inhibitor of complement activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekowski, R; Collard, C D; Reenstra, W R; Stahl, G L

    2001-02-01

    Complement is an important mediator of vascular injury following oxidative stress. We recently demonstrated that complement activation following endothelial oxidative stress is mediated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and activation of the lectin complement pathway. Here, we investigated whether nine plant lectins which have a binding profile similar to that of MBL competitively inhibit MBL deposition and subsequent complement activation following human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) oxidative stress. HUVEC oxidative stress (1% O(2), 24 hr) significantly increased Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) binding by 72 +/- 9% compared to normoxic cells. UEA-II inhibited MBL binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress. Further, MBL inhibited UEA-II binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress, suggesting a common ligand. UEA-II (< or = 100 micromol/L) did not attenuate the hemolytic activity, nor did it inhibit C3a des Arg formation from alternative or classical complement pathway-specific hemolytic assays. C3 deposition (measured by ELISA) following HUVEC oxidative stress was inhibited by UEA-II in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 10 pmol/L). UEA-II inhibited C3 and MBL co-localization (confocal microscopy) in a concentration-dependent manner on HUVEC following oxidative stress (IC(50) approximately 1 pmol/L). Finally, UEA-II significantly inhibited complement-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis, but failed to inhibit fMLP-mediated chemotaxis, following endothelial oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that UEA-II is a novel, potent inhibitor of human MBL deposition and complement activation following human endothelial oxidative stress.

  11. Aspergillus europaeus sp. nov., a widely distributed soil-borne species related to A. wentii (section Cremei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Samson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A new species belonging to Aspergillus section Cremei is described, A. europaeus sp. nov. This species is most closely related to A. wentii, A. dimorphicus, and A. chrysellus and can be distinguished by an unique phenotype (colour of sporulation, production of yellow soluble pigment on MEA, shape...

  12. An immunocytochemical study of the germinal layer vasculature in the developing fetal brain using Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, S J; Howard, S

    1988-10-01

    The characteristics of the germinal matrix vasculature were studied in the developing fetal brain using immunocytochemical methods. A preliminary comparative immunocytochemical study was made on six fetal brains to compare endothelial staining by Ulex europaeus I lectin with that of antibody to Factor VIII related antigen. Ulex was found to stain germinal layer vessels better than Factor VIII related antigen. Subsequently, the germinal layers of a further 15 fetal and preterm infant brains ranging from 13 to 35 weeks' gestation were stained with Ulex europaeus I to demonstrate the vasculature. With increasing gestation, there was a gradual increase in vessel density, particularly of capillaries. This was not a uniform process. A plexus of capillaries was prominent immediately beneath the ependyma while the more central parts of the germinal matrix contained fewer, but often larger diameter, vessels. The variation in vessel density which was a feature of the later gestation brains may have implications for local blood flow and may be a factor in haemorrhage at this site.

  13. Two colonisation stages generate two different patterns of genetic diversity within native and invasive ranges of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, B; Atlan, A; Roussel, V; Buckley, Y M; Tarayre, M

    2013-11-01

    Genetic diversity and the way a species is introduced influence the capacity of populations of invasive species to persist in, and adapt to, their new environment. The diversity of introduced populations affects their evolutionary potential, which is particularly important for species that have invaded a wide range of habitats and climates, such as European gorse, Ulex europaeus. This species originated in the Iberian peninsula and colonised Europe in the Neolithic; over the course of the past two centuries it was introduced to, and has become invasive in, other continents. We characterised neutral genetic diversity and its structure in the native range and in invaded regions. By coupling these results with historical data, we have identified the way in which gorse populations were introduced and the consequences of introduction history on genetic diversity. Our study is based on the genotyping of individuals from 18 populations at six microsatellite loci. As U. europaeus is an allohexaploid species, we used recently developed tools that take into account genotypic ambiguity. Our results show that genetic diversity in gorse is very high and mainly contained within populations. We confirm that colonisation occurred in two stages. During the first stage, gorse spread out naturally from Spain towards northern Europe, losing some genetic diversity. During the second stage, gorse was introduced by humans into different regions of the world, from northern Europe. These introductions resulted in the loss of rare alleles but did not significantly reduce genetic diversity and thus the evolutionary potential of this invasive species.

  14. From rotten grapes to industrial exploitation: Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37, a micro-factory for macroscale production of bacterial nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Agarwal, Pragati; Singh, Jyoti; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, R P

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), being ultrapure and unique in its properties, is a booming and ageless precursor of several breakthrough technologies of materials sciences; however, its low yield and high cost has created a challenge for its usage at industrial level. Herein, we report a novel, high yielding bacterial cell factory Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37, isolated from rotten grapes, for the production of high quality and value added BNC. The strain was kinetically analyzed to evaluate BNC production under different physiological conditions and had demonstrated the production of 9.98±0.24gL -1 BNC at the expense of 12.08±1.94gL -1 sugar following 2 weeks of cultivation, thus having the conversion yield of 0.82g BNC/g sugar which seems to be the maximum reported yield so far. The analysis of produced pellicle using FTIR, 13 C CP MAS NMR, FE-SEM, XRD and TGA had shown similar structural, morphological and chemical characteristics with that of bacterial nanocellulose. Thus, K. europaeus SGP37 appears to be a potential strain and may offer a promising platform for industrial scale production of nanocelluloses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Docking Studies and Biological Evaluation of a Potential β-Secretase Inhibitor of 3-Hydroxyhericenone F from Hericium erinaceus

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    Chen Diling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting approximately more than 5% of the population worldwide over the age 65, annually. The incidence of AD is expected to be higher in the next 10 years. AD patients experience poor prognosis and as a consequence new drugs and therapeutic strategies are required in order to improve the clinical responses and outcomes of AD. The purpose of the present study was to screen a certain number of potential compounds from herbal sources and investigate their corresponding mode of action. In the present study, the learning and memory effects of ethanol:water (8:2 extracts from Hericium erinaceus were evaluated on a dementia rat model. The model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg/d D-galactose in rats. The results indicated that the extracts can significantly ameliorate the learning and memory abilities. Specific active ingredients were screened in vivo assays and the results were combined with molecular docking studies. Potential receptor–ligand interactions on the BACE1-inhibitor namely, 3-Hydroxyhericenone F (3HF were investigated. The isolation of a limited amount of 3HF from the fruit body of H. erinaceus by chemical separation was conducted, and the mode of action of this compound was verified in NaN3-induced PC12 cells. The cell-based assays demonstrated that 3HF can significantly down-regulate the expression of BACE1 (p < 0.01, while additional AD intracellular markers namely, p-Tau and Aβ1-42 were further down-regulated (p < 0.05. The data further indicate that 3HF can ameliorate certain mitochondrial dysfunction conditions by the reversal of the decreasing level of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, the calcium ion levels ([Ca2+], the inhibiton in the production of ROS, the increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, and the regulation of the expression levels of the genes encoding for the p21, COX I, COX II, PARP1

  16. Docking Studies and Biological Evaluation of a Potential β-Secretase Inhibitor of 3-Hydroxyhericenone F from Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diling, Chen; Tianqiao, Yong; Jian, Yang; Chaoqun, Zheng; Ou, Shuai; Yizhen, Xie

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting approximately more than 5% of the population worldwide over the age 65, annually. The incidence of AD is expected to be higher in the next 10 years. AD patients experience poor prognosis and as a consequence new drugs and therapeutic strategies are required in order to improve the clinical responses and outcomes of AD. The purpose of the present study was to screen a certain number of potential compounds from herbal sources and investigate their corresponding mode of action. In the present study, the learning and memory effects of ethanol:water (8:2) extracts from Hericium erinaceus were evaluated on a dementia rat model. The model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg/d D-galactose in rats. The results indicated that the extracts can significantly ameliorate the learning and memory abilities. Specific active ingredients were screened in vivo assays and the results were combined with molecular docking studies. Potential receptor-ligand interactions on the BACE1-inhibitor namely, 3-Hydroxyhericenone F (3HF) were investigated. The isolation of a limited amount of 3HF from the fruit body of H. erinaceus by chemical separation was conducted, and the mode of action of this compound was verified in NaN 3 -induced PC12 cells. The cell-based assays demonstrated that 3HF can significantly down-regulate the expression of BACE1 ( p < 0.01), while additional AD intracellular markers namely, p-Tau and Aβ 1-42 were further down-regulated ( p < 0.05). The data further indicate that 3HF can ameliorate certain mitochondrial dysfunction conditions by the reversal of the decreasing level of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, the calcium ion levels ([Ca 2+ ]), the inhibiton in the production of ROS, the increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, and the regulation of the expression levels of the genes encoding for the p21, COX I, COX II, PARP1, and NF

  17. Fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. – a new source of water-insoluble (1→3-α-d-glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Wiater

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A water-insoluble polysaccharide (WIP was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus HE01 by an alkaline solution with the yield of 5%. Structural and compositional analyses by total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, and 1H NMR spectroscopy as well as other instrumental techniques showed predominantly glucose linked by α-glycosidic bonds and small amounts of mannose, xylose, rhamnose, galactose, and ribose. The methylation analysis showed that (1→3-linked Glcp is the major constituent (70.8% of the polymer, while the 3,4 substituted d-Glcp represents the main branching residue of the glucan. The presence of (1→3-α-d-glucan in the hyphae of H. erinaceus was additionally confirmed by the use of specific fluorophore-labeled antibodies.

  18. Postnatal growth of Brown hare (Lepus europaeus in a South Italy rearing centre

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    Pierangelo Freschi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the postnatal growth performance (period from birth to weaning in Brown hare (Lepus europaeus leverets in a rearing centre of Southern Italy. Three morpho- metric variables (body weight, hind foot length and ear length were measured weekly from birth to wean- ing (at 21 days in 78 leverets. Data were analysed by proc GLM (SAS considering the effect of sex and birth period (1. January-February, 2. March-April, and 3. May-June. Birth period influenced significantly live weight at 14 14th day of life, lower inperiod2thanin3(553vs.607g;P period 2 than in 3(553vs.607g;P (553 vs. 607 g; P≤0.05 and hind foot length at birth, shorter in period 1 compared to the period 2 and 3 (4.4 vs. 4.7 and 4.8 cm; P≤0.05, and at weaning, shorter in period 1 than in 3 (8.6 vs. 9.6 cm; P≤0.05. Leveretsincreasedwithin21daystheirbodyweight6.26,6.76, Leverets increased within 21 days their body weight 6.26,6.76, 6.26, 6.76, and 6.97 foldinperiod1,2,and3,respectively.Maximumgrowthspeed(over40g/dinallbirthperiodswas in period 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Maximum growth speed (over 40g/d in all birth periods was reached at the 3rd week. These results were consistent with the best performances described in literature for this species. Our data can be useful to evaluate the development of leverets in other rearing centres in Southern Italy. Furthermore, our data can be helpful for aging young Brown hares captured in the field, for example inthosestudiesaimedtoanalyzethecompetitionbetweenBrownhareandendemicItalianhare in those studies aimed to analyze the competition between Brown hare and endemic Italian hare (LepuscorsicanusinMediterraneanecosystems. Lepus corsicanusinMediterraneanecosystems. in Mediterraneanecosystems. Mediterranean ecosystems. .

  19. Evaluation of the toxicological safety of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus in a 28-day oral feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Chen; Chen, Yen-Lien; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh

    2014-08-01

    Natural products have attained great importance as they are believed to be the new alternative medicines for conventional therapy. As numerous studies have proved the tremendous medicinal values of Hericium erinaceus, it is necessary to take into account its safety as well as its risk for the recipient. However, mushroom mycelium has an identity distinct from mushrooms, as two specific classes of compounds, hericenones and erinacines, can only be extracted from both the fruit body and the cultured mycelium, respectively. Therefore, this is the first report on the evaluation of the toxicity of H.erinaceus mycelium, enriched with 5mg/g erinacine A, by a 28-day repeated oral administration study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three doses of 1 (Low), 2 (Mid) and 3 (High) g/kg body weight/day were selected for the study while distilled water served as control. All animals survived to the end of the study. No abnormal changes were observed in clinical signs. No adverse or test article-related differences were found in urinalysis, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters, between the treatment and control groups. No gross pathological findings and histopathological differences were seen. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of erinacine A-enriched H.erinaceus is greater than 3g/kgbody weight/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae

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    Kah-Hui Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  1. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control) group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery. PMID:21941586

  2. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  3. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  4. Specific binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I lectin to sarcolemma of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, K; Kawai, M

    1997-08-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA I) binding was studied in 83 patients with various neuromuscular disorders. UEA I labelled endomysial capillaries and endothelial cells of perimysial blood vessels in all the examined muscles. There was no UEA I binding to muscle fibres except for all (9) cases of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuole formation (DMRV), 1 of 5 cases of inclusion body myositis and 1 of 36 cases of inflammatory myopathies. The UEA I binding was completely eliminated by preincubation of UEA I solution with L-fucose. Using electron microscopy, the UEA I binding was localized to sarcolemma and intrasarco-plasmic membranous organelles other than mitochondria. Myosatellite cells were not labelled. These findings revealed the existence of fucosylated proteins or lipids in a subset of skeletal muscles suffering from DMRV. Biochemical identification of the fucosylated substance and further detailed study on subcellular localization of UEA I binding may yield important clues to the unknown pathogenesis of DMRV.

  5. Thrombomodulin as a marker for vascular tumors. Comparative study with factor VIII and Ulex europaeus I lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, S; Maruyama, I; Sakae, K; Igata, A; Majerus, P W; Sato, E

    1987-10-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a newly described endothelial cell-associated protein that functions as a potent natural anticoagulant by converting thrombin from a procoagulant protease to an anticoagulant. Various vascular tumors were characterized with immunoperoxidase staining with the use of a polyclonal anti-TM serum. The staining patterns of TM were compared with those of Factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAG) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), which have been used as markers for endothelial cells. The results showed that TM is a specific and a highly sensitive marker for angiosarcomas in comparison with FVIII-RAG or UEA-I. In contrast, UEA-I is more sensitive for benign vascular tumors than TM or FVIII-RAG. The other mesenchymal tumors of nonvascular origin showed negative staining for three endothelial markers. These results indicate that TM is a new specific and sensitive tool for the diagnosis of angiosarcomas.

  6. Transgene vaccination using Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1) for targeted mucosal immunization against HIV-1 envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhai; Kochetkova, Irina; Haddad, Asmahan; Hoyt, Teri; Hone, David M; Pascual, David W

    2005-05-31

    Receptor-mediated gene transfer using an M cell ligand has been shown to be an efficient method for mucosal DNA immunization. To investigate further into alternative M cell ligands, the plant lectin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), was tested. UEA-1 binds to human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and these cells can be transfected with poly-l-lysine (PL)-conjugated UEA-1 for expression of reporter cDNAs. When tested in vivo, mice nasally immunized with UEA-1-PL complexed to plasmid encoding HIV-1 envelope showed elevated systemic and mucosal antibody responses, and these were supported by tissue antibody-forming cells. Likewise, elevated envelope-specific CTLs were induced. Thus, UEA-1 mediated DNA delivery represents an alternative mucosal formulation for inducing humoral and cellular immunity against HIV-1.

  7. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus: Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris D Amoutzias

    Full Text Available The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE LA REGENERACION DE Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon Y Ulex europaeus EN ÁREAS EN PROCESO DE RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    SOLORZA BEJARANO, JAIRO HERNÁN

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la regeneración de Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon y Ulex europaeus, en una zona sujeta a un proceso de restauaración ecológica. En las áreas con presencia de individuos arboreos de Acacia decurrens y Acacia melanoxylon se presenta expresión del banco de semillas con formación periódica de la capa de hojarasca que detiene o desvía el proceso sucesional. En las áreas de claro se presenta regeneración de Ulex europaeus, ocupando rápidamente los espacios libres de vegetación. La p...

  9. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Shih; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2014-08-27

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.

  10. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and Nitrotyrosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Fai Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP and homologous protein (CHOP expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.

  11. Large-scale lagovirus disease outbreaks in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in France caused by RHDV2 strains spatially shared with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Hubert, Céline; Top, Sokunthea; Decors, Anouk; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a new genotype called RHDV2 emerged in France. It exhibits a larger host range than classical RHDV strains by sporadically infecting different hare species, including the European hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that closely related RHDV2 strains circulate locally in both hares and rabbits, and therefore that RHDV2 s...

  12. Evaluation of monoclonal anti-A and anti-B and affinity-purified Ulex europaeus lectin I for forensic blood grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, R E; Lee, H C; Carroll, J E

    1984-01-01

    Two different monoclonal anti-A and anti-B and several different affinity purified Ulex europaeus lectin I reagents were evaluated and compared with conventional anti-A and anti-B sera and Ulex anti-H for serologic properties, in inhibition tests with secretor salivas, and in elution tests with bloodstains. The monoclonal and purified reagents were found to be comparable to conventional ones, and accordingly suitable for forensic inhibition and elution procedures.

  13. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Rupcic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor (NGF or (as established more recently brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H. alpestre. While we observed highly similar metabolite profiles between the two strains that were examined, we isolated two previously undescribed metabolites, given the trivial names erinacines Z1 and Z2. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Along with six further, previously identified cyathane diterpenes, the novel erinacines were tested for neurotrophin inducing effects. We found that erinacines act on BDNF, which is a neurotrophic factor that has been reported recently by us to be induced by the corallocins, but as well on NGF expression, which is consistent with the literature.

  14. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Xinyi; Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Wu, Di; Sun, Wenjing; Ping, Lifeng

    2015-05-01

    HEG-5 is a novel polysaccharide-protein purified from the fermented mycelia of Hericium erinaceus CZ-2. The present study aims to investigate the effects of HEG-5 on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Here, we first uncover that HEG-5 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis suggested that HEG-5 could decrease the expressions of Bcl2, PI3K and AKT1, while increase the expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-3, p53, CDK4, Bax and Bad. These findings indicated that the Caspase-8/-3-dependent, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways involved in the molecular events of HEG-5 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence that HEG-5 may be taken as a potential candidate for treating gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical constituents from Hericium erinaceus and their ability to stimulate NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Chen; Yin, Xia; Cao, Chen-Yu; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2015-11-15

    One new meroterpenoid, named hericenone K (11), along with 10 known compounds (1-10), ergosterol peroxide (1), cerevisterol (2), 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (3), inoterpene A (4), astradoric acid C (5), betulin (6), oleanolic acid (7), ursolic acid (8), hemisceramide (9), and 3,4-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4'-methyl-2'-oxo-3'-pentenyl)-9(7H)-oxo-2H-furo[3,4-h]benzopyran (10), was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic methods, as well as through comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 3-6, 8, and 9 were isolated from Hericium species for the first time. Compounds 10 and 11 was suggested to be racemic by the CD spectrum data and specific rotations, which ware resolved by chiral HPLC into respective enantiomers. Compounds 1-3, (±)-10, (-)-10 and (+)-10 in the presence of NGF (20 ng/mL) exerted a significant increase in neurite-bearing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity, glutathione reductase (GR activity, catalase (CAT activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy.

  17. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide facilitates restoration of injured intestinal mucosal immunity in Muscovy duck reovirus-infected Muscovy ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijian; Jiang, Huihui; Zhu, Erpeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Quanxi; Zhou, Wuduo; Qin, Tao; Wu, Xiaoping; Wu, Baocheng; Huang, Yifan

    2018-02-01

    To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells. Additionally, dynamics of secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) productions in intestinal mucosa were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results showed that HEP significantly improved intestinal morphological structure and related indexes, and significantly inhibited the reduction of intestinal mucosal IELs, goblet cells and mast cells caused by MDRV infection. Furthermore, HEP significantly increased the secretion of sIgA, IFN-γ and IL-4 to enhance intestinal mucosal immune functions. Our findings indicate that HEP treatment can effectively repair MDRV-caused injures of small intestinal mucosal immune barrier, and improve mucosal immune function in sick Muscovy ducklings, which will provide valuable help for further application of HEP in prevention and treatment of MDRV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Acute and developmental toxicity assessment of erincine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Chen; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Yen-Po; Lee, Li-Ya; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2018-01-23

    This study aimed to establish an in vitro model to confirm the efficacy of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus (EAHE) mycelia and investigate its potential adverse effects in a preclinical experimental setting, including an assessment on the oral administration of EAHE mycelia in acute and prenatal developmental toxicity tests. At a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, EAHE mycelia elicited no death or treatment-related signs of toxicity in ten Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes during the 14 days of the experimental period. After considering the recommended dose range of EAHE mycelia from the acute toxicity test as well as the therapeutic doses, EAHE mycelia was administered to 66 pregnant rats in the low, medium, and high-dose groups by gavage at 875, 1750, and 2625 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All dams were subjected to a Caesarean section on the 20th day of pregnancy, and the fetuses were examined for any morphological abnormalities. Results indicated that weight of uterus, fetal body weight, number of corpora lutea, implantation sites, pre-implantation loss, and post-implantation loss of the treatment groups and the control group exhibited no statistical difference. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the fetal external, organ, and skeletal examinations. Taken together, it can be concluded that EAHE mycelia is considered safe and practically nontoxic for consumption within the appropriate doses and investigation period in this study.

  19. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupcic, Zeljka; Rascher, Monique; Kanaki, Sae; Köster, Reinhard W; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin

    2018-03-06

    Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) or (as established more recently) brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion's Mane mushroom ( Hericium erinaceus ) strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H. alpestre ). While we observed highly similar metabolite profiles between the two strains that were examined, we isolated two previously undescribed metabolites, given the trivial names erinacines Z1 and Z2. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Along with six further, previously identified cyathane diterpenes, the novel erinacines were tested for neurotrophin inducing effects. We found that erinacines act on BDNF , which is a neurotrophic factor that has been reported recently by us to be induced by the corallocins, but as well on NGF expression, which is consistent with the literature.

  20. Selenizing Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides induces dendritic cells maturation through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Ren, Zhe; Huang, Yifan; Song, Yulong; Lin, Dandan; Li, Jian; Ma, Yufang; Wu, Xiuqin; Qiu, Fuan; Xiao, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus were modified to obtain its nine selenium derivatives, sHEP 1 -sHEP 9 . Their structures were identified, yields and selenium contents were determined, the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms were compared taking unmodified HEP as control. The results revealed that the selenylation were successful. sHEP 1 , sHEP 2 and sHEP 8 treatment of DCs increased their surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 and indicated that sHEP 1 , sHEP 2 and sHEP 8 induced DC maturation. Furthermore, sHEP 2 and sHEP 8 also significantly decreased DCs endocytosis and significantly enhanced cytokine (IL-12 and IFN-γ) production. In line with TLR4 activation, sHEP 2 increased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK, and the nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun, p-CREB, and c-Fos. sHEP 2 also activated NF-κB signaling, as evidenced by degradation of IκBα/β and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. Together, these results suggest that sHEP is a strong immunostimulant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhang; Shao-long, Yang; Ai-hong, Wang; Zhi-chun, Sun; Ya-fen, Zhuo; Ye-ting, Xu; Yu-ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25960754

  2. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoon Griffin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  3. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect of the Brittle Star (Ophiocoma Erinaceus) Dichloromethane Extract and Doxorubicin on EL4 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Mahbubeh; Baharara, Javad; Nezhad Shahrokhabadi, Khadijeh; Amini, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    Leukemia is a blood disease that creates from inhibition of differentiation and increased proliferation rate. The nature has been known as a rich source of medically useful substances. High diversity of bioactive molecules, extracted from marine invertebrates, makes them as ideal candidates for cancer research. The study has been done to investigate cytotoxic effects of dichloromethane brittle star extract and doxorubicin on EL4 cancer cells. Blood cancer EL4 cells were cultured and treated at different concentrations of brittle star ( Ophiocoma erinaceus ) dichloromethane extract at 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell toxicity was studied using MTT assay. Cell morphology was examined using an invert microscope. Further, apoptosis was examined using Annexin V-FITC, propodium iodide, DAPI, and Acridine orange/propodium iodide staining. Eventually, the apoptosis pathways were analyzed using measurement of Caspase-3 and -9 activity. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, ANOVA software, and Tukey's test. P EL4 proliferation as IC 50 =32 µg/mL. All experiments related to apoptosis analysis confirmed that dichloromethane brittle star extract and doxorubicin have a cytotoxic effect on EL4 cells inIC 50 concentration. The study showed that dichloromethane brittle star extract is as an adjunct to doxorubicin in treatment of leukemia cells.

  4. Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-related pathologies in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai-Teng, Tzeng; Chin-Chu, Chen; Li-Ya, Lee; Wan-Ping, Chen; Chung-Kuang, Lu; Chien-Chang, Shen; Chi-Ying, Huang F; Chien-Chih, Chen; Shiao, Young-Ji

    2016-06-27

    The fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus has been demonstrated to possess anti-dementia activity in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and people with mild cognitive impairment. However, the therapeutic potential of Hericium erinaceus mycelia on Alzheimer's disease remains unclear. In this study, the effects of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelia (HE-My) on the pathological changes in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease are studied. After a 30 day oral administration to 5 month-old female APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, we found that HE-My and its ethanol extracts (HE-Et) attenuated cerebral Aβ plaque burden. It's worth noting that the attenuated portion of a plaque is the non-compact structure. The level of insulin-degrading enzyme was elevated by both HE-My and HE-Et in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, the number of plaque-activated microglia and astrocytes in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were diminished, the ratio of nerve growth factor (NGF) to NGF precursor (proNGF) was increased and hippocampal neurogenesis was promoted after these administrations. All the mentioned benefits of these administrations may therefore improve the declined activity of daily living skill in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of HE-My and HE-Et on Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the effective components of HE-My and HE-Et are worth to be developed to become a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  6. Factors affecting Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus hunting bags in Tuscany region (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Santilli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We carried out an exploratory analysis of hare Lepus europaeus hunting bags (number of brown hares shot in the nineteen Hunting Districts of Tuscany (central Italy from 2001 to 2004, in order to identify which variables (land use and characteristics, climate and management could affect hare harvest. Vineyards and grass in rotation with winter cereals were positively associated with the number of hares shot, whereas industrial crops (mainly sunflowers seemed to have a negative effect,as did the density of grazing sheep. Mean annual rainfall was negatively related to the harvest but with a borderline significance. We found a positive relationship between the number of hares harvested and the percentage of protected areas managed to conserve and produce small game species, whereas private hunting estates showed a negative association. Restocking both with wild hares captured in protected areas and with farm-reared animals did not show any effect on hunting bags of hares. Riassunto Fattori influenzanti il carniere di lepri (Lepus europaeus in Toscana (Italia centrale E’ stata condotta una ricerca preliminare sui carnieri di lepre (dal 2001 al 2004 dei diciannove Ambiti Territoriali di Caccia della Toscana, al fine di identificare quali variabili (di tipo ambientale, climatico e gestionale possano influire sulla resa venatoria di questa specie. Il numero di lepri abbattute dai cacciatori è risultato influenzato positivamente dalla percentuale di vigneti e di foraggiere in avvicendamento, mentre le colture industriali (principalmente rappresentate dal girasole e la densità del bestiame ovicaprino hanno evidenziato un effetto negativo. Anche le precipitazioni medie annuali sono risultate associate negativamente al numero di lepri abbattute, tuttavia in questo caso la variabile non ha raggiunto il livello di significatività statistica. L’abbondanza del carniere di

  7. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  8. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  9. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  10. Binding of human endothelium to Ulex europaeus I-coated Dynabeads: application to the isolation of microvascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C J; Garbett, P K; Nissen, B; Schrieber, L

    1990-06-01

    A major problem encountered when isolating human microvascular endothelium is the presence of contaminating cells such as fibroblasts that rapidly over-grow the endothelial cells. We describe here a simple, rapid technique for purifying endothelial cells derived from the microvasculature of neonatal foreskin and osteoarthritic and rheumatoid arthritic synovium. This technique is based on the selective binding of the lectin Ulex europaeus I (UEA I) to the endothelial cell surface via fucose residues. Initially UEA I was covalently bound to tosyl-activated super-paramagnetic polystyrene beads (Dynabeads) by incubation for 24 h at room temperature. Cells were isolated by extracting microvascular segments from enzyme-treated (trypsin and Pronase) cubes of tissue. The mixed population of cells obtained were purified by incubating them at 4 degrees C for 10 min with the UEA I-coated Dynabeads. Endothelium bound to the beads whilst contaminating cells were removed by five washes with HBSS using a magnetic particle concentrator. The endothelial cells thus obtained grew to confluence as a cobblestone-like monolayer and expressed von Willebrand factor antigen. The cells were released from the Dynabeads by the competitive binding of fucose (10 min at 4 degrees C). This new method is simple and reproducible and allows pure human microvascular endothelial cells to be cultured within 2 h of obtaining a specimen.

  11. Precocious development of lectin (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I) receptors in dome epithelium of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M J

    1987-06-01

    Dome epithelium (DE), the tissue covering lymphoid domes of gut-associated lymphoid tissues, was examined in both adult and neonatal rabbit appendix or sacculus rotundus to determine if dome epithelial cells matured earlier than epithelial cells covering adjacent villi. The localization of well-differentiated epithelial cells in rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) was accomplished histochemically by use of molecular probes: fluorescein isothiocyanate or horseradish peroxidase conjugates of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA), a lectin specific for terminal L-fucose molecules on certain glycoconjugates. The villus epithelial cells of newborn and 2-, 5-, or 10-day-old rabbits did not bind UEA, but between the twelfth and fifteenth days of postnatal life, UEA receptors were expressed by well-differentiated villus epithelial cells. In contrast to villus epithelium, DE in appendix and sacculus rotundus of neonatal rabbits expressed UEA receptors two days after birth, a feature that distinguished the DE of neonatal GALT for the next two weeks. In adult rabbits, UEA receptors were associated with dome epithelial cells extending from the mouths of glandular crypts to the upper domes; in contrast to the domes, UEA receptors were only present on well-differentiated epithelial cells at the villus tips. Results suggested that in neonatal rabbits most dome epithelial cells developed UEA receptors shortly after birth, reflecting precocious development of DE as compared to villus epithelium. In adult rabbit dome epithelium UEA receptors appeared on dome epithelial cells as they left the glandular crypts, representing accelerated epithelial maturation.

  12. Application of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-modified liposomes for oral vaccine: Ex Vivo bioadhesion and in Vivo immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, KeXin; Zhao, Xiuli; Xu, Shiyi; Pang, DaHai; Yang, ChunRong; Chen, DaWei

    2011-01-01

    The conjugation of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) onto surface of liposomes has been demonstrated to effectively improve the intestinal absorption of antigen, subsequently induced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this context, we prepared bovine serum albumin (BSA)-encapsulating UEAI-modified liposomes (UEAI-LIP) and unmodified ones (LIP). The specific bioadhesion on mice gastro-intestinal mucosa was studied ex vivo. An important increase of interaction between UEAI-conjugated liposomes and the intestinal segments with Peyer's Patches (PPs) was observed compared with the unconjugated one (p<0.01). However, under the presence of α-L-fucose, which is the reported specific sugar for UEAI, specifically inhibited the activity of these conjugates. The immune-stimulating activity in vivo was studied by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in serum and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in intestinal mucosal secretions following oral administration of BSA solution, LIP and UEAI-LIP in mice. Results indicate that antigen encapsulated in liposomes, especially the UEAI-modified ones, was favorable for inducing immune response. At 42 d after the first immunization, the highest IgG and IgA antibody levels produced by UEAI-LIP occurred, respectively showing 4.4-fold and 5-fold higher levels compared to those of the groups receiving BSA alone. This data demonstrated high potential of UEAI-modified liposomes for their use as carrier for oral vaccines.

  13. Lectin I of Ulex europaeus as a marker for a subset of histiocytic tumours of the lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruco, L P; Pescarmona, E; Pezzella, F; Uccini, S; Testi, A M; Cartoni, C; Baroni, C D

    1985-01-01

    We describe four lymph node based tumours in which numerous neoplastic cells and some mitotic figures were characterized by staining affinity for Lectin I of Ulex europaeus (UEA-I). The patients had no vascular or epithelial tumours and presented symptoms suggestive of a systemic lymphoproliferative disease. Histologically, the tumours were composed of large, cohesive, cells which were mainly located in the paracortex. UEA-I reactivity was more evident in the Golgi area and was present in large mononucleated cells often arranged to delimit vascular-like spaces. The neoplastic cells were weakly muramidase-positive in one case, and were ANAE+/AP+ in two other cases. Large dots of UEA-I reactivity were detected in S-100+/muramidase-negative Langerhans-like cells present in one case of Letterer-Siwe disease. UEA-I staining was consistently negative in 20 cases of B cell- or T cell lymphoma and in 9 other cases of histiocytic lymphoma. It is suggested that UEA-I+ tumours of the lymph nodes are part of a distinct subset of histiocytic malignancies whose neoplastic cells present some morphological and phenotypic properties normally associated with endothelial cells.

  14. Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, R; De Greve, H; Dao-Thi, M H; Messens, J; Imberty, A; Wyns, L

    2000-08-25

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins. The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Affinity cytochemistry of vascular endothelia in brain tumors by biotinylated Ulex europaeus type I lectin (UEA I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T; Seitz, R J; Liebert, U G; Gallasch, E; Wechsler, W

    1985-01-01

    The vascularization of 50 tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) including 17 meningiomas, 25 neuroectodermal tumors, i.e., astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, mixed gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, seven metastatic carcinomas, and one malignant hemangioendothelioma were investigated using biotinylated Ulex europaeus type I lectin (UEA I) in an indirect avidinbiotin-peroxidase procedure. The cytochemical staining pattern of UEA I on paraffin sections was compared with that of biotinylated Dolichos biflorus lectin (DBA), and with the immunocytochemical staining of factor VIII related antigen (F VIII/RAG) by polyclonal antisera using the PAP technique. UEA I visualized the endothelia of blood vessels with equal intensity, sensitivity, and reliability in normal brain and in tumor tissue with neovascularization. While large, medium, and small vessels were equally well demonstrated by UEA I and antibodies against FVIII/RAG, capillaries and endothelial sprouts were stained more consistently and intensely by UEA I. No reliable cytochemical staining could be obtained by DBA regardless of tissue or cell type investigated. It is concluded that UEA I is a highly useful cytochemical marker for the identification of vascular endothelia in paraffin sections of human brain tumors.

  16. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the filarial nematode Micipsella numidica from the hare Lepus europaeus in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, S; Galuppi, R; Fraulo, M; Savini, F; Morandi, B; Cancrini, G; Poglayen, G

    2016-07-01

    The genus Micipsella comprises three species of filariae to date identified in lagomorphs only, whereas the other genera belonging to the subfamily Splendidofilariinae are described as parasites of birds, reptiles and mammals. In the present study seven specimens of Micipsella numidica (Seurat, 1917), collected from the hare Lepus europaeus in Italy, were characterized genetically by molecular amplification of the mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA; cox1) and the 5S rDNA gene spacer region. Phylogenetic trees inferred using available sequences from filariae and those identified in this study evidenced a close relationship between M. numidica and Splendidofilariinae of other mammals and reptiles (Rumenfilaria andersoni and Madathamugadia hiepei). The present findings, apart from adding new data about the hosts in Italy, support the taxonomic position of M. numidica and highlight the substantial biological and molecular differences existing between Splendidofilariinae and other Onchocercidae. The study also contributes to our knowledge of the molecular/genetic diagnosis of filarial parasites of veterinary and medical concern in any vertebrate or invertebrate host.

  17. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  20. SAGE IV Pathfinder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  1. Endothelial cell markers in vascular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study comparing factor VIII-related antigen, blood group specific antigens, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D; Said, J W; Siegel, R J; Fealy, M; Fishbein, M C

    1986-06-01

    Markers for endothelial cells including Ulex europaeus 1 lectin, blood group A, B, and H, and the prostaglandin metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were evaluated in paraffin secretions from formalin-fixed benign and malignant vascular neoplasms using a variety of immunohistochemical techniques, and results compared with staining for factor VIII-related antigen. Staining for Ulex appeared more sensitive than factor VIII-related antigen in identifying poorly differentiated neoplasms including haemangiosarcomas and spindle cell proliferations in Kaposi's sarcoma. Staining for blood group related antigens correlated with blood group in all cases. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin was the only marker for endothelial cells in lymphangiomas.

  2. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-08-19

    The culinary and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattered literature on the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus. The reported health-promoting properties of the mushroom fruit bodies, mycelia, and bioactive pure compounds include antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antihyperlipodemic, antisenescence, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties and improvement of anxiety, cognitive function, and depression. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties. A wide range of research advances and techniques are described and evaluated. The collated information and suggestion for further research might facilitate and guide further studies to optimize the use of the whole mushrooms and about 70 characterized actual and potential bioactive secondary metabolites to help prevent or treat human chronic, cognitive, and neurological diseases.

  3. Nutrient Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology for Simultaneous Biomass and Bioactive Compound Production by Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Fred K; Yu, Xiaobin; Wang, Qiang; Li, Hanguang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unpleasant side effects of long-term use of commercially available drugs, the discovery and development of natural therapeutic agents to prevent life-debilitating diseases is urgently needed. In the present study, the optimization of medium composition for maximum mycelial biomass and bioactive compounds production by Hericium erinaceus was studied using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. Under the optimal conditions and at a pH of 5.41 ± 0.28, the maximum mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide production reached 25.0 ± 1.38 g/L and 1.73 ± 0.06 g/L, respectively, compared with 22.65 ± 0.10 g/L and 1.56 ± 0.23 g/L in the basal medium, after 7 days of cultivation. Furthermore, we report for the first time the production of adenosine, both intra- and extracellularly in submerged cultures of H. erinaceus. Although most of the adenosine detected existed in the culture medium, the highest intracellular and extracellular adenosine concentrations of 150.84 ± 1.87 mg/L and 142.48 ± 3.78 mg/L were achieved after 7 and 6 days of cultivation, respectively.

  4. Chemical Constituents from Hericium erinaceus Promote Neuronal Survival and Potentiate Neurite Outgrowth via the TrkA/Erk1/2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Chen; Cao, Chen-Yu; Kubo, Miwa; Harada, Kenichi; Yan, Xi-Tao; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-07-30

    Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom used traditionally in Eastern Asia to improve memory. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects of the secondary metabolites isolated from the MeOH extract of cultured mycelium of H. erinaceus and the primary mechanisms involved. One new dihydropyridine compound ( 6 ) and one new natural product ( 2 ) together with five known compounds ( 1 , 3 - 5 , 7 ) were obtained and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and HRMS. The cell-based screening for bioactivity showed that 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic methyl ester ( 1 ) and a cyathane diterpenoid, erincine A ( 3 ), not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also protected neuronally-differentiated cells against deprivation of NGF in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Additionally, compound 3 induced neuritogenesis in primary rat cortex neurons. Furthermore, our results revealed that TrkA-mediated and Erk1/2-dependant pathways could be involved in 1 and 3 -promoted NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

  5. A Polysaccharide Isolated from Mycelia of the Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes) Induced Apoptosis in Precancerous Human Gastric Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Zhang, Yanqiu; Xiao, Xulang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Yang; Gao, Qipin

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is typically used in traditional Chinese medicine for mucosal protection, healing of gastric ulcers, and treatment of gastritis. We purified from the cultured mycelia of H. erinaceus a polysaccharide with anti-gastric ulcer and antigastritis activity, but its effects on gastric malignancy have not been elucidated. We examined the differential effects of this purified polysaccharide, named EP-1, on the human gastric (GES-1) cell line and a precancerous cell line (MC) that was transformed from GES-1 using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. We observed that the polysaccharide potently induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the MC cell line but did not have any effect on the GES-1 cell line at the same doses. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the polysaccharide exerted its activity through an apoptosis-associated pathway by modulating the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. Differential effects of the polysaccharide on the GES-1 and MC cell lines indicate that the polysaccharide was effective in preventing gastric cancer progression.

  6. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Restoration of sensory dysfunction following peripheral nerve injury by the polysaccharide from culinary and medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr. Pers. through its neuroregenerative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah-Hui WONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves have the unique capability to regenerate after injury. Insights into regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. We investigated the ability of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. In sensory functional recovery test, the time taken for the rats to withdraw its hind limb from contact with the hot plate was measured. The test revealed acceleration of sensory recovery in the polysaccharide group compared to negative controls. Further, peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Akt and p38 MAPK were expressed in DRG and strongly upregulated in polysaccharide group after peripheral nerve injury. The intensity of endothelial cells antigen-1 that recognized endothelial cells in the blood vessels of distal segments in crushed nerves was significantly higher in the treated groups than in the negative control group. Our findings suggest that H. erinaceus is capable of accelerating sensory functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and the effect involves the activation of protein kinase signaling pathways and restoration of blood-nerve barrier.

  8. Lactobacillus fermentum HP3–Mediated Fermented Hericium erinaceus Juice as a Health Promoting Food Supplement to Manage Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Woraharn, Sasimar; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Lailerd, Narissara; Kesika, Periyanaina; Peerajan, Sartjin

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the antidiabetic property of Lactobacillus fermentum HP3–mediated fermented Hericium erinaceus juice (FHJ) using male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). FHJ was prepared using boiled mushroom juice and L. fermentum HP3. Amino acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of FHJ was analyzed. Streptozotocin-induced DM rats were supplemented with FHJ in a pre- and posttreatment method. The changes in plasma insulin, plasma glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), representative cytokines, and the antioxidant system were assessed in experimental rats using spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The supplementation of FHJ improved the body mass, insulin level, and recovery progress of hyperglycemia. HbA1c level was altered by the FHJ intervention. The inflammatory cytokines level was suppressed in FHJ supplemented group compared with control. Intervention of FHJ and insulin improved the production of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-–β1 in DM rat. The study suggested that fermented H erinaceus juice may be used as one of the food-based health-promoting supplement to manage DM along with medication. PMID:29619846

  9. Chemical Constituents from Hericium erinaceus Promote Neuronal Survival and Potentiate Neurite Outgrowth via the TrkA/Erk1/2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chen Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom used traditionally in Eastern Asia to improve memory. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects of the secondary metabolites isolated from the MeOH extract of cultured mycelium of H. erinaceus and the primary mechanisms involved. One new dihydropyridine compound (6 and one new natural product (2 together with five known compounds (1,3–5,7 were obtained and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and HRMS. The cell-based screening for bioactivity showed that 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic methyl ester (1 and a cyathane diterpenoid, erincine A (3, not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also protected neuronally-differentiated cells against deprivation of NGF in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Additionally, compound 3 induced neuritogenesis in primary rat cortex neurons. Furthermore, our results revealed that TrkA-mediated and Erk1/2-dependant pathways could be involved in 1 and 3-promoted NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

  10. Isolation, purification and physicochemical properties of polysaccharide from fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and its effect on colonic health of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-02-01

    Hericium erinaceus was extracted with boiling water to obtain the crude polysaccharide (HECP) and refined polysaccharide (HERP). HERP was further purified using gradual ethanol precipitation to obtain five sub-fractions. Their physicochemical properties were evaluated, including chemical components, monosaccharide composition and molecular weight. Meanwhile, the effect of HERP on colonic health of mice was investigated by oral administration at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg of body weight (mg/kgbw), comparing with that of HECP. Results showed that the gradual ethanol precipitation could remarkably increase polysaccharide purity. HERP, HECP and the five purified fractions had different monosaccharide compositions, while the main monosaccharides were Glc and Gal. They all showed similar structure with amorphous appearance. Short-chain fatty acids productions in colonic and cecum contents, and feces of mice were increased in polysaccharide treated groups. Mice administrated with HERP at 400mg/kgbw showed significant reductions in pH values while obvious increases in moisture amounts. This study suggests that gradual ethanol precipitation is available for purification of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus and the extracted polysaccharide could improve colonic health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun; Kim, Hyoun Geun; Kim, Joo Youn; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later. We found that chronic administration of HE showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. To elucidate possible mechanisms, proliferative activity of the hippocampal progenitor cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. Moreover, to evaluate neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the first day of HE administration, followed by isolation of the brains 4 weeks later. HE (60 mg/kg) increased the number of PCNA- and Ki67-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, indicating increased proliferation of hippocampal progenitors. In addition, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased when treated with HE (60 mg/kg) compared with the saline-treated group, demonstrating enhanced neurogenesis by HE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic HE administration can exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  12. Lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labels a subset of primary afferent fibers which project selectively to the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K

    1986-02-19

    To examine differential carbohydrate expression among different subsets of primary afferent fibers, several fluorescein-isothiocyanate conjugated lectins were used in a histochemical study of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of the rabbit. The lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I specifically labeled a subset of DRG cells and primary afferent fibers which projected to the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. These results suggest that specific carbohydrates containing L-fucosyl residue is expressed selectively in small diameter primary afferent fibers which subserve nociception or thermoception.

  13. Epidemiology of RHDV2 (Lagovirus europaeus/GI.2) in free-living wild European rabbits in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, C; Abrantes, J; Serronha, A; Lopes, A M; Maio, E; Magalhães, M J; Blanco, E; Bárcena, J; Esteves, P J; Santos, N; Alves, P C; Monterroso, P

    2018-04-01

    As the detection of the first outbreak of a novel aetiological agent of rabbit haemorrhagic disease commonly called RHDV2 or RHDVb (Lagovirus europaeus/GI.2, henceforth GI.2) in France in 2010, the virus rapidly spread throughout continental Europe and nearby islands such as Great Britain, Sardinia, Sicily, the Azores and the Canary Islands among others. The outbreaks of this new lagovirus cause important economic losses in rabbitries, and ecological disruptions by affecting the conservation of rabbit-sensitive top predators. We analysed 550 rabbit carcasses collected in the field between May 2013 and March 2016, to investigate the epidemiology of GI.2 in free-living populations and to perform a comparative analysis with the epidemiology of classical rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus forms (RHDV, henceforth GI.1) in Portugal. Rabbits were sexed, aged and liver and blood samples were collected for subsequent RHDV screening and serology. A total of 172 samples were PCR-positive to GI.2, whereas GI.1 strains were not detected in any of the samples. The outbreaks of GI.2 revealed a marked seasonality, with peaks during the breeding season (November-May). We also found that approximately, one-third of free-ranging European rabbits in Portugal have seroconverted to GI.2. We demonstrate that the GI.2 lagovirus is currently widespread in wild populations in Portugal and is affecting a high proportion of adults and juveniles. Therefore, ongoing monitoring and surveillance are required to assess the effects of GI.2 on wild rabbit populations, its evolution, and to guide management actions aimed at mitigating the impacts of rabbit declines in the ecosystem and in rural economies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The Ash Content of the Main Muscle Groups and Edible Offal Collected From Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The availability of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, unlike that of domestic rabbits, is restricted by hunting seasons. Rabbit meat, according to research from Spain, is a rich source of K, P, Fe and Mg, but poor in Na, being recommended for people with hypertension. The largest quantity of macro minerals studied in rabbit meat was determined for K and P, and the most abundant micro minerals were Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. In hare meat, ash content is not sufficiently studied. The current low level of knowledge motivated the present study. The aim of this study was to establish the ash content for major muscle groups and edible offal of hares. The biological material used was collected from 49 hares with an average weight of 5.6 kg, at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months. Different muscle groups (the muscles Cervicalis, Intercostalis, Longissimus Dorsi, Psoas major, Triceps Brachi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and the main edible offal (heart, liver, kidney were sampled. The ash was determined by calcination (in Supertherm C311 oven calcination at 5500C. The results obtained were interpreted statistically (arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (s, variance (s2 and coefficient of variation (V% and the statistical significance of differences was tested using the ANOVA Single Factor algorithm (p>0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001. Ash content for the main muscle groups analysed varied from the lowest average values of 1.095% for the Intercostalis muscles, to the highest average values of 1.256%, for Triceps brachii muscles.

  15. Ulex Europaeus lectin and anti-CD31 staining in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: potential prognostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Goldberg, I; Gotlieb, W H; Lerner-Geva, L; Ben-Baruch, G; Kopolovic, J

    1998-07-01

    Seventy-five squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix and 10 controls were stained for Ulex Europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-1) and anti-CD31, and the results were analyzed with respect to patient age, clinical stage, tumor grade, and survival during a follow-up period of 1 to 13 years. The patients' mean age at the time of diagnosis was 47.8 years (range, 27 to 83). Seventeen patients died of disease, 2 had disease recurrence, and 51 patients remained free of disease; 5 patients were lost to follow-up. Twenty-eight cases (37.3%) showed focal membranous staining for UEA-1 and 9 cases (12%) showed a diffuse pattern; 38 cases (50.7%) were UEA-1 negative. Poor survival was related to diffuse membranous UEA-1 immunoreactivity (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.014), grade (p = 0.02), and stage (p = 0.0002). CD31-positive neoplastic cells displayed a cytoplasmic pattern. Fifteen cases (20%) had diffuse staining and another 15 (20%) stained focally; 45 cases (60%) were CD31-negative. The adjacent nonneoplastic epithelium and all 10 controls were uniformly negative for CD31. Variable staining of the endocervical epithelium and weak or negative staining of ectocervical epithelium for UEA-1 were observed. However, the epithelium in all controls was negative for UEA-1. Poor survival was related to both focal and diffuse staining for CD31 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Staining by both UEA-1 and anti-CD31 retained its correlation with survival after exclusion of stage la tumors.

  16. Characterization of the binding specificity of Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA) in comparison to Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, S E; Thiele, J; Park, Y O; Hanisch, F G; Bara, J; Fischer, R

    1996-08-01

    Using immunochemical and immunohistochemical methods, the binding site of Anguilla anguilla agglutinin (AAA) was characterized and compared with the related fucose-specific lectin from Ulex europaeus (UEA-I). In solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassays, the two lectins recognized Fuc alpha 1-2Gal beta-HSA. AAA additionally cross-reacted with neoglycolipids bearing lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I [H type 1] and II [Le(a)] and lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) as glycan moieties. UEA-I, on the other hand, bound to a LDFT-derived neoglycolipid but not to the other neoglycolipids tested. Binding of AAA to gastric mucin was competitively neutralized by Le(a)-specific monoclonal antibodies. UEA-I binding, on the other hand, was reduced after co-incubation with H type 2- and Le(y)-specific monoclonal antibodies. According to our results, AAA reacts with fucosylated type 1 chain antigens, whereas UEA-I binds only to the alpha 1-2-fucosylated LDFT-derived neoglycolipid. In immunohistochemical studies, the reactivity of AAA and UEA-I in normal pyloric mucosa from individuals with known Lewis and secretor status was analysed. AAA showed a broad reaction in the superficial pyloric mucosa from secretors and non-secretors, but AAA reactivity was more pronounced in Le(a+b-) individuals. On the other hand, UEA-I stained the superficial pyloric mucosa only from secretor individuals. A staining of deep mucous glands by the lectins was found in all specimens. Both reacted with most human carcinomas of different origin. Slight differences in their binding pattern were observed and may be explained by the different fine-specificities of the lectins.

  17. Localization of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) in the developing gustatory epithelium of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Ryo; Shi, Lei; Honma, Shiho; Fujii, Masae; Ueda, Katsura; El-Sharaby, Ashraf; Wakisaka, Satoshi

    2004-09-01

    To understand the development of the gustatory structures necessitates a reliable marker for both immature and mature taste buds. It has been reported that the intragemmal cells within the taste buds of adult rats were bound to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), a specific lectin for alpha-linked fucose, but it has not been determined whether immature taste buds, i.e. taste buds without an apparent taste pore, are labeled with UEA-I. The present study was conducted to examine the UEA-I binding pattern during the development of the rat gustatory epithelium. In adult animals, UEA-I bound to the membrane of taste buds in all examined regions of the gustatory epithelium. Within the individual taste buds, UEA-I labeled almost all intragemmal cells. The binding of UEA-I was occasionally detected below the keratinized layer of the trench wall epithelium but could not be found in the lingual epithelium of the adult animal. During the development of circumvallate papilla, some cells within the immature taste buds were also labeled with UEA-I. The developmental changes in the UEA-I binding pattern in fungiform papillae were almost identical to those in the circumvallate papilla: both immature and mature taste buds were labeled with UEA-I. The present results indicate that UEA-I is a specific lectin for the intragemmal cells of both immature and mature taste buds and, thus, UEA-I can be used as a reliable marker for all taste buds in the rat.

  18. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.

  19. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  20. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of myco synthesized AuNPs from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegadeesh; Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; John, Priscilla A; Zhijian, Chan; Periasamy, Vengadesh; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV-visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV-visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20-40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2-2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite extension on PC-12 cells. Nerve growth factor 50 ng/mL was used as a positive control. Treatment with different concentrations (nanograms) of AuNPs resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. AuNPs induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 13% at 600 ng/mL concentration. In this study, the AuNPs synthesis was achieved by a simple, low-cost, and rapid bioreduction approach. AuNPs were shown to have potential neuronal differentiation and stimulated neurite outgrowth. The water

  1. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Knowledge-based modeling of a legume lectin and docking of the carbohydrate ligand: the Ulex europaeus lectin I and its interaction with fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohier, A; Espinosa, J F; Jimenez-Barbero, J; Carrupt, P A; Pérez, S; Imberty, A

    1996-12-01

    Ulex europaeus isolectin I is specific for fucose-containing oligosaccharide such as H type 2 trisaccharide alpha-L-Fuc (1-->2) beta-D-Gal (1-->4) beta-D-GlcNAc. Several legume lectins have been crystallized and modeled, but no structural data are available concerning such fucose-binding lectin. The three-dimensional structure of Ulex europaeus isolectin I has been constructed using seven legume lectins for which high-resolution crystal structures were available. Some conserved water molecules, as well as the structural cations, were taken into account for building the model. In the predicted binding site, the most probable locations of the secondary hydroxyl groups were determined using the GRID method. Several possible orientations could be determined for a fucose residue. All of the four possible conformations compatible with energy calculations display several hydrogen bonds with Asp-87 and Ser-132 and a stacking interaction with Tyr-220 and Phe-136. In two orientations, the O-3 and O-4 hydroxyl groups of fucose are the most buried ones, whereas two other, the O-2 and O-3 hydroxyl groups are at the bottom of the site. Possible docking modes are also studied by analysis of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces for both the ligand and the protein. The SCORE method allows for a quantitative evaluation of the complementarity of these surfaces, on the basis of molecular lipophilicity calculations. The predictions presented here are compared with known biochemical data.

  3. Internet Economics IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    edts.): Internet Economics IV Technical Report No. 2004-04, August 2004 Information Systems Laboratory IIS, Departement of Computer Science University of...level agreements (SLA), Information technology (IT), Internet address, Internet service provider 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... technology and its economic impacts in the Internet world today. The second talk addresses the area of AAA protocol, summarizing authentication

  4. Uranium (IV) carboxylates - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K C; Patnaik, A K [Sambalpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-11-01

    A few uranium(IV) carboxylates with monochloro and trichloro acetic acid, glycine, malic, citric, adipic, o-toluic, anthranilic and salicylic acids have been prepared by photolytic methods. The I.R. spectra of these compounds are recorded and basing on the spectral data, structure of the compounds have been suggested.

  5. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  6. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  7. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of myco­synthesized AuNPs from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr. Pers. on pheochromocytoma (PC-12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jegadeesh Raman,1 Hariprasath Lakshmanan,1 Priscilla A John,1,2 Chan Zhijian,3 Vengadesh Periasamy,3 Pamela David,1,4 Murali Naidu,1,4 Vikineswary Sabaratnam1,2 1Mushroom Research Centre, 2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 3Low Dimensional Materials Research Center (LDMRC, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12 cells. Methods: The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV–visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. Results: The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV–visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20–40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2–2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite

  8. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junrong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12 cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl3 combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. The data revealed that HE successfully induced PC12 cell differentiation. A 3 h HE incubation at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL before 25 mM of l-Glu effectively reversed the reduction of cell viability and the enhancement of the nuclear apoptosis rate in DPC12 cells. Compared with l-Glu-damaged cells, in PC12 cells, HE suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, blocked Ca2+ overload and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP depolarization. In the Alzheimer’s disease mouse model, HE administration enhanced the horizontal and vertical movements in the autonomic activity test, improved the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the water maze test. It also improved the central cholinergic system function in the Alzheimer’s mice, demonstrated by the fact that it dose-dependently enhanced the acetylcholine (Ach and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT concentrations in both the serum and the hypothalamus. Our findings provide experimental evidence that HE may provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A protection from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the ER stress, triggering an apoptosis cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lu, Chien-Chang; Shen, Chien-Heng; Tung, Shui-Yi; Hsieh, Meng Chiao; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Chin-Chu; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Huang, Wen-Shih; Chen, Te-Chuan; Lee, Kam-Fai

    2016-03-18

    Hericium erinaceus is an edible mushroom; its various pharmacological effects which have been investigated. This study aimed to demonstrate whether efficacy of oral administration of H. erinaceus mycelium (HEM) and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, can act as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using an MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) mouse model of Parkinson's disease, which results in motor disturbances, in addition to elucidating the mechanisms involved. Mice were treated with and without HEM or erinacine A, after MPTP injection for brain injuries by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. The efficacy of oral administration of HEM improved MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons and brain impairment in the substantia nigra pars compacta as measured by brain histological examination. Treatment with HEM reduced MPTP-induced dopaminergic cell loss, apoptotic cell death induced by oxidative stress, as well as the level of glutathione, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Furthermore, HEM reversed MPTP-associated motor deficits, as revealed by the analysis of rotarod assessment. Our results demonstrated that erinacine A decreases the impairment of MPP-induced neuronal cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which were accompanied by ER stress-sustained activation of the IRE1α/TRAF2, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), IKB-β and NF-κB, as well as Fas and Bax. These physiological and brain histological changes provide HEM neuron-protective insights into the progression of Parkinson's disease, and this protective effect seems to exist both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Chin-Chu; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1) attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2) diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3) raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4) promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use. PMID:29463001

  11. The Neuroprotective Properties of Hericium erinaceus in Glutamate-Damaged Differentiated PC12 Cells and an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junrong; An, Shengshu; Hu, Wenji; Teng, Meiyu; Wang, Xue; Qu, Yidi; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible and medicinal mushroom, displays various pharmacological activities in the prevention of dementia in conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The present study explored the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus mycelium polysaccharide-enriched aqueous extract (HE) on an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cellular apoptosis model and an AlCl3 combined with d-galactose-induced Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. The data revealed that HE successfully induced PC12 cell differentiation. A 3 h HE incubation at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL before 25 mM of l-Glu effectively reversed the reduction of cell viability and the enhancement of the nuclear apoptosis rate in DPC12 cells. Compared with l-Glu-damaged cells, in PC12 cells, HE suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, blocked Ca2+ overload and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization. In the Alzheimer’s disease mouse model, HE administration enhanced the horizontal and vertical movements in the autonomic activity test, improved the endurance time in the rotarod test, and decreased the escape latency time in the water maze test. It also improved the central cholinergic system function in the Alzheimer’s mice, demonstrated by the fact that it dose-dependently enhanced the acetylcholine (Ach) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) concentrations in both the serum and the hypothalamus. Our findings provide experimental evidence that HE may provide neuroprotective candidates for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27809277

  12. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Chin-Chu; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Shen, Chien-Chang; Shiao, Young-Ji

    2018-02-17

    Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1) attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2) diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3) raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4) promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use.

  13. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Teng Tzeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease (AD-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1 attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2 diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3 raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4 promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use.

  14. Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds from gorse (Ulex europaeus): Diurnal emission fluxes at Kelling Heath, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.-L.; Boissard, C.; Juan, A. J.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    1997-08-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission fluxes from Gorse (Ulex europaeus) were measured during May 30-31, 1995 at Kelling Heath in eastern England by using bag enclosure and gradient methods simultaneously. The enclosure measurements were made from branches at different stages of physiological development (flowering, after flowering, and mixed). Isoprene was found to represent 90% of the total VOC emissions, and its emission rates fluctuated from 6 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 in the early morning to about 9700 ng(g dwt)-1 h-1 at midday. Averaged emission rates standardized to 20°C were 1625, 2120, and 3700 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 for the new grown, "mixed," and flowering branch, respectively. Trans-ocimene and α-pinene were the main monoterpenes emitted and represented, on average, 47.6% and 36.9% of the total monoterpenes. Other monoterpenes, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene and γ-terpinene, were positively identified but together represented less than 1.5% of the total VOC emissions from gorse. Maximum isoprene concentrations in air at the site were measured around midday at 2 m (174 parts per trillion by volume, or pptv) and 6 m (149 pptv), and minimum concentrations were measured during the night (8 pptv at both heights). Mean daytime α-pinene air concentrations of 141 and 60 pptv at 2 and 6 m height were determined, but trans-ocimene concentrations were less than the analytical detection limit (4 pptv), suggesting rapid chemical removal of this compound from air. The isoprene fluxes calculated by the micrometeorological gradient method showed a pattern similar to that of those calculated by the enclosure method, with isoprene emission rates maximum at midday (100 μg m-2 h-1) and not detectable during the nighttime. Assessment of the fraction of the site covered by gorse plants enabled an extrapolation of emission fluxes from the enclosure measurements. When averaged over the 2 day experiment, isoprene fluxes of 29.8 and 27.8 μg m-2 h-1 were obtained from

  15. A sputnik IV saga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  16. Polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus attenuates colitis in C57BL/6 mice via regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation-related signaling pathways and modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilin; Geng, Yan; Du, Yan; Li, Wang; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Hong-Yu; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2018-03-16

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease caused by a dysregulated immune with unknown etiology. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a Chinese medicinal fungus, with the effect of prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have tested the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (HECP, Mw: 86.67 kDa) in the model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Our data indicated that HECP could improve clinical symptoms and down-regulate key markers of oxidative stresses, including nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). HECP also suppressed the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and decreased the expression of related mRNA. Meanwhile, HECP blocked phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκB-α), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Protein kinase B (Akt) in DSS-treated mice. Moreover, HECP reversed DSS-induced gut dysbiosis and maintained intestinal barrier integrity. In conclusion, HECP ameliorates DSS-induced intestinal injury in mice, which suggests that HECP can serve as a protective dietary nutrient against IBD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Reproductive traits in the european Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas: the typical or Brown and the Mountain haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Ragagli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four hundred and two pairs of hares belonging to the mountain and brown haplotypes of the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 were raised in a farm located in central Italy over 4 years (from 2003 to 2006. The birth date, total number of young born, and number of surviving and weaned leverets were recorded for each pair. The start of reproduction, birth-interval, length of the reproductive season, number of birth per pair per year, number of leverets per pair, number of weaned leverets per pair and number of weaned leverets per birth were analysed in relation to the different haplotypes and years; the incidence of superfetation and pseudogestation was also considered. Results showed that the brown hare produced young at the beginning of February, whilst the mountain hare started reproduction significantly later. Brown hares showed a longer reproductive period than mountain hares (192 days vs 156 days and a higher productivity. The most frequent gestation length was 37-41 days. The distribution of delivery intervals did not differ between the two haplotypes. Riassunto Caratteristiche riproduttive di due aplotipi della lepre (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778. Lepri (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778 appartenenti all’aplotipo di montagna e a quello bruno sono state monitorate per 4 anni (dal 2003 al 2006 in uno stesso allevamento situato in una zona dell’Italia centrale. Per ciascuna coppia di riproduttori allevata (N = 402 sono stati raccolti i dati relativi a: data del parto, numero totale di nati, numero totale di nati vivi e di leprotti svezzati. L’inizio del periodo riproduttivo, l’intervallo interparto, la durata della gestazione, la durata della stagione riproduttiva, il numero di parti per coppia per anno, il numero di nati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per coppia, il numero di svezzati per parto sono stati analizzati in relazione ai

  18. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2018-01-01

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL -1 ) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL -1 as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of a human erythroid progenitor cell population which expresses the CD34 antigen and binds the plant lectin Ulex europaeus I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverzagt, K L; Martinson, J; Lee, W; Stiff, P J; Williams, S; Bender, J G

    1996-01-01

    Two and three color flow cytometry of normal human bone marrow was used to identify CD34+ progenitor cells and examine their binding to the plant lectin Ulex europaeus I (Ulex). In normal bone marrow, 48.48 +/- 17.4% of the CD34+ cells bind to Ulex. Two color flow cytometry was used to sort CD34 + cells, and subsets of CD34+ cells, CD34+ Ulex+ and CD34+ Ulex-. These populations were sorted into colony assays to assess myeloid (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitors. The CD34+ Ulex+ subset was 84 +/- 14% BFU-E colonies (mean +/- S.D.) and had the highest cloning efficiency of 28 +/- 13%. Three color analysis of CD34+ Ulex+ cells showed staining with other erythroid (CD71, GlyA) antibodies and lack of stain. ing with myeloid (CD13, CD45RA) antibodies. These studies confirmed the erythroid characteristics of this subpopulation.

  20. Identification of the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I-binding protein as a unique glycoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the olfactory sensory axons of adults rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestean, A; Krizbai, I; Böttcher, H; Párducz, A; Joó, F; Wolff, J R

    1995-08-04

    Histochemical localization of two lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureus (TPA), was studied in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. In contrast to TPA, UEA-I detected a fucosylated glycoprotein that is only present in the surface membranes of olfactory sensory cells including the whole course of their neurites up to the final arborization in glomeruli. Immunoblotting revealed that UEA-I binds specifically to a protein of 205 kDa, while TPA stains several other glycoproteins. Affinity chromatography with the use of a UEA-I column identified the 205 kDa protein as a glycoform of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), specific for the rat olfactory sensory nerves.

  1. Anchoring of ulex europaeus agglutinin to chitosan nanoparticles-in-microparticles and their in vitro binding activity to bovine submaxillary gland mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Fei, Yi-Bo; Chen, Xu; Qin, Xian-Ju; Liu, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Quan-Gang; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Focused on the natural biodegradable material of chitosan (CS), this investigation concerned its spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles (NiMPs) modified with ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA). Chitosan nanoparticles were obtained by ionotropic gelation process with pentasodium tripolyphosphate as gelatinizer. Then UEA lectin was bound onto the CS nanoparticles activated by glutaraldehyde. The conjugated spherical UEA-CS-NiMPs, prepared by spray drying method, exhibited 12-85% coupling efficiency of UEA depending upon the amount of activator glutaraldehyde. And the UEA-grafted particles showed additional higher binding tendency with bovine submaxillary gland mucin as compared to the plain chitosan microparticles. Furthermore, the activity and intrinsic fucose-specificity of UEA were still maintained after the covalent modification. It is thus evident that the UEA anchored CS-NiMPs might be used as a potential drug delivery system targeted to the specific regions of gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Endothelial markers in malignant vascular tumours of the liver: superiority of QB-END/10 over von Willebrand factor and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P P; Ramani, P

    1991-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody, QB-END/10, raised against the CD34 antigen in human endothelial cell membranes and haemopoietic progenitor cells, was studied for its usefulness as a marker of neoplastic vascular cells in 21 angiosarcomas and seven malignant haemangioendotheliomas of the liver. QB-END/10 was both more sensitive and more specific than Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and Ulex europaeus 1 agglutinin (UEA-1) in labelling endothelial cells and it did not cross react with epithelia as UEA-1 often does. Staining was uniformly strong and clear in all histological variants of these two tumours. QB-END/10 should prove particularly useful in the differential diagnosis of malignant vascular tumours of the liver.

  3. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Atlan

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse, and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions.

  4. Phenotypic Plasticity in Reproductive Traits of the Perennial Shrub Ulex europaeus in Response to Shading: A Multi-Year Monitoring of Cultivated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Anne; Hornoy, Benjamin; Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Tarayre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous for plants to be able to rapidly cope with new and changing environments associated with climate change or during biological invasions. This is especially true for perennial plants, as they may need a longer period to respond genetically to selective pressures than annuals, and also because they are more likely to experience environmental changes during their lifespan. However, few studies have explored the plasticity of the reproductive life history traits of woody perennial species. This study focuses on a woody shrub, Ulex europaeus (common gorse), and on the response of its reproductive traits to one important environmental factor, shading. The study was performed on clones originating from western France (within the native range of this invasive species) and grown for seven years. We compared traits of plants grown in a shade treatment (with two successive shade levels) vs. full natural light. The traits monitored included flowering onset, pod production and seed predation. All traits studied responded to shading, exhibiting various levels of plasticity. In particular, dense shade induced a radical but reversible decrease in flower and pod production, while moderate shade had little effect on reproductive traits. The magnitude of the response to dense shade depended on the genotype, showing a genetically based polymorphism of plasticity. The level of plasticity also showed substantial variations between years, and the effect of environmental variations was cumulative over time. This suggests that plasticity can influence the lifetime fitness of U. Europaeus and is involved in the capacity of the species to grow under contrasting environmental conditions.

  5. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  6. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  7. Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.; Edwards, J.; Rickard, C.E.F.; Tempest, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonate complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 )UClsub(3-x)(acac)sub(x), where x = 1 or 2, and the corresponding bis triphenylphosphine oxide (tppo) complexes have been prepared. The bis cyclopentadienyl complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 U(acac) 2 and (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac)(tppo) 2 have also been prepared and are stable with respect to disproportionation, whereas (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac) is not. The IR and UV/visible spectra of the complexes are reported, together with some additional information on the UCl 2 (acac) 2 thf and -tppo systems. (author)

  8. Spillover Events of Infection of Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus) with Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Type 2 Virus (RHDV2) Caused Sporadic Cases of an European Brown Hare Syndrome‐Like Disease in Italy and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Velarde, R.; Cavadini, P.; Neimanis, A.; Cabezón, O.; Chiari, M.; Gaffuri, A.; Lavín, S.; Grilli, G.; Gavier‐Widén, D.; Lavazza, A.; Capucci, L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80–90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV‐related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit popul...

  9. Congenital bilateral neuroblastoma (stage IV-S): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Lee, Sang Rak; Kim, Heung Sik

    2002-01-01

    Congenital neonatal neuroblastoma is not uncommon but bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is rare, accounting for about ten percent of neuroblastomas in children. We report the US the MR findings of a stage IV-S congenital bilateral neuroblastoma occurring in a one-day-old neonate

  10. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  11. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  12. Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects through Modulating BDNF/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Hung; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Liu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Mong, Mei-Chin

    2018-01-24

    Antidepressant-like effects of ethanolic extract of Hericium erinaceus (HE) mycelium enriched in erinacine A on depressive mice challenged by repeated restraint stress (RS) were examined. HE at 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day was orally given to mice for four weeks. After two weeks of HE administration, all mice except the control group went through with 14 days of RS protocol. Stressed mice exhibited various behavioral alterations, such as extending immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and increasing the number of entries in open arm (POAE) and the time spent in the open arm (PTOA). Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were decreased in the stressed mice, while the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased. These changes were significantly inverted by the administration of HE, especially at the dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day. Additionally, HE was shown to activate the BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways and block the NF-κB signals in mice. Taken together, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could reverse the depressive-like behavior caused by RS and was accompanied by the modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulation of BDNF pathways. Therefore, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could be an attractive agent for the treatment of depressive disorders.

  13. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Kanako, Nakajima; Zhang, Yanqiu; Xiao, Xulang; Gao, Qipin; Tetsuya, Konishi

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS) extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lion's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in a Coculture System of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and RAW264 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koichiro; Ouchi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue accompanying obesity is thought to be an underlying driver of metabolic diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of Hericium erinaceus on adipose tissue inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of H. erinaceus (EAHE) were examined using cocultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. EAHE significantly suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production in cultured RAW264 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EAHE also caused notable inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is thought to be involved in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines by EAHE. In a coculture system with 3T3-L1 and RAW264 cells stimulated with LPS, EAHE reduced TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in the conditioned medium and lowered the gene expression levels of these cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, EAHE suppressed the LPS-induced reduction of adiponectin mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264 macrophages. However, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured alone, the concentration of LPS used in this study did not affect the gene expression levels of these adipokines. We attributed the anti-inflammatory effects of EAHE on 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264 macrophages to the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine secretion in RAW264 cells. Our findings indicate the possibility that H. erinaceus exerts anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages through the inhibition of TLR4-JNK signaling and prevents or ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity.

  15. Lion's Mane, Hericium erinaceus and Tiger Milk, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Medicinal Mushrooms Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth in Dissociated Cells of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Retina: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberkar, Snehlata; Gandhi, Sivasangkary; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Raman, Jegadeesh; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disease is defined as a deterioration of the nervous system in the intellectual and cognitive capabilities. Statistics show that more than 80-90 million individuals age 65 and above in 2050 may be affected by neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Studies have shown that out of 2000 different types of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms, only a few countable mushrooms have been selected until now for neurohealth activity. Hericium erinaceus is one of the well-established medicinal mushrooms for neuronal health. It has been documented for its regenerative capability in peripheral nerve. Another mushroom used as traditional medicine is Lignosus rhinocerotis, which has been used for various illnesses. It has been documented for its neurite outgrowth potential in PC12 cells. Based on the regenerative capabilities of both the mushrooms, priority was given to select them for our study. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of H. erinaceus and L. rhinocerotis to stimulate neurite outgrowth in dissociated cells of brain, spinal cord, and retina from chick embryo when compared to brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neurite outgrowth activity was confirmed by the immu-nofluorescence method in all tissue samples. Treatment with different concentrations of extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. H. erinaceus extract at 50 µg/mL triggered neurite outgrowth at 20.47%, 22.47%, and 21.70% in brain, spinal cord, and retinal cells. L. rhinocerotis sclerotium extract at 50 µg/mL induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 20.77% and 24.73% in brain and spinal cord, whereas 20.77% of neurite outgrowth was observed in retinal cells at 25 µg/mL, respectively.

  16. Direct Bandgap Group IV Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0049 Direct Bandgap group IV Materials Hung Hsiang Cheng NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY Final Report 01/21/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY 1 ROOSEVELT RD. SEC. 4 TAIPEI CITY, 10617 TW 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...14. ABSTRACT Direct bandgap group IV materials have been long sought for in both academia and industry for the implementation of photonic devices

  17. Large-scale lagovirus disease outbreaks in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in France caused by RHDV2 strains spatially shared with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Hubert, Céline; Top, Sokunthea; Decors, Anouk; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-10-28

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In 2010, a new genotype called RHDV2 emerged in France. It exhibits a larger host range than classical RHDV strains by sporadically infecting different hare species, including the European hare (Lepus europaeus). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that closely related RHDV2 strains circulate locally in both hares and rabbits, and therefore that RHDV2 strains infecting hares do not belong to a lineage that has evolved only in this species. We showed that RHDV2 is widely distributed in France and that it was responsible for more than a third of cases of lagovirus disease in European hare populations in 2015. The oldest RHDV2 positive hare was sampled in November 2013 and we reported two hares co-infected by EBHSV and RHDV2. All together, our results raise important epidemiological and evolutionary issues. In particular, along with the potential emergence of recombinant EBHSV/RHDV2 strains in hares, the enlargement of the host range changes the host population structure of RHDV2 and may alter the impact of the virus on rabbit and hare populations.

  18. Distribution of binding sites for the plant lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I on primary sensory neurones in seven different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Michelle B; Plenderleith, Mark B

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that different functional classes of neurones express characteristic cell-surface carbohydrates. Previous studies have shown that the plant lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA) binds to a population of small to medium diameter primary sensory neurones in rabbits and humans. This suggests that a fucose-containing glycoconjugate may be expressed by nociceptive primary sensory neurones. In order to determine the extent to which this glycoconjugate is expressed by other species, in the current study, we have examined the distribution of UEA-binding sites on primary sensory neurones in seven different mammals. Binding sites for UEA were associated with the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic granules of small to medium dorsal root ganglion cells and their axon terminals in laminae I-III of the grey matter of the spinal cord, in the rabbit, cat and marmoset monkey. However, no binding was observed in either the dorsal root ganglia or spinal cord in the mouse, rat, guinea pig or flying fox. These results indicate an inter-species variation in the expression of cell-surface glycoconjugates on mammalian primary sensory neurones.

  19. Use of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) to distinguish vascular and "pseudovascular" invasion in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder with lamina propria invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M P; Steinberg, G D; Brendler, C B; Epstein, J I

    1990-01-01

    We used Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI)-immunoperoxidase staining of endothelium to study the accuracy of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) diagnosis, occurrence, and significance of lymphvascular invasion in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder invading the lamina propria (Stage T1). Original histologic slides from cases (1967 to 1985) with and without vascular invasion were destained and restained with UEAI-immunoperoxidase. Only 5 of 36 biopsies originally diagnosed with lymphvascular invasion had tumor nests within endothelium-lined spaces. The 31 negative biopsies had extensive retraction artifacts lined by connective tissue and fibroblasts around tumor nests. Thirty-five control biopsies remained negative for lymphvascular invasion. Clinical follow-up of the five patients with proven lymphvascular invasion found three without progression of disease 3 to 10 yr postbiopsy, one dead of a local recurrence of TCC 1.67 yr postbiopsy, and one lost to follow-up. Based on this study, we feel that lymphvascular invasion by TCC in Stage T1 tumors is unusual, is frequently misdiagnosed on H&E stain, and does not necessarily portend a poor prognosis.

  20. Population heterogeneity in the surface expression of Ulex europaeus I-lectin (UEA I)-binding sites in cultured malignant and transformed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, I.; Lehtonen, E.; Naervaenen, O.; Leivo, I.; Lehto, V.P.

    1985-11-01

    We studied the binding of fluorochrome-coupled Ulex europaeus I-lectin (UEA-I) to cultured malignant cells: all human malignant and transformed cells and also mouse teratocarcinoma cells examined gave a homogeneous cell membrane-type of surface staining only in some of the cells. Such a population heterogeneity appeared to be independent of the cell cycle. Instead, other lectin conjugates used bound homogeneously to all cell. In permeabilized cells, a juxtanuclear reticular staining of the Golgi apparatus was seen in the UEA-I-positive cells. No staining of the pericellular matrix components, produced by malignant cells grown in serum-free culture medium, could be obtained with TRITC-UEA-I. UEA-I-lectin recognized most polypeptides from A8387 fibrosarcoma cells and HeLa cells, metabolically labelled with (/sup 3/H)fucose. Furthermore, surface labelling of these cells with the neuraminidase-galactose oxidase/sodium borohydride method disclosed that both UEA-I and Ricinus communis agglutinin I revealed the same major surface glycoproteins. Results with metabolically labelled cells showed, in addition, that UEA-I-lectin did not bind to secreted glycoproteins produced by A8387 cells and recognized by other lectins. The results indicate that transformed and malignant cells show a distinct population heterogeneity in their expression of some cell surface-associated fucosyl glycoconjugates. The results also suggest that malignant cells can glycosylate their membrane and secreted glycoproteins in a different manner.

  1. Expression of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I lectin-binding sites in squamous cell carcinomas and their absence in basal cell carcinomas. Indicator of tumor type and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, M C; Fallon-Friedlander, S; Bennett, R

    1992-06-01

    Lectins bind tightly to carbohydrate moieties on cell surfaces. Alterations in lectin binding have been reported to accompany epidermal cell differentiation, marking alterations in membrane sugars during this process. The presence of UEA I (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I) L-fucose-specific lectin-binding sites has been used as a marker for terminally differentiated (committed) keratinocytes. In this article, we report the presence of UEA-I-binding sites on squamous keratinocytes of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, with patchy loss of UEA I positivity on poorly differentiated cells of squamous cell carcinomas, suggesting a possible use for this technique in the rapid assessment of less differentiated areas within the squamous cell tumor. The absence of UEA-I-binding sites on basal cell carcinomas may be related to an inability of cells comprising this tumor to convert the L-D-pyranosyl moiety on basal cells to the L-fucose moiety, resulting in an inability of basal cell carcinoma cell to undergo terminal differentiation into a committed keratinocyte.

  2. Staining for factor VIII related antigen and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) in 230 tumours. An assessment of their specificity for angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, M; Collins, M; Patel, J; Henry, K

    1986-11-01

    In this study we examined the staining reactivity of commercially available antisera to factor VIII related antigen (F VIII RAg) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) on sections from 230 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumours. These included 196 sarcomas, 20 carcinomas and 14 angiomas. All angiomas showed positive staining for F VIII RAg; all carcinomas showed negative staining; the vasoformative areas of all angiosarcomas stained positively but only four of six angiosarcomas showed positive staining of their solid areas; of seven Kaposi's sarcomas, all showed positive staining of vessels and six showed positive staining of the spindle cell component. In the remaining 181 non-vascular sarcomas there was a false positive result in four tumours (2.2%), three of which had a history of irradiation. Pre-radiotherapy biopsies of these three tumours stained negatively with anti-F VIII RAg. UEA-I was demonstrated in all the angiomas studied, in all angiosarcomas (including the solid components) and in well-formed vessels of all Kaposi's sarcomas, but only in the spindle cell component of 3/6. However, there was an unacceptably high rate of false positive staining amongst the carcinomas and non-vascular sarcomas. In conclusion, F VIII RAg is a specific but not a sensitive marker of angiosarcomas; UEA-I is a sensitive but not a specific marker of angiosarcomas.

  3. Studies of the endothelial origin of cells in systemic angioendotheliomatosis and other vascular lesions of the brain and meninges using ulex europaeus lectin stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelper, R L; Olson, S P; Carroll, T J; Hart, M N; Witters, E

    1986-01-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) is a plant lectin which binds specifically to alpha-L-fucose moieties on the surface glycoproteins of human endothelial cells. The binding is completely inhibited by preincubation of the lectin with fucose. UEA-I can be conjugated directly to fluorescein or peroxidase and can be used to stain endothelium of paraffin embedded tissues. UEA-I staining was evaluated on normal and infarcted brain, systemic angioendotheliomatosis, metastatic epidural angiosarcoma, hemangioendothelioma, hemangioblastoma, angioblastic meningioma of both the hemangioblastic and hemangiopericytic types, and vascular meningioma. The endothelium, but not neuropil of normal and infarcted brain was positive for UEA-I. The tumor cells of hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma also stained. However, no staining was seen in malignant intravascular cells of angioendotheliomatosis, the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma, or pericytes of angioblastic meningioma. It is concluded that the malignant cells in angioendotheliomatosis, the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma and the pericytes of angioblastic meningioma do not produce surface glycoproteins characteristic of endothelial cells.

  4. Modeling individual movement decisions of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) as a key concept for realistic spatial behavior and exposure: A population model for landscape-level risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Joachim U; Wang, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition, and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape-level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments, a new method, "probabilistic walk," was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking into account food resources, vegetation cover, and the presence of conspecifics. At each movement step, animals decide where to move next based on probabilities being determined from this information. The model was parameterized to simulate populations of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). A detailed validation of the model demonstrated that it can realistically reproduce various natural patterns of brown hare ecology and behavior. Simulated proportions of time animals spent in fields (PT values) were also comparable to field observations. It is shown that these important parameters for the risk assessment may, however, vary in different landscapes. The results demonstrate the value of using population models to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment and to better understand which factors determine risk in a landscape context. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2299-2307. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. The hair of the common hare (Lepus europaeus Pall.) and of the common vole (Microtus arvalis Pall.) as indicator of the environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.

    1986-01-01

    Hairs of common hare (Lepus europaeus Pall.) and of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pall.) living in immission zones were investigated by INAA. Both the hare and the vole are almost exclusively herbivores; they consume relatively large amounts of contaminated food and reflect reliably the contamination degree of the respective ecosystem. The use of free-living animals for assessing environmental quality may complete effectively the information obtained by the examination of population. Though free-living animals lead a rather different way of existence it has been found that analyses of their hairs correlate very well with analyses of human hair. It may be expected that the changes in concentrations of heavy metals will manifest themselves earlier in animals than in men because the animals are strictly tied to local food sources. The hair samples of hares contained increased concentrations of Sm, La, Au, As, Se, Cr, Sc, Fe, Ce, Th and Co. The hairs of voles showed increased concentrations of Sm, La, Zn, As, Se, Cr, Sc, Fe, Sb, Ce, Cs and Co. A marked trend towards cumulation in hair was observed for the following elements: As, Se, Sc and Fe. The increase of their concentrations in the hairs of animals from the immission regions amounted to as much as 10 3 %. (author)

  6. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Persoon (Lion’s Mane Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM, hexane (HEX, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EA, and aqueous residue (AQ. The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins for the formation of conjugated diene (CD at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91% the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.

  7. Inhibitory effect on in vitro LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity of the liquid-liquid partitioned fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (lion's mane mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.

  8. Regeneración de un "aulagar" con Ulex europaeus después de un incendio en el norte de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera de la Fuente, M. L.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The recuperation of a shrubland characterized by the presence of Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis, Ulex europaeus and Erica vagans after of a fire, near Oviedo (North Spain is studied. The regeneration strategy of Erica vagans was by means of vegetative regrowth. The recolonization of Ulex europaeus and Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis was both vegetative and from seed, although in the last species the establishment by seedlings was very infrequent. The post-fire vegetation development was affected by floristic composition of shrubland previous to the fire.

    [es] Se estudia la recuperación de un matorral caracterizado por la presencia de Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis, Ulex europaeus y Erica vagans después de un incendio, en las proximidades de Oviedo. La estrategia regenerativa de Erica vagans es mediante rebrote vegetativo, mientras Ulex europaeus y Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis tienen capacidad de regenerarse por rebrote vegetativo y por semilla, aunque en este último taxon, el mecanismo de regeneración a través de plántulas fue muy escaso. El desarrollo de la vegetación está muy marcado por la composición florística previa al fuego.
    [fr] On à étudié la récupération de broussailles caractérisées par la présence de Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis, Ulex europaeus et Erica vagans, après un incendie prés d’Oviedo (Nord de Espagne. La stratégie de régénération d’Erica vagans se fait moyennant des pousses végétatives, tandis que la régénération d’Ulex europaeus et Genista hispánica ssp. occidentalis s'esf faite par pousses végétatives et par graines, bien que pour ce dernier taxon, le mécanisme de régénération au travers de plantules a été très rare. Le développement de la végétation est très marqué par la composition floristique existante

  9. Protective Effect of the Persian Gulf brittle star Ophiocoma Erinaceus extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver damage in adult male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  Brittle star possess  bioactive compounds which confer the wound healing capacity and regenerative potency of damaged  arms and organisms to this creature. The aim of the current study was to assess the   protective  effect  of  the  star extract on liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, Sham exposed, experimental 1 (treated with %25 extract and experimental 2 (treated with %50 extract of star Ophiocoma Erinaceus. The control group received no treatment. The sham exposed groups received carbon tetrachloride .(50% in olive oil .0.5 ml/kg for 7 days. The experimental groups firstly received carbon tetrachloride, then received %25, %50 brittle star extract as intragastric for 7 days. Finally, the animals were sacrificed, and their bodies and livers were weighed. Then, the livers sections were prepared and were examined by means of light microscope. Finally, the obtained  quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS (V; 20, Mini Tab software, ANOVA, and Tukey. at the significant level of P<0.001. Results: Carbon tetrachloride significantly decreased the rats’ body weight, but it increased their livers weight (P<0.001. Histopathological evaluations showed .extensive liver damage. On the other hand, treatment with brittle star extract .ncreased liver weight, reduced. body weight and significantly altered other induced changes by carbon tetrachloride on liver structure such as hepatocytes number, Kupffer cells, and arteritis, which indicated  the improvement of damaged liver tissue (P<0.001. Conclusion: It was found that brittle star extract can exert protective effects on  liver damages induced by carbon tetrachloride on male Wistar rat.

  10. Chondroprotective Effects of a Standardized Extract (KBH-JP-040) from Kalopanax pictus, Hericium erinaceus, and Astragalus membranaceus in Experimentally Induced In Vitro and In Vivo Osteoarthritis Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hak Sung

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chondroprotective effect of a standardized extract (KBH-JP-040) of the Korean traditional herbs Kalopanax pictus Castor-Aralia, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon, and Astragalus membranaceus Schischkin on in vivo and in vitro osteoarthritis (OA) models. Cultured rat chondrocytes were pre-treated with KBH-JP-040 (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 1 h, then recombinant human IL-1α (rhIL-1α) for 24 h. For the in vivo model, rabbits ( n = 60) were equally divided into experimental groups: normal control (NC), a collagenase-induced OA group, and OA groups treated with KBH-JP-040 (75, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight) and celecoxib (Cx, 100 mg/kg) orally for 28 days. Treatment with KBH-JP-040 significantly attenuated inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), suppressed the expression of IκBα, NF-κB, and JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and upregulated aggrecan and collagen type-II expression in rhIL-1α-stimulated chondrocytes. Furthermore, the serum and synovial levels of inflammatory cytokines of rabbits also decreased in the treatment groups when compared with the OA group. Improved magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological findings further confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of KBH-JP-040 against OA. In conclusion, these results indicate that KBH-JP-040 possesses chondroprotective effects, suppressing inflammation and MMPs, and downregulating IκBα, NF-κB, and JNK/p38 MAP kinase-signaling pathways. This might be a potential therapeutic candidate for OA treatment.

  11. Chondroprotective Effects of a Standardized Extract (KBH-JP-040 from Kalopanax pictus, Hericium erinaceus, and Astragalus membranaceus in Experimentally Induced In Vitro and In Vivo Osteoarthritis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chondroprotective effect of a standardized extract (KBH-JP-040 of the Korean traditional herbs Kalopanax pictus Castor-Aralia, Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Persoon, and Astragalus membranaceus Schischkin on in vivo and in vitro osteoarthritis (OA models. Cultured rat chondrocytes were pre-treated with KBH-JP-040 (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL for 1 h, then recombinant human IL-1α (rhIL-1α for 24 h. For the in vivo model, rabbits (n = 60 were equally divided into experimental groups: normal control (NC, a collagenase-induced OA group, and OA groups treated with KBH-JP-040 (75, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight and celecoxib (Cx, 100 mg/kg orally for 28 days. Treatment with KBH-JP-040 significantly attenuated inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, suppressed the expression of IκBα, NF-κB, and JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, and upregulated aggrecan and collagen type-II expression in rhIL-1α-stimulated chondrocytes. Furthermore, the serum and synovial levels of inflammatory cytokines of rabbits also decreased in the treatment groups when compared with the OA group. Improved magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological findings further confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of KBH-JP-040 against OA. In conclusion, these results indicate that KBH-JP-040 possesses chondroprotective effects, suppressing inflammation and MMPs, and downregulating IκBα, NF-κB, and JNK/p38 MAP kinase-signaling pathways. This might be a potential therapeutic candidate for OA treatment.

  12. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

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    Mingxing Wang

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (HE has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  13. Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects through Modulating BDNF/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant-like effects of ethanolic extract of Hericium erinaceus (HE mycelium enriched in erinacine A on depressive mice challenged by repeated restraint stress (RS were examined. HE at 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day was orally given to mice for four weeks. After two weeks of HE administration, all mice except the control group went through with 14 days of RS protocol. Stressed mice exhibited various behavioral alterations, such as extending immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, and increasing the number of entries in open arm (POAE and the time spent in the open arm (PTOA. Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine (NE, dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-HT were decreased in the stressed mice, while the levels of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were increased. These changes were significantly inverted by the administration of HE, especially at the dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day. Additionally, HE was shown to activate the BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways and block the NF-κB signals in mice. Taken together, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could reverse the depressive-like behavior caused by RS and was accompanied by the modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and regulation of BDNF pathways. Therefore, erinacine A-enriched HE mycelium could be an attractive agent for the treatment of depressive disorders.

  14. Production of cyathane type secondary metabolites by submerged cultures of Hericium erinaceus and evaluation of their antibacterial activity by direct bioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T; Morlock, G; Zorn, H

    2015-01-01

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota are well-known to form a broad spectrum of biologically active secondary metabolites, especially low molecular weight compounds such as terpenoids. Hericium erinaceus produces various cyathane type diterpenoids including erinacines. However, no quantitative data and production kinetics have been reported on the biosynthesis of the erinacines C and P in submerged cultures. In the present study, the production of erinacine C was optimized, and the product formation kinetics as well as the antimicrobial activity were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and direct bioautography. Oatmeal and Edamin ® K were identified to be crucial media components for an efficient production of erinacine C. The highest concentrations of erinacine C were obtained in the optimized culture medium on the 9 th culture day (approximately 260 mg L -1 ). The production of erinacine P was strongly time dependent. The maximum concentration of erinacine P of 184 mg L -1 was observed on the third culture day. Afterwards, the concentrations of erinacine P decreased while the concentrations of erinacine C steadily increased. Comparable results were obtained by HPTLC with UV detection and HPLC with diode-array detection (DAD) analyses. Direct bioautography allowed for an additional analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites. The C and N sources oatmeal and Edamin ® K induced the formation of erinacine C. Detailed product formation kinetics of the erinacines C and P have been reported for the first time. HPTLC combined with the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay allowed for an instant detection of cyathane diterpenoids in crude extracts and for an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the secondary metabolites directly on the plate.

  15. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  16. Difference in Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-binding activity of decay-accelerating factor detected in the stools of patients with colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Motowo; Nasu, Junichirou; Makidono, Chiho; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Teizo; Tsuji, Takao; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2004-03-01

    Expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a complement-regulatory glycoprotein, is enhanced in colorectal-cancer (CC) cells and colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis (UC), and stools from these patients contain increased amounts of DAF. Carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins are often altered during malignant transformation or inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether DAF molecules in patients with CC and those with UC differ with respect to oligosaccharide side chains. We analyzed DAF in stools and homogenates of colonic-tissue specimens obtained from patients with CC or UC using solid-phase enzyme-linked assay and Western blotting for reactivity with the lectins Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), wheat-germ agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, and concanavalin A. UEA-I bound to DAF in stools from patients with UC but not in that from the stools of CC patients, as demonstrated on the solid-phase enzyme-linked assay (P <.05, Mann-Whitney U test) and Western blotting. Binding of UEA-I was specifically inhibited by the addition of fucose. The difference in UEA-I reactivity with DAF was observed also in colonic-tissue homogenates from patients with UC and those with CC. DAF expressed in the mucosa and excreted into the stools of UC patients is different from that expressed in CC with regard to UEA-I reactivity. Future studies should be directed toward determining whether a qualitatively unique isoform of DAF is present, of which sugar chains are specific to CC in UC patients.

  17. ABH antigens as recognition sites for the activation of red blood cell anion exchange by the lectin ulex europaeus agglutinin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, B

    1993-11-01

    The blood group antigen H (blood group O) and fucose-specific lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1) (10 micrograms/ml) was found to increase the rate constant of Cl- efflux into 100 mM Na+ oxalate media by about 40% in erythrocytes taken from antigen H donors. In 100 mM K+ oxalate, 150 mM Na+ pyruvate and in 150 mM Na+ acetate media the lectin elevated the rate constant of Cl- efflux by 20-50%. The acceleration of Cl- efflux by UEA1 was completely blocked by 10 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) indicating that the effect of the lectin is mediated by the anion exchanger of human erythrocytes (band 3 protein). In antigen A1 erythrocytes no significant stimulation of anion exchange by UEA1 was seen. The activation of Cl- efflux was completely prevented by addition of 1 mM fucose to the medium. These results suggest that the effect of UEA1 is mediated through interaction with the fucose residues of H antigens. Increasing extracellular Ca++ from 0.5 to 5 mM in Na+ pyruvate or Na+ acetate media slightly reduced the acceleration of anion exchange by the lectin. On the other hand, replacing part of extracellular chloride by bicarbonate did not considerably alter the (previously reported) stimulatory effect of UEA1 on red blood cell Ca++ uptake. This suggests that the acceleration of anion exchange and of Ca++ uptake by UEA1, respectively, are mediated by different mechanisms. It is concluded that UEA1 activates anion exchange of human erythrocytes most probably by a direct interaction with H antigens present on extracellular domains of the band 3 protein.

  18. Pre-adult development of Phytoseiulus persimilis on diets of Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus lintearius: implications for the biological control of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie T; Ireson, John E; Allen, Geoff R

    2009-02-01

    Predation by the phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, is considered a major threat to the effectiveness of biological control of gorse, Ulex europaeus, using Tetranychus lintearius. To assess this threat and to determine if the impact of P. persimilis on T. lintearius populations is comparable to its impact on T. urticae populations, its development and predator : prey generation time ratios were assessed. The pre-adult mortality and development time of two populations of P. persimilis fed on two diets, T. urticae and T. lintearius, were determined at two temperatures, 14 and 24 degrees C. There were no significant differences in either mortality or development time between the two populations of P. persimilis at these temperatures. There is therefore no evidence that the two tested populations of P. persimilis are behaving as different strains. Similarly, diet had no significant effect on either mortality or development time at these temperatures. At 14 degrees C the mortality of P. persimilis was significantly higher and development was significantly longer than at 24 degrees C. Using pre-adult development as a surrogate for generation times, predator : prey generation time ratios were calculated between P. persimilis and both T. urticae and T. lintearius using data from this and other studies. The predator : prey generation time ratios between P. persimilis and T. lintearius were lower than those between P. persimilis and T. urticae. These results indicate that the impact of P. persimilis on T. lintearius populations is likely to be comparable to its impact on T. urticae populations. This provides further evidence that predation by P. persimilis is having a deleterious effect on T. lintearius populations and therefore reducing its effectiveness as a biological control agent for gorse.

  19. Relationship between heavy metal accumulation and morphometric parameters in European hare (Lepus europaeus) inhabiting various types of landscapes in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdzik, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Kalarus, Konrad; Gąsiorek, Michał; Pająk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of hazardous substances in the environment, studies of pollutant accumulation in wild living animals are needed. Studies dealing with heavy metal contamination in mammals usually focus on a single organ. We investigated accumulation of heavy metals as well as iron in European hare (Lepus europaeus) living in southern Poland, Małopolska Province. Hares were captured during the hunting season. We tested metal accumulation in 14 organs and tissues using 35 individuals with known body weight and sex inhabiting agricultural, industrial and other types of landscapes. To obtain deeper insight into contamination patterns, we used accumulation data from the liver since it is the most frequently investigated organ and prone to pollution accumulation. Based on the data obtained for the liver, we tested the impact of metal pollution on hare morphology, including body length and several skull cranimetric parameters. Metals content differed between organs. Moreover, individuals from industrial areas had higher Cd content in their body. We distinguished two groups of elements: the first group, Cd, Fe and Zn, revealed the highest toxic effect in the liver and kidneys; the second group, Cr, Ni, and Pb, accumulated primarily in the brain. Hares inhabiting industrial areas had higher concentration of Cd and Pb, and lower levels of Cr and Fe in their liver in comparison with those from agricultural and forest habitats. Heavy metals had an effect on body length that was negatively associated with Cr levels. Skull diastema length was associated positively with accumulation of Cd and Pb. We showed that hare organs and tissues could be used as bioindicators of environmental pollution by heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  1. Uruguay; 2011 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation highlights that the growth momentum in Uruguay has continued into 2011 but a slowdown is under way, led by weaker exports and slower public investment. Uruguay’s economic and financial vulnerabilities are modest, and the government has reduced debt vulnerabilities significantly and built important financial buffers. Executive Directors have commended authorities’ skillful macroeconomic management that has underpinned Uruguay’s excellent economic performance, ...

  2. Austria; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents details of Austria’s 2013 Article IV Consultation. Austria has been growing economically but is facing challenges in the financial sector. Full implementation of medium-term fiscal adjustment plans require specifying several measures and plans that need gradual strengthening to take expected further bank restructuring cost into account. It suggests that strong early bank intervention and resolution tools, a better designed deposit insurance system, and a bank-financed reso...

  3. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebron C. Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (HE is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926 cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α- stimulation (10 ng/mL. The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC, and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2 in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  4. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  5. Densità di Lepre (Lepus europaeus e Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus in ambienti planiziali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus è un leporide d?origine nordamericana, introdotto in Italia a partire dal 1966 a scopo venatorio. Attualmente la specie è diffusa soprattutto in Piemonte e nella parte occidentale della Lombardia. Il silvilago potrebbe interferire con l?autoctona lepre comune (Lepus europaeus, anche se i dati al riguardo sono limitati. Nell?autunno-inverno 2002-2003 abbiamo condotto dei censimenti notturni con faro in alcune aree protette lungo il fiume Po (Breme, Fontanetto Po, Pobietto e il torrente Orba (Predosa, Monferrino. I censimenti erano effettuati percorrendo con automezzo itinerari prefissati. Il territorio ai lati del percorso era illuminato con faro alogeno (100 W, segnando periodicamente l?ampiezza della fascia illuminata. L?area effettivamente censita è stata in seguito verificata mediante GIS ArcView, usando una cartografia informatizzata d?uso del suolo (1:10.000. L?uso reale del suolo al momento del censimento (esempio: arato, grano o stoppie è stato verificato durante sopralluoghi diurni. Per ogni area sono state condotte tre repliche del censimento. Di seguito sono riportate per ogni località le densità rilevate (individui/Km² rispettivamente di lepre comune e silvilago. Breme (1,7; 32,8, Fontanetto Po (0; 4,4, Pobietto (0,3; 13,9, Predosa (1,1; 19,5, Monferrino (29,6; 110,4. Solo l?area di Monferrino è risultata ospitare una popolazione di lepri con densità corrispondente a territori ad alta vocazionalità. La zona censita si trova a cavallo tra una riserva regionale e una ZRC della Provincia di Alessandria. Nella stessa area il silvilago presenta una densità elevata, ma comunque inferiore ai valori massimi riportati negli Stati Uniti. Nelle altre aree sono state osservate pochissime lepri. Tale scarsità è probabilmente legata alla presenza di popolazioni relitte e habitat non sempre idonei. Il silvilago, per quanto non abbondante come a Monferrino, è presente con popolazioni

  6. The 2.2 A resolution structure of the O(H) blood-group-specific lectin I from Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, G F; Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    2000-12-01

    The tertiary and quaternary structure of the lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UE-I) has been determined to 2.2 A resolution. UE-I is a dimeric metalloglycoprotein that binds the H-type 2 human blood group determinant [alpha-L-Fucalpha(1-->2)-beta-D-Galbeta(1-->4)-beta-D-Glc NAcalpha-]. Nine changes from the published amino acid sequence were necessary to account for the electron density. The quaternary structural organization of UE-I is that of the most commonly occurring legume lectin dimer. The tertiary structure of the monomeric subunits is similar to that in the conventional lectin subunit; however, some structural differences are noted. These differences include a four-stranded anti-parallel "S" sheet in UE-I versus the five-stranded S sheet in other lectin monomers. The Ala residue of the Ala-Asp cis-peptide bond present in the carbohydrate-binding site of the conventional lectin monomer is replaced with a Thr in the UE-I structure. Also, a novel disulfide bridge linking Cys115 and Cys150 is present. There are two metallic ions, one calcium and the other manganese, per subunit. N-linked oligosaccharides are at residues 23 and 111 of each subunit. One molecule of R-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (R-MPD) is present in a shallow depression on the surface of each subunit. In order to examine the binding of the H-type 2 blood group determinant by UE-I, its beta-methyl glycoside (H-type 2-OMe) was docked into the binding site of R-MPD. The epitope previously identified for H-type 2-OMe by chemical mapping proved, with only minor adjustment of amino acid residues, to be complementary to the shallow cavity occupied by R-MPD in the structure. Several key interactions have been proposed between the H-type 2-OMe and UE-I. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Cryptosporidium erinacei and C. parvum in a group of overwintering hedgehogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmannová, L.; Hauptman, K.; Huclová, K.; Květoňová, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2016), s. 15-20 ISSN 0932-4739 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidiosis * Erinaceus europaeus * European hedgehog Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  8. Life on the edge : hedgehog traffic victims and mitigation strategies in an anthropogenic landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijser, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study focused on the most frequently recorded mammal species in road-kill surveys in western Europe: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Investigations were conducted in an anthropogenic landscape and had two major aims:

    1. to quantify the effects of traffic

    2. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

    3. Crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Herman, R.G.; Clearfield, A.

      1976-01-01

      The ion exchange behaviour of seven crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates towards some of the alkali metal cations is described. Only two of the compounds (A and C) possess ion exchange properties in acidic solutions. Four others show some ion exchange characteristics in basic media with some of the alkali cations. Compound G does not behave as an ion exchanger in solutions of pH + , but show very little Na + uptake. Compound E undergoes ion exchange with Na + and Cs + , but not with Li+. Both Li + and Na + are sorbed by compounds A and C. The results are indicative of structures which show steric exclusion phenomena. (author)

    4. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

      1980-07-01

      Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

    5. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

      2012-01-01

      The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

    6. The Characteristics of Fibres within Coppiced and Non-Coppiced Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. and their Aptness for Wood - and Paper - Based Products

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Frederick ANTHONIO

      2017-06-01

      Full Text Available Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus is highly priced for furniture, flooring and cabinetry for its rich hue and durability. Its coppiced wood augments the timber for regular supply and sustainable utilization. Fibre morphology from macerated slivers within its coppiced and non-coppiced stems and their utilization potential were assessed. Derived ratios for the fibres were also calculated. The axial positions (butt, middle, crown affected the fibre dimensions. Fibre length was greater for coppiced trees [i.e., 1663±11, 1488±5, 1511±10µm (for sapwood and 1498±10, 1486±9, 1394±4µm (for heartwood] than the non-coppiced [i.e., 1240±7, 1013±5, 1137±5µm (sapwood and 1094±8, 1002±2, 1041±9µm (heartwood]. In all, those for sapwoods were greater than heartwoods’. Significant differences (P˂0.05 existed between fibre lengths from the coppiced (1394±4-1663±11µm and non-coppiced trees (1002±2-1240±7µm. Fibre diameters for coppiced sapwood and heartwood were 23±1, 20±1, 22±0.8µm and 21.5±0.3, 20.7±0.5, 21.3±2µm and noncoppiced recorded 21±0.6, 20.7±0.3, 20.6±0.1µm and 21±0, 21±0.4, 21±0.8µm respectively. Their respective double wall thicknesses were 8.4±0.2, 7.2±0.2, 9.4±1µm and 8.2±0.2, 9±0.3, 9.1±0.4µm for coppiced wood, and 9.1±1, 7.8±0.1, 8.1±0.3µm and 8.5±0.3, 8±0.4, 8±1 for non-coppiced. Thus, radial stem position also influenced fibre morphology. The fibre indices [i.e., Runkel Ratio, Slenderness Ratio and Flexibility Coefficient for coppiced wood (0.6±0.06-0.85±0.06, 68±4-77±6, 56±4-64±2 respectively and non-coppiced (0.64±0.12-0.8±0, 49±1-58±4, 57±3-62±2 respectively] indicate the timber’s aptness for pulp and paper. Besides, the Wood Industry could exploit the fibre characteristics of coppiced wood also for engineering of fibre-based products and structural applications.

    7. A putative carbohydrate-binding domain of the lactose-binding Cytisus sessilifolius anti-H(O) lectin has a similar amino acid sequence to that of the L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus anti-H(O) lectin.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Konami, Y; Yamamoto, K; Osawa, T; Irimura, T

      1995-04-01

      The complete amino acid sequence of a lactose-binding Cytisus sessilifolius anti-H(O) lectin II (CSA-II) was determined using a protein sequencer. After digestion of CSA-II with endoproteinase Lys-C or Asp-N, the resulting peptides were purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and then subjected to sequence analysis. Comparison of the complete amino acid sequence of CSA-II with the sequences of other leguminous seed lectins revealed regions of extensive homology. The amino acid sequence of a putative carbohydrate-binding domain of CSA-II was found to be similar to those of several anti-H(O) leguminous lectins, especially to that of the L-fucose-binding Ulex europaeus lectin I (UEA-I).

    8. Some oxozirconium(IV) compounds

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Paul, R C; Gupta, S K; Parmar, S S; Vasisht, S K [Punjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry

      1976-01-01

      Some new oxozirconium(IV) complexes, ZrO(An)/sub 2/, ZrO(Gly)/sub 2/, ZrO(HSal)/sub 2/, ZrO(HPth)/sub 2/, ZrO(Pic)/sub 2/(HPic)/sub 2/, and ZrO(Quin)/sub 2/(HQuin)/sub 2/ have been isolated from the reactions of ZrO(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/CH/sub 3/COOH with anthranilic acid (HAn), glycine (HGly), salicylic acid (H/sub 2/Sal), phthalic acid (H/sub 2/Pth), picolinic acid (HPic), and 8-quinolinol (HQuin) respectively. Their important infrared bands and wherever possible molar conductance and molecular weight have been reported.

    9. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type IV Glycogen storage disease type IV Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an ...

    10. A cerium(IV)-carbon multiple bond

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

      2013-12-02

      Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic ''ate'' cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon. [German] Auf direktem Wege zu einem Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex gelangt man durch die Einelektronenoxidation einer anionischen Carben-Cerat(III)-Vorstufe. So werden Zersetzungsprozesse vermieden, die die Oxidation neutraler Cer(III)-Verbindungen erschweren. Der Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex enthaelt die erste Lanthanoid(IV)-Element-Mehrfachbindung; dabei binden Cer und Kohlenstoff ueber zwei Elektronenpaare.

    11. iväkoti Riemula

      OpenAIRE

      Alanko, Reetta; Ihanamäki, Katja

      2012-01-01

      Opinnäytetyössä kuvataan yleisesti päivähoidon kehitystä Suomessa sekä päivähoitoa yrittäjän näkökulmasta, tuoden esille sen tämän päivän haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Työssä on pohdittu yhteistyön merkitystä kunnan kanssa ja sitä, miten kunta voi osaltaan joko rajoittaa tai edesauttaa yksityisen päivähoitoyrityksen toimintaa. Opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan teoriassa Päiväkoti Riemula nimisen, erityispäivähoitopalveluita tarjoavan yrityksen perustamiseen liittyvistä suunnitelmista. Suunnitelluss...

    12. Extended analysis of Cu IV

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Meinders, E.; Uijlings, P.

      1980-01-01

      Wavelength data and classifications of 974 Cu IV lines in the region 750-1275 Angstroem are presented. Most of the lines have been classified as transitions from the previously unknown high even configurations 3d 7 5s and 3d 7 4d to 3d 7 4p. The configuration 3d 7 4d is seriously perturbed by 3d 6 4s 2 . The analysis resulted in the identification of 27 levels of 3d 7 5s and 113 levels of (3d 7 4d + 3d 6 4s 2 ) which are reported. The earlier published levels of 3d 7 4s and 3d 7 4p have to be shifted downward as a consequence of improved wavelength data. Radial paramter values, resulting from least-squares fits, are compared to Hartree-Fock values. The eigenvectors obtained in the parametric fitting are used to calculate transition probabilities in intermediate coupling. The relation between the observed intensities of the transitions 3d 7 4d-3d 7 4p and 3d 7 Ss-3d 7 4p is compared to the relation between theoretical values of the transition integrals obtained from Hartree-Fock calculations. A spectroscopic value for the ionization potentials is calculated from the 3d 7 ns configurations. (orig.)

    13. Studies of binary cerium(IV)-praseodymium(IV) and cerium(IV)-terbium(IV) oxides as pigments for ceramic applications

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Furtado, L.M.L.

      1991-01-01

      It was investigated a series of pigments of general composition Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 , and Ce x Tb y O 2 , exhibiting radish and brown colors, respectively, and high temperature stability. The pigments were obtained by dissolving appropriate amounts of the pure lanthanide oxides in acids and precipitating the rare earths as mixed oxalates, which were isolated and calcined under air, at 1000 0 C. X-Ray powder diffractograms were consistent with a cubic structure for the pigments. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, using Gouy method, indicated the presence of Pr(IV) ions in the Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 pigments and of Terbium predominantly as Tb(III) ions in the Ce-tb mixed oxides. A new method, based on suspension of solid samples in PVA-STB gels (STB = sodium tetradecaborate), was employed for the measurements of the electronic spectra of the pigments. The thermal behaviour the pigments was investigated by the calcination of the oxalates in the temperature range of 500 to 1200 O C, from 10 to 60 minutes. (author)

  1. Ulex europaeus L.: common gorse

    Science.gov (United States)

    George P. Markin

    2008-01-01

    Gorse is a leafless, spined shrub introduced from western Europe. In its homeland, it grows 1 to 2 m tall and is primarily a nonaggressive invader of disturbed areas that is recognized as useful for wildlife protection, soil stabilization, and revegetation. It has also been cultivated as an ornamental and as forage for livestock, which feed on the soft, new growing...

  2. Zirconium (IV) complexes with some polymethylenediimines | Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The syntheses of zirconium (IV) complexes have been carried out by the reaction of oxozirconium (IV) chloride with the appropriate diimines (Schiff bases). The complexes were isolated as yellow solids which are stable to heat. The complexes were found to be insoluble in most solvents. The infrared spectra, elemental ...

  3. Astragaloside IV liposomes ameliorates adriamycin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The rats were given a single tail intravenous injection of adriamycin (6 mg/kg) within 1 week, and then divided into four groups including normal, model, benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes group. They were all orally administered dosage of benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes once daily for 8 weeks.

  4. Generation IV reactors: international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Hittner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Generation IV international forum (GIF) was initiated in 2000 by DOE (American department of energy) in order to promote nuclear energy in a long term view (2030). GIF has selected 6 concepts of reactors: 1) VHTR (very high temperature reactor system, 2) GHR (gas-cooled fast reactor system), 3) SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor system, 4) SCWR (super-critical water-cooled reactor system), 5) LFR (lead-cooled fast reactor system), and 6) MFR (molten-salt reactor system). All these 6 reactor systems have been selected on criteria based on: - a better contribution to sustainable development (through their aptitude to produce hydrogen or other clean fuels, or to have a high energy conversion ratio...) - economic profitability, - safety and reliability, and - proliferation resistance. The 6 concepts of reactors are examined in the first article, the second article presents an overview of the results of the international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO) within IAEA. The project finished its first phase, called phase-IA. It has produced an outlook into the future role of nuclear energy and defined the need for innovation. The third article is dedicated to 2 international cooperations: MICANET and HTR-TN. The purpose of MICANET is to propose to the European Commission a research and development strategy in order to develop the assets of nuclear energy for the future. Future reactors are expected to be more multiple-purposes, more adaptable, safer than today, all these developments require funded and coordinated research programs. The aim of HTR-TN cooperation is to promote high temperature reactor systems, to develop them in a long term perspective and to define their limits in terms of burn-up and operating temperature. (A.C.)

  5. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  6. Materials for generation-IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV. Six systems have been selected for Generation IV consideration: gas-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, molten salt-cooled reactor, sodium-cooled fast reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and very high temperature reactor. The structural materials need to resist much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive environment, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. For this reason, the first consideration in the development of Generation-IV concepts is selection and deployment of materials that operate successfully in the aggressive operating environments expected in the Gen-IV concepts. This paper summarizes the Gen-IV operating environments and describes the various candidate materials under consideration for use in different structural applications. (author)

  7. Adduct formation in Ce(IV) thenolytrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The literature contains no information on adduct formation in Ce(IV) β-diketonates with additional ligands. Since tetrakis-β-diketonates of Ce(IV) have four six-membered chelate rings, we can suppose that the introduction of an additional monodentate or bidentate ligand into the coordination sphere of Ce(IV) β-diketonates would lead to an increase in the coordination number (CN) of the Ce(IV) to nine or ten. The possibility of realization of such a high CN for Ce(IV) has not been proved; a study of adduct formation by Ce(IV) tetrakis-β-diketonates is thus of theoretical interest. Such an investigation might also be of practical interest, because the introduction of an additional ligand into the coordination sphere of a rare-earth β-diketonate usually increases the solubility of the β-diketonate in nonpolar solvents and increases the volatility of the compound; such a modification of the properties is important for various practical purposes. The aim of our work was to study the possibility of separating solid adducts of Ce(IV) tetrakis-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate with certain oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing donor monodentate and bidentate ligands, and also to investigate their properties. As the β-diketone we used thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTFA), since in a parallel investigation it was found that Ce(TTFA) 4 has a high oxidation-reduction stability

  8. Effect of the replacement of aspartic acid/glutamic acid residues with asparagine/glutamine residues in RNase He1 from Hericium erinaceus on inhibition of human leukemia cell line proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Motoyoshi, Naomi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inokuchi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    RNase He1 from Hericium erinaceus, a member of the RNase T1 family, has high identity with RNase Po1 from Pleurotus ostreatus with complete conservation of the catalytic sequence. However, the optimal pH for RNase He1 activity is lower than that of RNase Po1, and the enzyme shows little inhibition of human tumor cell proliferation. Hence, to investigate the potential antitumor activity of recombinant RNase He1 and to possibly enhance its optimum pH, we generated RNase He1 mutants by replacing 12 Asn/Gln residues with Asp/Glu residues; the amino acid sequence of RNase Po1 was taken as reference. These mutants were then expressed in Escherichia coli. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully modified the optimal pH for enzyme activity and generated a recombinant RNase He1 that inhibited the proliferation of cells in the human leukemia cell line. These properties are extremely important in the production of anticancer biologics that are based on RNase activity.

  9. Market opportunities: U.S. - PADD IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The current supply and demand balance, the short and long term expectations and marketing opportunities for Canadian crude oil in PADD IV, the Rocky Mountain region in the US, were reviewed. It was suggested that market opportunities in PADD IV are derived from the following four factors: (1) crude oil declines within that area, (2) federal regulations, (3) competitive presence with markets, and (4) population growth. The overall conclusion was that Canadian producers and PADD IV refiners will be looking at an ever-growing relationship based on freight equalized world crude prices. 8 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) (DBT) and diphenyltin(IV) (DPT) was investigated at 25 °C and 0.1 mol dm–3 ionic strength in water for dimethyltin(IV) and in 50 % dioxane–water mixture for dibutyltin(IV) and diphenyltin(IV). Methionine methyl ester forms1:1 and 1:2 ...

  11. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  12. Safety assessment for Generation IV nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. ISAM is an integrated 'tool-kit' consisting of 5 analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development: 1) qualitative safety features review - QSR, 2) phenomena identification and ranking table - PIRT, 3) objective provision tree - OPT, 4) deterministic and phenomenological analyses - DPA, and 5) probabilistic safety analysis - PSA. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time

  13. Determination of uranium (IV) by flow voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Anqing

    1987-01-01

    According to the quantitative reaction of U(IV) and Fe(III) in H 2 SO 4 as well as the relation between current and concentration of substance detected, U(IV) has been determined indirectly by measurement of the electrolysis current of residual Fe(III). The columniform electrode used is made of glass carbon particles. At the range of U(IV) from a few micrograms to 40 μg, the linear relation is excellent. The relative standard deviation is within ±4%. The interference of Fe(II), Ti(IV) and U(VI) is negligible but of Ti(III) is serious. This method has been successfully applied in the determination of actual samples (both out line and on line). Main advantages of this procedure are rapid, simple, small amount of sample (only at microgram level) and easy to realize automation, able to use for on line or process analysis

  14. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzymes, GAGs accumulate within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes . Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that break down ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes are called lysosomal storage disorders. In MPS IV, ...

  16. Current status of NPP generation IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Dharu Dewi; Nurlaila; Arief Tris Yuliyanto

    2013-01-01

    Today development of nuclear technology has reached the stage of research and development of Generation IV nuclear power plants (advanced reactor systems) which is an innovative development from the previous generation of nuclear power plants. There are six types of power generation IV reactors, namely: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). The purpose of this study is to know the development of Generation IV nuclear power plants that have been done by the thirteen countries that are members of the Gen IV International Forum (GIF). The method used is review study and refers to various studies related to the current status of research and development of generation IV nuclear power. The result of this study showed that the systems and technology on Generation IV nuclear power plants offer significant advances in sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. In addition, based on the research and development experience is estimated that: SFR can be used optimally in 2015, VHTR in 2020, while NPP types GFR, LFR, MSR, and SCWR in 2025. Utilization of NPP generation IV said to be optimal if fulfill the goal of NPP generation IV, such as: capable to generate energy sustainability and promote long-term availability of nuclear fuel, minimize nuclear waste and reduce the long term stewardship burden, has an advantage in the field of safety and reliability compared to the previous generation of NPP and VHTR technology have a good prospects in Indonesia. (author)

  17. Dsm-iv hypochondriasis in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, JI; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, RC; Holman, A; Compton, W

    1998-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impair...

  18. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  19. Synthesis and characterization of chiral thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) benzamidinate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Sebastian; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    Two chiral benzamidinate complexes of tetravalent actinides (Th(IV) and U(IV)) were synthesized using a salt metathesis reaction of the corresponding actinide(IV) tetrachlorides and the potassium salt of the chiral benzamidine (S,S)-N,N-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA). The structure of the complexes was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction. These are the first examples of chiral amidinate complexes of actinides.

  20. Comparison of the antimicrobial adhesion potential of human body fluid glycoconjugates using fucose-binding lectin (PA-IIL) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Ulex europaeus lectin (UEA-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerrer, Batia; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Gilboa-Garber, Nechama

    2005-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a fucose-binding lectin (PA-IIL) which strongly binds to human cells. This lectin was shown to be highly sensitive to inhibition by fucose-bearing human milk glycoproteins. Since the glycans of these glycoproteins mimic human cell receptors, they may function as decoys in blocking lectin-dependent pathogen adhesion to the host cells. Human saliva and seminal fluid also contain such compounds, and body fluids of individuals who are "secretors" express additional fucosylated (alpha 1,2) residues. The latter are selectively detected by Ulex europaeus lectin UEA-I. The aim of the present research was to compare the PA-IIL and UEA-I interactions with human salivas and seminal fluids of "secretors" and "nonsecretors" with those obtained with the respective milks. Using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses, we showed that PA-IIL interactions with the saliva and seminal fluid glycoproteins were somewhat weaker than those obtained with the milk and that "nonsecretor" body fluids were not less efficient than those of "secretors" in PA-IIL blocking. UEA-I, which interacted only with the "secretors" glycoproteins, was most sensitive to those of the seminal fluids.

  1. Effect of the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) on the alpha-amylase secretion of rat pancreas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkat, U; Damm, I; Schröder, G; Schmidt, K; Wirth, C; Weber, H; Jonas, L

    1998-05-01

    Lectins are able to bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and other glycosylated membrane proteins. The lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) are used for affinity chromatography to isolate the highly glycosylated CCK-A receptor of pancreatic acinar cells. According to the working hypothesis that lectin binding to the CCK receptor should alter the ligand-receptor interaction, the effect of WGA and UEA-I on CCK-8-induced enzyme secretion was studied on isolated rat pancreatic acini in vitro. In vitro both lectins showed a dosage-dependent inhibition of CCK-8-induced alpha-amylase secretion of acini over 60 min. WGA showed a strong inhibitory effect on amylase secretion, approximately 40%, in vitro. UEA-I caused a smaller, but significant decrease, approximately 20%, in enzyme secretion of isolated acini. Additionally, both lectins inhibited cerulein/secretin- or cerulein-induced pancreatic secretion of rats in vivo, but not after secretin alone. The results are discussed with respect to a possible influence of both lectins on the interaction of CCK or cerulein with the CCK-A receptor.

  2. Identificación de ácidos grasos y compuestos fenólicos de los aceites extraídos a partir de semillas de Ulex europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Torres Romero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulex europaeus es una planta de origen mediterráneo, introducida en Colombia como cerca viva que ha adquirido gran importancia debido a su carácter invasor principalmente en las zonas de alta montaña. El conocimiento de su biología es una herramienta fundamental para la implementación de medidas de manejo que permitan su control y minimicen su impacto sobre los ecosistemas. El estudio de las moléculas y principios activos podría generar información valiosa a este respecto. La investigación reporta algunos ácidos grasos y compuestos fenólicos conseguidos de la extracción oleosa de las semillas e identificados por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Dentro de los resultados destaca la presencia de ácido linoleico y también la presencia de tocoferoles que podrían ser útiles para aplicaciones alimentarias e industriales. Se concluye que la especie podría ser utilizada con fines industriales.

  3. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  4. Solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility of Tc(IV) is used as a source term in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is about (1.49∼1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L.d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide decreases with the increase of pH at pH 10 and is pH independent in the range 2 -8 to 10 -9 mol/L at 2 3 2- concentration. These data could be used to estimate the Tc(IV) solubility for cases where solubility limits transport of technetium in reducing environments of high-level waste repositories. (authors)

  5. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct complexonometric determination of thorium (IV), uranium (IV), neptunium (IV), plutonium (IV) by titration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid with xylenol orange as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, A.G.; Piskunov, E.M.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method of determining Th(IV), U(IV), Np(N) and Pu(IV) in acid solutions by titration with diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid, the indicator being xylenol orange. It has been established that Th, U, Np and Pu can be determined to within 0.5-1.5%. Th and U in quantities of tens of milligrams can be determined with greater accuracy, attaining hundredths of one per cent. During titration the determination is not hindered by singly- and doubly-charged metal ions, trivalent lanthanides and actinides, except plutonium. The proposed method can be used to determine U(IV) in the presence of considerable quantities of U(VI) and Np(IV) in the presence of Np(V). Total concentrations of uranium or neptunium are determined by reducing uranium (VI) or neptunium (V) by a standard method (for example, using metallic lead, cadmium or zinc amalgam) to the tetravalent state and applying the method described in the paper. (E.P.)

  7. The Contribution of IVS to IGGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, A.

    2002-05-01

    Since its inauguration in 1999, the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry has made significant progress in the coordination and utilisation of worldwide VLBI resources. Improving the visibility of the IVS components to a wider public in turn led to a higher motivation of the individuals to contribute to the global effort. Not only the number of IVS components but also their investments in terms of funds and manpower demonstrate the increased awareness of the importance of this joint international endeavour. The different demands of the users but also of the contributors often require the definition of priorities which are only being acceptable due to the existence of a strong umbrella organisation like the IVS. Significant progress has also been made in the area of routine data analysis and combination of results. By now, six IVS Analysis Centers provide the redundancy necessary for a robust combination of the results. The use of ITRF2000 station coordinates as the basis for the IVS combined EOP series is the most recent step towards the generation of a consistent chain from the quasi-inertial frame of radio sources to system Earth.

  8. Solubility studies of Np(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Jiao Haiyang; Ren Lihong; Zhou Duo; Fan Xianhua

    2001-01-01

    The solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water and redistilled water has been measured with the variations of pH(6-12) and storage time (0-100 d) in the presence of reductant (Na 2 S 2 O 4 , metallic Fe). All experiments are performed in a low oxygen concentration glove box containing high purity Ar(99.99%), with an oxygen content of less than 5 x 10 -6 mol/mol. Experimental results show that the variation of pH in solution has little effect on the solubility of Np(IV) in the two kinds of water; the measured solubility of Np(IV) is affected by the composition of solution; with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (9.23 +- 0.48) x 10 -10 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (8.31 +- 0.35) x 10 -10 mol/L; with metallic Fe as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (1.85 +- 0.56) x 10 -9 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (1.48 +- 0.66) x 10 -9 mol/L

  9. On the stabilization of niobium(V) solutions by zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as chloride and sulphate. This is ascribed to the co-polymerization of niobium(V) and the hydrolysed ionic species of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) to form colloidal...

  10. Complexation of the An(IV) by NTA; Complexation des An(IV) par le NTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)]|[CEA Valrho, Lab. de Chimie des Actinides (LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of the Nuclear and Environmental Toxicology program, developed in France, it has been decided to take again the studies concerning the actinides decorporation. A similar study of the neptunium complexation by the citrate ions has been carried out on the complexation of Np(IV) with the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). The NTA can be considered as a model molecule of the de-corporating molecules (amino-carboxy- ligand). The results of the spectrophotometric measurements being encouraging, the behaviour of several actinides at the same oxidation state (+IV) (Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV)) has been determined. The experimental results are presented. In order to determine the structure of the complexes of stoichiometry 1:2 An(IV)-(NTA){sub 2} in solution, quantic chemistry calculations and EXAFS measurements have been carried out in parallel. These studies confirm the presence of An(IV)-nitrogen bonds whose length decreases from thorium to plutonium and indicate the presence of a water molecule bound to the thorium and the uranium (coordination number 8 for Np/Pu, 9 for Th/U). The evolution of the complexation constants determined in this study in terms of 1/r (r ionic radius of the cation taking into account its coordination number 8 or 9) confirms the change of the coordination number between Th/U and Np/Pu. (O.M.)

  11. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  12. Oxochloroalkoxide of the Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV as oxides precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luiz Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV oxides mixture (CeO2-3TiO2 was prepared by thermal treatment of the oxochloroisopropoxide of Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV. The chemical route utilizing the Cerium (III chloride alcoholic complex and Titanium (IV isopropoxide is presented. The compound Ce5Ti15Cl16O30 (iOPr4(OH-Et15 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and TG/DTG. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the oxides resulting from the thermal decomposition of the precursor at 1000 degreesC for 36 h indicated the formation of cubic cerianite (a = 5.417Å and tetragonal rutile (a = 4.592Å and (c = 2.962 Å, with apparent crystallite sizes around 38 and 55nm, respectively.

  13. Spectroscopy and chemistry of uranium IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folcher, G.; Rigny, P.

    1980-06-01

    Different fundamental research papers on uranium IV are presented, some were never edited. Molecular spectroscopy was used for identification and structural study of uranium IV in aqueous or organic solutions. The fields studied are: coordination, stereochemistry, electronic structure and chemical properties. For interpretation of results some studies were made with solid compounds or with thorium compounds or thorium complexes. Knowledge of actinides chemistry is improved, uranium and thorium being models for 5 f ions, extractive chemistry is better understood and new applications are possible [fr

  14. Vectorization at the KENO-IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, K.; Higuchi, K.; Katakura, J.

    1986-01-01

    The multigroup criticality safety code KENO-IV has been vectorized and tested on the FACOM VP-100 vector processor. At first, the vectorized KENO-IV on a scalar processor was slower than the original one by a factor of 1.4 because of the overhead introduced by vectorization. Making modifications of algorithms and techniques for vectorization, the vectorized version has become faster than the original one by a factor of 1.4 on the vector processor. For further speedup of the code, some improvements on compiler and hardware, especially on addition of Monte Carlo pipelines to the vector processor, are discussed

  15. Functions in Free-Format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written especially for programmers adopting a free-format style, this manual explores the role of functions in writing RPG IV programs. Demonstrating the potential of functions, many topics are explored such as details about existing RPG IV built-in functions, writing new functions, using ILE concepts to use C functions, and utilizing IBM API's functions. Explaining how to write small programs, either as sub-procedures or modules, and how to gather those parts together to make programs that are easy to write and maintain, this is a natural next step for programmers familiar with a free-format

  16. Gen IV. Technical and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.; Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with development of nuclear reactor type of Generation IV. He concluded that: - Nuclear energy is competitive with regards to the other generation sources; Its competitiveness also increases with CO 2 cost. Considering the nuclear cost breakdown of LWR reactors, it turns out that the uranium is currently not in the range of a threshold for FBR deployment; - The global balance of uranium supply and demand and also innovation required to fulfil GEN IV objectives would probably imply the emergence of fast reactor competitiveness after the turn of the mid-century; - We shall need fast reactors in the coming decade.

  17. Bis(4-methylpiperidinium hexachloridostannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Helliwell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H14N2[SnCl6], is built of 4-methylpiperidinium cations, occupying special positions on the mirror plane, and hexachloridostannate(IV anions on a special position of 2/m symmetry. The ions are linked via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds into chains running along the b axis.

  18. The carbonate complexation of plutonium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemistry of these complexes is also important in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and purification, actinide separations, and environmental studies. This report describes initial experiments performed to determine the identity and equilibrium quotients of plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes. These experiments were performed at pH values between 7.2 and 9.6 using a spectrophotometric method. In addition, a brief review of the published literature on Pu(IV) carbonate complexes is presented. Since Pu(IV) exhibits low solubility in the near-neutral pH range, a complex-competition reaction where citrate ligands compete with carbonate ions for the plutonium will be employed. This will permit us to study the pure carbonate system; study the mixed carbonate/citrate system, and confirm and extend the literature work on the pure citrate system. The current experiments have demonstrated the existence of at least three distinct species in the pH region studied. This work will continue in the extended study of the pure citrate system, followed by the investigation of the citrate/carbonate complex/competition reaction. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Painlevé IV coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states

  20. Resonance transition array of Yb IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.

    1976-01-01

    Nineteen pairs of lines in the wavelength range of 800--1300 A were identified as transitions to the two levels of the ground term of Yb IV, 4f 13 2 F. The 2 F 5 / 2 -- 2 F 7 / 2 interval is 10 214.0 cm -1 with an rms deviation of 0.4 cm -1

  1. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE's Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit

  2. IV-DSA of vertigo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Ito, Masatoshi; Takita, Kimio; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1988-01-01

    With IV-DSA(Intra-Venous Digital Subtraction Angiography), we examined the relations between vertigo or dizziness and asymmetries of cervical vertebral arteries. In this time, as the asymmetries we chose next three; hemi-stenosis, hemi-occulusion and hemi-strong tortuosity. In the appearance of the asymmetries, there was no differance between those who complain vertigo or dizziness and others. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and... isomers is possible: (1) Fenfluramine 1670 (e) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed... the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts...

  4. Painlevé IV coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  5. National Coastal Condition Report IV (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCR IV data shows an overall condition score of 3.0 for the nation’s coastal waters; although this score has improved substantially since 1990, the overall condition of the nation’s coastal resources continues to be rated fair.

  6. IVS: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, D.; Nothnagel, A.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Tuccari, G.

    2016-12-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) is a globally operating service that coordinates and performs Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) activities through its constituent components. The VLBI activities are associated with the creation, provision, dissemination, and archiving of relevant VLBI data and products. The products mostly pertain to the determination of the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), atmospheric parameters as well as other ancillary parameters. The IVS observational network currently consists of about 40 radio telescopes worldwide. Subsets of these telescopes (8-12 stations) participate in 24-hour observing sessions that are run several times per week and in 1-hour intensive sessions for UT1 determination every day. The current VLBI network was developed mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. A number of factors, including aging infrastructure and demanding new scientific requirements, started to challenge its future sustainability and relevance. In response, the IVS and other groups developed and started implementing the next generation VLBI system, called VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System), at existing and new sites. The VGOS network is expected to reach maturity in the early 2020s. We describe the current status, progress, and anticipated prospects of geodetic/astrometric VLBI and the IVS.

  7. Scylla IV-P theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, A.G.; Chandler, G.I.; Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Lillberg, J.W.; Machalek, M.D.; Seibel, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    Scylla IV-P is a flexible, linear theta pinch designed to investigate high-density linear concepts, end-stoppering, alternate heating methods, and plasma injection techniques relevant to a pure fusion reactor and/or a fusion-fission hybrid system. The construction and experimental arrangement of the device are briefly described

  8. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-01-01

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  9. Coordination and solvent extraction behaviour of oxozirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The systematic liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of oxozirconium (IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) have been investigated using a number of synthesised and commercial chelating extractants. The synergism or antagonism for these processes in presence of neutral donor ligands have also been identified and the conditions for separation and isolation of pure individual metal ions have been established. The coordination behaviour of oxozirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with a large number of mono- and polydentate ligands have been studied. With oxozirconium(IV), invariably always a cyclic, tetranuclear species is obtained, derived from the tetrameric structure of the parent ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O which is actually (Zr 4 (OH) 8 (H 2 O) 16 )Cl 8 .12H 2 O. No simple, monomeric oxozirconium(IV) complex was obtained. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) form a wide variety of complexes of higher coordination numbers and several bi- and trinuclear complexes were also characterised where the two adjacent metal centres are joined to each other by a double hydroxo-bridge. (author). 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular

  11. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Dominique P

    2007-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria) in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae) are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular complication in a patient suffering

  12. Spillover Events of Infection of Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus) with Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Type 2 Virus (RHDV2) Caused Sporadic Cases of an European Brown Hare Syndrome-Like Disease in Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, R; Cavadini, P; Neimanis, A; Cabezón, O; Chiari, M; Gaffuri, A; Lavín, S; Grilli, G; Gavier-Widén, D; Lavazza, A; Capucci, L

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80-90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV-related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit populations. RHDV2 also was identified in Cape hare (Lepus capensis subsp. mediterraneus) and in Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus). Here, we describe two distinct incidents of RHDV2 infection in EBH that occurred in Italy (2012) and Spain (2014). The two RHDV2 strains caused macroscopic and microscopic lesions similar to European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) in hares, and they were genetically related to other RHDV2 strains in Europe. EBHs are common in Europe, often sharing habitat with rabbits. They likely have been exposed to high levels of RHDV2 during outbreaks in rabbits in recent years, yet only two incidents of RHDV2 in EBHs have been found in Italy and Spain, suggesting that EBHs are not a primary host. Instead, they may act as spillover hosts in situations when infection pressure is high and barriers between rabbits and hares are limited, resulting in occasional infections causing EBHS-like lesions. The serological survey of stocked hare sera taken from Italian and Spanish hare populations provided an understanding of naturally occurring RHDV2 infection in the field confirming its sporadic occurrence in EBH. Our findings increase the knowledge on distribution, host range and epidemiology of RHDV2. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides in camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Paolella, Sara; Mudgil, Priti; Maqsood, Sajid; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Nine novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides (FLQY, FQLGASPY, ILDKEGIDY, ILELA, LLQLEAIR, LPVP, LQALHQGQIV, MPVQA and SPVVPF) were identified in camel milk proteins hydrolysed with trypsin. This was achieved using a sequential approach combining liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), qualitative/quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and confirmatory studies with synthetic peptides. The most potent camel milk protein-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, LPVP and MPVQA, had DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 87.0 ± 3.2 and 93.3 ± 8.0 µM, respectively. DPP-IV inhibitory peptide sequences identified within camel and bovine milk protein hydrolysates generated under the same hydrolysis conditions differ. This was linked to differences in enzyme selectivity for peptide bond cleavage of camel and bovine milk proteins as well as dissimilarities in their amino acid sequences. Camel milk proteins contain novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides which may play a role in the regulation of glycaemia in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DSM-IV hypochondriasis in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, J I; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, R C; Holman, A; Compton, W

    1998-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impaired in their physical functioning than patients without the disorder. Of the various psychopathologies examined, major depressive syndromes were the most frequent among patients with hypochondriasis. Interestingly, unlike somatization disorder, hypochondriasis was not related to any demographic factor. Hypochondriasis is a relatively rare condition in primary care that is largely separable from somatization disorder but seems closely intertwined with the more severe depressive syndromes.

  15. Generation-IV nuclear reactors, SFR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with development of sodium-cooled fast reactors and lead-cooled fast reactors. He concluded that: - SFR is a proved concept that has never achieved industrial deployment; - The GEN IV objectives need to reconsider the design of both the core and the reactor design : innovations are being analysed; Future design will benefit from considerable feedback of design, licensing, construction and operation of PX, SPX, etc.

  16. Generation IV nuclear plant design strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation Generation IV nuclear reactor design criteria are examined under the light of known nuclear properties of fissile and fertile nuclei. Their conflicting nature is elucidated along with the resulting inevitability of a multitude of designs. The designs selected as candidates for further development are evaluated with respect to their potential to serve the different design criteria, thereby revealing their more difficult aspects of realization and the strong research challenges lying ahead

  17. Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    J. Craig Venter and C. Thomas Caskey co-chaired Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference IV held at Hilton Head, South Carolina from September 26--30, 1992. Venter opened the conference by noting that approximately 400 researchers from 16 nations were present four times as many participants as at Genome Sequencing Conference I in 1989. Venter also introduced the Data Fair, a new component of the conference allowing exchange and on-site computer analysis of unpublished sequence data.

  18. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  19. Dipyridinium tribromidochloridobis(4-chlorophenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Mun Lo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The tin atom in the substituted ammonium stannate(IV, (C5H6N2[SnBr3(C6H4Cl2Cl], lies on a center of symmetry in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Each independent halogen site is occupied by bromine and chlorine anions in an approximate 3:1 ratio. The pyridinium cation forms a hydrogen bond to only one of the halogen atoms.

  20. Structure of tetrakis(salicylaldehydato)thorium(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R J; Rickard, C E.F. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The structure of tetrakis(salicylaldehydato)thorium(IV) has been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The crystals are tetragonal, a = 10.214, b = 23.744 A, space group P4/sub 1/. The molecules are eight coordinate, the coordination polyhedron being a dodecahedron with approximate Dsub(2d) symmetry. The dodecahedral A sites are occupied by the aldehydic oxygens and the phenolic oxygens occupy the B sites.

  1. IVS contribution to the next ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Messerschmitt, Linda; Thaller, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Generating the contribution of the International VLBI Service (IVS) to the next ITRF (ITRF2013 or ITRF2014) was the main task of the IVS Combination Center at the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Germany) in 2014. Starting with the ITRF2005, the IVS contribution to the ITRF is an intra-technique combined solution using multiple individual contributions from different institutions. For the upcoming ITRF ten international institutions submitted data files for a combined solution. The data files contain 24h VLBI sessions from the late 1970s until the end of 2014 in SINEX file format containing datum free normal equations with station coordinates and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). All contributions have to meet the IVS standards for ITRF contribution in order to guarantee a consistent combined solution. In the course of the generation of the intra-technique combined solution, station coordinate time series for each station as well as a Terrestrial Reference Frame based on the contributed VLBI data (VTRF) were generated and analyzed. Preliminary results using data until the end of 2013 show a scaling factor of -0.47 ppb resulting from a 7-parameter Helmert transformation of the VTRF w.r.t. ITRF2008, which is comparable to the scaling factor that was determined in the precedent ITRF generation. An internal comparison of the EOPs between the combined solution and the individual contributions as well as external comparisons of the EOP series were carried out in order to assure a consistent quality of the EOPs. The data analyses, the combination procedure and results of the combined solution for station coordinates and EOP will be presented.

  2. Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuscher, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed, designed and operated fast burst reactors for over 20 years. These reactors have been used for a variety of radiation effects programs. During this period, programs have required larger irradiation volumes primarily to expose complex electronic systems to postulated threat environments. As experiment volumes increased, a new reactor was built so that these components could be tested. The Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV is a logical evolution of the two decades of fast burst reactor development at Sandia

  3. Plutonium(IV) hydrous polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Dodson, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrous polymer chemistry of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been a subject of considerable interest for several years. This interest stems mainly from the fact that most nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes based on the Purex process can be hampered by the occurrence of polymer. As a result, an understanding and control of the parameters that affect polymer formation during reprocessing are studied. 2 refs

  4. Ionizing radiation risk assessment, BEIR IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report of the Subpanel discusses the potential impact on Federal agencies and indicates individual risk factors that could be used by them in risk assessment. The approach used in this CIRRPC report was to consider the risk factors presented in BEIR IV for each radionuclide (or group radioelements) and to make some judgments regarding their validity and/or the uncertainties involved. The coverage of Radon-222 and its progeny dominated the BEIR IV report and this Subpanel felt is was proper to devote more attention to this radionuclide family. This risk factor presented in BEIR IV for radon is 350 cancer deaths per million person-working level months (WLM) of exposure for a lifetime. There is a range of opinions on the conversion from WLM to absorbed dose. As discussed in the text, the use of the WLM concept makes it difficult or infeasible to compare the risk factor for radon with that of other radionuclides which are based on organ dose. This report also includes a discussion of certain fundamental scientific and operational issues that may have decisive effect upon risk factor selection. These adjunct items are dealt with under separate headings and include discussions of threshold dose considerations, extrapolation to low doses, and age at exposure

  5. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319–2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2 , the excited configurations 3d 10 4s4p 3 +3d 10 4s 2 4p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d 10 4s 2 4p (5p+4f+5f)+3d 10 4s4p 2 (4d+5s)+3d 10 4p 4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree–Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p 35 S 2 , 4s 2 4p4d 3 F 4 and 4p5p ( 3 P 0,1 , 3 D 1,2 , 3 S 1 ) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm −1 (47.782±0.012 eV). -- Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • Atomic transitions for Br IV were identified to established new energy levels. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization potential of Br IV was determined experimentally

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of artificial antigens for astragaloside IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Yu

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bunge, Fabaceae and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV- bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.

  7. A Si IV/O IV Electron Density Diagnostic for the Analysis of IRIS Solar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Milligan, R. O.; Peter, H.

    2018-04-01

    Solar spectra of ultraviolet bursts and flare ribbons from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have suggested high electron densities of > {10}12 cm‑3 at transition region temperatures of 0.1 MK, based on large intensity ratios of Si IV λ1402.77 to O IV λ1401.16. In this work, a rare observation of the weak O IV λ1343.51 line is reported from an X-class flare that peaked at 21:41 UT on 2014 October 24. This line is used to develop a theoretical prediction of the Si IV λ1402.77 to O IV λ1401.16 ratio as a function of density that is recommended to be used in the high-density regime. The method makes use of new pressure-dependent ionization fractions that take account of the suppression of dielectronic recombination at high densities. It is applied to two sequences of flare kernel observations from the October 24 flare. The first shows densities that vary between 3× {10}12 and 3× {10}13 cm‑3 over a seven-minute period, while the second location shows stable density values of around 2× {10}12 cm‑3 over a three-minute period.

  8. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle ...

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of protein hydrolyzates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder. Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors that protect incretin hormones from being cleaved by DPP-IV have been used as drugs to control glycemia. This study examined the potential hypoglycemic effect of amaranth grain storage protein hydrolyzates ...

  10. 77 FR 64398 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Region IV AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession... Field Offices (Region IV). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region IV. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D. Reynolds...

  11. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319-2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d104s24p2, the excited configurations 3d104s4p3+3d104s24p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d104s24p (5p+4f+5f)+3d104s4p2 (4d+5s)+3d104p4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p35S2, 4s24p4d 3F4 and 4p5p (3P0, 1, 3D1, 2, 3S1) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm-1 (47.782±0.012 eV).

  12. Synthesis and characterization of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) complexes with Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radoske, Thomas; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    We report herein the synthesis and characterization of several imine complexes of tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) and uranium (U(IV)). The ligands investigated in this study are a Schiff base type, including the well-known salen ligand (H{sub 2}Le, Fig. 1). The complexation in solution was investigated by NMR measurements indicating paramagnetic effects of unpaired f-electrons of U(IV) on the ligand molecule. We also determined the solid-state molecular structures of the synthesized complexes by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The synthesized complexes show an eight-fold coordination geometry around the actinide center surrounded by two tetradentate ligands with 2N- and 2O-donor atoms.

  13. The kinetics of the cerium(IV)-uranium(IV) reaction at low sulfate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaille, P.; Kikindai, T.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of uranium(IV) by cerium(IV) was measured with a stopped-flow spectrophotometer at sulfuric acid concentrations of 2 x 10 -6 to 0.5 M. At a constant hydrogen ion concentration of 0.5 M, the maximum rate constant was observed for 2 x 10 -3 M sulfuric acid; at that concentration, two sulfate ions were involved in the activated complex. The dependence of the rate constant on the hydrogen ion concentration showed that the reaction paths involving one or two sulfate ions also involved one hydroxyl ion, whereas one hydrogen ion was involved in the five sulfate dependent path. Spectrophotometric measurements supported the existence of a hydrolyzed monosulfatocomplex of cerium(IV). (author)

  14. Thorium(IV) and zirconium(IV) complexes of oxygen donor ligands. Pt. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Jain, P.C.; Kapur, V.; Sharma, S.; Srivastava, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Crystalline thorium (IV) chelates with mono N-oxides of 2,2'-bipyridine (bipyNO) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phenNO), ThX 4 x 2L(X = Cl,Br,NO 3 or NCS) and ThX 4 x 3L(X = I or ClO 4 and L = bipyNO or phenNO) have been synthesised and characterized on the basis of i.r. spectra, molar conductance, molecular weights, t.g.a. and d.t.a. data. All the complexes are weakly diamagnetic and contain bipyNO and phenNO bonded to thorium(IV) through nitrogen and oxygen. The coordination number of thorium(IV) varies from six to twelve depending on the nature of the anions. (orig.) [de

  15. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju

    2009-01-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  16. General report of Technical Committee IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    During the report period, work in section IV of the Committee was continued on the molecular, cellular and organic levels with the aim to elucidate the origin, course and treatment possibility of the syndrome that may occur in the mammalian organism upon acute and chronic ionizing irradiation as a function of the radiation dose received. The investigations dealt a.o. with the effect of O 2 in protein radiolysis, recovery processes of the haematopoietic stem cells, delayed effects in the gastrointestical tract subsequent to local irradiation, and combination damage in the lungs and liver of rats upon combined cytostatic and radiation therapy. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Research in collegiate mathematics education IV

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed; Kaput, Jim

    2001-01-01

    This fourth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME IV) reflects the themes of student learning and calculus. Included are overviews of calculus reform in France and in the U.S. and large-scale and small-scale longitudinal comparisons of students enrolled in first-year reform courses and in traditional courses. The work continues with detailed studies relating students' understanding of calculus and associated topics. Direct focus is then placed on instruction and student comprehension of courses other than calculus, namely abstract algebra and number theory. The volume co

  18. A Gaussian IV estimator of cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårdsen, Gunnar; Haldrup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi-nonparametricestimators. T......In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi...... in cointegrating regressions. These instruments are almost idealand simulations show that the IV estimator using such instruments alleviatethe endogeneity problem extremely well in both finite and large samples....

  19. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, Robert W.; Marriott, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  20. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  1. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Anesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase.

  2. On the stabilization of NbV-solutions by ZrIV and HfIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1987-11-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as Cl- and SO 4 --. This is ascribed to the copolymerisation of Nb v and the hydrolyzed ionic species of Zr IV v and Hf IV by which the colloidal particles are masked as Zr- and Hf-compounds. In HCl the particles are positively charged as opposed to when they are in sulphate solution where the Zr- and Hf- sulphate complexes confer a negative charge. The two cases are considered separately. (author)

  3. Spectroscopy study of ceramic pigments based on Ce(IV)-Pr(IV) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.; Toma, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of a series of cerium(IV)-praseodimium(IV) oxide pigments are reported. The pigments exhibit brick-red colours and are suitable for ceramic applications because of their high temperature stability. Electronic absorption spectra of the pigments suspended in a gel matrix of polyvinyl alcohol-sodium tetradecaborate mixture, consists of broad band with gaussian components at 372 and 472nm. These bands are described to charge -transfer transitions from the occupied oxygen p-orbitals to the empty f levels of the lanthanides. (author)

  4. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding to dental primary afferent projections in the spinal trigeminal complex combined with double immunolabeling of substance P and GABA elements using peroxidase and colloidal gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, M A; Hoffmann, K D; Hernandez, T V

    1989-01-01

    Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) is a plant lectin with an affinity for L-fucosyl residues in the chains of lactoseries oligosaccharides associated with medium- and smaller-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axonal processes. These enter Lissauer's tract and terminate within the superficial laminae of the spinal cord overlapping projections known to have a nociceptive function. This implies that the surface coatings of neuronal membranes may have a relationship with functional modalities. The present investigation further examined this concept by studying a neuronal projection with a nociceptive function to determine whether fucosyl-lactoseries residues were incorporated in its primary afferent terminals. Transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) following injection into tooth pulp chambers was employed to demonstrate dental pulp terminals in the trigeminal spinal complex, while peroxidase and fluorescent tags were used concomitantly to stain for UEA-I. Double immunolabeling for substance P (SP) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using peroxidase and colloidal gold allowed a comparison of the distribution of a known excitatory nociceptive transmitter with that of UEA-I binding in specific subnuclei. Synaptic interrelationships between UEA-I positive dental pulp primary afferent inputs and specific inhibitory terminals were also examined. SP immunoreactivity occurred in laminae I and outer lamina II (IIo) of subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and in the ventrolateral and lateral marginal region of the caudal half of subnucleus interpolaris (Vi), including the periobex area in which Vi is slightly overlapped on its lateral aspect by cellular elements of Vc. The adjacent interstitial nucleus (IN) also showed an intense immunoreactivity for this peptide antibody. UEA-I binding displayed a similar distribution pattern in both Vc and Vi, but extended into lamina IIi and the superficial part of Lamina III in Vc. Dental pulp terminals were found to

  5. Localization of binding sites of Ulex europaeus I, Helix pomatia and Griffonia simplicifolia I-B4 lectins and analysis of their backbone structures by several glycosidases and poly-N-acetyllactosamine-specific lectins in human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, N; Imai, S; Haga, S; Nagaike, C; Morimura, Y; Hatake, K

    1996-09-01

    Several studies have shown the deletion of blood group A or B antigens and the accumulation of H antigens in human breast carcinomas. Other studies have independently demonstrated that the binding sites of lectins such as Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I-B4 (GSAI-B4) are highly expressed in these cells. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation and metastasis of carcinoma cells, it is important to understand the relationship between such phenotypically distinct events. For this purpose, we examined whether the binding sites of these lectins and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) are expressed concomitantly in the same carcinoma cells and analyzed their backbone structures. The expression of the binding sites of these lectins was observed independently of the blood group (ABO) of the patients and was not affected by the histological type of the carcinomas. Observation of serial sections stained with these lectins revealed that the distribution of HPA binding sites was almost identical to that of GSAI-B4 in most cases. Furthermore, in some cases, UEA-I binding patterns were similar to those of HPA and GSAI-B4 but in other cases, mosaic staining patterns with these lectins were also observed, i.e., some cell clusters were stained with both HPA and GSAI-B4 but not with UEA-I and adjacent cell clusters were stained only with UEA-I. Digestion with endo-beta-galactosidase or N-glycosidase F markedly reduced the staining intensity of these lectins. Together with the reduction of staining by these lectins, reactivity with Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin II appeared in carcinoma cells following endo-beta-galactosidase digestion. Among the lectins specific to poly-N-acetyllactosamine, Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (LEA) most vividly and consistently stained the cancer cells. Next to LEA, pokeweed mitogen agglutinin was also effective in staining these cells. Carcinoma cells reactive with these

  6. After SDSS-IV: Pioneering Panoptic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Juna; AS4 Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    I will describe the current plans for a next generation sky survey that will begin After SDSS-IV --- AS4. AS4 will be an unprecedented all-sky spectroscopic survey of over six million objects. It is designed to decode the history of the Milky Way galaxy, trace the emergence of the chemical elements, reveal the inner workings of stars, the growth of black holes, and investigate the origin of planets. It will provide the most comprehensive all-sky spectroscopy to multiply the science from the Gaia, TESS and eROSITA missions. AS4 will also create a contiguous spectroscopic map of the interstellar gas in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies that is 1,000 times larger than the state of the art, uncovering the self-regulation mechanisms of Galactic ecosystems. It will pioneer systematic, spectroscopic monitoring across the whole sky, revealing changes on timescales from 20 minutes to 20 years. The project is now developing new hardware to build on the SDSS-IV infrastructure, designing the detailed survey strategy, and actively seeking to complete its consortium of institutional and individual members.

  7. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  8. Development of generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Ichimiya, Masakazu; Noda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The fifth 'Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Policy Group Meetings' was held at the Zen-Nikku Hotel in Tokyo, on September 19-20, 2002, under participations of Abraham, Secretary of DOE in U.S.A., Columbani, Secretary of CEA in France, Fujiie, Chairman of CAE in Japan, Kano, Parliamental Minister of MIS in Japan, and so on. Ten nations entering GIF (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Switzerland, U.K., and U.S.A.) selected six next generation nuclear energy concepts for objects of international cooperative research and development aiming at its practice by 2030. These concepts applicable to not only power generation, but also hydrogen production, sea water purification, and so on, are sodium liquid metal cooled reactor (Japan), high temperature gas cooled reactor (France), Super-critical pressure water cooled reactor (SCWR: Canada), Lead metal cooled reactor (Switzerland), Gas cooled fast reactor (U.S.A.), and molten salts reactor. On the generation IV nuclear reactor systems aiming to further upgrade their sustainability, safety, economical efficiency, and nuclear non proliferation, the 'Plans on Technical Development' (Road-map) to decide priority of their R and Ds has been cooperatively discussed under frameworks of international research cooperation by the GIF members nations. Here were shared descriptions on nuclear fuel cycle as a remise of technical evaluation and adopted concepts by Japanese participants contributing to making up the Road-map. (G.K.)

  9. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  10. Report for 2011 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2011. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) imaging of the sources observed during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy IVS observing session; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the enhancement of the IVS LiveWeb site which now comprises all IVS sessions back to 2003, allowing one to search past observations for session-specific information (e.g. sources or stations).

  11. Comparative Analysis of Inpatient Costs for Obstetrics and Gynecology Surgery Patients Treated With IV Acetaminophen and IV Opioids Versus IV Opioid-only Analgesia for Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Pham, An T; Lovelace, Belinda; Balaban, Stela; Wan, George J

    2017-10-01

    Recovery from obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) surgery, including hysterectomy and cesarean section delivery, aims to restore function while minimizing hospital length of stay (LOS) and medical expenditures. Our analyses compare OB/GYN surgery patients who received combination intravenous (IV) acetaminophen and IV opioid analgesia with those who received IV opioid-only analgesia and estimate differences in LOS, hospitalization costs, and opioid consumption. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Premier Database between January 2009 and June 2015, comparing OB/GYN surgery patients who received postoperative pain management with combination IV acetaminophen and IV opioids with those who received only IV opioids starting on the day of surgery and continuing up to the second postoperative day. We performed instrumental variable 2-stage least-squares regressions controlling for patient and hospital covariates to compare the LOS, hospitalization costs, and daily opioid doses (morphine equivalent dose) of IV acetaminophen recipients with that of opioid-only analgesia patients. We identified 225 142 OB/GYN surgery patients who were eligible for our study of whom 89 568 (40%) had been managed with IV acetaminophen and opioids. Participants averaged 36 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasians (60%). Multivariable regression models estimated statistically significant differences in hospitalization cost and opioid use with IV acetaminophen associated with $484.4 lower total hospitalization costs (95% CI = -$760.4 to -$208.4; P = 0.0006) and 8.2 mg lower daily opioid use (95% CI = -10.0 to -6.4), whereas the difference in LOS was not significant, at -0.09 days (95% CI = -0.19 to 0.01; P = 0.07). Compared with IV opioid-only analgesia, managing post-OB/GYN surgery pain with the addition of IV acetaminophen is associated with decreased hospitalization costs and reduced opioid use.

  12. Atlantic Flyway review: Region IV - Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    We welcome the Eden Mill station in northeastern Maryland to Region IV this year. With three stations reporting their worst year ever, we really need to be refreshed. After a cool and wet July, August was hot and wet in the east. Temperatures in September remained close to normal, but thanks to tropical storms Henri (6-8 Sep) and Isabel (18 Sep), rainfall was excessive in the Chesapeake Bay states. The entire Northeast had cool weather in October, starting with an early freeze on 3 Oct that triggered some good banding days in our region. Precipitation was unusually spotty in October, but plentiful at most of the Region IV stations. November temperatures were consistently well above the norm, starting with a record-breaking 81 ø in Baltimore on the 1st.Four of the five Maryland stations had their best day on 19 or 20 Oct. One might expect some of the Virginia coastal stations, Chincoteague, Kiptopeke, and Back Bay, to share the same best day, but they did not. Three stations reported an increase in birds per net hour this year, while seven had a decline. Summarizing the changes in rank in Table 2, Gray Catbird was the species with the most (5) increases in rank (in excess of decreases), followed by junco (4) and Myrtle Warbler and Swamp Sparrow (3 each). Yellowthroat had the most decreases (5), followed by redstart (3).Myrtle Warbler (4572) was once again the most commonly banded species in Region IV, followed by White-throated Sparrow (1723), Gray Catbird (1349), and Western Palm Warbler (1090). Michelle Davis' station on Key Biscayne is the envy of the rest of us. Her top eight species were all warblers and there was not a Myrtle among them. Imagine having Parula, Prairie, and Worm-eating warblers fighting for sixth place!Not showing among the top ten, however, are other surprises. Several banders commented on Sawwhet Owls and Bicknell's Thrushes. Deanna Dawson banded a Cerulean Warbler at Patuxent. Danny Bystrak caught 138 Swamp Sparrows at Jug Bay. In addition

  13. Goodpasture's autoimmune disease - A collagen IV disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedchenko, Vadim; Richard Kitching, A; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-05-12

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the deposition of pathogenic autoantibodies in basement membranes of kidney and lung eliciting rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. The principal autoantigen is the α345 network of collagen IV, which expression is restricted to target tissues. Recent discoveries include a key role of chloride and bromide for network assembly, a novel posttranslational modification of the antigen, a sulfilimine bond that crosslinks the antigen, and the mechanistic role of HLA in genetic susceptibility and resistance to GP disease. These advances provide further insights into molecular mechanisms of initiation and progression of GP disease and serve as a basis for developing of novel diagnostic tools and therapies for treatment of Goodpasture's disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission region IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburch, C.

    1996-01-01

    The NRC has established a policy to provide for the timely through and systematic inspection of significant operational events at nuclear power plants. This includes the use of an Augmented Inspection Team to determine the causes, conditions, and circumstances relevant to an event and to communicate its findings and conclusions to NRC management. In accordance with NRC Inspection Manual Chapter 0325. The Region IV Regional Administrator dispatched an Augmented Inspection Team to the Wolf Creek Nuclear Generating Station to review the circumstances surrounding a manual reactor trip on January 30, 1996, with the failure of five control rods to fully insert into the core, a failure of the turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump, and the subsequent loss of one train of the essential service water system

  15. Review of the BCI Competition IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Aertsen, Ad; Birbaumer, Niels; Braun, Christoph; Brunner, Clemens; Leeb, Robert; Mehring, Carsten; Miller, Kai J.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Nolte, Guido; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Preissl, Hubert; Schalk, Gerwin; Schlögl, Alois; Vidaurre, Carmen; Waldert, Stephan; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The BCI competition IV stands in the tradition of prior BCI competitions that aim to provide high quality neuroscientific data for open access to the scientific community. As experienced already in prior competitions not only scientists from the narrow field of BCI compete, but scholars with a broad variety of backgrounds and nationalities. They include high specialists as well as students. The goals of all BCI competitions have always been to challenge with respect to novel paradigms and complex data. We report on the following challenges: (1) asynchronous data, (2) synthetic, (3) multi-class continuous data, (4) session-to-session transfer, (5) directionally modulated MEG, (6) finger movements recorded by ECoG. As after past competitions, our hope is that winning entries may enhance the analysis methods of future BCIs. PMID:22811657

  16. Titanium(IV), zirconium, hafnium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Titanium can exist in solution in a number of oxidation states. The titanium(IV) exists in acidic solutions as the oxo-cation, TiO 2+ , rather than Ti 4+ . Zirconium is used in the ceramics industry and in nuclear industry as a cladding material in reactors where its reactivity towards hydrolysis reactions and precipitation of oxides may result in degradation of the cladding. In nature, hafnium is found together with zirconium and as a consequence of the contraction in ionic radii that occurs due to the 4f -electron shell, the ionic radius of hafnium is almost identical to that of zirconium. All isotopes of thorium are radioactive and, as a consequence of it being fertile, thorium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle. The polymeric hydrolysis species that have been reported for thorium are somewhat different to those identified for zirconium and hafnium, although thorium does form the Th 4 (OH) 8 8+ species.

  17. Ultrathin magnetic structures IV applications of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is de...

  18. KENO-IV code benchmark calculation, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamakawa, Yasuhiro.

    1980-11-01

    A series of benchmark tests has been undertaken in JAERI in order to examine the capability of JAERI's criticality safety evaluation system consisting of the Monte Carlo calculation code KENO-IV and the newly developed multigroup constants library MGCL. The present report describes the results of a benchmark test using criticality experiments about Plutonium fuel in various shape. In all, 33 cases of experiments have been calculated for Pu(NO 3 ) 4 aqueous solution, Pu metal or PuO 2 -polystyrene compact in various shape (sphere, cylinder, rectangular parallelepiped). The effective multiplication factors calculated for the 33 cases distribute widely between 0.955 and 1.045 due to wide range of system variables. (author)

  19. Cranial nerves III, IV and VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, I.J.; Smoker, W.R.; Kuta, A.J.; Felton, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because of advances in CT and MR imaging, accurate identification and evaluation of cranial nerve lesions is now possible. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, providing motor and sensory control of the eye, can be evaluated as a unit. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the anatomy and pathology of these cranial nerves. We first illustrate their normal anatomic pathways from the brain stem to the orbit. This is followed by clinical examples of patients with a variety of isolated and complex palsies of these three cranial nerves. This is accomplished by inclusion of ocular photographs, correlative imaging studies, and the use of diagrams. Knowledge of the gross and imaging anatomy and the ophthalmologic manifestations of pathology affecting these three cranial nerves permits a tailored approach to their evaluation

  20. (N-Benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamatochloridodiphenyltin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirah Faizah Abdul Muthalib

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The SnIV atom in the title organotin dithiocarbamate, [Sn(C6H52(C11H14NS2Cl], is penta-coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithiocarbamate ligand, a Cl and two ispo-C atoms of the Sn-bound phenyl groups. The resulting C2ClS2 donor set defines a coordination geometry intermediate between square-pyramidal and trigonal-bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the latter. The formation of close intramolecular C–H...Cl and C–H...S contacts precludes the Cl and S atoms from forming significant intermolecular contacts. The presence of C–H...π contacts leads to the formation of supramolecular arrays that stack along the b axis.

  1. IV Characterisation for the VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Franco Lima, Vinicius

    2018-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated heavy flavour physics experiment that operates at the LHC. The LHCb collaboration plans to change key features of the present detectors for Run III, moving to a full detector readout at 40MHz and operating at a luminosity of 1-2x1033cm-2s-1. The new Vertex Locator (VELO) detector will use hybrid pixel detectors composed of silicon sensors bump-bonded to new VeloPix CMOS readout chips designed for the new 40MHz readout rate. We will present a novel way of delivering bias through the ASIC backside in order to test IV characteristics of sensors in vacuum before module construction. The appropriate laboratory setups developed to test VELO hybrids for production will also be discussed.

  2. The Elegy in the Aeneid Book IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Aeneid’s book IV, Virgil makes use of elegiac topics while narrating Dido and Aeneas’ ill-fated love, inserting these topics into the epic genre. Some key characteristics of elegiac lover, such as the furor by which he is taken when injured by Cupid’s dart; lover’s idleness; the mala fama that emerges from the love affair; and, lastly, the misera condition in which the lover is thrown to, always followed by a lament; all these has shown to be present in Aeneid’s book IV. So, in addition to evincing how epic genre, without losing its formal rigour, subsume other genres, in this case the elegiac one, this article observes how this procedure takes part in both Vergil’s intra-narrative and extra-narrative purpose when composing Aeneid. In the first case, if we bear in mind that books I to VI are concerned with the construction of Aeneas’ heroic ἦθος, the hero’s denial in staying together with the queen confirms, once again, his destiny, which is Rome’s foundation, that is conventionally of an epic hero – and not of an elegiac lover. As for the second one, it is first important to be aware of Vergil’s aim when composing Aeneid, which is to insert Rome’s history into a myth, which is the elegiac poem itself. Therefore, Dido’s abandonment and her following imprecation in verses 590-640 are used by the poet to justify, even if ironically, Carthaginians’ rivalry and violence against Romans throughout the Punic Wars, putting them as the result of a woman’s love frustration.

  3. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  4. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S 2 CNR′R″] 2 (R= Ph, CH 3 , R′ = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , C 7 H 7 and R″ = C 2 H 5 , C 6 H 11 , iC 3 H 7 , C 7 H 7 ). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1 H, 13 C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(C N), ν(C S) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm −1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of N C S group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13 C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N 13 CS 2 ) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S 2 CN(Et)(i−Pr)] 2 , MeSnCl[S 2 CN(Me)(Cy)] 2 and MeSnCl[S 2 CN(i−Pr)(CH 2 Ph)] 2 . All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS 4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands

  5. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  6. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle was determined by qPCR and protein localisation by immunohistochemistry. The structure of col-IV in placenta was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the expression of col-IV alpha chain NC1 domains and collagen receptors was localised by immunohistochemistry. Col-IV alpha chains were selectively up-regulated during the menstrual cycle and decidualisation. Primary extravillous trophoblast cells express collagen receptors and secrete col-IV in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the increased levels found in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis. A novel expression pattern of col-IV in the mesenchyme of placental villi, as a three-dimensional network, was found. NC1 domains of col-IV alpha chains are known to regulate tumour cell migration and the selective expression of these domains in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis was determined. Col-IV is expressed as novel forms in the placenta. These findings suggest that col-IV not only represents a structural protein providing tissue integrity but also influences the invasive behaviour of trophoblast cells at the implantation site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of actinide complexes. IV. Thorium(IV)- and uranyl(VI)-malonate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bernardo, P; Di Napoli, V; Cassol, A; Magon, L [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1977-01-01

    The stability constants and the enthalpies of formation of thorium(IV)- and uranyl(VI)-malonate complexes have been determined by potentiometric and calorimetric titrations in 1.00 M solutions of Na(ClO/sub 4/) at 25/sup 0/C. All complexes formed are found to be stabilized by a large entropy gain. The values for the stability constants agree with an ionic bonding model. The malonate behaves as a bidentate ligand forming only chelate complexes.

  8. Transient Analysis of Generation IV quick reactors; Analisis de Transitorios en Reactores Rapidos de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    As a complement to the attached code 3D neutron-CIEMAT thermohydraulic added a module to simulate transient. Temporary kinetics is resolved by factoring flow in a spatial part and another storm. MCNP provides the reactivity and updated spatial function and COBRA-IV calculates the temperature distribution. Temporary dependence of amplitude is calculated using time delayed neutron Kinetic equations. As an example of application, examines a transient loss of flow in MYRRHA, a lead-cooled experimental reactor.

  9. Complexes of uranium (IV) and thorium (IV) with α-picolinic acid, nicotinic acid, anthranilic acid and N-phenylanthranilic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    Stable U(IV) and Th(IV) complexes with the title ligands have been synthesised from U(OAc) 4 , and Th(OAc) 4 . Magnetic susceptibilities, IR and reflectance spectra of U(IV) and IR spectra of Th(IV) complexes have been studied which indicate eight coordination for U(IV) in these chelates. (auth.)

  10. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications

  11. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  12. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  13. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M A; Gohar, Y

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications.

  14. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S; Auerkari, P [eds.; VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1999-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  15. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two

  16. The Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Our studies focused on (1) cloning and sequencing of wild-type endothelial DPP IV (wtDPP IV) and preparation of truncated DPP IV ( tDPP IV); (2...that was identical to hepatic DPP IV. Acid extraction of rat lung yielded a tDPP IV, which was an effective inhibitor of breast cancer cell adhesion to

  17. Generation IV international forum 2002 - remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, S.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses and forecasts underscore the important role of nuclear power in energy supply in the 21st century. Important aspects in this respect are the conservation of fossil resources, the protection of the world's climate, and the continuity of supply. Present 1st and 2nd generation nuclear power plants ensure an economical and technically mature electricity supply. Advanced systems offering, e.g., higher efficiency of fuel utilization, simplified systems technology, and advanced safety characteristics, can make available additional benefits in using nuclear power. Upon an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ten countries combine their efforts in developing such reactor concepts in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States pursue the common objective in GIF to identify suitable nuclear power systems and promote their development up to the envisaged readiness for construction in 2030. Besides technical and economic questions of nuclear power generation, also other aspects must be considered with a view to the future use of nuclear power. The particularly relevant issues, such as the management of radioactive waste, the intensification of research and development, and international cooperation, have been taken up by the Bush administration at an early point in time and have been, or will be, incorporated in practical solutions, as in the case of the Yucca Mountain repository project. (orig.)

  18. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  19. 1. IV toimus Kõrvekülas... / Hele Ellermaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ellermaa, Hele

    2005-01-01

    Toimus Hans Christian Anderseni 200. sünniaastapäevale ja rahvusvahelisele lasteraamatupäevale pühendatud IV Tartumaa lasteraamatupäev. Konkursile laekus 172 joonistust, 14 kirjatööd ja 73 paberlõikepilti. Laste tööde näitus on avatud Kõrveküla raamatukogus kuni 16. IV

  20. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  1. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric…

  2. Equilibrium between Different Coordination Geometries in Oxidovanadium(IV) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugone, Valeria; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, the equilibrium between square pyramidal and octahedral V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes is described. We propose a set of experiments to synthesize and characterize two types of V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes. The experiment allows great flexibility and may be effectively used at a variety of levels and the activity…

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Organ Tin (IV) Complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... the reference drug. In addition, within the diorganotin(IV) complexes, monomeric type (3) exhibited a slightly better activity as compared to the organodistannoxane dimer types (1 and 4). Key words: Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assay, organotin(IV) complexes, comparison study. INTRODUCTION. Although ...

  4. Experimental facilities for Generation IV reactors research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krecanova, E.; Di Gabriele, F.; Berka, J.; Zychova, M.; Macak, J.; Vojacek, A.

    2013-06-01

    Centrum Vyzkumu Rez (CVR) is research and development Company situated in Czech Republic and member of the UJV group. One of its major fields is material research for Generation IV reactor concepts, especially supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), very high temperature/gas-cooled fast reactor (VHTR/GFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR). The CVR is equipped by and is building unique experimental facilities which simulate the environment in the active zones of these reactor concepts and enable to pre-qualify and to select proper constructional materials for the most stressed components of the facility (cladding, vessel, piping). New infrastructure is founded within the Sustainable Energy project focused on implementation the Generation IV and fusion experimental facilities. The research of SCWR concept is divided to research and development of the constructional materials ensured by SuperCritical Water Loop (SCWL) and fuel components research on Fuel Qualification Test loop (SCWL-FQT). SCWL provides environment of the primary circuits of European SCWR, pressure 25 MPa, temperature 600 deg. C and its major purpose is to simulate behavior of the primary medium and candidate constructional materials. On-line monitoring system is included to collect the operational data relevant to experiment and its evaluation (pH, conductivity, chemical species concentration). SCWL-FQT is facility focused on the behavior of cladding material and fuel at the conditions of so-called preheater, the first pass of the medium through the fuel (in case of European SCWR concept). The conditions are 450 deg. C and 25 MPa. SCWL-FQT is unique facility enabling research of the shortened fuel rods. VHTR/GFR research covers material testing and also cleaning methods of the medium in primary circuit. The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) enables exposure of materials and simulates the VHTR/GFR core environment to analyze the behavior of medium, especially in presence of organic compounds and

  5. Thiocyanato species of uranium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyson, P.L.R.

    1974-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the system U +4 /ClO 4 - /NCS - /HMPA/ - Solvent. This was done by means of various physical chemical methods. Spectrophotometric and conductometric evidence indicated that the following are the important species, which exist in acetone solution: (U(ClO 4 ) 3 .3acetone) + , (U(NCS) 3 .5acetone) + , (U 2 (NCS) 9 .6acetone) - , (U(NCS) 3 .2HMPA.3acetone) + , (U(NCS) 5 .2HMPA) - , (U(ClO 4 ) 3 .3HMPA) + , (U(NCS).5HMPA) +3 , (U(NCS) 2 .4HMPA) +2 and (U(NCS) 3 .3HMPA) + . The replacement of the large ClO 4 - ion by the much smaller NCS - anion results in a change in coordination of the U +4 , from six to eight. The formation of the species (U(NCS) 5 .2HMPA) - wasalso suggested by infrared studies and solubility determinations. The effect of a polar solvent on U(NCS) 4 .4HMPA was also studied, which indicated that, on solvation in methyl cyanide, U(NCS) 4 .4HMPA loses bound HMPA molecules. The ultimate goal of this project, i.e. the determination of the successive stability constants of the uranium(IV)thiocyanato complexes in acetone, was not reached, however, due to limitations of the computer program used. A qualitative treatment revealed that the stability of (U(NCS) 3 .5acetone) + , in acetone, is of the same order of magnitude as that of Co(NCS) 3 - ; similarly the species (U 2 (NCS) 9 .6acetone) - seems to be as stable as C0(NCS) 4 =. It was also indicated that excess U +4 cannot remove all bound NCS - from Co +2 . Finally the thiocyanato complexes of U +4 , relative to those of CO +2 , seem to be more stable in methyl cyanide, a N-donor solvent, than in acetone, an O-donor solvent

  6. Validation of practical notebook Morphophysiology IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Capote Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of the Morphophysiology, 2007-2008 academic year, has shown a low achievement and motivation of students in individual and independent study. Most of them do not possess the skills or general intellectual development freelancing enough to assimilate the great independence required by this new learning model. Therefore, it was decided to introduce a new medium of instruction notebook handy morphophysiology IV which is an orientation guide for individual and independent study of students at the same time improves the management process of the educational process, whose usefulness is intended to validate. They surveyed 345 (94.8% who choose different specialties including Physical Culture. It was used in the survey, the questionnaire technique questions and answers, the closed first, and combining the direct and indirect, with some filter. This study was conducted through the comparison test of proportions between independent samples, using the Microstat statistical system, with a significance level of α = 0.05 (P <0.05. The 97.33% and 95.6% of students classified as necessary and useful respectively, the Practical Notebook, based on teaching assignments. The 67.84% of students suggests that the effectiveness of Practical Notebook is achieved when it is developed in a coordinated manner from staff student effort, reflections set out in groups or teams of study and the guiding role and facilitator professor, where it appears that forces develop participatory techniques. It is concluded that the Practical Notebook, acts as a methodological guide guiding, and developed through teaching assignments by students during individual and independent study, represents an effective tool for the learning process, contributing significantly to the improvement morphophysiology the curricular discipline.

  7. Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2011-08-05

    The voltage sensors of domains II and IV of sodium channels are important determinants of activation and inactivation, respectively. Animal toxins that alter electrophysiological excitability of muscles and neurons often modify sodium channel activation by selectively interacting with domain II and inactivation by selectively interacting with domain IV. This suggests that there may be substantial differences between the toxin-binding sites in these two important domains. Here we explore the ability of the tarantula huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV) to inhibit the activity of the domain II and IV voltage sensors. HWTX-IV is specific for domain II, and we identify five residues in the S1-S2 (Glu-753) and S3-S4 (Glu-811, Leu-814, Asp-816, and Glu-818) regions of domain II that are crucial for inhibition of activation by HWTX-IV. These data indicate that a single residue in the S3-S4 linker (Glu-818 in hNav1.7) is crucial for allowing HWTX-IV to interact with the other key residues and trap the voltage sensor in the closed configuration. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that the five corresponding residues in domain IV are all critical for endowing HWTX-IV with the ability to inhibit fast inactivation. Our data suggest that the toxin-binding motif in domain II is conserved in domain IV. Increasing our understanding of the molecular determinants of toxin interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels may permit development of enhanced isoform-specific voltage-gating modifiers.

  8. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  9. Testing and economical evaluation of U(IV) in Purex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; Hsu, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of uranous nitrate, U(IV), as a plutonium reductant in the Purex solvent extraction process could significantly reduce the waste generation at the Savannah River Plant. The current reductant is a ferrous sulfamate (FS)/hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) mixture. The iron and sulfate in the FS are major contributors to waste generation. The U(IV) reductant oxidizes to U(VI) producing no waste. The Savannah River Laboratory has developed an efficient electrochemical cell for U(IV) production and has demonstrated the effectiveness of U(IV) as a plutonium reductant. Plant tests and economic analyses are currently being conducted to determine the cost effectiveness of U(IV) implementation. The results of recent studies are presented

  10. Crystal structure of ammonium divanadium(IV,V tellurium(IV heptaoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. A. Harrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyhedral building blocks of the layered inorganic network in the mixed-valence title compound, (NH4(VIVO2(VVO2(TeO3, are vertex-sharing VVO4 tetrahedra, distorted VIVO6 octahedra and TeO3 pyramids, which are linked by V—O—V and V—O—Te bonds, forming double layers lying parallel to (100. The presumed TeIV lone-pairs of electrons appear to be directed inwards into cavities in the double layers. The charge-balancing ammonium cations lie between the layers and probably interact with them via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  11. Plasma metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, G.; Krishnan, S.; Beigel, Y.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    As assessed by molecular sieve chromatography and quantitation by a specific radioimmunoassay, apoA-IV is associated in plasma with the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, to a high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction of smaller size than HDL3, and to the plasma lipoprotein-free fraction (LFF). In this study, the turnover of apoA-IV associated to the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, HDL and LFF was investigated in vivo in normal volunteers. Human apoA-IV isolated from the thoracic duct lymph chylomicrons was radioiodinated and incubated with plasma withdrawn from normal volunteers after a fatty meal. Radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, HDL, and LFF were then isolated by chromatography on an AcA 34 column. Shortly after the injection of the radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, most of the radioactivity could be recovered in the HDL and LFF column fractions. On the other hand, when radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled HDL or LFF were injected, the radioactivity remained with the originally injected fractions at all times. The residence time in plasma of 125 I-labeled apoA-IV, when injected in association with HDL or LFF, was 1.61 and 0.55 days, respectively. When 125 I-labeled apoA-IV was injected as a free protein, the radioactivity distributed rapidly among the three plasma pools in proportion to their mass. The overall fractional catabolic rate of apoA-IV in plasma was measured in the three normal subjects and averaged 1.56 pools per day. The mean degradation rate of apoA-IV was 8.69 mg/kg X day

  12. IUE observations of interstellar Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of Wolf-Rayet stars show narrow absorption lines in the highly ionized species of Si IV and C IV. The strengths of these 'interstellar' Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of 10 WR stars and two other early-type stars are compared. Of the WR sample, six stars exhibit very strong Si IV and C IV lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.3 to 0.5 A) whilst the other four stars show much weaker lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.1 A). There is no correlation between the strengths of these lines with either stellar distance or colour excess. The weaker absorptions may arise in the individual stellar H II regions, the observed strengths being consistent with those expected for stars with Tsub(eff) = 30 000 K. Five of the other stars which exhibit very strong absorptions lie in the line of sight to active interstellar regions (Cygnus and Carina nebulae) and it is considered probable that, in addition to their H II region components, the bulk of the strong Si IV and C IV absorptions originate in hot gas associated with these active regions. In the case of the WN5 star HD 50896 violet-displaced components are observed in the interstellar lines of low ionization species. These are thought to be produced in the ring nebula S308 surrounding HD 50896. (author)

  13. Studies on Th(IV) and Zr(IV) complexes of oxygen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Srivastava, M.; Srivastava, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years a large number of complexes of amine N-oxides with a wide variety of metal salts have been isolated and characterized. Less attention has been paid to the aromatic amine N-oxides complexes with Th(IV) thiocyanate. In the present communication studies are reported on Th(IV) thiocyanate complexes of pyridine N-oxide (PyO), quinoline N-oxide (QO), isoquinoline N-oxide (IsqO), 2-picoline N-oxide (2-picO), 3-picoline N-oxide (3-picO) and 4-picoline N-oxide (4-picO) and comparisons are made with the existing complexes of 2,6-lutidine N-oxide (LNO), 2, 2'bipyridine N-N'-dioxide (BipyO 2 ), mono N-oxides of 2,2'-bipyridine (BipyNO) and 1,10-phenanthroline (PhenNO) and 1, 10-phenanthroline N-N'-dioxide (PhenO 2 ). The analytical data correspond to the composition Th(NCS) 4 .4L. The molar conductance of all the complexes in nitrobenzene in the range 2.5 to 4.5 Ω -1 cm 2 mol -1 indicate them to be non-electrolytes. The results of IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetry are given and discussed. (author)

  14. Synthetic Strategies for the Synthesis of Ternary Uranium(IV) and Thorium(IV) Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepov, Vladislav V; Felder, Justin B; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-04-10

    A series of new U(IV) and Th(IV) fluorides, Na 7 U 6 F 31 (1), NaUF 5 (2), NaU 2 F 9 (3), KTh 2 F 9 (4), NaTh 2 F 9 (5), (H 3 O)Th 3 F 13 (6), and (H 3 O)U 3 F 13 (7), was obtained using hydrothermal and low-temperature flux methods. Mild hydrothermal reactions with uranyl acetate as a precursor yielded 1, 7, and the monoclinic polymorph of NaU 2 F 9 , whereas direct reactions between UF 4 and NaF led to the formation of 2 and orthorhombic NaU 2 F 9 (3). This highlights an unexpected difference in reaction products when different starting uranium sources are used. All seven compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are compared on the basis of cation topology, revealing a close topological resemblance between fluorides on the basis of the layers observed in NaUF 5 (H 2 O). Phase-pure samples of 1, 2, and both polymorphs of NaU 2 F 9 were obtained, and their spectroscopic and magnetic properties were measured. The UV-vis data are dominated by the presence of U 4+ cations and agree well with the electronic transitions. Effective magnetic moments of the studied compounds were found to range from 3.08 to 3.59 μ B .

  15. Generation IV nuclear reactors: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Giorgio; Mancini, Mauro; Todeschini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Generation IV nuclear power plants (GEN IV NPPs) are supposed to become, in many countries, an important source of base load power in the middle–long term (2030–2050). Nowadays there are many designs of these NPPs but for political, strategic and economic reasons only few of them will be deployed. International literature proposes many papers and reports dealing with GEN IV NPPs, but there is an evident difference in the types and structures of the information and a general unbiased overview is missing. This paper fills the gap, presenting the state-of-the-art for GEN IV NPPs technologies (VHTR, SFR, SCWR, GFR, LFR and MSR) providing a comprehensive literature review of the different designs, discussing the major R and D challenges and comparing them with other advanced technologies available for the middle- and long-term energy market. The result of this research shows that the possible applications for GEN IV technologies are wider than current NPPs. The economics of some GEN IV NPPs is similar to actual NPPs but the “carbon cost” for fossil-fired power plants would increase the relative valuation. However, GEN IV NPPs still require substantial R and D effort, preventing short-term commercial adoption. - Highlights: • Generation IV reactors are the middle–long term technology for nuclear energy. • This paper provides an overview and a taxonomy for the designs under consideration. • R and D efforts are in the material, heat exchangers, power conversion unit and fuel. • The life cycle costs are competitive with other innovative technologies. • The hydrogen economy will foster the development of Generation IV reactors

  16. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D R

    1991-06-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process.

  17. The adsorption of 117Snm(IV)-EDTMP on collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Pu Manfei; Bing Wenzeng; He Jiaheng; Wang Guanquan

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collage are studied, and compared with that on HA. The results show that the effects of pH and temperature on adsorption of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are similar to those on HA, and that the adsorption equilibrium and adsorption model of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are completely different from those on HA; 117 Sm m -EDTMP absorbed on collagen are extremely stable and almost could not be desorbed with normal saline or EDTMP

  18. Crystal structure of ammonium octacyanomolybdate(IV) and rubidium octacyanomolybdate(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenishin, D.I.; Glovyak, T.; Mys' kiv, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    The crystal structure of ammonium octacyanomolybdate(IV) and rubidium octacyanomolybdate(IV) has been determined by the single-crystal method on a Syntex P2/sub 1/ automatic diffractometer: ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ Mo(CN)/sub 4/) 0.5H/sub 2/O (I) (space group Pma2, a = 15.550(3), b = 14.118(3), c = 7.438(1) A, Z = 4, R = 0.062) and Rb/sub 4/(Mo(CN)/sub 8/). 3H/sub 2/O (II) (space group P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a = 9.300(10, c = 21.807(3) A, Z = 4, R = 0.065). The Mo atoms in structure I occupy two special positions (2(b) and 2(c)) and are each surrounded by eight CN ligands. The mean value of the Mo-C distances for Mo(1) is equal to 2.216 A, and the corresponding value for Mo(2) is 2.235 A. The mean Mo-N lengths are practically identical in both molybdenum anions and are equal to 3.353 A. The mean values of the C identical with N bond lengths in the Mo(1) and Mo(2) anions are 1.118 and 1.137 A, respectively. The MoCn angles vary from 175.0 to 178.4/sup 0/. The coordination sphere of the Mo(1) atom corresponds to a dodecahedron with a single twofold symmetry axis, and the coordination polyhedron of the Mo(2) atom in an antiprism of m symmetry. In structure II the Mo-C distances are within the 2.130-2.160-A range, and the Mo-N distances range from 3.290 to 3.307 A. The MoCN angles vary from 176.0 to 179.3/sup 0/, and the coordination polyhedron of (MoC/sub 8/) is a dodecahedron of 2 symmetry. The existence of two types of coordination of Mo in structure I is presently the only example among the structurally studied octahyanomolybdates(IV).

  19. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  20. U(IV) fluorescence spectroscopy. A new speciation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Susanne; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    We combined absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to study the speciation of U(IV) in solution in concentrations down to 10{sup -6} M uranium. With our time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence setup we could determine the fluorescence decay time of U(IV) in perchloric as well as in chloric acid with 2.6 ± 0.3 ns at room temperature and 148.4 ± 6.5 ns at liquid nitrogen temperature. For the U(IV) sulfate system, we observed a bathochromic shift and a peak shape modification in the fluorescence spectra with increasing sulfate concentration in solution. Thus, the potential of U(IV) fluorescence for speciation analysis could be proven.

  1. Determination of U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate by volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xi; Wang Nanjie; Zhang Tao; Wang Lin; Guo Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    To be determined U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in exist together, chromium (VI) and 1,10-phenanthroline is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for U(IV), and N-bromineimino and methyl red is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for hydrazine nitrate, U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in the same sample is determined sequentially in the nitric acid by adjusting concentration of nitric acid. Results show that the precision is better than 2.0% when the mass concentration of U(IV) is ranged over 5.5-205 mg/mL; and the precision is better than 2.0% when the concentration of hydrazine nitrate is ranged over 0.05-1.0 mol/L. (authors)

  2. Report for 2012 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bouffet, Romuald; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2012. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) investigation of the correlation between astrometric position instabilities and source structure variations; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the 11th European VLBI Network Symposium, which we organized last October in Bordeaux and which drew much attention from the European and International VLBI communities.

  3. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A. Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-01-01

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO 3 solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO 4 - complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO 4 - ] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation

  4. Mandelazo I as a reagent for Zr(IV) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, T.H.; Filip, P.; Stefan, N.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometric study of the reaction of the Zr(IV) ions with Mandelazo I was carried out. Absorption spectra revealed that the maximum absorption of the zirconium compound appears at a wavelength (316 nm) different from the maxima of the reagent (253 and 390 nm). Beer-Lambert law is followed for zirconium concentrations of the order of 8.8 x 10 -5 M (i.e. 8 μg Zr(IV)/mL). Possible interferences of ions such as Be(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) were investigated in connection with some masking agents such as SO 4 2- and C 2 O 4 2- . Also, the solid state Zr(IV)- Mandelazo I compound was prepared and characterized by nitrogen and thermogravimetric analyses

  5. [Mucolipidoses type IV in a patient with mapuche ancestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ch, Marta; Méndez C, José Ignacio; Concha G, María José; Huete L, Isidro; González B, Sergio; Durán S, Gloria P

    2008-07-01

    We report a 7 year-old girl with mapuche ancestors, diagnosed as a cerebral palsy since infancy and on active rehabilitation. She acquired motor and cognitive skills at 3 years of age. At 5 years of age, a slow neurological deterioration started, associated to visual impairment. Optic atrophy was added to the typical neurological exam of ataxic cerebral palsy and the diagnosis was re-considered. Neuroimaging showed a slow and progressive atrophy of intracerebral structures and ultramicroscopy revealed intracytoplasmatic inclusions in conjunctiva and skin, compatible with mucolipidoses type IV (ML-IV). ML-IV must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy associated with loss of acquired skills and progressive visual impairment. Electron microscopy of skin or conjunctiva is a useful diagnostic test. Suspicion of ML-IV must not be restricted to Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  6. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, C.; Penttilae, S.

    2010-03-01

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  7. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  8. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  9. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  11. DSM-IV: a nosology sold before its time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M; Jampala, V C; Sierles, F S; Taylor, M A

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether American psychiatrists believe that DSM-IV is being published too soon after DSM-III-R. The authors conducted a mail survey of the attitudes of practicing psychiatrists (N = 454), residency program directors (N = 128), residents (N = 1,331), and researchers (N = 196) toward the scheduled publication of DSM-IV in the early 1990s. They found that the majority of all four groups believed that DSM-IV is being published prematurely. In contrast to respondents who believed that the timing of DSM-IV is appropriate, those who indicated that it is being published too soon had more recently completed their residency training and also believed that DSM-III-R was published prematurely. There was no association between the psychiatrists' responses and their theoretical orientation, Board certification status, ownership of the DSM manuals, the length of time they had used DSM-III, and the diagnostic manual (DSM-III or DSM-III-R) they were currently using. The belief that DSM-IV is being published too soon could contribute to underuse of DSM-IV by substantial numbers of psychiatrists. Thus, to foster compliance with it, APA must preserve in its efforts to demonstrate that the advantages of publishing it in 1993 outweigh the disadvantages of adopting yet another manual.

  12. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  13. Assembling filamentous phage occlude pIV channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, D K; Russel, M; Simon, S M

    2001-07-31

    Filamentous phage f1 is exported from its Escherichia coli host without killing the bacterial cell. Phage-encoded protein pIV, which is required for phage assembly and secretion, forms large highly conductive channels in the outer membrane of E. coli. It has been proposed that the phage are extruded across the bacterial outer membrane through pIV channels. To test this prediction, we developed an in vivo assay by using a mutant pIV that functions in phage export but whose channel opens in the absence of phage extrusion. In E. coli lacking its native maltooligosacharride transporter LamB, this pIV variant allowed oligosaccharide transport across the outer membrane. This entry of oligosaccharide was decreased by phage production and still further decreased by production of phage that cannot be released from the cell surface. Thus, exiting phage block the pIV-dependent entry of oligosaccharide, suggesting that phage occupy the lumen of pIV channels. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for viral exit through a large aqueous channel.

  14. A combined XAFS, ESI TOF-MS and LIBD study on the formation of polynuclear Zr(IV), Th(IV) and Pu(IV) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, J.; Walther, C.; Brendebach, B.; Büchner, S.; Fuss, M.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.

    2009-11-01

    The long term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel disposed of in deep underground repositories after discharge from nuclear power reactors is determined by actinide elements, mainly plutonium. Water intrusion into the repository might cause container corrosion and leaching of the waste matrices, leading to the release of Pu and other actinides into the geological environment. Performance assessment for a future nuclear waste repository requires detailed knowledge on actinide aqueous chemistry in the aquifer surrounding the disposal site. Tetravalent actinides exhibit a strong tendency towards hydrolysis and subsequent polymerization and/or colloid formation. These species provide a potential pathway for migration of actinides away from the repository. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to study their generation and properties in-situ. To this end, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS) at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA, Electrospray Mass-Spectrometry (ESI TOF-MS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Detection (LIBD) are combined at FZK-INE in a comprehensive attempt to characterize Zr(IV) (An(IV) analogue), Th(IV) and Pu(IV) polymerization and colloid formation.

  15. Solubility study of Tc(IV) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Yao, J.; Wang, B.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.

    2007-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium(IV) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49 ∝ 1.86) x 10 -9 mol L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(IV) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  16. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  17. European project SARGEN IV: safety approach and assessment of GEN IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammirabile, L.

    2013-01-01

    • SARGEN I V has elaborated a proposal for the harmonization of safety assessment practices for GEN IV NPP. • An overall reinforcement of DiD is expected for GEN I V NPP, including improved independence between all levels of DiD. • An inherent approach should reinforce the fulfillment of fundamental safety functions e.g. the consequences for some situations should be reduced and the grace periods should be extended. For the same reason, the use of passive systems can be envisaged. • The need of complementary and integrated deterministic and probabilistic approaches is reiterated. • Methodologies: Some of them are not yet applied. • Assessment of hazards would be a challenging aspect of next generation of NPP safety assessment and should be improved, which is confirmed by the first insights of Fukushima Daiichi TEPCO reactors accidents. • Provisions to cope with extreme events notably to improve the grace period before cliff-edge effects and thus allowing back-up measures to be implemented have to be defined and should be considered as hardened equipments

  18. Evaluation of Market Design Programme - Phase IV; Utvaerdering av Market Designprogrammet - etapp IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Tomas

    2013-08-15

    The Market Design program was established in year 2000 to study issues related to markets, regulations and policy instruments related to the deregulation of the Swedish electricity market. Through the years, the focus has widened to include not only Sweden but also international cooperation on these issues. The fourth phase of the program is now underway between the years 2010 and 2013. The overall project objective of this fourth phase is to increase knowledge about the Nordic and North European electricity market. Specific objective is to create new knowledge that affects market design of the single market area (Nordic, EU) and to contribute to constructive meetings between researchers, energy companies and government agencies on Market Design Issues. The purpose of the evaluation of the Market Design Program phase IV has been to investigate the results and benefits of the program in relation to the program's original objectives and to examine the need for and areas of further research and possible ways for the research in Market Design. The evaluation has been carried through in four phases during spring and summer 2013. The work has included reading, interviews with program stakeholders, analysis and reporting.

  19. Adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) for Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie; Nguyen, Minh Cao

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing is used for many purposes including identification of children for proper educational placement (e.g., children with learning disabilities, or intellectually gifted students), and to guide education by identifying cognitive strengths and weaknesses so that teachers can adapt their instructional style to students' specific learning styles. Most of the research involving intelligence tests has been conducted in highly developed Western countries, yet the need for intelligence testing is as or even more important in developing countries. The present study, conducted through the Vietnam National University Clinical Psychology CRISP Center , focused on the cultural adaptation of the WISC-IV intelligence test for Vietnam. We report on (a) the adaptation process including the translation, cultural analysis and modifications involved in adaptation, (b) present results of two pilot studies, and (c) describe collection of the standardization sample and results of analyses with the standardization sample, with the goal of sharing our experience with other researchers who may be involved in or interested in adapting or developing IQ tests for non-Western, non-English speaking cultures.

  20. Overview of Generation IV (Gen IV) Reactor Designs - Safety and Radiological Protection Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudrand, Olivier; Blanc, Daniel; Ivanov, Evgeny; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Kissane, Martin; Meignen, Renaud; Monhardt, Daniel; Nicaise, Gregory; Bourgois, Thierry; Bruna, Giovanni; Hache, Georges; Repussard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an updated overview of specific safety and radiological protection issues for all the reactor concepts adopted by the GIF (Generation IV International Forum), independent of their advantages or disadvantages in terms of resource optimization or long-lived-waste reduction. In particular, this new document attempts to bring out the advantages and disadvantages of each concept in terms of safety, taking into account the Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) statement concerning safety objectives for new nuclear power plants. Using an identical framework for each reactor concept (sodium-cooled fast reactors or SFR, high / very-high temperature helium-cooled reactors of V/HTR, gas-cooled fast reactors or GFR, lead-or lead / bismuth-cooled fast reactors or LFR, molten salt reactors or MSR, and supercritical-water-cooled reactors or SCWR), this summary report provides some general conclusions regarding their safety and radiological protection issues, inspired by WENRA's safety objectives and on the basis of available information. Initial lessons drawn from the events at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 have also been taken into account in IRSN's analysis of each reactor concept

  1. Transient Analysis Needs for Generation IV Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, L.J.; Harvego, E.A.; Coryell, E.W.; Davis, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of nuclear energy as a vital and strategic resource in the U. S. and world's energy supply mix has led to an initiative, termed Generation IV by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to develop and demonstrate new and improved reactor technologies. These new Generation IV reactor concepts are expected to be substantially improved over the current generation of reactors with respect to economics, safety, proliferation resistance and waste characteristics. Although a number of light water reactor concepts have been proposed as Generation IV candidates, the majority of proposed designs have fundamentally different characteristics than the current generation of commercial LWRs operating in the U.S. and other countries. This paper presents the results of a review of these new reactor technologies and defines the transient analyses required to support the evaluation and future development of the Generation IV concepts. The ultimate objective of this work is to identify and develop new capabilities needed by INEEL to support DOE's Generation IV initiative. In particular, the focus of this study is on needed extensions or enhancements to SCDAP/RELAP5/3D code. This code and the RELAP5-3D code from which it evolved are the primary analysis tools used by the INEEL and others for the analysis of design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents in current generation light water reactors. (authors)

  2. Stark broadening of Ca IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ca IV emission lines are under the preview of Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation device aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Also, lines of the Ca IV in planetary nebulae NGC 7027 were detected with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. These facts justify an attempt to provide new spectroscopic parameters of Ca IV. There are no theoretical or experimental Stark broadening data for Ca IV. Using the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN code, we report in this paper calculated values of the Stark broadening parameters for 467 lines of Ca IV. They were calculated using a set of wavefunctions obtained by using Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. These lines arising from 3s23p4ns (n = 4, 5), 3s23p44p, 3s23p4nd (n = 3, 4) configurations. Stark widths and shifts are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000, 20 000 and 50 200 K. As these data cannot be compared to others in the literature, we present an analysis of the different regularities of the values presented in this work.

  3. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-01-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H 2 O 2 produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, γ rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O 2 . The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H 2 O 2 -inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals

  4. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ..gamma.. rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O/sub 2/. The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals.

  5. Development of Electromagnetic Analysis Model for IV-CEAPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinseok; Jang, Yongtae; Lee, Myounggoo; Cho, Yeonho; Kim, Hyunmin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hoonbin; Baek, Minho [Woojin Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many different types of position indicators such as reed switch type, ultrasonic type, solenoid type, etc. Through an analysis of strengths and weakness of those types, solenoid type was selected for an IV-CEAPI. Although solenoid type CEAPIs have been used world-wide, the IV-CEAPI is to be very different from the conventional designs due to its harsh operating environment. The concept of the IV-CEAPI is simple as shown in Figure 1. The coil is made of mineral insulated wire to be able to operate inside reactor vessel. The CEA is connected to the shaft which is made of ferromagnetic material. As the CEA position varies, the inductance variation is detected by the inductance meter located outside the vessel. Unlike the conventional ones, the IV-CEAPI used only one coil to eliminate coil connection point and electric components inside vessel. A finite element model was developed to calculate inductance of the solenoid type IV-CEAPI. The model considers eddy current effect to calculate frequency dependent inductance value. Analyses were performed to produce an inductance curve to the shaft position.

  6. Development of Electromagnetic Analysis Model for IV-CEAPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinseok; Jang, Yongtae; Lee, Myounggoo; Cho, Yeonho; Kim, Hyunmin; Hong, Hoonbin; Baek, Minho

    2016-01-01

    There are many different types of position indicators such as reed switch type, ultrasonic type, solenoid type, etc. Through an analysis of strengths and weakness of those types, solenoid type was selected for an IV-CEAPI. Although solenoid type CEAPIs have been used world-wide, the IV-CEAPI is to be very different from the conventional designs due to its harsh operating environment. The concept of the IV-CEAPI is simple as shown in Figure 1. The coil is made of mineral insulated wire to be able to operate inside reactor vessel. The CEA is connected to the shaft which is made of ferromagnetic material. As the CEA position varies, the inductance variation is detected by the inductance meter located outside the vessel. Unlike the conventional ones, the IV-CEAPI used only one coil to eliminate coil connection point and electric components inside vessel. A finite element model was developed to calculate inductance of the solenoid type IV-CEAPI. The model considers eddy current effect to calculate frequency dependent inductance value. Analyses were performed to produce an inductance curve to the shaft position

  7. The affinity plutonium(IV) for nitrogen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Hancock, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Established ligand design principles are used to predict the solution chemistry of Pu(IV) with nitrogen donor ligands which do not contain carboxylate donors. pK a 's of the nitrogen donors are lowered by addition of hydroxyalkyl groups causing Pu(IV) to have a greater affinity for these ligands than for hydroxide. Potentiometric studies using the ligands N,N,N'N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane; N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine with Pu(IV) showed that Pu(IV) has a considerable aqueous solution chemistry with these ligands. Data were processed by the ESTA library of programs and stability constants for all the systems are reported. Implications for selective ligand design for Pu(IV) are discussed. (orig.)

  8. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY BETWEEN IV ESMOLOL AND IV FENTANYL ON ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Lais Mustaque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Laryngoscopy and intubation is an integral part for providing general anaesthesia to patients undergoing various types of surgery. It also plays an important role in critical care units viz. for providing mechanical ventilation. It is a very essential tool in the hands of anaesthesiologist in maintaining airway. The present study is undertaken to determine and compare the efficacy of single bolus dose of IV esmolol 1 mg/kg and IV fentanyl 2 mcg/kg in attenuating the haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation and to ascertain the effectiveness of esmolol hydrochloride and fentanyl citrate in suppressing sympathetic responses. MATERIAL & METHODS The study was conducted under the Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, during the period July 2013 to June 2014. For this purpose, 150 patients of either sex between 20-50 years of ASA I & II physical status were selected after obtaining informed and written consent and were divided into two groups namely, Group E receiving IV esmolol (1 mg/kg and Group F receiving IV fentanyl (2 mcg/kg. RESULTS Inj. fentanyl 2 mcg/kg IV administered 5 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation was able to prevent adverse haemodynamic changes better than Inj. esmolol 1 mg/kg IV administered 3 minutes prior to laryngoscopy and intubation during elective surgeries under general anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Hence, from the findings of this study we can conclude that IV bolus dose of fentanyl 2 mcg/kg administered 5 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation can attenuate the sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation without any side effects of the drug in healthy patients undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia.

  9. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  10. A role for collagen IV in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Lasse Bach; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies have repeatedly found single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the COL4A1 and COL4A2 genes to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the 13q34 locus harboring these genes is one of approximately 160 genome-wide significant risk loci for coronary artery...... disease. COL4A1 and COL4A2 encode the ⍺1- and ⍺2-chains of collagen IV, a major component of basement membranes in various tissues including arteries. In spite of the growing body of evidence indicating a role for collagen IV in CVD, remarkably few studies aim at directly investigating such a role....... The purpose of this review is to summarize the clinical reports linking 13q34 to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and artery stiffening and to assemble the scattered pieces of evidence from experimental studies based on vascular cells and -tissue collectively supporting a role for collagen IV...

  11. I-V Curves from Photovoltaic Modules Deployed in Tucson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Emily; Brooks, Adria; Lonij, Vincent; Cronin, Alex

    2011-10-01

    More than 30 Mega Watts of photo-voltaic (PV) modules are connected to the electric power grid in Tucson, AZ. However, predictions of PV system electrical yields are uncertain, in part because PV modules degrade at various rates (observed typically in the range 0% to 3 %/yr). We present I-V curves (PV output current as a function of PV output voltage) as a means to study PV module efficiency, de-ratings, and degradation. A student-made I-V curve tracer for 100-Watt modules will be described. We present I-V curves for several different PV technologies operated at an outdoor test yard, and we compare new modules to modules that have been operated in the field for 10 years.

  12. Adsorption of Some Hazardous Radionuclides on Cerium(IV) Antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Zakaria, E.S.; Shady, S.A.; El-Naggar, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Cerium(IV) antimonate had been prepared by the dropwise addition of 0.6 M antimony pentachloride and 0.6 M cerium ammonium nitrate solutions by a molar radio of Ce/Sb 0.75. Exchange isotherms for H +/ Co 2+ , H +/ Cs +, H +/ Zn 2+ , H +/ Sr 2+ and H +/ Eu 3+ have been determined at 25, 40 and 60 degree. Besides it was proved that europium is physically adsorbed while zinc, strontium, cobalt and cesium are chemically adsorbed. Moreover, the heat of adsorption of zinc, strontium, cobalt and cesium on cerium(IV) antimonate had been calculated and indicated that cerium(IV) antimonate is of endothermic behaviour towards these ions. Also the distribution coefficients of these ions were determined and it was found that the selectivity in the order: Eu 3+ >Sr 2+ > Cs +> Na +

  13. Chelation and stabilization of berkelium in oxidation state +IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblonde, Gauthier J.-P.; Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Rupert, Peter B.; An, Dahlia D.; Illy, Marie-Claire; Ralston, Corie Y.; Brabec, Jiri; de Jong, Wibe A.; Strong, Roland K.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2017-09-01

    Berkelium (Bk) has been predicted to be the only transplutonium element able to exhibit both +III and +IV oxidation states in solution, but evidence of a stable oxidized Bk chelate has so far remained elusive. Here we describe the stabilization of the heaviest 4+ ion of the periodic table, under mild aqueous conditions, using a siderophore derivative. The resulting Bk(IV) complex exhibits luminescence via sensitization through an intramolecular antenna effect. This neutral Bk(IV) coordination compound is not sequestered by the protein siderocalin—a mammalian metal transporter—in contrast to the negatively charged species obtained with neighbouring trivalent actinides americium, curium and californium (Cf). The corresponding Cf(III)-ligand-protein ternary adduct was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. Combined with theoretical predictions, these data add significant insight to the field of transplutonium chemistry, and may lead to innovative Bk separation and purification processes.

  14. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. II. Synthetic Si IV and O IV transition region spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Context. Transition region (TR) spectra typically show the Si IV 1402.8 Å line to be enhanced by a factor of 5 or more compared to the neighboring O IV 1401.2 Å, contrary to predictions of ionization equilibrium models and the Maxwellian distribution of particle energies. Non-equilibrium effects in TR spectra are therefore expected. Aims: To investigate the combination of non-equilibrium ionization and high-energy particles, we apply the model of the periodic electron beam, represented by a κ-distribution that recurs at periods of several seconds, to plasma at chromospheric temperatures of 104 K. This simple model can approximate a burst of energy release involving accelerated particles. Methods: Instantaneous time-dependent charge states of silicon and oxygen were calculated and used to synthesize the instantaneous and period-averaged spectra of Si IV and O IV. Results: The electron beam drives the plasma out of equilibrium. At electron densities of Ne = 1010 cm-3, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times in all cases we considered, while for a higher density of Ne = 1011 cm-3, ionization equilibrium can be reached toward the end of each period, depending on the conditions. In turn, the character of the period-averaged synthetic spectra also depends on the properties of the beam. While the case of κ = 2 results in spectra with strong or even dominant O IV, higher values of κ can approximate a range of observed TR spectra. Spectra similar to typically observed spectra, with the Si IV 1402.8 Å line about a factor 5 higher than O IV 1401.2 Å, are obtained for κ = 3. An even higher value of κ = 5 results in spectra that are exclusively dominated by Si IV, with negligible O IV emission. This is a possible interpretation of the TR spectra of UV (Ellerman) bursts, although an interpretation that requires a density that is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than for equilibrium estimates. Movies associated to Fig. A.1 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  15. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  16. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV and orthopaedic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Guinot, A; Marleix, S; Chapuis, M; Fraisse, B; Violas, P

    2013-11-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN-IV) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, extensive anhidrosis, total insensitivity to pain, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The most frequent complications of this disease are corneal scarring, multiple fractures, joint deformities, osteomyelitis, and disabling self-mutilations. We reported the case of a 12-year-old boy. The goal was to discuss our decision-making and compare this case with cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of Steam Generator Reliability for GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong O; Kim Se Yun; Kim, Seok Hoon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Choi, Byung Seon

    2005-11-15

    The R and D items performed in this study were selected from the R and D task of ' Reliability improvement of Steam Generator' of GEN-IV SFR Component Design and BOP. Since this project deals with one of the most important issues for a GEN-IV SFR system, it needs to enhance the domestic technical backgrounds associated with the corresponding R and D items even for a very short period by 2005. This study provides the R and D results for i) Development of assessment methodology for dissimilar metal weld and ii) Development of multi-dimensional simulation methodology for a SWR event in a SFR steam generator.

  18. Improvement of Steam Generator Reliability for GEN-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong O; Kim Se Yun; Kim, Seok Hoon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Choi, Byung Seon

    2005-11-01

    The R and D items performed in this study were selected from the R and D task of ' Reliability improvement of Steam Generator' of GEN-IV SFR Component Design and BOP. Since this project deals with one of the most important issues for a GEN-IV SFR system, it needs to enhance the domestic technical backgrounds associated with the corresponding R and D items even for a very short period by 2005. This study provides the R and D results for i) Development of assessment methodology for dissimilar metal weld and ii) Development of multi-dimensional simulation methodology for a SWR event in a SFR steam generator

  19. Synthesis and reactivity of triscyclopentadienyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthet, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactions of (RC 5 H 4 ) 3 U with R=trimethylsilylcyclopentadienyl or tertiobutylcyclopentadienyl are studied for the synthesis of new uranium organometallic compounds. Reactions with sodium hydride are first described uranium (III) anionic hydrides obtained are oxidized for synthesis of stable uranium (IV) organometallic hydrides. Stability of these compounds is discussed. Reactivity of these uranium (III) and (IV) hydrides are studied. Formation of new binuclear compounds with strong U-O and U-N bonds is examined and crystal structure are presented. Monocyclooctatetraenylic uranium complexes are also investigated

  20. Solutions of group IV elements in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadd, A.T.; Hubberstey, P.; Roberts, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    The solubilities of tin (0.00 = 22 Sn 5 . A simple thermochemical cycle is used to demonstrate that, whereas carbon dissolves endothermically in both liquid lithium and liquid sodium, the heavier Group IV elements dissolve exothermically. A similar cycle is used to derive solvation enthalpies (for the neutral gaseous species) for all Group IV elements in the two solvents. The trend in solvation enthalpy: C > Si > Ge > Sn > Pb is indicative of a diminishing affinity of solvent for solute and is attributed to the increasing metallic character of the solute as the Group is descended. (author)

  1. Why IV Setup for Stream Ciphers is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography.......In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography....

  2. Determination of free acid in plutonium (IV) solutions - thermometrically, potentiometrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.L.; Tucker, G.M.; Huff, G.A.; Jordan, L.G.

    1981-09-01

    The thermometric titration technique was found to offer certain advantages over potentiometry in the determination of free acid in Pu(IV) solutions. The thermometric technique was applied to the determination of free acid in plutonium nitrate solutions using potassium fluoride to suppress the hydrolytic interference of plutonium(IV). The results indicate that 0.2 to 2.0 milliequivalents of free acid can be determined with acceptable bias and precision in solutions containing up to 30 milligrams of plutonium. In contrast, neither the thermometric nor the potentiometric technique was suitable for samples containing more than eight milligrams of plutonium complexed with potassium oxalate

  3. Vanadium(IV)-stimulated hydrolysis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, P J

    1989-05-01

    Vanadium(IV) stimulates the hydrolysis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at 23 degrees C. The pH optimum is 5.0. Reactions were analyzed by enzymatic and phosphate release assays. The products of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate hydrolysis are inorganic phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate. The reaction is inhibited by high concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and an equation has been formulated that describes the kinetic constants for this reaction at pH 7. The possible relevance of the reaction to the therapeutic lowering by vanadium(IV) of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in sickle-cell disease is discussed.

  4. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  5. 17 CFR Table IV to Subpart E of... - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Inflation Adjustments IV Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Table IV to Subpart E of Part 201—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Table IV to Subpart E U.S. Code citation Civil monetary penalty inflation adjustments Civil monetary penalty description Year...

  6. Kinetics study on the reduction of trace plutonium (IV) by hydroxylamine in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Hongcheng; Luo Longjun

    1998-01-01

    Reaction kinetics of trace Pu(IV) (c(Pu(IV)≤10 -5 mol/L) with hydroxylamine in nitric acid solution is investigated. The effects of concentrations of Pu(IV), Pu(III), NO 3 - , H + and hydroxylamine on the reduction rate of trace Pu(IV) are examined. The rate law of reaction of trace Pu(IV) with hydroxylamine is obtained. The reduction rate of Pu(IV) increases obviously with increasing temperature and the apparent activation energy with k' 0 is equal to 147 kJ/mol. The reaction mechanism of trace Pu(IV) with hydroxylamine is discussed

  7. Synthesis and spectral properties of axially substituted zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) water soluble phthalocyanines in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasymchuk, Y.S.; Volkov, S.V.; Chernii, V.Ya.; Tomachynski, L.A.; Radzki, St.

    2004-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of novel water soluble axially substituted Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines with gallic, 5-sulfosalicyllic, oxalic acids, and methyl ester of gallic acid as axial ligands coordinated to the central atom metal of phthalocyanine are presented. The absorption spectra of complex solutions in various solvents were characterized. The dependence of the spectral red shift from Reichardt's empirical polarity parameter is described. The deviation from the linearity of Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law was investigated for the range of concentration 5x10 -6 to 10x10 -5 M. Fluorescent properties of axially substituted phthalocyaninato metal complexes in DMSO solutions were investigated

  8. Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) and Th(IV) with humic acids determined by solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Takagi, I. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Kulyako, Y.; Samsonov, M.; Miyasoedov, B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). V. I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (GEOKHI); Moriyama, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    2012-07-01

    Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) and Th(IV) with two kinds of humic acids were determined in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} at 25 C using a solvent extraction method with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in xylene. The acid dissociation constants of humic acids were also measured by potentiometric titration and used as the degree of dissociation for calculating the formation constants. The effect of solution conditions, such as the pH, the initial metal and humic acid concentrations, and the ionic strength, on the formation constants was examined. The obtained data were compared with the ones in the literature. (orig.)

  9. Måleegenskaper ved den norske versjonen av ADHD Rating Scale IV, Skoleversjon (ADHD-RS-IV Skole)

    OpenAIRE

    Kornør, Hege; Bøe, Tormod

    2011-01-01

    - Beskrivelse. ADHD-RS-IV Skole er et spørreskjema som skal fylles ut av lærere eller førskolelærere for å fange opp ADHD-symptomer hos barn og ungdom. Spørreskjemaet har 18 ledd med fire svaralternativer. Det tar under 20 minutter å fylle ut. Hovedskalaen og de to delskalaene skåres ved å summere enkeltskårer. Kompetansekrav for bruk av ADHD-RS-IV inkluderer generell opplæring i testbruk, samt yrkesstatus som psykolog, lege, annet helsepersonell med utdanning på mastergradsnivå, spesialpe...

  10. Måleegenskaper ved den norske versjonen av ADHD Rating Scale – IV Hjemmeversjon (ADHD-RS-IV Hjemme)

    OpenAIRE

    Kornør, Hege; Bøe, Tormod

    2011-01-01

    - Beskrivelse. ADHD-RS-IV Hjemme er et spørreskjema som skal fylles ut av mor, far, verge eller besteforeldre for å fange opp ADHD-symptomer hos barn og ungdom. Spørreskjemaet har 18 ledd med fire svaralternativer. Det tar under 20 minutter å fylle ut. Hovedskalaen og de to delskalaene skåres ved å summere enkeltskårer. Kompetansekrav for bruk av ADHD-RS-IV inkluderer generell opplæring i testbruk, samt yrkesstatus som psykolog, lege, annet helsepersonell med utdanning på ...

  11. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of the Pu (III/IV) and (IV/VI) Couples in Nitric Acid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Amanda M. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Adami, Susan R. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Casella, Amanda J. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Sinkov, Sergey I. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Bryan, Samuel A. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352

    2017-09-20

    The solution chemistry of Pu in nitric acid is explored via electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. By utilizing and comparing these techniques, an improved understanding of Pu behavior and its dependence on nitric acid concentration can be achieved. Here the Pu (III/IV) couple is characterized using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and a spectroelectrochemical Nernst step. Results indicate the formal reduction potential of the couple shifts negative with increasing acid concentration and reversible electrochemistry is no longer attainable above 6 M HNO3. Spectroelectrochemistry is also used to explore the irreversible oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) and shine light on the mechanism and acid dependence of the redox reaction.

  12. View from... Group IV Photonics: Industry meets academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, David

    2012-12-01

    Silicon photonics and devices based on group IV elements are overcoming the tough economic downturns that have rocked industry over the past 12 years. Cross fertilization between academia and industry may lead to new devices that are both innovative and profitable.

  13. Gérard Genette : a escrita de Figures IV

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on Genette's most recent work and his theorisation on his own work (its unity and heterogeneity) and the recent multiplication of the areas of study (from music to painting, from Stendhal to Proust). Note is also made of Genette's idiosyncrasy in Figures IV.

  14. Formation, characterization, and stability of plutonium (IV) colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Morris, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium is expected to be a major component of the waste element package in any high-level nuclear waste repository. Plutonium(IV) is known to form colloids under chemical conditions similar to those found in typical groundwaters. In the event of a breach of a repository, these colloids represent a source of radionuclide transport to the far-field environment, in parallel with the transport of dissolved waste element species. In addition, the colloids may decompose or disaggregate into soluble ionic species. Thus, colloids represent an additional term in determining waste element solubility limits. A thorough characterization of the physical and chemical properties of these colloids under relevant conditions is essential to assess the concentration limits and transport mechanisms for the waste elements at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository site. This report is concerned primarily with recent results obtained by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Solubility Determination Task pertaining to the characterization of the structural and chemical properties of Pu(IV) colloid. Important results will be presented which provides further evidence that colloidal plutonium(IV) is structurally similar to plutonium dioxide and that colloidal plutonium(IV) is electrochemically reactive. 13 refs., 7 figs

  15. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B. [Department of Electronics, Computer and Communications Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108 (Philippines); Department of Physics and Centre for Energy Research, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Sheppard, Charles J. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dyk, E. Ernest van [Department of Physics and Centre for Energy Research, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  16. Design and evaluation of a thorium (IV) selective optode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Sadeghi, Marzieh

    2006-01-01

    A novel optical sensor has been proposed for sensitive determination of thorium (IV) ion in aqueous solutions. The thorium sensing membrane was prepared by incorporating 4-(p-nitrophenyl azo)-pyrocatechol (NAP) as ionophore in the plasticized PVC membrane containing tributyl phosphate (TBP) as plasticizer. The membrane responds to thorium ion by changing color reversibly from yellow to red-brown in glycine buffer solution at pH 3.5. The proposed sensor displays a linear range of 8.66 x 10 -6 -2.00 x 10 -4 M with a limit of detection of 6 x 10 -6 M. The response time of the optode was about 8.8-12.5 min, depending on the concentration of Th (IV) ions. The selectivity of optode to Th (IV) ions in glycine buffer is good. The sensor can readily be regenerated by exposure to a solution mixture of sodium fluoride and 5-sulfosalicylic acid (dihydrate) (0.01 M each). The optode is fully reversible. The proposed optode was applied to the determination of thorium (IV) in environmental water samples

  17. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

    Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

  18. Court Culture during the Reign of Christian IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    Court culture can be defined as a range of cultural forms (festival culture, painting, literature, music, architecture) employed for the enhancement of princely status and the communication of political messages. Christian IV evidently set great store on court culture beginning with his magnificent...

  19. Locally advanced breast cancer (stage III and stage IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, F.F.; Grabert, H.; Lima, G.R. de; Pontes, M.; Ferraro, O.; Santana, A.; Brook, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results concerning to the treatment of 193 patients with locally advanced breast cancer-stage III and stage IV are analysed. All the patients were treated with radical radiotherapy plus total mastectomy about 6 weeks later; 53 pacients received also chemotherapy (CMF - 12 courses) and 52 were oophorectomized. (M.A.C) [pt

  20. Sargent-IV Project. Development of new methodologies for safety analysis of Generation IV reactors; Proyecto SARGEB-IV. Desarrollo de nuevas metodologias de analisis de seguridad para reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The main result of this paper is the proposal for the addition of new ingredients in the safety analysis methodologies for Generation-IV reactors that integrates the features of probabilistic safety analysis within deterministic. This ensures a higher degree of integration between the classical deterministic and probabilistic methodologies.