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Sample records for ergodic capacity analysis

  1. Asymptotic Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Composite Lognormal Shadowed Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-05-01

    Capacity analysis of composite lognormal (LN) shadowed links, such as Rician-LN, Gamma-LN, and Weibull-LN, is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single composite link transmission system is presented in terms of well- known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present asymptotically tight lower bounds for the ergodic capacity at high SNR. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Ergodic capacity analysis for MIMO two-hop relay system based on decode-and-forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Birong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ergodic capacity analysis of MIMO two-hop relaying systems based on the relay protocol of decode-and-forward.Firstly the expression for the probability density function of an unordered eigenvalue of the system is derived.Then a closed-form solution of the ergodic capacity of the entire system is given through the probability density function based on a new random matrix theory.This closed-form solution can be used not only to the SISO system but also to the source,relay and destination of arbitrary numbers of antennas.The result of simulations shows that the theory analysis matches the simulations and the ergodic capacity is improved in comparison with the simple relay protocol of amplify-and-forward.

  3. A novel ergodic capacity analysis of diversity combining and multihop transmission systems over generalized composite fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-06-01

    Ergodic capacity is an important performance measure associated with reliable communication at the highest rate at which information can be sent over the channel with a negligible probability of error. In the shadow of this definition, diversity receivers (such as selection combining, equal-gain combining and maximal-ratio combining) and transmission techniques (such as cascaded fading channels, amplify-and-forward multihop transmission) are deployed in mitigating various performance impairing effects such as fading and shadowing in digital radio communication links. However, the exact analysis of ergodic capacity is in general not always possible for all of these forms of diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments due to it\\'s mathematical intractability. In the literature, published papers concerning the exact analysis of ergodic capacity have been therefore scarce (i.e., only [1] and [2]) when compared to those concerning the exact analysis of average symbol error probability. In addition, they are essentially targeting to the ergodic capacity of the maximal ratio combining diversity receivers and are not readily applicable to the capacity analysis of the other diversity combiners / transmission techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel moment generating function-based approach for the exact ergodic capacity analysis of both diversity receivers and transmission techniques over generalized composite fading environments. As such, we demonstrate how to simultaneously treat the ergodic capacity analysis of all forms of both diversity receivers and multihop transmission techniques. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-04-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present approximate and simple closedform results for the ergodic capacity at high and low SNR regimes. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Ergodic Capacity of Cognitive Radio under Imperfect Channel State Information

    CERN Document Server

    Rezk, Zouheir

    2012-01-01

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link, but knows only the statistics and an estimated version of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver (ST-PR) link, is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels (with continuous probability density function) under average and peak transmit-power constraints and with respect to two different interference constraints: an interference outage constraint and a signal-to-interference outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show, for instance, that the interference constraint is harmful at high-power regime in the sense that the capacity does not increase with the power, whereas at low-power regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance corresponding to the ergodic capacity under average or peak transmit power constraint in absence of ...

  6. A Unified Framework for the Ergodic Capacity of Spectrum Sharing Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2012-12-29

    We consider a spectrum sharing communication scenario in which a primary and a secondary users are communicating, simultaneously, with their respective destinations using the same frequency carrier. Both optimal power profile and ergodic capacity are derived for fading channels, under an average transmit power and an instantaneous interference outage constraints. Unlike previous studies, we assume that the secondary user has a noisy version of the cross link and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). After deriving the capacity in this case, we provide an ergodic capacity generalization, through a unified expression, that encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings. In addition, we provide an asymptotic capacity analysis at high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Numerical results, applied for independent Rayleigh fading channels, show that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters with no effect of the cross link on the capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. Furthermore, a practical on-off power allocation scheme is proposed and is shown, through numerical results, to achieve the full capacity at high and low SNR regimes and suboptimal rates in the medium SNR regime.

  7. Upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of MIMO Jacobi fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafkha, Amor; Bonnefoi, Rémi

    2017-05-01

    In multi-(core/mode) optical fiber communication, the transmission channel can be modeled as a complex sub-matrix of the Haar-distributed unitary matrix (complex Jacobi unitary ensemble). In this letter, we present new analytical expressions of the upper and lower bounds for the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output Jacobi-fading channels. Recent results on the determinant of the Jacobi unitary ensemble are employed to derive a tight lower bound on the ergodic capacity. We use Jensen's inequality to provide an analytical closed-form upper bound to the ergodic capacity at any signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity, at low and high SNR regimes, are also derived. Simulation results are presented to validate the accuracy of the derived expressions.

  8. On the ergodic capacity of legacy systems in the presence of next generation interference

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2011-11-01

    Next generation wireless systems facilitating better utilization of the scarce radio spectrum have emerged as a response to inefficient rigid spectrum assignment policies. These are comprised of intelligent radio nodes that opportunistically operate in the radio spectrum of existing legacy systems; yet unwanted interference at the legacy receivers is unavoidable. In order to design efficient next generation systems and to minimize their harmful consequences, it is necessary to realize their impact on the performance of legacy systems. In this work, a generalized framework for the ergodic capacity analysis of such legacy systems in the presence of interference from next generation systems is presented. The analysis is built around a model developed for the statistical representation of the interference at the legacy receivers, which is then used to evaluate the ergodic capacity of the legacy system. Moreover, this analysis is not limited to the context of legacy systems, and is in fact applicaple to any interference limited system. Findings of analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. On the Ergodic Capacity of Dual-Branch Correlated Log-Normal Fading Channels with Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-01

    Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity of independent or correlated diversity branches over Log-Normal fading channels are not available in the literature. Thus, it is become of an interest to investigate the behavior of such metric at high signal-to-noise (SNR). In this work, we propose simple closed-form asymptotic expressions of the ergodic capacity of dual-branch correlated Log- Normal corresponding to selection combining, and switch-and-stay combining. Furthermore, we capitalize on these new results to find new asymptotic ergodic capacity of correlated dual- branch free-space optical communication system under the impact of pointing error with both heterodyne and intensity modulation/direct detection. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. On the ergodic secret message capacity of the wiretap channel with finite-rate feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-07-01

    We study the secret message capacity of an ergodic block fading wiretap channel with partial channel state information at the transmitter and perfect channel state information at the receivers. We consider that in addition to the statistics of the main and the eavesdropper channel state information (CSI), the sender is provided by the legitimate receiver with a q-bit feedback, at the beginning of each coherence block, through an error-free feedback channel, with capacity q bits. We establish upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. We show that a positive secrecy rate is achievable even when the feedback is at the end of each coherence block and q = 1. We also show that the lower and the upper bounds coincide asymptotically as q → ∞. Finally, asymptotic analysis at high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are presented where it is found that the capacity is bounded at high-SNR and present a simple suboptimal scalar quantizer that is capacity achieving, without the need of any numerical optimization, as q → ∞. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show that, at high-SNR, a 4-bit feedback achieves 90% of the secrecy capacity when perfect main CSI is available at the transmitter. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Eigenstructures of MIMO Fading Channel Correlation Matrices and Optimum Linear Precoding Designs for Maximum Ergodic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami Hamid Reza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.

  12. Ergodic secret message capacity of the wiretap channel with finite-rate feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-06-01

    We study the secret message capacity of an ergodic block fading wiretap channel with partial channel state information at the transmitter and perfect channel state information at the receivers, under both a short term power constraint (STPC) and a long term power constraint (LTPC). We consider that in addition to the statistics of the main and the eavesdropper channel state information (CSI), the sender is provided by the legitimate receiver with a q-bit feedback, at the beginning of each coherence block, through an error-free public channel, with capacity q bits. We establish upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. We show that the lower and the upper bounds coincide asymptotically as q → ∞. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show that, a 4-bit feedback achieves about 90% of the secrecy capacity when perfect main CSI is available at the transmitter. Finally, asymptotic analysis at high and low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is presented. It is found that the capacity is bounded at high-SNR, whereas at asymptotically low-SNR, the lower bounds and the upper bound scale linearly with SNR under STPC. Furthermore, subject to LTPC, the capacity at low-SNR is equal to the capacity of the main channel without secrecy constraint and with perfect CSI at both the transmitter and the receiver, under a mild condition on the fading statistics. We also show that a positive secrecy rate is achievable even when the feedback is at the end of each coherence block and q=1. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  13. Novel Relations between the Ergodic Capacity and the Average Bit Error Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-01-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their...

  14. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. On the ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel under imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-11-01

    The ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is known when the main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) state information (CSI) is perfect at the transmitter and the coherence period is sufficiently large to enable random coding arguments in each block. In a fast fading scenario, when the codeword length spans many coherence periods, the secrecy capacity is still not known. In this paper, we present a framework that characterizes this secrecy capacity under imperfect main channel estimation at the transmitter. Inner and outer bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate is a simple on-off scheme using a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and the eavesdropper channels. The upper and the lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in the perfect main CSI extreme. Furthermore, the lower bound matches the upper bound in no main CSI extreme, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Numerical results are provided for independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. On the asymptotic ergodic capacity of FSO links with generalized pointing error model

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2015-09-11

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems are negatively affected by two physical phenomenon, namely, scintillation due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. To quantize the effect of these two factors on FSO system performance, we need an effective mathematical model for them. Scintillations are typically modeled by the log-normal and Gamma-Gamma distributions for weak and strong turbulence conditions, respectively. In this paper, we propose and study a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution. We then derive the asymptotic ergodic capacity of FSO systems under the joint impact of turbulence and generalized pointing error impairments. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Ergodic Capacity of Cognitive Radio Under Imperfect Channel-State Information

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-09-08

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel-state information (CSI) of the secondary link but knows only the statistics and an estimated version of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver link is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels [with a continuous probability density function (pdf)] under the average and peak transmit power constraints and with respect to the following two different interference constraints: 1) an interference outage constraint and 2) a signal-to-interference outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show, for example, that the interference constraint is harmful at the high-power regime, because the capacity does not increase with the power, whereas at the low-power regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance, which corresponds to the ergodic capacity under average or peak transmit power constraint in the absence of the primary user, may be achieved. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Analysis of the Emergent Properties: Stationarity and Ergodicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Grazzini

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the nonparametric Wald-Wolfowitz test to detect stationarity and ergodicity in agent-based models. A nonparametric test is needed due to the practical impossibility to understand how the random component influences the emergent properties of the model in many agent-based models. Nonparametric tests on real data often lack power and this problem is addressed by applying the Wald-Wolfowitz test to the simulated data. The performance of the tests is evaluated us...

  19. Ergodic channel capacity of spatial correlated multiple-input multiple-output free space optical links using multipulse pulse-position modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Xue; Cao, Minghua

    2017-02-01

    The spatial correlation extensively exists in the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optical (FSO) communication systems due to the channel fading and the antenna space limitation. Wilkinson's method was utilized to investigate the impact of spatial correlation on the MIMO FSO communication system employing multipulse pulse-position modulation. Simulation results show that the existence of spatial correlation reduces the ergodic channel capacity, and the reception diversity is more competent to resist this kind of performance degradation.

  20. Operator theoretic aspects of ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, Tanja; Haase, Markus; Nagel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Stunning recent results by Host–Kra, Green–Tao, and others, highlight the timeliness of this systematic introduction to classical ergodic theory using the tools of operator theory. Assuming no prior exposure to ergodic theory, this book provides a modern foundation for introductory courses on ergodic theory, especially for students or researchers with an interest in functional analysis. While basic analytic notions and results are reviewed in several appendices, more advanced operator theoretic topics are developed in detail, even beyond their immediate connection with ergodic theory. As a consequence, the book is also suitable for advanced or special-topic courses on functional analysis with applications to ergodic theory. Topics include: •an intuitive introduction to ergodic theory •an introduction to the basic notions, constructions, and standard examples of topological dynamical systems •Koopman operators, Banach lattices, lattice and algebra homomorphisms, and the Gelfand–Naimark theorem •m...

  1. Lectures on ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Halmos, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    This concise classic by a well-known master of mathematical exposition covers recurrence, ergodic theorems, ergodicity and mixing properties, and the relation between conjugacy and equivalence. 1956 edition.

  2. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  3. Ergodic theory independence and dichotomies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the ergodic theory and topological dynamics of actions of countable groups. It is organized around the theme of probabilistic and combinatorial independence, and highlights the complementary roles of the asymptotic and the perturbative in its comprehensive treatment of the core concepts of weak mixing, compactness, entropy, and amenability. The more advanced material includes Popa's cocycle superrigidity, the Furstenberg-Zimmer structure theorem, and sofic entropy. The structure of the book is designed to be flexible enough to serve a variety of readers. The discussion of dynamics is developed from scratch assuming some rudimentary functional analysis, measure theory, and topology, and parts of the text can be used as an introductory course. Researchers in ergodic theory and related areas will also find the book valuable as a reference.

  4. Progress in ergodic divertor operation on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Grosman, A.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Azeroual, A.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bremond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Capes, H.; Corre, Y.; Costanzo, L.; Michelis, C. de; Devynck, P.; Feron, S.; Friant, C.; Garbet, X.; Giannella, R.; Grisolia, C.; Hess, W.; Hogan, J.; Ladurelle, L.; Laugier, F.; Martin, G.; Mattioli, M.; Meslin, B.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moulin, D.; Nguyen, F.; Pascal, J.Y.; Pecquet, A.L.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Vallet, J.C.; Zabiego, M

    1999-09-01

    Upgrade of the Tore ergodic divertor has led to significant progress in ergodic divertor physics. The disruptive limit governed by the stochastization of the outer magnetic surfaces is found to occur for a value of the Chirikov parameter reaching 2 on the magnetic surface q = 2 + 3 / 12. This experimentally observed robustness allows one to operate at very low safety factor on the separatrix (q {approx} 2). Numerical analysis of ballooning turbulence in a stochastic layer indicates that the decay of the density fluctuations is in associated with an increase of the fluctuating electric drift velocity. The bottom line is then an enhanced cross-field transport in the vicinity of the target plates. This lowering of confinement appears to be compensated by an intrinsic transport barrier on the electron temperature. The 3-D response of the temperature field is computed with a fluid code. The intrinsic transport barrier at the separatrix, reported experimentally, can be recovered together with small amplitude temperature modulations in the divertor volume. Experimental evidence of the 3 density regimes (linear, high recycling and detachment) is reported. The low critical density values for these transitions indicate that similar parallel physics govern the axisymmetric and ergodic divertor, despite the open configuration of the latter. Measurement and understanding of these density regimes provide a means for feedback control of plasma density and an improvement in ICRH coupling scenarios. Experimental data also indicated that particle control with the vented target plates is effective. Increase of impurity control and radiation efficiency are recalled. Global power balance has been analysed. These results confirm the enhanced radiation capacity of the ergodic divertor. (author)

  5. Basic ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nadkarni, M G

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory book on Ergodic Theory. The presentation has a slow pace and the book can be read by any person with a background in basic measure theory and metric topology. A new feature of the book is that the basic topics of Ergodic Theory such as the Poincare recurrence lemma, induced automorphisms and Kakutani towers, compressibility and E. Hopf's theorem, the theorem of Ambrose on representation of flows are treated at the descriptive set-theoretic level before their measure-theoretic or topological versions are presented. In addition, topics around the Glimm-Effros theorem are discussed. In the third edition a chapter entitled 'Additional Topics' has been added. It gives Liouville's Theorem on the existence of invariant measure, entropy theory leading up to Kolmogorov-Sinai Theorem, and the topological dynamics proof of van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetical progressions.

  6. Ergodicity of particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhin Ven Chen

    2002-01-01

    The ergodicity relative to shifts, the mixing and related problems on the invariant measures for the interacting particles systems, such as the Ising ferromagnetic stochastic models, the contact processes, the systems with exception, the selector systems with three possible stochastically preconceived opinions or with many possible opinions, etc. are studied. The obtained results provide for the answers to certain questions, related to these models. The applied methods are based on duality

  7. Ergodic Theory, Open Dynamics, and Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Christopher; Froyland, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This book is comprised of selected research articles developed from a workshop on Ergodic Theory, Probabilistic Methods and Applications, held in April 2012 at the Banff International Research Station. It contains contributions from world leading experts in ergodic theory, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, fluid dynamics, and networks. The volume will serve as a valuable reference for mathematicians, physicists, engineers, physical oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, biologists, and climate scientists, who currently use, or wish to learn how to use, probabilistic techniques to cope with dynamical models that display open, coherent, or non-equilibrium behavior.

  8. Ergodic theory and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coudène, Yves

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, with a particular emphasis on chaotic dynamics. This book contains a broad selection of topics and explores the fundamental ideas of the subject. Starting with basic notions such as ergodicity, mixing, and isomorphisms of dynamical systems, the book then focuses on several chaotic transformations with hyperbolic dynamics, before moving on to topics such as entropy, information theory, ergodic decomposition and measurable partitions. Detailed explanations are accompanied by numerous examples, including interval maps, Bernoulli shifts, toral endomorphisms, geodesic flow on negatively curved manifolds, Morse-Smale systems, rational maps on the Riemann sphere and strange attractors. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems will appeal to graduate students as well as researchers looking for an introduction to the subject. While gentle on the beginning student, the book also contains a number of commen...

  9. Ergodic Control of Switching Diffusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, Mrinal K; Arapostathis, Aristotle; Marcus, Steven I

    1996-01-01

    We study the ergodic control problem of switching diffusions representing a typical hybrid system that arises in numerous applications such as fault tolerant control systems, flexible manufacturing systems, etc...

  10. Convergence of multiple ergodic averages

    OpenAIRE

    Host, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    These notes are based on a course for a general audience given at the Centro de Modeliamento Matem\\'atico of the University of Chile, in December 2004. We study the mean convergence of multiple ergodic averages, that is, averages of a product of functions taken at different times. We also describe the relations between this area of ergodic theory and some classical and some recent results in additive number theory.

  11. A unified MGF-based capacity analysis of diversity combiners over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    Unified exact ergodic capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity combiners including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of L-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the gamma-shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Ultraslow convergence to ergodicity in transient subdiffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma

    2011-06-01

    We investigate continuous time random walks with truncated α-stable trapping times. We prove distributional ergodicity for a class of observables; namely, the time-averaged observables follow the probability density function called the Mittag-Leffler distribution. This distributional ergodic behavior persists for a long time, and thus the convergence to the ordinary ergodicity is considerably slower than in the case in which the trapping-time distribution is given by common distributions. We also find a crossover from the distributional ergodic behavior to the ordinary ergodic behavior.

  13. On reducibility and ergodicity of population projection matrix models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain; Townley, Stuart; Carslake, David

    2010-01-01

    structure used in the population projection). In our sample of published PPMs, 15·6% are non-ergodic. 3. This presents a problem: reducible–ergodic models often defy biological rationale in their description of the life cycle but may or may not prove problematic for analysis as they often behave similarly...... of reducibility in published PPMs, with significant implications for the predictive power of such models in many cases. We suggest that as a general rule, reducibility of PPM models should be avoided. However, we provide a guide to the pertinent analysis of reducible matrix models, largely based upon whether...... from all stages to all other stages) and therefore ergodic (whatever initial stage structure is used in the population projection, it will always exhibit the same stable asymptotic growth rate). 2. Evaluation of 652 PPM models for 171 species from the literature suggests that 24·7% of PPM models...

  14. Ergodic and non-ergodic clustering of inertial particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gustavsson, K

    2011-01-01

    We compute the fractal dimension of clusters of inertial particles in mixing flows at finite values of Kubo (Ku) and Stokes (St) numbers, by a new series expansion in Ku. At small St, the theory includes clustering by Maxey's non-ergodic 'centrifuge' effect. In the limit of St to infinity and Ku to zero (so that Ku^2 St remains finite) it explains clustering in terms of ergodic 'multiplicative amplification'. In this limit, the theory is consistent with the asymptotic perturbation series in [Duncan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 240602]. The new theory allows to analyse how the two clustering mechanisms compete at finite values of St and Ku. For particles suspended in two-dimensional random Gaussian incompressible flows, the theory yields excellent results for Ku < 0.2 for arbitrary values of St; the ergodic mechanism is found to contribute significantly unless St is very small. For higher values of Ku the new series is likely to require resummation. But numerical simulations show that for Ku ~ St ~ 1 ...

  15. Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence may be represented by finite Fourier series, where the inherent periodic box serves as a surrogate for a bounded astrophysical plasma. Independent Fourier coefficients form a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density function containing a Hermitian covariance matrix with positive eigenvalues. The eigenvalues at lowest wave number can be very small, resulting in a large-scale coherent structure: a turbulent dynamo. This is seen in computations and a theoretical explanation in terms of 'broken ergodicity' contains Taylor s theory of force-free states. An important problem for future work is the case of real, i.e., dissipative flows. In real flows, broken ergodicity and coherent structure are still expected to occur in MHD turbulence at the largest scale, as suggested by low resolution simulations. One challenge is to incorporate coherent structure at the largest scale into the theory of turbulent fluctuations at smaller scales.

  16. Generalized continued fractions and ergodic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustyl'nikov, L. D.

    2003-02-01

    In this paper a new theory of generalized continued fractions is constructed and applied to numbers, multidimensional vectors belonging to a real space, and infinite-dimensional vectors with integral coordinates. The theory is based on a concept generalizing the procedure for constructing the classical continued fractions and substantially using ergodic theory. One of the versions of the theory is related to differential equations. In the finite-dimensional case the constructions thus introduced are used to solve problems posed by Weyl in analysis and number theory concerning estimates of trigonometric sums and of the remainder in the distribution law for the fractional parts of the values of a polynomial, and also the problem of characterizing algebraic and transcendental numbers with the use of generalized continued fractions. Infinite-dimensional generalized continued fractions are applied to estimate sums of Legendre symbols and to obtain new results in the classical problem of the distribution of quadratic residues and non-residues modulo a prime. In the course of constructing these continued fractions, an investigation is carried out of the ergodic properties of a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are also of independent interest.

  17. The ergodic theory of lattice subgroups

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodnik, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The results established in this book constitute a new departure in ergodic theory and a significant expansion of its scope. Traditional ergodic theorems focused on amenable groups, and relied on the existence of an asymptotically invariant sequence in the group, the resulting maximal inequalities based on covering arguments, and the transference principle. Here, Alexander Gorodnik and Amos Nevo develop a systematic general approach to the proof of ergodic theorems for a large class of non-amenable locally compact groups and their lattice subgroups. Simple general conditions on the spectral theory of the group and the regularity of the averaging sets are formulated, which suffice to guarantee convergence to the ergodic mean

  18. On the BER and capacity analysis of MIMO MRC systems with channel estimation error

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of channel estimation error on the capacity and bit-error rate (BER) of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit maximal ratio transmission (MRT) and receive maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems over uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels. We first derive the ergodic (average) capacity expressions for such systems when power adaptation is applied at the transmitter. The exact capacity expression for the uniform power allocation case is also presented. Furthermore, to investigate the diversity order of MIMO MRT-MRC scheme, we derive the BER performance under a uniform power allocation policy. We also present an asymptotic BER performance analysis for the MIMO MRT-MRC system with multiuser diversity. The numerical results are given to illustrate the sensitivity of the main performance to the channel estimation error and the tightness of the approximate cutoff value. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. What Then Happens When Interaction is Not Possible: The Virtuosic Interpretation of Ergodic Artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Carvalhais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Procedural systems allow unique modes of authorship and singular aesthetic experiences. As creators and users of these systems, we need to be aware that their aesthetic potential is not solely defined by interaction but that interpretation, and the capacity to understand and simulate the processes taking place within these artefacts is highly significant. This paper argues that although direct interaction is usually the most discernible component in the relationship between ergodic artefacts and their users, ergodicity does not necessarily imply interaction. Non-interactive procedural artefacts may allow the development of ergodic experiences through interpretation, and the probing of the system by its reader through simulations. We try to set the grounds for designing towards virtuosic interpretation, an activity that we may describe as the ergodic experience developed by means of mental simulation through the development of theories of systems.

  20. Smooth ergodic theory for endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Min; Zhu, Shu

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a general smooth ergodic theory for deterministic dynamical systems generated by non-invertible endomorphisms, mainly concerning the relations between entropy, Lyapunov exponents and dimensions. The authors make extensive use of the combination of the inverse limit space technique and the techniques developed to tackle random dynamical systems. The most interesting results in this book are (1) the equivalence between the SRB property and Pesin’s entropy formula; (2) the generalized Ledrappier-Young entropy formula; (3) exact-dimensionality for weakly hyperbolic diffeomorphisms and for expanding maps. The proof of the exact-dimensionality for weakly hyperbolic diffeomorphisms seems more accessible than that of Barreira et al. It also inspires the authors to argue to what extent the famous Eckmann-Ruelle conjecture and many other classical results for diffeomorphisms and for flows hold true. After a careful reading of the book, one can systematically learn the Pesin theory for endomorphis...

  1. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashyan, Armen K. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Buiatti, Marco [Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie, CNRS UMR 8119 Universite Rene Descartes - Paris 5 45, rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit - INSERM U562, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DRM/DSV, 4 Place du general Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' - Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto dei Processi Chimico, Fisici del CNR Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grigo@df.unipi.it

    2009-01-30

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  2. Ergodicity of the generalized lemon billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyu [Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801-2302 (United States); Mohr, Luke; Zhang, Hong-Kun, E-mail: hongkun@math.umass.edu; Zhang, Pengfei [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, UMass Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study a two-parameter family of convex billiard tables, by taking the intersection of two round disks (with different radii) in the plane. These tables give a generalization of the one-parameter family of lemon-shaped billiards. Initially, there is only one ergodic table among all lemon tables. In our generalized family, we observe numerically the prevalence of ergodicity among the some perturbations of that table. Moreover, numerical estimates of the mixing rate of the billiard dynamics on some ergodic tables are also provided.

  3. Ergodicity of the generalized lemon billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyu; Mohr, Luke; Zhang, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Pengfei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study a two-parameter family of convex billiard tables, by taking the intersection of two round disks (with different radii) in the plane. These tables give a generalization of the one-parameter family of lemon-shaped billiards. Initially, there is only one ergodic table among all lemon tables. In our generalized family, we observe numerically the prevalence of ergodicity among the some perturbations of that table. Moreover, numerical estimates of the mixing rate of the billiard dynamics on some ergodic tables are also provided.

  4. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  5. Smooth Rényi Entropy of Ergodic Quantum Information Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Berry; Tjoelker, Jilles; Tuyls, Pim; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the recently introduced notion of smooth Rényi entropy for the case of ergodic information sources, thereby generalizing previous work which concentrated mainly on i.i.d. information sources. We will actually consider ergodic quantum information sources, of which ergodic classical

  6. Ergodic theory of amenable semigroup actions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A detailed historical account on the notion of ergodicity is given in [13]. Let S be a locally compact Hausdorff semitopological semigroup. Let M(S) be the. Banach algebra of all bounded, regular Borel measures on S with total variation norm and convolution as multiplication, and let M0(S) be the semigroup of all probability ...

  7. Capacity analysis of vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is deriv

  8. Ergodicity of a single particle confined in a nanopore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardi, S.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Frascolli, F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a gas particle moving through a nanopore of adjustable width with particular emphasis on ergodicity. We give a measure of the portion of phase space that is characterized by quasiperiodic trajectories which break ergodicity. The interactions between particle and wall......-ergodic component of the phase space for energy levels typical of experiments, is surprisingly small, i.e. we conclude that the ergodic hypothesis is a reasonable approximation even for a single particle trapped in a nanopore. Due to the numerical scope of this work, our focus will be the onset of ergodic behavior...

  9. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

  10. Cryptanalysis of an ergodic chaotic cipher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G.; Montoya, F.; Romera, M.; Pastor, G

    2003-05-12

    In recent years, a growing number of cryptosystems based on chaos have been proposed, many of them fundamentally flawed by a lack of robustness and security. In this Letter, we offer our results after having studied the security and possible attacks on a very interesting cipher algorithm based on the logistic map's ergodicity property. This algorithm has become very popular recently, as it has been taken as the development basis of new chaotic cryptosystems.

  11. Probability, random processes, and ergodic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Robert M

    1988-01-01

    This book has been written for several reasons, not all of which are academic. This material was for many years the first half of a book in progress on information and ergodic theory. The intent was and is to provide a reasonably self-contained advanced treatment of measure theory, prob ability theory, and the theory of discrete time random processes with an emphasis on general alphabets and on ergodic and stationary properties of random processes that might be neither ergodic nor stationary. The intended audience was mathematically inc1ined engineering graduate students and visiting scholars who had not had formal courses in measure theoretic probability . Much of the material is familiar stuff for mathematicians, but many of the topics and results have not previously appeared in books. The original project grew too large and the first part contained much that would likely bore mathematicians and dis courage them from the second part. Hence I finally followed the suggestion to separate the material and split...

  12. Persistence and ergodicity of plant disease model with markov conversion and impulsive toxicant input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wencai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Tongqian; Meng, Xinzhu; Zhang, Tonghua

    2017-07-01

    Taking into account of both white and colored noises, a stochastic mathematical model with impulsive toxicant input is formulated. Based on this model, we investigate dynamics, such as the persistence and ergodicity, of plant infectious disease model with Markov conversion in a polluted environment. The thresholds of extinction and persistence in mean are obtained. By using Lyapunov functions, we prove that the system is ergodic and has a stationary distribution under certain sufficient conditions. Finally, numerical simulations are employed to illustrate our theoretical analysis.

  13. Capacity analysis of a bypass of roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačik, Ivan; Slabý, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The capacity of the roads network mainly depends on the capacity of its nodal points - intersections. A connecting branch or a bypass is a lane or lanes inserted between two adjacent branches of a roundabout, providing redirection of vehicles, that would otherwise burden a circular lane. A bypass effect to the capacity of roundabouts, but also other types of level intersections, is undeniable. A connecting branch increases the total capacity of an intersection that takes a part of vehicles performing a manoeuver of the first right turn completely out of an intersection area. Redirecting vehicles reduces delay times at intersections and reduces queues at the entrance to an intersection. Bypasses improve the quality of transport. Limiting for the capacity of bypasses is the point of disconnection from the entrance into the roundabout and the connection point into the exit from the roundabout. Central parts of the bypasses have minimal effects on the capacity. The length of a bypass has to match with the maximum length of a queue of waiting vehicles at a given intensity level. The article deals with analysis of the bypass capacity at the roundabouts.

  14. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  15. Ergodic theory and visualization. I. Mesochronic plots for visualization of ergodic partition and invariant sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levnajić, Zoran; Mezić, Igor

    2010-09-01

    We present a computational study of a visualization method for invariant sets based on ergodic partition theory, first proposed by Mezić (Ph.D. thesis, Caltech, 1994) and Mezić and Wiggins [Chaos 9, 213 (1999)]. The algorithms for computation of the time averages of observables on phase space are developed and used to provide an approximation of the ergodic partition of the phase space. We term the graphical representation of this approximation--based on time averages of observables--a mesochronic plot (from Greek: meso--mean, chronos--time). The method is useful for identifying low-dimensional projections (e.g., two-dimensional slices) of invariant structures in phase spaces of dimensionality bigger than two. We also introduce the concept of the ergodic quotient space, obtained by assigning a point to every ergodic set, and provide an embedding method whose graphical representation we call the mesochronic scatter plot. We use the Chirikov standard map as a well-known and dynamically rich example in order to illustrate the implementation of our methods. In addition, we expose applications to other higher dimensional maps such as the Froéschle map for which we utilize our methods to analyze merging of resonances and, the three-dimensional extended standard map for which we study the conjecture on its ergodicity [I. Mezić, Physica D 154, 51 (2001)]. We extend the study in our next paper [Z. Levnajić and I. Mezić, e-print arXiv:0808.2182] by investigating the visualization of periodic sets using harmonic time averages. Both of these methods are related to eigenspace structure of the Koopman operator [I. Mezić and A. Banaszuk, Physica D 197, 101 (2004)].

  16. Monotone measures of ergodicity for Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Keilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper, first written in 1974, was never published other than as part of an internal research series. Its lack of publication is unrelated to the merits of the paper and the paper is of current importance by virtue of its relation to the relaxation time. A systematic discussion is provided of the approach of a finite Markov chain to ergodicity by proving the monotonicity of an important set of norms, each measures of egodicity, whether or not time reversibility is present. The paper is of particular interest because the discussion of the relaxation time of a finite Markov chain [2] has only been clean for time reversible chains, a small subset of the chains of interest. This restriction is not present here. Indeed, a new relaxation time quoted quantifies the relaxation time for all finite ergodic chains (cf. the discussion of Q1(t below Equation (1.7]. This relaxation time was developed by Keilson with A. Roy in his thesis [6], yet to be published.

  17. On the rate of quantum ergodicity in Euclidean billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Bäcker, A; Stifter, P

    1998-01-01

    For a large class of quantized ergodic flows the quantum ergodicity theorem due to Shnirelman, Zelditch, Colin de Verdière and others states that almost all eigenfunctions become equidistributed in the semiclassical limit. In this work we first give a short introduction to the formulation of the quantum ergodicity theorem for general observables in terms of pseudodifferential operators and show that it is equivalent to the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis for the Wigner function in the case of ergodic systems. Of great importance is the rate by which the quantum mechanical expectation values of an observable tend to their mean value. This is studied numerically for three Euclidean billiards (stadium, cosine and cardioid billiard) using up to 6000 eigenfunctions. We find that in configuration space the rate of quantum ergodicity is strongly influenced by localized eigenfunctions like bouncing ball modes or scarred eigenfunctions. We give a detailed discussion and explanation of these effects using a sim...

  18. Logistic Growth and Ergodic Properties of Urban Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Masucci, A Paolo; Wang, Jiaqiu; Hatna, Erez; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Urban morphology has presented significant intellectual challenges to mathematicians and physicists ever since the eighteenth century, when Euler first explored the famous Konigsberg bridges problem. Many important regularities and allometries have been observed in urban studies, including Zipf's law and Gibrat's law, rendering cities attractive systems for analysis within statistical physics. Nevertheless, a broad consensus on how cities and their boundaries are defined is still lacking. Applying percolation theory to the street intersection space, we show that growth curves for the maximum cluster size of the largest cities in the UK and in California collapse to a single curve, namely the logistic. Subsequently, by introducing the concept of the condensation threshold, we show that natural boundaries of cities can be well defined in a universal way. This allows us to study and discuss systematically some of the allometries that are present in cities, thus casting light on the concept of ergodicity as relat...

  19. Ergodic theory of expanding thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general eq...

  20. Ergodic directional switching in mobile insect groups

    KAUST Repository

    Escudero, Carlos

    2010-07-29

    We obtain a Fokker-Planck equation describing experimental data on the collective motion of locusts. The noise is of internal origin and due to the discrete character and finite number of constituents of the swarm. The stationary probability distribution shows a rich phenomenology including nonmonotonic behavior of several order and disorder transition indicators in noise intensity. This complex behavior arises naturally as a result of the randomness in the system. Its counterintuitive character challenges standard interpretations of noise induced transitions and calls for an extension of this theory in order to capture the behavior of certain classes of biologically motivated models. Our results suggest that the collective switches of the group\\'s direction of motion might be due to a random ergodic effect and, as such, they are inherent to group formation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  1. Impurity radiation modulations in an ergodic divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F. E-mail: laugier@pegase.cad.cea.fr; Becoulet, M.; De Michelis, C.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Gunn, J.P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C

    2001-03-01

    The 3-D geometry of radiation losses is investigated in the Tore Supra ergodic divertor. Measurements from passive bolometers located on the divertor coils show evidence of toroidal and poloidal radiation modulations. They were interpreted using a 3-D code solving heat transport equation that gives the whole geometry of plasma radiation in a divertor configuration close to Tore Supra. The results of the code are in qualitative agreement with the measurements and they show that the total radiated power is underestimated when inferred from standard bolometers located between divertor modules. Maximum of radiation in front of the modules is explained by the multiplication of radiative zones at this place due to the intersection of field lines with the vessel wall. This effect leads to non-monotonic temperature profiles along field lines in the boundary plasma.

  2. Oseledec multiplicative ergodic theorem for laminations

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyên, Viêt-Anh

    2017-01-01

    Given a n-dimensional lamination endowed with a Riemannian metric, the author introduces the notion of a multiplicative cocycle of rank d, where n and d are arbitrary positive integers. The holonomy cocycle of a foliation and its exterior powers as well as its tensor powers provide examples of multiplicative cocycles. Next, the author defines the Lyapunov exponents of such a cocycle with respect to a harmonic probability measure directed by the lamination. He also proves an Oseledec multiplicative ergodic theorem in this context. This theorem implies the existence of an Oseledec decomposition almost everywhere which is holonomy invariant. Moreover, in the case of differentiable cocycles the author establishes effective integral estimates for the Lyapunov exponents. These results find applications in the geometric and dynamical theory of laminations. They are also applicable to (not necessarily closed) laminations with singularities. Interesting holonomy properties of a generic leaf of a foliation are obtained...

  3. From infinite ergodic theory to number theory (and possibly back)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isola, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.isola@unicam.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Systems preserving an infinite measure need new indicators such as the wandering rate. > Coping wild behaviour of the ergodic sums with very good sets and universal sequences. > Applications to Farey map and slow convergents in continued fractions theory. - Abstract: Some basic facts of infinite ergodic theory are reviewed in a form suitable to be applied to interval maps with number theoretic significance such as the Farey map. This is an enlarged version of the lecture notes accompanying a short course on Infinite Ergodic Theory at the First meeting of the (mostly) young italian hyperbolicians (Corinaldo, Italy, June 8-12, 2009).

  4. On the Ergodic Secrecy Capacity with Full Duplex Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Shafique Ansari, Imran; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    Full duplex communication promises performance gains in terms of the throughput and the delay. Generally, it has been shown that the throughput and delay gains of full duplex communication are somewhat limited in realistic network settings, leading researchers to study other possible applications...

  5. Capacity bounds for kth best path selection over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad Fainan

    2014-02-01

    Exact ergodic capacity calculation for fading wireless channels typically involves time-consuming numerical evaluation of infinite integrals. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on ergodic capacity for kth best path are presented. These bounds have simple analytic expressions which allow their fast evaluation. Numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the exact ergodic capacity for a large variety of system configurations. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  6. Capacity of spectrum sharing Cognitive Radio systems over Nakagami fading channels at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of Cognitive Radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at low power regime. We focus on Nakagami fading channels. We formally define the low power regime and present closed form expressions of the capacity in the low power regime under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information (CSI) of the cross link (CL) between the secondary user transmitter and the primary user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link ergodic capacity. Interestingly, we show that the low power regime analysis provides a specific insight on the capacity behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Infinite Ergodic Index of the Ehrenfest Wind-Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málaga Sabogal, Alba; Troubetzkoy, Serge Eugene

    2017-12-01

    The set of all possible configurations of the Ehrenfest wind-tree model endowed with the Hausdorff topology is a compact metric space. For a typical configuration we show that the wind-tree dynamics has infinite ergodic index in almost every direction. In particular some ergodic theorems can be applied to show that if we start with a large number of initially parallel particles their directions decorrelate as the dynamics evolve, answering the question posed by the Ehrenfests.

  8. Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, N.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O.Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Approach to ergodicity in quantum wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Eckhardt, B; Keating, J P; Agam, O; Main, J; Müller, K; Eckhardt, Bruno; Fishman, Shmuel; Keating, Jonathan; Agam, Oded; Main, Jorg; Muller, Kirsten

    1995-01-01

    According to theorems of Shnirelman and followers, in the semiclassical limit the quantum wavefunctions of classically ergodic systems tend to the microcanonical density on the energy shell. We here develop a semiclassical theory that relates the rate of approach to the decay of certain classical fluctuations. For uniformly hyperbolic systems we find that the variance of the quantum matrix elements is proportional to the variance of the integral of the associated classical operator over trajectory segments of length T_H, and inversely proportional to T_H^2, where T_H=h\\bar\\rho is the Heisenberg time, \\bar\\rho being the mean density of states. Since for these systems the classical variance increases linearly with T_H, the variance of the matrix elements decays like 1/T_H. For non-hyperbolic systems, like Hamiltonians with a mixed phase space and the stadium billiard, our results predict a slower decay due to sticking in marginally unstable regions. Numerical computations supporting these conclusions are presen...

  10. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-09-11

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Two-way DF relaying assisted D2D communication: ergodic rate and power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yiyang; Wang, Yuxi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ergodic rate for a device-to-device (D2D) communication system aided by a two-way decode-and-forward (DF) relay node. We first derive closed-form expressions for the ergodic rate of the D2D link under asymmetric and symmetric cases, respectively. We subsequently discuss two special scenarios including weak interference case and high signal-to-noise ratio case. Then we derive the tight approximations for each of the considered scenarios. Assuming that each transmitter only has access to its own statistical channel state information (CSI), we further derive closed-form power allocation strategy to improve the system performance according to the analytical results of the ergodic rate. Furthermore, some insights are provided for the power allocation strategy based on the analytical results. The strategies are easy to compute and require to know only the channel statistics. Numerical results show the accuracy of the analysis results under various conditions and test the availability of the power allocation strategy.

  12. Capacity analysis for high-speed terahertz wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We report on the analytical capacity analysis of terahertz wireless communications supporting 275–325 GHz frequency band. Our goal in this paper is to provide design guidelines for close proximity links with transmission capacity beyond 100 Gbit/s.......We report on the analytical capacity analysis of terahertz wireless communications supporting 275–325 GHz frequency band. Our goal in this paper is to provide design guidelines for close proximity links with transmission capacity beyond 100 Gbit/s....

  13. Weak ergodicity breaking, irreproducibility, and ageing in anomalous diffusion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Ralf [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany and Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-01-14

    Single particle traces are standardly evaluated in terms of time averages of the second moment of the position time series r(t). For ergodic processes, one can interpret such results in terms of the known theories for the corresponding ensemble averaged quantities. In anomalous diffusion processes, that are widely observed in nature over many orders of magnitude, the equivalence between (long) time and ensemble averages may be broken (weak ergodicity breaking), and these time averages may no longer be interpreted in terms of ensemble theories. Here we detail some recent results on weakly non-ergodic systems with respect to the time averaged mean squared displacement, the inherent irreproducibility of individual measurements, and methods to determine the exact underlying stochastic process. We also address the phenomenon of ageing, the dependence of physical observables on the time span between initial preparation of the system and the start of the measurement.

  14. On the ergodicity bounds for a constant retrial rate queueing model

    OpenAIRE

    Zeifman, Alexander; Satin, Yacov; Morozov, Evsey; Nekrasova, Ruslana; Gorshenin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Markovian single-server retrial queueing system with a constant retrial rate. Conditions of null ergodicity and exponential ergodicity for the correspondent process, as well as bounds on the rate of convergence are obtained.

  15. First experience with the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, K.H.; Abdullaev, S.S.; Jakubowski, M.; Kobayshi, M.; Lehnen, M.; Matsunaga, G.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schweer, B.; Sergienko, G.; Wolf, R. [Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Juelich (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Dynamic Ergodic Divertor, DED, is a new experiment on the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich. The DED consists of a set of coils with DC or AC (4 phases) electrical currents flowing parallel to the magnetic field lines. This causes a braiding of the magnetic flux tubes which is called ergodization. The strongly deflected field lines at the plasma edge form the laminar zone. The dynamic operation of the DED (AC current operation) should distribute the heat load to a large surface area and possibly induce a rotation of the plasma. First results are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Ergodic optimization in the expanding case concepts, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Garibaldi, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the interpretation of ergodic optimal problems as questions of variational dynamics, employing a comparable approach to that of the Aubry-Mather theory for Lagrangian systems. Ergodic optimization is primarily concerned with the study of optimizing probability measures. This work presents and discusses the fundamental concepts of the theory, including the use and relevance of Sub-actions as analogues to subsolutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Further, it provides evidence for the impressively broad applicability of the tools inspired by the weak KAM theory.

  17. Subgeometric Ergodicity under Random-Time State-Dependent Drift Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaedi V. Lekgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by possible applications of Lyapunov techniques in the stability of stochastic networks, subgeometric ergodicity of Markov chains is investigated. In a nutshell, in this study we take a look at f-ergodic general Markov chains, subgeometrically ergodic at rate r, when the random-time Foster-Lyapunov drift conditions on a set of stopping times are satisfied.

  18. Ergodic Retractions for Families of Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi Shahram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some theorems for the existence of ergodic retractions onto the set of common fixed points of a family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Our results extend corresponding results of Benavides and Ramírez (2001, and Li and Sims (2002.

  19. A stochastic Ergodic Theorem in Von-Neumann algebras | Tijani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we introduce the notion of stochastic convergence of τ- measurable operators and prove a noncommutative extension of pointwise ergodic theorem of G. D. Birkhoff by means of it by using the techniques developed by Petz in [12] Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 9 2005: pp.

  20. Super convergence of ergodic averages for quasiperiodic orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suddhasattwa; Yorke, James A.

    2018-02-01

    The Birkhoff ergodic theorem asserts that time averages of a function evaluated along a trajectory of length N converge to the space average, the integral of f, as N\\to∞ , for ergodic dynamical systems. But that convergence can be slow. Instead of uniform averages that assign equal weights to points along the trajectory, we use an average with a non-uniform distribution of weights, weighting the early and late points of the trajectory much less than those near the midpoint N/2 . We show that in quasiperiodic dynamical systems, our weighted averages converge far faster provided f is sufficiently differentiable. This result can be applied to obtain efficient numerical computation of rotation numbers, invariant densities and conjugacies of quasiperiodic systems.

  1. Notions of the ergodic hierarchy for curved statistical manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.

    2017-10-01

    We present an extension of the ergodic, mixing, and Bernoulli levels of the ergodic hierarchy for statistical models on curved manifolds, making use of elements of the information geometry. This extension focuses on the notion of statistical independence between the microscopical variables of the system. Moreover, we establish an intimately relationship between statistical models and families of probability distributions belonging to the canonical ensemble, which for the case of the quadratic Hamiltonian systems provides a closed form for the correlations between the microvariables in terms of the temperature of the heat bath as a power law. From this, we obtain an information geometric method for studying Hamiltonian dynamics in the canonical ensemble. We illustrate the results with two examples: a pair of interacting harmonic oscillators presenting phase transitions and the 2 × 2 Gaussian ensembles. In both examples the scalar curvature results a global indicator of the dynamics.

  2. Stationarity and Geometric Ergodicity of BEKK Multivariate GARCH Models

    OpenAIRE

    Boussama, Farid; Fuchs, Florian; Stelzer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Conditions for the existence of strictly stationary multivariate GARCH processes in the so-called BEKK parametrisation, which is the most general form of multivariate GARCH processes typically used in applications, and for their geometric ergodicity are obtained. The conditions are that the driving noise is absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure and zero is in the interior of its support and that a certain matrix built from the GARCH coefficients has spectral radius smalle...

  3. TIME HEADWAY ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE ROAD CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suweda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In developed countries, road capacity values derived from time headway is in accordance to their local traffic characteristics. In theory, time headway standards are developed using statistics models. These standards however, are not necessarily relevant to use in Indonesia. This is because of the differences in traffic conditions and motorists behaviours between those in developed countries and Indonesia. This study is to develop the time headway distribution model and subsequently to determine lionk-road capacity in the city of Denpasar, Bali Province. The study consists of time headway data analysis, model calibration and validation and road capacity values??determination. The study found that normal distribution model fitted the local traffic conditions. Road capacity values are of  2,466 pcus/hour and 2,900 pcus/hour obtained from time headway model and the Indonesian Road Capacity Manual (MKJI respectively.

  4. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  5. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side has...... in a practical multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. The capacity simulation accuracy is shown to be a valid measure to determine the test area size....

  6. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume different receivers. To explicitly show the capacity scaling law of SS MIMO systems, some approximate capacity expressions for the two scenarios are derived. Next, we extend our analysis to a multiple user system with zero-forcing receivers (ZF) under spatially-independent scheduling and analyze the sum-rate. Furthermore, we provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. Our results show that the secondary system with a smaller number of transmit antennas Nt and a larger number of receive antennas Nr can achieve higher capacity at lower interference temperature Q, but at high Q the capacity follows the scaling law of the conventional MIMO systems. However, for a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system, the secondary system with small Nt and large Nr can achieve the highest capacity throughout the entire region of Q. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Ntlog2(Q(KNtNp-1)/Nt), where Np denotes the number of antennas of the primary receiver and K represents the number of secondary transmitters.

  7. Structure of Quantum Chaotic Wavefunctions Ergodicity, Localization, and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in the study of quantum wavefunctions and transport in classically ergodic systems. Surprisingly, short-time classical dynamics leaves permanent imprints on long-time and stationary quantum behavior, which are absent from the long-time classical motion. These imprints can lead to quantum behavior on single-wavelength or single-channel scales which are very different from random matrix theory expectations. Robust and quantitative predictions are obtained using semiclassical methods. Applications to wavefunction intensity statistics and to resonances in open systems are discussed.

  8. The Non-Ergodic Nature of Internal Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby

    of chemical reaction dynamics. In this thesis, we focus on the non-ergodic nature of internal conversion, i.e. the concept that the nuclear dynamics only sample a reduced phase space potentially resulting in localization of the dynamics in real space. In essence, this is a consequence of vibrational energy...... the region near a conical intersection whereby internal conversion to the ground state proceeds before unfolding of the chain to form a diradical. A common trait of the three types of molecules investigated is the involvement of very few degrees of freedom in the process that leads to internal conversion...

  9. Topology, ergodic theory, real algebraic geometry Rokhlin's memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, V

    2001-01-01

    This book is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding Russian mathematician, V. A. Rokhlin (1919-1984). It is a collection of research papers written by his former students and followers, who are now experts in their fields. The topics in this volume include topology (the Morse-Novikov theory, spin bordisms in dimension 6, and skein modules of links), real algebraic geometry (real algebraic curves, plane algebraic surfaces, algebraic links, and complex orientations), dynamics (ergodicity, amenability, and random bundle transformations), geometry of Riemannian manifolds, theory of Teichmüller

  10. Ergodic properties of the ideal gas model for infinite billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Frączek, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study ergodic properties of the Poisson suspension (the ideal gas model) of the billiard flow $(b_t)_{t\\in\\mathbb R}$ on the plane with a $\\Lambda$-periodic pattern ($\\Lambda\\subset\\mathbb R^2$ is a lattice) of polygonal scatterers. We prove that if the billiard table is additionally rational then for a.e. direction $\\theta\\in S^1$ the Poisson suspension of the directional billiard flow $(b^\\theta_t)_{t\\in\\mathbb R}$ is weakly mixing. This gives the weak mixing of the Poisso...

  11. Ergodicity breaking in frustrated disordered systems: replicas in mean-field spin-glass models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janiš, Václav; Kauch, Anna; Klíč, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2015), s. 245-263 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ergodicity and thermodynamic homogeneity * real replicas * ergodicity and replica-symmetry breaking * asymptotic solution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.858, year: 2015

  12. SAFETY-BASED CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR CHINESE HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping YI, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have led to the development of theories and methodologies in roadway capacity analysis in the developed countries. However, those resources coexist with roadway design and traffic control practices in the local country, and cannot be simply transferred to China for applications. For example, the Highway Capacity Manual in the United State describes roadway capacity under ideal conditions and estimates practical capacities under prevailing conditions in the field. This capacity and the conditions for change are expected to be different on Chinese roadways as the local roadway design (lane width, curves and grades, vehicle size, and traffic mix are different. This research looks into an approach to the capacity issue different from the Highway Capacity Manual. According to the car-following principle, this paper first describes the safety criteria that affect traffic operations. Several speed schemes are subsequently discussed as they are affected by the maximum speed achievable under the local conditions. The study has shown that the effect of geometric and traffic conditions can be effectually reflected in the maximum speed adopted by the drivers. For most Chinese highways without a posted speed limit, the choice of speed by the drivers from the safety prospective is believed to have incorporated considerations of the practical driving conditions. Based on this, a condition for capacity calculation is obtained by comparing the desired vs. safety-based distance headways. The formulations of the model are mathematically sound and physically meaningful, and preliminary testing of the model is encouraging. Future research includes field data acquisition for calibration and adjustment, and model testing on Chinese highways.

  13. Inhomogeneous diffusion and ergodicity breaking induced by global memory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a class of discrete random-walk model driven by global memory effects. At any time, the right-left transitions depend on the whole previous history of the walker, being defined by an urnlike memory mechanism. The characteristic function is calculated in an exact way, which allows us to demonstrate that the ensemble of realizations is ballistic. Asymptotically, each realization is equivalent to that of a biased Markovian diffusion process with transition rates that strongly differs from one trajectory to another. Using this "inhomogeneous diffusion" feature, the ergodic properties of the dynamics are analytically studied through the time-averaged moments. Even in the long-time regime, they remain random objects. While their average over realizations recovers the corresponding ensemble averages, departure between time and ensemble averages is explicitly shown through their probability densities. For the density of the second time-averaged moment, an ergodic limit and the limit of infinite lag times do not commutate. All these effects are induced by the memory effects. A generalized Einstein fluctuation-dissipation relation is also obtained for the time-averaged moments.

  14. Ergodic properties of fractional Brownian-Langevin motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weihua; Barkai, Eli

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the time average mean-square displacement delta;{2}[over ](x(t))=integral_{0};{t-Delta}[x(t;{'}+Delta)-x(t;{'})];{2}dt;{'}(t-Delta) for fractional Brownian-Langevin motion where x(t) is the stochastic trajectory and Delta is the lag time. Unlike the previously investigated continuous-time random-walk model, delta;{2}[over ] converges to the ensemble average x;{2} approximately t;{2H} in the long measurement time limit. The convergence to ergodic behavior is slow, however, and surprisingly the Hurst exponent H=3/4 marks the critical point of the speed of convergence. When Hballistic limit H-->1 ergodicity is broken and E_{B} approximately 2 . The critical point H=3/4 is marked by the divergence of the coefficient k(H) . Fractional Brownian motion as a model for recent experiments of subdiffusion of mRNA in the cell is briefly discussed, and a comparison with the continuous-time random-walk model is made.

  15. Broken Ergodicity in MHD Turbulence in a Spherical Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.; wang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Broken ergodicity (BE) occurs in Fourier method numerical simulations of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Although naive statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that low-wave-number coefficients have non-zero mean values that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. In other words, large-scale coherent structure (i.e., broken ergodicity) in homogeneous MHD turbulence can spontaneously grow out of random initial conditions. Eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density functions of ideal statistical theory leads to a theoretical explanation of observed BE in homogeneous MHD turbulence. Since dissipation is minimal at the largest scales, BE is also relevant for resistive magnetofluids, as evidenced in numerical simulations. Here, we move beyond model magnetofluids confined by periodic boxes to examine BE in rotating magnetofluids in spherical domains using spherical harmonic expansions along with suitable boundary conditions. We present theoretical results for 3-D and 2-D spherical models and also present computational results from dynamical simulations of 2-D MHD turbulence on a rotating spherical surface. MHD turbulence on a 2-D sphere is affected by Coriolus forces, while MHD turbulence on a 2-D plane is not, so that 2-D spherical models are a useful (and simpler) intermediate stage on the path to understanding the much more complex 3-D spherical case.

  16. Is ergodicity a reasonable hypothesis for macroscopic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, B.; Schulman, L. S.

    2015-07-01

    In the physics literature "ergodicity" is sometimes taken to mean that a system, including a macroscopic one, visits all microscopic states in a relatively short time. However, many authors have realized that this is impossible and we provide a rigorous bound demonstrating this fact. A related concept is the "thermal distribution." This enters in an understanding of dissipation, comparing the thermal state (the Boltzmann or Gibbs distribution) to its time evolute using relative entropy. The thermal distribution is based on the microcanonical ensemble, whose equal probability assumption is another phrasing of ergodicity in a macroscopic physical context. The puzzle then is why the results of these assumptions are in agreement with experience. We suggest (as others also have) reasons for this limited agreement, but note that the foundations of statistical mechanics make much stronger assumptions, assumptions that do not have the support of either reason or experience. This article is supplemented with comments by P. Gaspard, Y. Pomeau and H. Qian and a final reply by the authors.

  17. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been financing the master's program in health and population at the Institut supérieure des sciences de la population (ISSP), Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. However, after ...

  18. Capacity analysis of wireless mesh networks | Gumel | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The next generation wireless· netWorks experienced agreat development with emergence of wireless mesh networks (WMNs), which can be regarded as a realistic solution that provides wireless broadband access. The limited available bandwidth makes capacity analysis of the network very essential. While the network ...

  19. CO2 Capacity Sorbent Analysis Using Volumetric Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger; Richardson, Tra-My Justine; Belancik, Grace; Jan, Darrell; Knox, James; Cmarik, Gregory E.; Ebner, Armin; Ritter, James

    2017-01-01

    In support of air revitalization system sorbent selection for future space missions, Ames Research Center (ARC) has performed CO2 capacity tests on various solid sorbents to complement structural strength tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The materials of interest are: Grace Davison Grade 544 13X, Honeywell UOP APG III, LiLSX VSA-10, BASF 13X, and Grace Davison Grade 522 5A. CO2 capacity was for all sorbent materials using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Physisorption Volumetric Analysis machine to produce 0 C, 10 C, 25 C, 50 C, and 75 C isotherms. These data are to be used for modeling data and to provide a basis for continued sorbent research. The volumetric analysis method proved to be effective in generating consistent and repeatable data for the 13X sorbents, but the method needs to be refined to tailor to different sorbents.

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of the african risk capacity facility:

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Daniel J; Hill, Ruth Vargas

    2013-01-01

    The African Risk Capacity (ARC), has been proposed as a pan-Africa drought risk pool to insure against drought risk in Africa south of the Sahara. If fully operationalized, the ARC will mark a major change in how donors fund emergency support to countries in Africa during times of need. In this paper, we undertake a cost-benefit analysis of the ARC pool and discuss how lessons can inform the design of the ARC.

  1. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  2. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi; Beczkowski, Szymon; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profile...

  3. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  4. Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: a statistical mechanics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A

    2011-07-01

    The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic nonstationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, that is, with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated with the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after applying a conditional measurement scheme to the original ones, providing is this way an alternative measurement interpretation of the thermodynamic approach. General results are obtained for renewal counting processes, that is, those where the time intervals between consecutive events are independent and defined by a unique waiting time distribution. The underlying statistical mechanics is controlled by the same waiting time distribution, rescaled by an exponential decay measured by the free energy function. A scale invariance, shift closure, and intermittence phenomena are obtained and interpreted in this context. Similar conclusions apply for nonrenewal processes when the memory between successive events is induced by a stochastic waiting time distribution.

  5. Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: A statistical mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A.

    2011-07-01

    The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic nonstationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, that is, with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated with the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after applying a conditional measurement scheme to the original ones, providing is this way an alternative measurement interpretation of the thermodynamic approach. General results are obtained for renewal counting processes, that is, those where the time intervals between consecutive events are independent and defined by a unique waiting time distribution. The underlying statistical mechanics is controlled by the same waiting time distribution, rescaled by an exponential decay measured by the free energy function. A scale invariance, shift closure, and intermittence phenomena are obtained and interpreted in this context. Similar conclusions apply for nonrenewal processes when the memory between successive events is induced by a stochastic waiting time distribution.

  6. Fractional Feynman-Kac equation for weak ergodicity breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Shai; Barkai, Eli

    2011-12-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a model of anomalous subdiffusion in which particles are immobilized for random times between successive jumps. A power-law distribution of the waiting times, ψ(τ) ~ τ(-(1+α)), leads to subdiffusion (x(2) ~ t(α)) for 0 equation if the motion is Brownian. Here, we derive forward and backward fractional Feynman-Kac equations for functionals of CTRW in a binding potential. We use our equations to study two specific time averages: the fraction of time spent by a particle in half-box, and the time average of the particle's position in a harmonic field. In both cases, we obtain the probability density function of the time averages for t → ∞ and the first two moments. Our results show that both the occupation fraction and the time-averaged position are random variables even for long times, except for α = 1, when they are identical to their ensemble averages. Using our fractional Feynman-Kac equation, we also study the dynamics leading to weak ergodicity breaking, namely the convergence of the fluctuations to their asymptotic values.

  7. Developing the UIC 406 Method for Capacity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex; Preston, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies an improvement cycle for analysing and enhancing capacity utilisation of an existing timetable. Macro and micro capacity utilisation are defined based on the discrete nature of capacity utilisation and different capacity metrics are analysed. In the category of macro asset...... utilisation, two methods of CUI and the UIC 406 are compared with each other. A British and a Danish case study are explored for a periodic and a nonperiodic timetable: 1- Freeing up capacity by omitting the train that has the highest capacity consumption (British case study). 2- Adding trains to use...

  8. Secrecy Capacity Analysis over α−μ Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we study the secrecy capacity of the classic Wyner’s model over the α − μ fading channels, where α and μ specify the nonlinearity and clustering of fading channels, respectively. The average secrecy capacity (ASC) is derived in closed-form by using the extended generalized bivariate Fox’s Hfunction (EGBFHF). Moreover, the asymptotic analysis of ASC in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is conducted. The asymptotic results unveil that the ASC follows the scaling law of Θ(ln p), where p stands for the ratio between the average powers of main channels and eavesdropping channels. Moreover, the ASC can be enhanced by increasing the transmit SNR, while there exists a ceiling of ASC as the SNRs at both sides are improved simultaneously. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that rigorous fading channels are beneficial to the secrecy performance, that is, serious nonlinearity (small α) and sparse clustering (small μ) will lead to the improvement of ASC.

  9. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Our objective was to assess capacity and capacity strengthening needs for HPSR&A conduct and teaching in the University of Ghana School of Public ... build upon already existing contextual, institutional and individual capacity; and also attract and develop the next generation of researchers and teachers.

  10. Capacity Analysis of a Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we consider a relay-assisted free-space optical (FSO) communication scheme in which the relay services multiple users and only the best user is selected so that the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. We assume that the link from the source to the relay is a radio-frequency (RF) link while the link between the relay and the destination is an FSO link. More specifically, we first present a statistical analysis for the systems under consideration over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these results, the capacity of these systems with and without adaptive transmission is analyzed. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Analysis of uplift bearing capacity of pile based on ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Fu, Jianbao

    2017-04-01

    The uplift bearing capacity of pile in soil foundation is mainly obtained by load test, which is time-consuming and low-efficiency. A small sliding model and the contact pairs in large-scale finite element software ABAQUS are used to simulate the friction between pile and soil, and a good fitting curve of pile foundation bearing capacity is obtained. According to the results of finite element software, the lateral friction of the pile is fully developed, and the stress of the pile gradually reaches the ultimate pullup capacity with the increase of pile displacement. The finite element software ABAQUS can be used to simulate uplift capacity of pile.

  12. Assessment of current AASHTO LRFD methods for static pile capacity analysis in Rhode Island soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of current AASHTO LRFD methods for static pile capacity analysis in Rhode : Island soils. Current static capacity methods and associated resistance factors are based on pile load test data in sands : and clays. Some...

  13. Evolution towards ergodic behavior of stationary fractal random processes with memory: application to the study of long-range correlations of nucleotide sequences in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel Ovidiu; Schönfisch, Birgitt; Mackey, Michael C.

    1996-02-01

    The possible occurrence of ergodic behavior for large times is investigated in the case of stationary random processes with memory. It is shown that for finite times the time average of a state function is generally a random variable and thus two types of cumulants can be introduced: for the time average and for the statistical ensemble, respectively. In the limit of infinite time a transition from the random to the deterministic behavior of the time average may occur, resulting in an ergodic behavior. The conditions of occurrence of this transition are investigated by analyzing the scaling behavior of the cumulants of the time average. A general approach for the computation of these cumulants is developed; explicit computations are presented both for short and long memory in the particular case of separable stationary processes for which the cumulants of a statistical ensemble can be factorized into products of functions depending on binary time differences. In both cases the ergodic behavior emerges for large times provided that the cumulants of a statistical ensemble decrease to zero as the time differences increase to infinity. The analysis leads to the surprising conclusion that the scaling behavior of the cumulants of the time average is relatively insensitive to the type of memory considered: both for short and long memory the cumulants of the time average obey inverse different from zero for large time differences, then the time averaage is random even as the length of the total time interval tends to infinity and the ergodic behavior no longer holds. The theory is applied to the study of long range correlations of nucleotide sequences in DNA; in this case the length t of a sequence of nucleotides plays the role of the time variable. A proportionality relationship is established between the cumulants of the pyrimidine excess in a sequence of length t and the cumulants of the time (length) average of the probability of occurrence of a pyrimidine. It is shown

  14. Public-Private Partnerships (PPP on moulding state structures: The Non-Ergodic Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amonya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPP is a ubiquitous reality. In Africa, the wave of PPP has hit states in their infancy – still moulding following only 50 years since independence. The common perspective of PPP on the realms of scholarship is transactional (focused on the delivery-end of infrastructure. This paper presents a deeper and broader perspective, and it is a distillate of a case study on PPP as a policy phenomenon. It dissects and illuminates the interaction between the forces of state formation and the wave of PPP hitting the continent. The lens of this case study is Institutional Rational Choice (IRC. The tools are a variety, comprising textual analysis, hermeneutics and econometrics – in keeping with the essence of case study (explication of reality in-situ. The product is not the orthodox generalization (claiming ‘the way’. Instead, the explication offers a viewpoint (and trigger questions on public space of Africa, while underpinning the non-ergodic character of that space

  15. Ergodic theory and negative curvature CIRM Jean-Morlet Chair, Fall 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Focussing on the mathematics related to the recent proof of ergodicity of the (Weil–Petersson) geodesic flow on a nonpositively curved space whose points are negatively curved metrics on surfaces, this book provides a broad introduction to an important current area of research. It offers original textbook-level material suitable for introductory or advanced courses as well as deep insights into the state of the art of the field, making it useful as a reference and for self-study.  The first chapters introduce hyperbolic dynamics, ergodic theory and geodesic and horocycle flows, and include an English translation of Hadamard's original proof of the Stable-Manifold Theorem. An outline of the strategy, motivation and context behind the ergodicity proof is followed by a careful exposition of it (using the Hopf argument) and of the pertinent context of Teichmüller theory. Finally, some complementary lectures describe the deep connections between geodesic flows in negative curvature and Diophantine approximatio...

  16. Inspiratory Capacity during Exercise: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Guenette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET is an established method for evaluating dyspnea and ventilatory abnormalities. Ventilatory reserve is typically assessed as the ratio of peak exercise ventilation to maximal voluntary ventilation. Unfortunately, this crude assessment provides limited data on the factors that limit the normal ventilatory response to exercise. Additional measurements can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of respiratory mechanical constraints during CPET (e.g., expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes. These measurements are directly dependent on an accurate assessment of inspiratory capacity (IC throughout rest and exercise. Despite the valuable insight that the IC provides, there are no established recommendations on how to perform the maneuver during exercise and how to analyze and interpret the data. Accordingly, the purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively examine a number of methodological issues related to the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the IC. We will also briefly discuss IC responses to exercise in health and disease and will consider how various therapeutic interventions influence the IC, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our main conclusion is that IC measurements are both reproducible and responsive to therapy and provide important information on the mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise limitation during CPET.

  17. On Modelling Long Term Stock Returns with Ergodic Diffusion Processes: Arbitrage and Arbitrage-Free Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wong

    2009-01-01

    martingale component is based on an ergodic diffusion with a specified stationary distribution. These models are particularly useful for long horizon asset-liability management as they allow the modelling of long term stock returns with heavy tail ergodic diffusions, with tractable, time homogeneous dynamics, and which moreover admit a complete financial market, leading to unique pricing and hedging strategies. Unfortunately the standard specifications of these models in literature admit arbitrage opportunities. We investigate in detail the features of the existing model specifications which create these arbitrage opportunities and consequently construct a modification that is arbitrage free.

  18. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese; Warrington, Greg; Schwenk, W. Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with clustered distributions (where the problem can be broken into several, smaller problems), or for species with large home ranges relative to grid scale where resampling the points to

  19. Proteomic analysis of protein adsorption capacity of different haemodialysis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Andrea; Lupisella, Santina; Sirolli, Vittorio; Bucci, Sonia; Amoroso, Luigi; Pavone, Barbara; Pieroni, Luisa; Sacchetta, Paolo; Bonomini, Mario

    2012-04-01

    Protein-adsorptive properties are a key feature of membranes used for haemodialysis treatment. Protein adsorption is vital to the biocompatibility of a membrane material and influences membrane's performance. The object of the present study is to investigate membrane biocompatibility by correlating the adsorbed proteome repertoire with chemical feature of the membrane surfaces. Dialyzers composed of either cellulose triacetate (Sureflux 50 L, effective surface area 0.5 m(2); Nipro Corporation, Japan) or the polysulfone-based helixone (FX40, effective surface area 0.4 m(2); Fresenius Medical Care AG, Germany) materials were employed to develop an ex vivo apparatus to study protein adsorption. Adsorbed proteins were eluted by a strong chaotropic buffer condition and investigated by a proteomic approach. The profiling strategy was based on 2D-electrophoresis separation of desorbed protein coupled to MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. The total protein adsorption was not significantly different between the two materials. An average of 179 protein spots was visualised for helixone membranes while a map of retained proteins of cellulose triacetate membranes was made up of 239 protein spots. The cellulose triacetate material showed a higher binding capacity for albumin and apolipoprotein. In fact, a number of different protein spots belonging to the gene transcript of albumin were visible in the cellulose triacetate map. In contrast, helixone bound only a small proportion of albumin, while proved to be particularly active in retaining protein associated with the coagulation cascade, such as the fibrinogen isoforms. Our data indicate that proteomic techniques are a useful approach for the investigation of proteins surface-adsorbed onto haemodialysis membranes, and may provide a molecular base for the interpretation of the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation treatment during renal replacement therapy.

  20. Capacity Analysis for Parallel Runway through Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel runway is the mainstream structure of China hub airport, runway is often the bottleneck of an airport, and the evaluation of its capacity is of great importance to airport management. This study outlines a model, multiagent architecture, implementation approach, and software prototype of a simulation system for evaluating runway capacity. Agent Unified Modeling Language (AUML is applied to illustrate the inbound and departing procedure of planes and design the agent-based model. The model is evaluated experimentally, and the quality is studied in comparison with models, created by SIMMOD and Arena. The results seem to be highly efficient, so the method can be applied to parallel runway capacity evaluation and the model propose favorable flexibility and extensibility.

  1. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  2. Ergodicity of the LLR method for the Density of States arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Cossu, Guido; Pellegrini, Roberto; Rago, Antonio

    The LLR method is a novel algorithm that enables us to evaluate the density of states in lattice gauge theory. We present our study of the ergodicity properties of the LLR algorithm for the model of Yang Mills SU(3). We show that the use of the replica exchange method alleviates significantly the topological freeze-out that severely affects other algorithms.

  3. Extended application of constructive criteria for ergodicity of interacting particle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeJong, H; Maes, C

    We discuss computational aspects of verifying constructive criteria for ergodicity of interacting particle systems. Both discrete time (probabilistic cellular automata) and continuous time spin flip dynamics are considered. We also investigate how the criteria have to be adapted if stirring is added

  4. Let the Game Begin: Ergodic as an Approach for Video Game Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sf. Lukfianka Sanjaya Purnama, Sf. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo, Dyah Nugrahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to propose ergodic as an approach for video game translation. The word approach here refers to an approach for translation products and to an approach for the translation process. The steps to formulate ergodic as an approach are first, Aarseth’sergodic literature is reviewed to elicit a basis for comprehension toward its relationship with video games and video game translation Secondly, taking the translation of Electronic Arts’Need for Speed: Own the City, Midway’s Mortal Kombat: Unchained, and Konami’s Metal Gear Solid, ergodic based approach for video game translation is formulated. The formulation signifies that ergodic, as an approach for video game translation, revolves around the treatment of video games as a cybertext from which scriptons, textons, and traversal functions as the configurative mechanism influence the selection of translation strategies and the transferability of variables and traversal function, game aesthetics, and ludus and narrative of the games. The challenges countered when treating video games as a cybertext are the necessities for the translators to convey anamorphosis, mechanical and narrative hidden meaning of the analyzed frame, to consider the textonomy of the games, and at the same time to concern on GILT (Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, and Translation.

  5. Ruin probability with claims modeled by a stationary ergodic stable process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Samorodnitsky, G

    2000-01-01

    For a random walk with negative drift we study the exceedance probability (ruin probability) of a high threshold. The steps of this walk (claim sizes) constitute a stationary ergodic stable process. We study how ruin occurs in this situation and evaluate the asymptotic behavior of the ruin

  6. Bilingualism and Working Memory Capacity: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G.; Timmer, Kalinka

    2017-01-01

    Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on executive function tasks, including tasks that tap cognitive flexibility, conflict monitoring, and task-switching abilities. Some have suggested that bilinguals also have greater working memory capacity than comparable monolinguals, but evidence for this suggestion is mixed. We therefore conducted a…

  7. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-27

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-o ff power control scheme.

  8. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-02-23

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme.

  9. Vehicle classes for pavement design and capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala, J.; Asce, M.; Lalani, N.; O' Connell, R.; Petersen, C.

    1986-11-01

    Transportation engineers working in Colorado were aware of a lack of published data at both the local and national level for vehicle classes on urban streets. Such vehicle class breakdowns are necessary for calculating equivalent daily loaded axle (EDLA) values for pavement design and conducting capacity analyses. A technical committee was formed to collect and analyze weekday vehicle class data on urban streets of various types. The major vehicle classes are passenger cars (70-75%), pickups (15-20%), single unit trucks (5-7%); tractor-trailers, buses, and recreational vehicles account for less than 1%. Using these data, a microcomputer spread sheet was set up to calculate EDLA values for pavement design for a range of design year volumes. This vehicle class data is also very useful in highway capacity calculations.

  10. Performance Analysis of a Finite Capacity Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A feasible solution to wireless spectrum scarcity is the deployment of femtocells along with already existing or new macrocells. This hybrid architecture not only helps to increase the system capacity but also improves the wireless signal quality for indoor users. Moreover, these femtocells can offer higher data rates to indoor users. In this paper, we analyze the performance of a finite capacity femtocell network. The transmission of data from M communicating nodes to a FAP (Femtocell Access Point is modelled as M/M/1/K queue. The access point in this case can hold a maximum of K-I packets in its buffer, hence the system represents a finite capacity network. The performance of the system is evaluated in term of QoS (Quality of Service parameters such as packet blocking probability, average packet delay and utilization for different buffer sizes. The results reveal that with an increase in buffer size, the packet blocking probability decreases however at the cost of increased average delay

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF THE COMPANIE'S ECONOMIC GROWTH CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia BURJA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable economic growth of companies constitutes a strategic management objective as it is ofgeneral interest. The companies’ accrued net worth and their capacity to generate profit result in increasedcompetitiveness. This paper presents a general model to analyze the companies’ economic growth grounded on theinvested capital profitability that is illustrated in an adequate case study. The described model highlights the majorfactors influencing economic growth at a microeconomic level as well as the direction they act, providing thepossibility to better substantiate decisions that serve this purpose.

  12. Railway capacity and expansion analysis using time discretized paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2017-01-01

    variable penalties for the different passenger busy time slots. As part of a European Union project, all models are applied to a realistic case study that focuses on analyzing the capacity of railway network, in Denmark and Southern Sweden using demand forecasts for 2030. Results suggest that informative...... of railway freight transportation on a long term strategic level. The model uses an hourly time discretization and analyses the impact of railway network expansions based on future demand forecasts. It provides an optimal macroscopic freight train schedule and can indicate the time and place of any...

  13. Effect of Antenna Type on the Capacity of Body-to-Body Capacity When Using Uniform Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Khalida

    2012-09-01

    Body-area networks are led to target multimedia applications where high-data rate is involved. In this paper, the characterization of the measured body-to-body channels and the ergodic capacity with uniform power allocation is discussed when using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) PIFA and IFA antenna systems. This capacity is compared to the measured belt-head and belt-chest on-body channels using PIFA antennas in the same environment. It is shown that body channels reach less ergodic capacity than the equivalent Rayleigh channel because of the presence of a LOS component. The capacity is the same for the body-to-body case regardless of the antenna and the on-body channels reach better capacity values compared to these former. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. On the capacity of FSO links under lognormal and Rician-lognormal turbulences

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2014-09-01

    A unified capacity analysis under weak and composite turbulences of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, a unified exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, unified approximate and simple closed- form results are offered for the ergodic capacity at high SNR regime as well as at low SNR regime. All the presented results are verified via computer- based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  15. A new methodology for assessing health policy and systems research and analysis capacity in African universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Gillian; Mirzoev, Tolib; Orgill, Marsha; Erasmus, Ermin; Lehmann, Uta; Okeyo, Stephen; Goudge, Jane; Maluka, Stephen; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Aikins, Moses; de Savigny, Don; Tomson, Goran; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-08

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) has been increasingly recognised, but it is still unclear how most effectively to strengthen the capacity of the different organisations involved in this field. Universities are particularly crucial but the expansive literature on capacity development has little to offer the unique needs of HPSR+A activity within universities, and often overlooks the pivotal contribution of capacity assessments to capacity strengthening. The Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa 2011-2015 designed and implemented a new framework for capacity assessment for HPSR+A within universities. The methodology is reported in detail. Our reflections on developing and conducting the assessment generated four lessons for colleagues in the field. Notably, there are currently no published capacity assessment methodologies for HPSR+A that focus solely on universities - we report a first for the field to initiate the dialogue and exchange of experiences with others. Second, in HPSR+A, the unit of assessment can be a challenge, because HPSR+A groups within universities tend to overlap between academic departments and are embedded in different networks. Third, capacity assessment experience can itself be capacity strengthening, even when taking into account that doing such assessments require capacity. From our experience, we propose that future systematic assessments of HPSR+A capacity need to focus on both capacity assets and needs and assess capacity at individual, organisational, and systems levels, whilst taking into account the networked nature of HPSR+A activity. A genuine partnership process between evaluators and those participating in an assessment can improve the quality of assessment and uptake of results in capacity strengthening.

  16. Experimental study of the topological aspect of the ergodic divertor in Tore-supra tokamak; Etude experimentale des aspects topologiques du divertor ergodique de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanzo, L

    2001-10-01

    The control of power deposition onto plasma facing components in tokamaks is a determining factor for future thermonuclear fusion reactors. Plasma surface interaction can be performed using limiters or divertors. The ergodic divertor installed on Tore Supra is an atypical example of a magnetic divertor. It consists in applying a magnetic perturbation which establishes a particular topology of the plasma in contact with the wall (edge plasma). We carried out dedicated experiments in order to study parallel heat flux which strike the divertor neutralizers. This quantitative and qualitative analysis of heat flux as a function of experimental conditions allows to determine the profiles of power deposition along the neutralizers. The influence of plasma electron density, additional heating, impurities and injected gas was established. An experimental study of the sheath heat transmission factor {gamma} was carried out by correlating measurements made with Langmuir probes and infrared imaging. This study gave rise to a major conclusion: for ohmic discharges with deuterium injection and most of the time with helium, it was experimentally confirmed that {gamma}=7 in agreement with classical sheath theory. However, an increase of this factor with additional power has been shown. Detached plasma, which is an attractive regime in order to reduce the power deposition, requires an optimized control. A new measurement of the detachment onset has been developed. It is based on the variation of heat flux onto the plates derived from infrared measurements. A detachment cartography with the determination of a new 2D 'IR' Degree of Detachment was carried out allowing to locate the zone where the detachment starts. We can apply this concept both to other tokamaks such as JET and ITER. A comparison between the axisymmetric divertor and the ergodic divertor is also presented concerning the power deposition in the two configurations. Low heat flux with the ergodic divertor is a

  17. Quantum unique ergodicity of Eisenstein series on the Hilbert modular group over a totally real field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Jimi Lee

    2011-01-01

    W. Luo and P. Sarnak have proved the quantum unique ergodicity property for Eisenstein series on PSL(2, )\\. Their result is quantitative in the sense that they find the precise asymptotics of the measure considered. We extend their result to Eisenstein series on , where is the ring of integers in...... in a totally real field of degree n over with narrow class number one, using the Eisenstein series considered by I. Efrat. We also give an expository treatment of the theory of Hecke operators on non-holomorphic Hilbert modular forms.......W. Luo and P. Sarnak have proved the quantum unique ergodicity property for Eisenstein series on PSL(2, )\\. Their result is quantitative in the sense that they find the precise asymptotics of the measure considered. We extend their result to Eisenstein series on , where is the ring of integers...

  18. Risk Analysis of Volume Cheat Strategy in a Competitive Capacity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    of the supplier's profit streams and attitudes towards risk. Two types of suppliers are identified with high potential of capacity cheating behavior in the analysis. The methodology and the results are potentially useful for regulating participants' misbehaviors and enhancing the operation security in a capacity....... This paper analyzes the risks and profits of this capacity-over-offer behavior, and develops a method for computing non-operable penalty level which can prevent the capacity-over-offer behavior. It is found that the effective penalty level is highly correlated with the stochastic characteristics...

  19. Examples of Minimal Diffeomorphisms on $t^{2}$ Semiconjugated to an Ergodic Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Passeggi, Alejandro; Sambarino, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We prove that for every $\\epsilon>0$ there exists a minimal diffeomorphism $f:\\T^{2}\\rightarrow\\T^{2}$ of class $C^{3-\\epsilon}$ and semiconjugate to an ergodic traslation, and have the following properties: zero entropy, sensitivity with respect to initial conditions and Li-Yorke chaos. These examples are obtained through the holonomy of the unstable foliation of Ma\\~{n}\\'e's example of derived from Anosov diffeomorphism on $\\T^3.$

  20. Ergodic inequality of a two-parameter infinitely-many-alleles diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Youzhou

    2015-01-01

    In this paper three models are considered. They are the infinitely-many-neutral-alleles model of Ethier and Kurtz (1981), the two-parameter infinitely-many-alleles diffusion model of Petrov (2009), and the infinitely-many-alleles model with symmetric dominance Ethier and Kurtz (1998). New representations of the transition densities are obtained for the first two models and the ergodic inequalities are provided for all three models.

  1. A new fuzzy Monte Carlo method for solving SLAE with ergodic fuzzy Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gharehdaghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new fuzzy Monte Carlo method for solving system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE over the possibility theory and max-min algebra. To solve the SLAE, we first define a fuzzy estimator and prove that this is an unbiased estimator of the solution. To prove unbiasedness, we apply the ergodic fuzzy Markov chains. This new approach works even for cases with coefficients matrix with a norm greater than one.

  2. Quantum Unique Ergodicity for Eisenstein Series on the Hilbert Modular Group over a Totally Real Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Jimi Lee

    W. Luo and P. Sarnak have proved quantum unique ergodicity for Eisenstein series on $PSL(2,Z) \\backslash H$. We extend their result to Eisenstein series on $PSL(2,O) \\backslash H^n$, where $O$ is the ring of integers in a totally real field of degree $n$ over $Q$ with narrow class number one, usi...... the Eisenstein series considered by I. Efrat. We also give an expository treatment of the theory of Hecke operators on non-holomorphic Hilbert modular forms....

  3. Building Capacity in Health Systems and Policy Analysis in sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 avr. 2010 ... This grant will support the design of a module worth six credits (120 hours) within the master's program in health and population, and a scholarship program for some 40 students to specialize in health systems and policy analysis. This will prepare them to undertake critical and comparative analysis of ...

  4. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models for energy policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, E.; Edenburn, M.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes electric utility capacity expansion and energy production models developed for energy policy analysis. The models use the same principles (life cycle cost minimization, least operating cost dispatching, and incorporation of outages and reserve margin) as comprehensive utility capacity planning tools, but are faster and simpler. The models were not designed for detailed utility capacity planning, but they can be used to accurately project trends on a regional level. Because they use the same principles as comprehensive utility capacity expansion planning tools, the models are more realistic than utility modules used in present policy analysis tools. They can be used to help forecast the effects energy policy options will have on future utility power generation capacity expansion trends and to help formulate a sound national energy strategy. The models make renewable energy source competition realistic by giving proper value to intermittent renewable and energy storage technologies, and by competing renewables against each other as well as against conventional technologies.

  6. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Feihong; Xie, Zhidong; Bian, Dongming

    2015-11-17

    This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN) in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK) engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN.

  7. Capacity Model and Constraints Analysis for Integrated Remote Wireless Sensor and Satellite Network in Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the capacity problem of an integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network (IWSSN in emergency scenarios. We formulate a general model to evaluate the remote sensor and satellite network capacity. Compared to most existing works for ground networks, the proposed model is time varying and space oriented. To capture the characteristics of a practical network, we sift through major capacity-impacting constraints and analyze the influence of these constraints. Specifically, we combine the geometric satellite orbit model and satellite tool kit (STK engineering software to quantify the trends of the capacity constraints. Our objective in analyzing these trends is to provide insights and design guidelines for optimizing the integrated remote wireless sensor and satellite network schedules. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis of capacity trends and show the optimization opportunities of the IWSSN.

  8. [Ecological footprint calculation and development capacity analysis of China in 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Guodong; Chen, Dongjing

    2003-02-01

    The ecological footprint method put forward and improved by William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel presents a methodologically simple but integrated framework for national natural capital accounting, which is capable of measuring the impact of Human's consumption on ecosystem. Based on the ecological footprint theory and calculation method, a flow network analysis method was introduced to illuminate the structure of complex ecological economic system, and the relationship among ecological footprint, diversity and development capacity was analyzed. In this paper, the ecological footprints of China and its provinces was calculated and compared with the national and local ecological carrying capacity. The results showed that the ecological footprints of China and most of its provinces were beyond the available ecological capacity, and China and its most provinces run 'national or regional ecological deficit'. In case of China, the national ecological deficit was 0.645 hm2 per cap in 1999. Secondly, we introduced a flow network analysis method, taking various ecological productive area as note, and adopted Ulanowicz's development capacity formula to analyze the relationship among ecological footprint diversity, development capacity and output. The results demonstrated that Ulanowicz's development capacity was a good predictor of economic system output. At the same time, two distinct ways to change development capacity were produced. Increasing ecological footprint or increasing ecological footprint's diversity would both increase development capacity. Due to the fact that the ecological footprints had already been beyond bio-capacities, the only way to increase development capacity was to increase ecological footprint's diversity. The positive relationship between ecological footprint diversity and resources utilization efficiency demonstrated that there was no conflict between increasing ecological footprint's diversity and reducing footprints while not comprising our

  9. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  10. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regardless...

  11. Surveying a complex potential energy landscape: Overcoming broken ergodicity using basin-sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2013-10-01

    A new basin-sampling scheme is introduced to obtain equilibrium thermodynamic properties by combining results from global optimisation and parallel tempering calculations. Regular minimisation is used to obtain a two-dimensional density of states. A model anharmonic form is optimised using a multihistogram approach for potential energy bins corresponding to local minima, connecting the results obtained for low and high temperatures. This procedure provides accurate densities of states and thermodynamic properties for benchmark atomic clusters exhibiting broken ergodicity. It can also be used to calculate the potential energy density of local minima for distinct permutation-inversion isomers and distinct structures.

  12. Stationary distribution and ergodicity of a stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingyi; Liu, Meng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three-species stochastic food-chain model with Lévy jumps is proposed and analyzed. Sharp sufficient criteria for the existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution are established. The effects of Lévy jumps on the existence of the stationary distribution are revealed: in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution appear, while in some cases, the Lévy jumps could make the stationary distribution disappear. Some numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate the theoretical results.

  13. On the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-10-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of fast fading channels under imperfect main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) estimation at the transmitter. Lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate follows from a standard wiretap code in which a simple on-off power control is employed along with a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and eavesdropper channels and is the best known upper bound so far. The upper and lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in case of perfect main CSI. Furthermore, the upper bound is tight in case of no main CSI, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Asymptotic analysis at high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also given. At high SNR, we show that the capacity is bounded by providing upper and lower bounds that depend on the channel estimation error. At low SNR, however, we prove that the secrecy capacity is asymptotically equal to the capacity of the main channel as if there were no secrecy constraint. Numerical results are provided for i.i.d. Rayleigh fading channels.

  14. An MGF-based capacity analysis of equal gain combining over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-09-01

    Exact average capacity results for L-branch coherent equal-gain combining (EGC) in correlated and uncorrelated fading channels are not known. This paper develops a novel framework (approach) for capacity analysis of L-branch EGC in generalized fading channels. In addition, Gamma shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model is proposed in order to statistically model the fading environments in high frequencies such as 60 GHz and above. Some simulations are carried out and then the obtained results are accentuated by means of numerical analysis based on the proposed framework. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed framework, are in perfect agreement. ©2010 IEEE.

  15. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  16. Extreme flood event analysis in Indonesia based on rainfall intensity and recharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narulita, Ida; Ningrum, Widya

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is very vulnerable to flood disaster because it has high rainfall events throughout the year. Flood is categorized as the most important hazard disaster because it is causing social, economic and human losses. The purpose of this study is to analyze extreme flood event based on satellite rainfall dataset to understand the rainfall characteristic (rainfall intensity, rainfall pattern, etc.) that happened before flood disaster in the area for monsoonal, equatorial and local rainfall types. Recharge capacity will be analyzed using land cover and soil distribution. The data used in this study are CHIRPS rainfall satellite data on 0.05 ° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution, and GSMap satellite rainfall dataset operated by JAXA on 1-hour temporal resolution and 0.1 ° spatial resolution, land use and soil distribution map for recharge capacity analysis. The rainfall characteristic before flooding, and recharge capacity analysis are expected to become the important information for flood mitigation in Indonesia.

  17. Computable Bounds for Rate Distortion with Feed-Forward for Stationary and Ergodic Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Naiss, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the rate distortion problem of discrete-time, ergodic, and stationary sources with feed forward at the receiver. We derive a sequence of achievable and computable rates that converge to the feed-forward rate distortion. We show that, for ergodic and stationary sources, the rate {align} R_n(D)=\\frac{1}{n}\\min I(\\hat{X}^n\\rightarrow X^n){align} is achievable for any $n$, where the minimization is taken over the transition conditioning probability $p(\\hat{x}^n|x^n)$ such that $\\ex{}{d(X^n,\\hat{X}^n)}\\leq D$. The limit of $R_n(D)$ exists and is the feed-forward rate distortion. We follow Gallager's proof where there is no feed-forward and, with appropriate modification, obtain our result. We provide an algorithm for calculating $R_n(D)$ using the alternating minimization procedure, and present several numerical examples. We also present a dual form for the optimization of $R_n(D)$, and transform it into a geometric programming problem.

  18. Unique ergodicity and the approximation of attractors and their invariant measures using Ulam's method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Fern Y.

    1998-03-01

    Asymptotically stable attractors supporting an invariant measure, for which the ergodic theorem holds almost everywhere with respect to Lebesgue measure, can be approximated by a space discretization procedure called Ulam's method. As an application of this result we propose the use of this method to approximate the `chaotic' attractors of flows in lower dimensions. A Monte Carlo implementation makes this feasible. The approximation method can be extended to attractors whose neighbourhoods contain positively invariant compact sets called blocks. Note that such attractors can fail to have open basins of attraction. When the attractor is uniquely ergodic, we also prove the weak convergence of the approximate measures constructed by the method and as an application, we show the weak convergence of Ulam's method for the logistic map at the Feigenbaum parameter value. More generally, using the work of Buescu and Stewart on transitive attractors of continuous maps, we prove weak convergence of the approximate measures and convergence of their supports to classes of Lyapounov stable attracting Cantor sets.

  19. Control of divertor geometry and performance of the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph. E-mail: ghendrih@drfc.cad.cea.fr; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L.; Corre, Y.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Mank, G.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.-C.; Zabiego, M.; Azeroual, A.; Bucalossi, J.; Devynck, P.; De Michelis, C; Finken, K.H.; Hogan, J.; Laugier, F.; Nguyen, F.; Pegourie, B.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schunke, B

    2001-03-01

    Experimental evidence of the location of the ergodic divertor separatrix is shown to agree with the predicted value given by codes. Variation of this position modifies the divertor tightness, defined as the ratio of the divertor to core density. This effect is governed by laminar transport, i.e., transport proportional to the magnitude of the perturbation. Operation with feedback control of the divertor temperature allows one to optimise the choice of injected impurity species. At 10 eV divertor temperature, nitrogen is shown to lead to the largest decrease in energy flux to the divertor at lowest contribution to Z{sub eff}. Parallel energy fluxes as low as 2 MW m{sup -2} are thus achieved on the target plates. For this impurity, radiation is localised in the divertor volume thus leading to radiation compression close to 10. The ergodic divertor appears as a powerful tool to control plasma-wall interaction with no loss of core confinement or plasma current.

  20. Making sense of snapshot data: ergodic principle for clonal cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp

    2017-11-01

    Population growth is often ignored when quantifying gene expression levels across clonal cell populations. We develop a framework for obtaining the molecule number distributions in an exponentially growing cell population taking into account its age structure. In the presence of generation time variability, the average acquired across a population snapshot does not obey the average of a dividing cell over time, apparently contradicting ergodicity between single cells and the population. Instead, we show that the variation observed across snapshots with known cell age is captured by cell histories, a single-cell measure obtained from tracking an arbitrary cell of the population back to the ancestor from which it originated. The correspondence between cells of known age in a population with their histories represents an ergodic principle that provides a new interpretation of population snapshot data. We illustrate the principle using analytical solutions of stochastic gene expression models in cell populations with arbitrary generation time distributions. We further elucidate that the principle breaks down for biochemical reactions that are under selection, such as the expression of genes conveying antibiotic resistance, which gives rise to an experimental criterion with which to probe selection on gene expression fluctuations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. The influence of the dynamic ergodic divertor on the radial electric field at the Tokamak TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, Jan Willem

    2009-11-06

    In this work the influence of external Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) on the radial electric field Er in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated by Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) at the Tokamak TEXTOR. Here, the RMPs are produced with the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED), a set of 16 helical perturbation coils located at the high field side of TEXTOR. Within this work, the base mode number of perturbations has been m/n=6/2. We have first investigated the influence of external torque from neutral heating beams on plasma rotation and E{sub r}. The ergodic zone causes an electron loss, and subsequently a (vector)j x (vector)B force driven by the compensating ion return current. In addition, the DED changes the global confinement properties. Depending on the edge safety factor (''field line twist'') q{sub a}, either increased or decreased particle confinement is observed. In case of the increased particle confinement (IPC) the increase in density (40%) and particle confinement time {tau}{sub p} (30%) is correlated to the connection of field lines at the q=5/2 surface to the DED target, locally changing the transport properties and the E{sub r}. Transport is reduced and the E{sub r} shear is increased locally at q=5/2 up to 1.5 . 10{sup 5}s{sup -1}, while the E{sub r} becomes more positive. (orig.)

  2. Capacity Analysis of Ro-Ro Terminals by Using Simulation Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Deniz Özkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Ro-Ro terminals, terminal capacity is more needed than other types of marine terminals since Ro-Ro cargoes cannot be stacked. In this sense, the variables affecting capacity of a Ro-Ro terminal can be listed as follows; number of vehicles arrived to a terminal, distance between terminals, ship capacity, terminal gates, customs control units, terminal traffic and local traffic, security check, bunkering services etc. In this study, a model generated intended for making capacity analysis in Ro-Ro terminals by using simulation modeling method. Effect of three variables to terminal capacity was investigated while generating the scenarios; ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’, ‘distance between terminals’ and ‘Ro-Ro ship capacity’. The results show that the variable which affect terminal capacity mostly is ‘number of trucks arriving to terminals’. As a consequence of this situation, it is thought that a Ro-Ro terminal operator must prioritize the demand factor and make an effective demand forecasting in determination of the terminal area.

  3. Effects of Exercise Therapy on Balance Capacity in Chronic Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Heeren, A.; Peters, M.A.; Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of exercise training on balance capacity in people in the chronic phase after stroke. Furthermore, we aimed to identify which training regimen was most effective. METHODS: Electronic

  4. Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Loth (Daan); M.S. Artigas; S.A. Gharib (Sina); L.V. Wain (Louise); N. Franceschini (Nora); B. Koch (Beate); T.D. Pottinger (Tess); G.D. Smith; Q. Duan (Qing); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M.K. Lee (Mi Kyeong); D.P. Strachan (David); A.L. James (Alan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); X.-Q. Wang (Xin-Qun); H. Trochet (Holly); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Flexeder (Claudia); E. Albrecht (Eva); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); B. Thyagarajan (Bharat); A.C. Alves (Alexessander Couto); S. Enroth (Stefan); E. Omenaas (Ernst); P.K. Joshi (Peter); M. Fall (Magnus); A. Viñuela (Ana); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L.R. Loehr (Laura); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Li (Guo); J.B. Wilk (Jemma); W. Tang (Wenbo); A. Manichaikul (Ani); L. Lahousse (Lies); T.B. Harris (Tamara); K.E. North (Kari); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); J. Hui (Jennie); X. Gu (Xiangjun); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.F. Wright (Alan); N. Hastie (Nick); S. Campbell (Susan); R. Kumar (Rajesh); I. Pin (Isabelle); R.A. Scott (Robert); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); I. Surakka (Ida); Y. Liu (Yongmei); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); H. Schulz (Holger); J. Heinrich (Joachim); G. Davies (Gail); J.M. Vonk (Judith); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Pouta (Anneli); A. Johansson (Åsa); S.H. Wild (Sarah); E. Ingelsson (Erik); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Völzke (Henry); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); W. Gao (Wei); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); W.B. White (Wendy); S.S. Rich (Stephen); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Aspelund (Thor); D. Couper (David); L.J. Smith (Lewis); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. Lohman (Kurt); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Garcia (Melissa); B.R. Joubert (Bonnie); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A.W. Musk (Arthur); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); L. Zgaga (Lina); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); P. Navarro (Pau); I. Rudan (Igor); Y.-M. Oh (Yeon-Mok); S. Redline (Susan); D.L. Jarvis (Deborah); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); T. Rantanen (Taina); G.T. O'Connor (George); S. Ripatti (Samuli); R.J. Scott (Rodney); S. Karrasch (Stefan); H. Grallert (Harald); N.C. Gaddis (Nathan); J.M. Starr (John); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); R.L. Minster (Ryan); C.W. Lederer (Carsten); J. Pekkanen (Juha); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); H. Campbell (Harry); A.P. Morris (Andrew); S. Gläser (Sven); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); K.M. Burkart (Kristin); J.P. Beilby (John); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.B. Hancock (Dana); O.D. Williams (Dale); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M.F. Petrini (Marcy); K.T. de Jong (Kim); M. Wjst (Matthias); W.H. Kim (Woo); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Scotland (Generation); B.H. Smith (Blair); A. Viljanen (Anne); M. Heliovaara (Markku); J. Attia (John); I. Sayers (Ian); R. Hampel (Regina); C. Gieger (Christian); I.J. Deary (Ian); H.M. Boezen (Marike); A.B. Newman (Anne); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Lind (Lars); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); A. Teumer (Alexander); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E. Melén (Erik); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); L.A. Lange (Leslie); R.G. Barr (Graham); K.R. Bracke (Ken); F.M. Verhamme (Fien); J. Sung (Joohon); P.S. Hiemstra (Pieter); P.A. Cassano (Patricia); A. Sood (Akshay); C. Hayward (Caroline); J. Dupuis (Josée); I.P. Hall (Ian); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); M.D. Tobin (Martin); S.J. London (Stephanie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractForced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in

  5. Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, Daan W.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Gharib, Sina A.; Wain, Louise V.; Franceschini, Nora; Koch, Beate; Pottinger, Tess D.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Duan, Qing; Oldmeadow, Chris; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Strachan, David P.; James, Alan L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Vitart, Veronique; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xin-Qun; Trochet, Holly; Kaonen, Mika; Flexeder, Claudia; Albrecht, Eva; Lopez, Lorna M.; de Jong, Kim; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Enroth, Stefan; Omenaas, Ernst; Joshi, Peter K.; Fall, Tove; Vinuela, Ana; Launer, Lenore J.; Loehr, Laura R.; Fornage, Myriam; Li, Guo; Wik, Jemma B.; Tang, Wenbo; Manichaikul, Ani; Lahousse, Lies; Harris, Tamara B.; North, Kari E.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Hui, Jennie; Gu, Xiangjun; Lumley, Thomas; Wright, Alan F.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Susan; Kumar, Rajesh; Pin, Isabelle; Scott, Robert A.; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Surakka, Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim; Davies, Gail; Vonk, Judith M.; Wojczynski, Mary; Pouta, Anneli; Johansson, Asa; Wild, Sarah H.; Ingelsson, Erik; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Voezke, Henry; Hysi, Pirro G.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Morrison, Alanna C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gao, Wei; Postma, Dirkje S.; White, Wendy B.; Rich, Stephen S.; Hofman, Albert; Aspelund, Thor; Couper, David; Smith, Lewis J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Lohman, Kurt; Burchard, Esteban G.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Garcia, Melissa; Joubert, Bonnie R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Musk, A. Bill; Hansel, Nadia; Heckbert, Susan R.; Zgaga, Lina; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Navarro, Pau; Rudan, Igor; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Redline, Susan; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Rantanen, Taina; O'Connor, George T.; Ripatti, Samuli; Scott, Rodney J.; Karrasch, Stefan; Grallert, Harald; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Starr, John M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Minster, Ryan L.; Lederer, David J.; Pekkanen, Juha; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbe, Harry; Morris, Andrew P.; Glaeser, Sven; Hammond, Christopher J.; Burkart, Kristin M.; Beilby, John; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Gucinason, Vilrnundur; Hancock, Dana B.; Williams, Dale; Polasek, Ozren; Zemunik, Tatijana; Kolcic, Ivana; Petrini, Marcy F.; Wjst, Matthias; Kim, Woo Jin; Porteous, David J.; Scotland, Generation; Smith, Blair H.; Villanen, Anne; Heliovaara, Markku; Attia, John R.; Sayers, Ian; Hampel, Regina; Gieger, Christian; Deary, Ian J.; Boezen, Hendrika; Newman, Anne; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wilson, James F.; Lind, Lars; Stricker, Bruno H.; Teumer, Alexander; Spector, Timothy D.; Melen, Erik; Peters, Marjolein J.; Lange, Leslie A.; Barr, R. Graham; Bracke, Ken R.; Verhamme, Fien M.; Sung, Joohon; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Cassano, Patricia A.; Sood, Akshay; Hayward, Caroline; Dupuis, Josee; Hall, Ian P.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917

  6. ICT Capacity Building: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Rwandan Policies from Higher Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byungura, Jean Claude; Hansson, Henrik; Masengesho, Kamuzinzi; Karunaratne, Thashmee

    2016-01-01

    With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis,…

  7. A Unified MGF-Based Capacity Analysis of Diversity Combiners over Generalized Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    Unified exact average capacity results for L-branch coherent diversity receivers including equal-gain combining (EGC) and maximal-ratio combining (MRC) are not known. This paper develops a novel generic framework for the capacity analysis of $L$-branch EGC/MRC over generalized fading channels. The framework is used to derive new results for the Gamma shadowed generalized Nakagami-m fading model which can be a suitable model for the fading environments encountered by high frequency (60 GHz and above) communications. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical and simulation results confirming the correctness of our newly proposed framework.

  8. The Lake Tahoe Basin: A systems analysis of its characteristics and human carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Martha W.; Clark, B. David

    1981-09-01

    A systems analysis of the Lake Tahoe Basin indicates significant and accelerating environmental deterioration within the basin, suggests that Tahoe is poised for yet another round of urban expansion, delineates the portion of Tahoe's resources that are consumed by gaming recreation vis-à-vis outdoor recreation, and identifies the Federal government as a contributor to Tahoe's problems. In response to the need for a holistic approach to basin-wide planning and management, ecological carrying capacity concepts are explored as they may be applicable to the Basin's growth patterns, and ideas on establishing a carrying capacity for Tahoe are developed.

  9. Analysis of Urban Forest Carbon Sequestration Capacity: a Case Study of Zengdu, Suizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Wang, H.; Cai, W.; Han, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing is an important content of forest ecosystem serving in city. Analysis of forest ecosystem carbon sequestration capacity can provide scientific reference for urban forest management strategies. Taking Zengdu of Suizhou as an example, CITYGREEN model was applied to calculate the carbon sequestration benefits of urban forest ecosystem in this paper. And the carbon sequestration potential of urban forest ecosystem following the returning of farmland to forest land is also evaluated. The results show that forest area, percent tree cover, and the structure of forest land were the major factors reflecting regional carbon sequestration capacity.

  10. On the Secrecy Capacity of the Multiple-Antenna Wiretap Channel with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-12-01

    We study the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block fading wiretap channel when there are multiple antennas at the transmitter, the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. We consider that the receivers are aware of their respective channel matrices while the transmitter is only provided by a B-bits feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error free public link with limited capacity. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large; hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  11. Ergodicity, configurational entropy and free energy in pigment solutions and plant photosystems: influence of excited state lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine ergodicity and configurational entropy for a dilute pigment solution and for a suspension of plant photosystem particles in which both ground and excited state pigments are present. It is concluded that the pigment solution, due to the extreme brevity of the excited state lifetime, is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. Conversely, due to the rapid energy transfer among pigments, each photosystem is ergodic and the configurational entropy is positive. This decreases the free energy of the single photosystem pigment array by a small amount. On the other hand, the suspension of photosystems is non-ergodic and the configurational entropy approaches zero. The overall configurational entropy which, in principle, includes contributions from both the single excited photosystems and the suspension which contains excited photosystems, also approaches zero. Thus the configurational entropy upon photon absorption by either a pigment solution or a suspension of photosystem particles is approximately zero. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS FOR GENERATING CAPACITY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paperwork deals with analysis of scenario concerning integration of Moldova’s right bank power system to ENTSO-E. In the paperwork are proposed and analyzed different variants of generation capacity development on the territory of republic’s right bank considering tasks mentioned in the Energy Strategy of Republic Moldova by 2030. For every proposed variant of generation capacity development the analysis of normal modes regarding active power losses was performed for both in whole power system and separately in every of their elements with differentiation by voltage levels. There were performed the computation and estimation of coefficients of static stability reserve by active power and by voltage and also were estimated the import/export of electrical energy as well as were analyzed many other modes of indicators. As result of comparative analysis, the more technical effective variants (in author’s opinion were selected.

  13. Analysis on the Capacity of a Cognitive Radio Network under Delay Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuehong; Jiang, Yuming

    In this paper, performance analysis of a cognitive radio network is conducted. In the network, there is imperfect sensing and the wireless channel is a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The focus is on the network's capacity in serving traffic with delay constraints. Specifically, the maximum traffic arrival rates of both primary users and secondary users, which the network can support with guaranteed delay bounds, are investigated. The analysis is based on stochastic network calculus. A general relationship between delay bounds, traffic patterns and important characteristics such as spectrum sensing errors and channel fading of the cognitive radio network is derived. This relationship lays a foundation for finding the capacity under different traffic scenarios. Two specific traffic types are exemplified, namely periodic traffic and Poisson traffic. Analytical results are presented in comparison with simulation results. The comparison shows a good match between them, validating the analysis.

  14. Capacity analysis of the street and road network of modern regional center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myronenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the intensity of transport traffic, changing in restructuring and high-speed modes of transport flows more stringent requirements for controls and traffic management impose to ensure the necessary level of efficiency and safety of the transport traffic. To resolve this problem, it is necessary to build road network optimal in length, density and on transport performance indicators. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the workload and analysis of capacity of the road network of modern regional center. Materials and Methods: All studies and calculations in paper, the authors conducted on the example of the road network of the Primorsky district of Odessa (Ukraine. Few streets that are transit arteries of the historic center were chosen to assess the road network capacity. On these streets the movement to the main passenger and transport creating unit – Railway Station is happening. To assess the capacity of the considered road network the methods of field observations were used, because they are based on direct measurements of traffic characteristics in different parts of the road network. Results: The study gave an objective picture of important correspondences. An assessment of degree of loading the considered road network was made; for that the capacity of multilane roadway was calculated. Analysis of the data showed that the state of traffic in the study area is densely saturated. It was made the recommendation for improvement of traffic of modern regional center.

  15. Experimental Analysis Of 80 Tr Capacity Air Cooled Scroll Chiller Using R-22 & R-407c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Bhikhu B,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In air conditioning systems, chilled water is typically distributed to heat exchangers, or coils, in air handling units or other types of terminal devices which cool the air in their respective space(s, and then the water is recirculated back to the chiller to be cooled again. These cooling coils transfer sensible heat and latent heat from the air to the chilled water, thus cooling and usually dehumidifying the air stream. The experiment works on 80 TR capacity Air Cooled Scroll Chiller systems. Vapour compression refrigeration cycle is used for cooling chilling water. Capacity of compressor is taken same for the different refrigerants used for experimental analysis. During experimental work used R-22 and R-407C as refrigerants. Theoretical COP of system with R- 22 refrigerant is 4.166 and actual COP is 2.227. For 80 TR capacity scroll air cooled chiller, theoretical COP of system with R-407c refrigerant is 3.465 and actual COP is 2.745 respectively. Based on the result analysis the same capacity of air cooling system with scroll compressor Actual COP of R-407C is higher than R-22. It means R-407C is also a alternative refrigerant for air cooled chilling system and also for HVAC system.

  16. Evaluation of safe bearing capacity of soil foundation by using numerical analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil mechanic laboratory results help in accurate soil foundation design and enhancement failure mitigation. The mixing soil design has been used in many geotechnical engineering for soil improvement. In this paper, several types of soil foundations have been made from mixed soil. The bearing capacity of soil foundations by using mixed soil parameters and change footing dimensions have been calculated. 180 footings, placed on 15 soil foundation types have been designed. It is assumed the underground water has not effect to bearing capacity of soil foundation. The results of numerical analysis and mixed soils technique have been combined. The numerical analysis has supported mixed soil design, and introduced an appropriate result for soil foundation design. The effects of mixed soil on depth and width of footing have been compared. The mixed soil design influenced numerical analysis result, and economically, soil foundation design helps to select the appropriate dimensions of footings. The result of numerical analysis supports geotechnical and structural engineering codes, predicts structural stability with different age, natural hazard and prevention as well as it is useful in understanding safe bearing capacity of soil foundation behavior.

  17. On the continuing relevance of Mandelbrot's non-ergodic fractional renewal models of 1963 to 1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas W.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of "1/f" noise has been with us for about a century. Because it is so often framed in Fourier spectral language, the most famous solutions have tended to be the stationary long range dependent (LRD) models such as Mandelbrot's fractional Gaussian noise. In view of the increasing importance to physics of non-ergodic fractional renewal models, and their links to the CTRW, I present preliminary results of my research into the history of Mandelbrot's very little known work in that area from 1963 to 1967. I speculate about how the lack of awareness of this work in the physics and statistics communities may have affected the development of complexity science, and I discuss the differences between the Hurst effect, "1/f" noise and LRD, concepts which are often treated as equivalent. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  18. Effective ergodicity breaking in an exclusion process with varying system length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultens, Christoph; Schadschneider, Andreas; Arita, Chikashi

    2015-09-01

    Stochastic processes of interacting particles in systems with varying length are relevant e.g. for several biological applications. We try to explore what kind of new physical effects one can expect in such systems. As an example, we extend the exclusive queueing process that can be viewed as a one-dimensional exclusion process with varying length, by introducing Langmuir kinetics. This process can be interpreted as an effective model for a queue that interacts with other queues by allowing incoming and leaving of customers in the bulk. We find surprising indications for breaking of ergodicity in a certain parameter regime, where the asymptotic growth behavior depends on the initial length. We show that a random walk with site-dependent hopping probabilities exhibits qualitatively the same behavior.

  19. The stationary distribution and ergodicity of a stochastic phytoplankton allelopathy model under regime switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Yuan, Sanling; Zhang, Tonghua

    2016-08-01

    The effect of toxin-producing phytoplankton and environmental stochasticity are interesting problems in marine plankton ecology. In this paper, we develop and analyze a stochastic phytoplankton allelopathy model, which takes both white and colored noises into account. We first prove the existence of the global positive solution of the model. And then by using the stochastic Lyapunov functions, we investigate the positive recurrence and ergodic property of the model, which implies the existence of a stationary distribution of the solution. Moreover, we obtain the mean and variance of the stationary distribution. Our results show that both the two kinds of environmental noises and toxic substances have great impacts on the evolution of the phytoplankton populations. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate our theoretical results.

  20. Isolated Word Recognition Using Ergodic Hidden Markov Models and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Suyanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech to Text was one of speech recognition applications which speech signal was processed, recognized and converted into a textual representation. Hidden Markov Model (HMM was the widely used method in speech recognition. However, the level of accuracy using HMM was strongly influenced by the optimalization of extraction process and modellling methods. Hence in this research, the use of genetic algorithm (GA method to optimize the Ergodic HMM was tested. In Hybrid HMM-GA, GA was used to optimize the Baum-welch method in the training process. It was useful to improve the accuracy of the recognition result which is produced by the HMM parameters that generate the low accuracy when the HMM are tested. Based on the research, the percentage increases the level of accuracy of 20% to 41%. Proved that the combination of GA in HMM method can gives more optimal results when compared with the HMM system that not combine with any method.

  1. Methods and Models for Capacity and Patient Flow Analysis in Hospital Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowski, Dawid

    This thesis is concerned about the novel applications of operations research methods for capacity and flow analysis within hospital sector. The first part of the thesis presents a detailed Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) model that has been developed as an analytical tool designed to facilitate...... resources. Drawing upon the combined strengths of analytic and simulation approaches, both continuous-time Markov chain and DES models are developed, to provide an insightful analysis of the public hospital performance under the policy rules. The policy analysis is extended by an inclusion of the economic...

  2. Ergodicity of Truncated Stochastic Navier Stokes with Deterministic Forcing and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J.; Tong, Xin T.

    2016-10-01

    Turbulence in idealized geophysical flows is a very rich and important topic. The anisotropic effects of explicit deterministic forcing, dispersive effects from rotation due to the β -plane and F-plane, and topography together with random forcing all combine to produce a remarkable number of realistic phenomena. These effects have been studied through careful numerical experiments in the truncated geophysical models. These important results include transitions between coherent jets and vortices, and direct and inverse turbulence cascades as parameters are varied, and it is a contemporary challenge to explain these diverse statistical predictions. Here we contribute to these issues by proving with full mathematical rigor that for any values of the deterministic forcing, the β - and F-plane effects and topography, with minimal stochastic forcing, there is geometric ergodicity for any finite Galerkin truncation. This means that there is a unique smooth invariant measure which attracts all statistical initial data at an exponential rate. In particular, this rigorous statistical theory guarantees that there are no bifurcations to multiple stable and unstable statistical steady states as geophysical parameters are varied in contrast to claims in the applied literature. The proof utilizes a new statistical Lyapunov function to account for enstrophy exchanges between the statistical mean and the variance fluctuations due to the deterministic forcing. It also requires careful proofs of hypoellipticity with geophysical effects and uses geometric control theory to establish reachability. To illustrate the necessity of these conditions, a two-dimensional example is developed which has the square of the Euclidean norm as the Lyapunov function and is hypoelliptic with nonzero noise forcing, yet fails to be reachable or ergodic.

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Military Task Performance: Maximal Lift Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Borges, Alexander S; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-04-01

    Hydren, JR, Borges, AS, and Sharp, MA. Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictors of military task performance: maximal lift capacity. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1142-1164, 2017-Physical performance tests (e.g., physical employment tests, return-to-duty tests) are commonly used to predict occupational task performance to assess the ability of individuals to do a job. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify predictive tests that correlate well with maximal lifting capacity in military personnel. Three databases were searched and experts in the field were contacted, resulting in the identification of 9 reports confined to military personnel that presented correlations between predictor tests and job tasks that measured maximal lift capacity. These 9 studies used 9 variations of a maximal lift capacity test, which were pooled to evaluate comparisons. The predictive tests were categorized into 10 fitness domains, which in ranked order were as follows: body mass and composition, absolute aerobic capacity, dynamic strength, power, isometric strength, strength-endurance, speed, isokinetic strength, flexibility, and age. Limitations of these data include a restricted age range (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 20-35; no correlations to maximal lift capacity) and the limited number of comparisons available within the cited studies. Weighted mean correlations ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) and 95% CI were calculated for each test. Lean body mass (kg) was the strongest overall predictor ((Equation is included in full-text article.); 95% CI, 0.697-0.966). Tests of dynamic strength had stronger correlations than strength endurance ((Equation is included in full-text article.), 95% CI, 0.69-0.89 vs. (Equation is included in full-text article.), 95% CI, 0.21-0.61). The following 6 domains of physical performance predictive tests had pooled correlations of 0.40 or greater for combined-sex samples: dynamic strength, power, isometric strength

  4. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-10-27

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  5. Capacity Approximations for a Deterministic MIMO Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSKOWITZ, I. S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive closed form approximations for the capacity of a point-to-point, deterministic Gaussian MIMO communication channel. We focus on the behavior of the inverse eigenvalues of the Gram matrix associated with the gain matrix of the MIMO channel, by considering small variance and large power assumptions. We revisit the concept of deterministic MIMO capacity by pointing out that, under transmitter power constraint, the optimal transmit covariance matrix is not necessarily diagonal. We discuss the water filling algorithm for obtaining the optimal eigenvalues of the transmitter covariance matrix, and the water fill level in conjunction with the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. We revise the Telatar conjecture for the capacity of a non-ergodic channel. We also provide deterministic examples and numerical simulations of the capacity, which are discussed in terms of our mathematical framework.

  6. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  7. On the low SNR capacity of MIMO fading channels with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-05-01

    The capacity of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR) has been shown recently to scale at low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) essentially as SNR log(1=SNR), independently of the number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we investigate the ergodic capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channel with estimated channel state information at the transmitter (CSI-T) and possibly imperfect channel state information at the receiver (CSI-R). Our framework can be seen as a generalization of previous works as it can capture the perfect CSI-TR as a special case when the estimation error variance goes to zero. In our work, we mainly focus on the low SNR regime and we show that the capacity scales as (1-α) SNR log(1=SNR), where α is the estimation error variance. This characterization shows the loss of performance due to error estimation over the perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. As a by-product of our new analysis, we show that our framework can also be extended to characterize the capacity of MIMO Rician fading channels at low SNR with possibly imperfect CSI-T and CSI-R. © 2014 IFIP.

  8. On the low SNR capacity of MIMO fading channels with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-06-01

    The capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and the receiver (CSI-TR) has been shown recently to scale at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) essentially as SNR log(1/SNR), independently of the number of transmit and receive antennas. In this paper, we investigate the ergodic capacity of MIMO Rayleigh fading channel with estimated channel state information at the transmitter (CSI-T) and possibly imperfect channel state information at the receiver (CSI-R). Our framework can be seen as a generalization of previous works as it can capture the perfect CSI-TR as a special case when the estimation error variance goes to zero. In this paper, we mainly focus on the low SNR regime, and we show that the capacity scales as (1-α) SNR log(1/SNR), where α is the estimation error variance. This characterization shows the loss of performance due to error estimation over the perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. As a by-product of our new analysis, we show that our framework can be also extended to characterize the capacity of MIMO Rician fading channels at low SNR with possibly imperfect CSI-T and CSI-R. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  9. Excess Capacity in China’s Power Systems: A Regional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Karl, Fredrich [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines China’s regional electricity grids using a reliability perspective, which is commonly measured in terms of a reserve margin. Our analysis shows that at the end of 2014, the average reserve margin for China as a whole was roughly 28%, almost twice as high as a typical planning reserve margin in the U.S. However, this national average masks huge variations in reserve margins across major regional power grid areas: the northeastern region has the highest reserve margin of over 60%, followed by the northwestern region at 49%, and the southern grid area at 35%. In this analysis, we also examined future reserve margins for regional electricity grids in China under two scenarios: 1) a low scenario of national annual electricity consumption growth rates of 1.5% between 2015 and 2020 and 1.0% between 2020 and 2025, and 2) a high scenario of annual average growth rates of 3.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Both scenarios suggest that the northeastern, northwestern, and southern regions have significant excess generation capacity, and that this excess capacity situation will continue over the next decade without regulatory intervention. The northern and central regions could have sufficient generation capacity to 2020, but may require additional resources in a higher growth scenario. The eastern region requires new resources by 2020 in both scenarios.

  10. The capacity of the cascaded fading channel in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a simple way to compute the ergodic capacity of cascaded channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. We apply our generic results to the Rayleigh-double fading channel, and to the free-space optical channel in the presence of pointing errors and we express their low signal-to-noise ratio capacities. We mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range.

  11. Detecting road maps for capacity utilization decisions by Clustering Analysis and CHAID Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncugil, Ali Serhan; Ozgulbas, Nermin

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study are to provide a standard CUR value, to determine financial and organizational factors which affect the capacity utilization and develop road maps for increasing capacity utilization. To reach these aims by an objective method, we used data mining method that discovers hidden and useful pattern in a large amount of data. Two different method of data mining were used in two stages for this study. In first step, standard value of CUR was determined by K-means Clustering Analysis. CHAID Decision Tree Algorithm as a second method was implemented for determination of impact factors that provided steps for road maps. The study was concerned Turkish Ministry of Health public hospitals. 592 hospitals were covered and financial and operational data of the year 2004 were used in the study. Finally two different road maps were developed and suggestions were made according the results of the study.

  12. Analysis on economic carrying capacity index of pig breeding in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Liu, Jia-Ling; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, factor analysis method was employed to analyze and calculate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the last decade, the proportion of research and experiment development (R&D) expenditure equivalent to GDP, urban and rural residents’ pork consumption and explored the scale of Chinese pig breeding on economic carrying capacity index. The result showed that the growth of GDP had led to better techniques and higher field investment, and stronger support like science and technology from the government provided good conditions for large scale of pig breeding. Besides, the substantial increase of pork consumption between rural and urban residents has contributed to the pig breeding in large scale. As a result, the economic carrying capacity index in Chinese pig farming is on the rise.

  13. Hydraulic analysis of functioning of the drainage channel with increased retention capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochwat Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic overload of networks and its related objects is a problem that is more and more common in drainage systems. The most popular way to prevent it from its occurring is to increase the storage capacity of the system. At present, there are numerous solutions allowing to increase retention in drainage systems, with the selection of the most beneficial one being dependent on numerous factors; it must also be preceded by a technical and financial analysis. Financial analysis is of particular importance here, since due to significant dimensions and complicated structure, these objects require high investment outlays for its construction. As a consequence, it is a priority to undertake actions aimed at developing such solutions that will allow for significant increases of retention in the drainage system, and cost reductions at the same time. One of such solutions is the Underground tank for combined sewage and stormwater that is now patent-pending. The application of this solution allows to multiply retention capacity of the drainage system, without the necessity of modernizing the existing sewer system. This paper presents the application potential of the subject method for increasing sewer retention, along with its hydraulic function analysis. The research carried out and presented was based on the analysis of individual phases of functioning of the subject solution.

  14. Design and analysis of truck body for increasing the payload capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamshi Krishna, K.; Yugandhar Reddy, K.; Venugopal, K.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Truck industry is a major source of transportation in India. With an average truck travelling about 300 kilometers per day [1], every kilogram of truck weight is of concern to the industry in order to get the best out of the truck. The main objective of this project is to increase the payload capacity of automotive truck body. Every kilogram of increased vehicle weight will decrease the vehicle payload capacity in turn increasing the manufacturing cost and reducing the fuel economy by increase the fuel consumption. With the intension of weight reduction, standard truck body has been designed and analyzed in ANSYS software. C-cross section beams were used instead of conventional rectangular box sections to reduce the weight of the body. Light-weight Aluminum alloy Al 6061 T6 is used to increase the payload capacity. The strength of the Truck platform is monitored in terms of deformation and stress concentration. These parameters will be obtained in structural analysis test condition environment. For reducing the stress concentration the concept of beams of uniform strength is used. Accordingly necessary modifications are done so that the optimized model has a better stress distribution and much lesser weight compared to the conventional model. The results obtained by analyzing the modified model are compared with the standard model.

  15. Random analysis of bearing capacity of square footing using the LAS procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Marek; Puła, Wojciech; Suska, Michał

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, a three-dimensional problem of bearing capacity of square footing on random soil medium is analyzed. The random fields of strength parameters c and φ are generated using LAS procedure (Local Average Subdivision, Fenton and Vanmarcke 1990). The procedure used is re-implemented by the authors in Mathematica environment in order to combine it with commercial program. Since the procedure is still tested the random filed has been assumed as one-dimensional: the strength properties of soil are random in vertical direction only. Individual realizations of bearing capacity boundary-problem with strength parameters of medium defined the above procedure are solved using FLAC3D Software. The analysis is performed for two qualitatively different cases, namely for the purely cohesive and cohesive-frictional soils. For the latter case the friction angle and cohesion have been assumed as independent random variables. For these two cases the random square footing bearing capacity results have been obtained for the range of fluctuation scales from 0.5 m to 10 m. Each time 1000 Monte Carlo realizations have been performed. The obtained results allow not only the mean and variance but also the probability density function to be estimated. An example of application of this function for reliability calculation has been presented in the final part of the paper.

  16. Functional Capacity in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; Macedo, Aline Chagastelles Pinto de; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Umpierre, Daniel; Schaan, Beatriz D; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-10-01

    Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) with systematic review and meta-analyses. The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity maximum heart rate (HR) reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls.

  17. AFM as an analysis tool for high-capacity sulfur cathodes for Li–S batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Hiesgen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, material-sensitive atomic force microscopy (AFM techniques were used to analyse the cathodes of lithium–sulfur batteries. A comparison of their nanoscale electrical, electrochemical, and morphological properties was performed with samples prepared by either suspension-spraying or doctor-blade coating with different binders. Morphological studies of the cathodes before and after the electrochemical tests were performed by using AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The cathodes that contained polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF and were prepared by spray-coating exhibited a superior stability of the morphology and the electric network associated with the capacity and cycling stability of these batteries. A reduction of the conductive area determined by conductive AFM was found to correlate to the battery capacity loss for all cathodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements of Li2S exposed to ambient air showed that insulating Li2S hydrolyses to insulating LiOH. This validates the significance of electrical ex-situ AFM analysis after cycling. Conductive tapping mode AFM indicated the existence of large carbon-coated sulfur particles. Based on the analytical findings, the first results of an optimized cathode showed a much improved discharge capacity of 800 mA·g(sulfur−1 after 43 cycles.

  18. Comparative analysis based on factor analysis of integrate production capacity of foodstuff in main foodstuff provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dehua; Zhou, Huiqiu

    2011-10-01

    Under great background of financial crisis, large fluctuation on international foodstuff price and frequent happening of natural disasters, each nation attaches importance to foodstuff safety problem increasingly. As a Great Power of population, China pays more attention to foodstuff safety problem definitely. Large foodstuff provinces play a major role on ensuring it. The paper arrives at the conclusion that each province has advantages and disadvantages in different factors through factor analyses on influencing factors of integrated production capacity of foodstuff in each province. Then we arrange the factor score, analyze the result of each large foodstuff province and ultimately give out feasible suggestions.

  19. Novel asymptotic results on the high-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-06-01

    The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework for the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels. As such, this novel framework for the higher-order statistics results in simple, closed-form expressions which are shown to be asymptotically tight bounds in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime of a variety of fading environment. In addition, it reveals the existence of differences (i.e., constant capacity gaps in log-domain) among different fading environments. By asymptotically tight bound we mean that the high SNR limit of the difference between the actual higher-order statistics of the channel capacity and its asymptotic bound (i.e., lower bound) tends to zero. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Prognostic capacity of a clinically indicated exercise test for cardiovascular mortality is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkkinen, Mikko; Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L; Leino, Johanna; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Nikus, Kjell; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2015-09-01

    Exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. We tested whether these parameters contain supplementary prognostic information. A total of 3609 consecutive patients (2157 men) referred for a routine, clinically indicated bicycle exercise test were enrolled in the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS). Exercise capacity was measured in metabolic equivalents, heart rate recovery as the decrease in heart rate from maximum to one minute post-exercise, and T-wave alternans by time-domain Modified Moving Average method. During 57-month median follow-up (interquartile range 35-78 months), 96 patients died of cardiovascular causes (primary endpoint) and 233 from any cause. All three parameters were independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality when analysed as continuous variables. Adding metabolic equivalents (p cardiovascular mortality. The combination of low exercise capacity (cardiovascular mortality of 16.5 (95% confidence interval 4.0-67.7, p cardiovascular mortality with previously defined cutpoints (exercise test is enhanced by combined analysis of exercise capacity, heart rate recovery and T-wave alternans. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  1. The Entropy of Non-Ergodic Complex Systems — a Derivation from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf

    In information theory the 4 Shannon-Khinchin1,2 (SK) axioms determine Boltzmann Gibbs entropy, S -∑i pilog pi, as the unique entropy. Physics is different from information in the sense that physical systems can be non-ergodic or non-Markovian. To characterize such strongly interacting, statistical systems - complex systems in particular - within a thermodynamical framework it might be necessary to introduce generalized entropies. A series of such entropies have been proposed in the past decades. Until now the understanding of their fundamental origin and their deeper relations to complex systems remains unclear. To clarify the situation we note that non-ergodicity explicitly violates the fourth SK axiom. We show that by relaxing this axiom the entropy generalizes to, S ∑i Γ(d + 1, 1 - c log pi), where Γ is the incomplete Gamma function, and c and d are scaling exponents. All recently proposed entropies compatible with the first 3 SK axioms appear to be special cases. We prove that each statistical system is uniquely characterized by the pair of the two scaling exponents (c, d), which defines equivalence classes for all systems. The corresponding distribution functions are special forms of Lambert-W exponentials containing, as special cases, Boltzmann, stretched exponential and Tsallis distributions (power-laws) - all widely abundant in nature. This derivation is the first ab initio justification for generalized entropies. We next show how the phasespace volume of a system is related to its generalized entropy, and provide a concise criterion when it is not of Boltzmann-Gibbs type but assumes a generalized form. We show that generalized entropies only become relevant when the dynamically (statistically) relevant fraction of degrees of freedom in a system vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. These are systems where the bulk of the degrees of freedom is frozen. Systems governed by generalized entropies are therefore systems whose phasespace volume effectively

  2. Hydrodynamic analysis of potential groundwater extraction capacity increase: case study of 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis of the groundwater regime undertaken to assess the potential for expanding the 'Nelt' groundwater source at Dobanovci, or developing a new groundwater source for a future baby food factory, including the quantification of the impact on the production wells of the nearby 'Pepsi' groundwater source, is presented in the paper. The existing Nelt source is comprised of three active production wells that tap a subartesian aquifer formed in sands and gravelly sands; however, the analysis considers only the two nearest wells. A long-term group pumping test was con-ducted of production wells N-1 and N2 (Nelt source and production wells B-1 and B-2 (Pepsi source, while the piezometric head in the vicinity of these wells was monitored at observation well P-1, which is located in the area considered for Nelt source expansion. Data were collected at maximum pumping capacity of all the production wells. A hydrodynamic model of groundwater flow in the extended area of the Nelt source was generated for the purposes of the comprehensive hydrodynamic analysis. Hydrodynamic prognostic calculations addressed two solution alternatives for the capacity increase over a period of ten years. Licensed Visual MODFLOW Pro software, deemed to be at the very top in this field, was used for the calculations.

  3. Thermal analysis method of high capacity communications satellite with heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Katsuhiko; Miyasaka, Akihiro

    Thermal analysis method for heat pipe embedded communications equipment panel is treated in this paper. The main problem of the thermal analysis is how to construct the mathematical model under the limitation of computer CPU memory size. The mathematical model for the heat pipe embedded panel is first established based on the experiments. The essence of this method is to divide panel area into several small regions and perform thermal analysis independently using the fact of low thermal conductivity of honeycomb sandwich panel. To check the correctness of this method, the experiment using the test panel which thermally simulates the north communications equipment panel of two-ton class high capacity communications satellite has been conducted. The experiment shows the method works well.

  4. Functional Capacity in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; de Macedo, Aline Chagastelles Pinto; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Umpierre, Daniel; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. Objective To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) with systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Results Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. The meta-analysis of the data of maximum heart rate (HR) reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001) compared with the control group. Conclusion Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls. PMID:28876372

  5. High Capacity Communications From Martian Distances. Part 1; Spacecraft Link Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Hemali N.; Schuchman, Leonard; Orr, Richard; Williams, Wallace Dan; Collins, Michael; Noreen, Gary

    2006-01-01

    High capacity space communications has been a desire for Human Exploration and Science missions. Current Mars missions operate at data rates of 120 kbps for telemetry downlink and it is desirable to study high rate communication links in the range of 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps data rates from Martian distances. This paper will present some assumed scenarios along with link design assumptions and link analysis for high capacity communications from Mars. The paper will focus on RF subsystems namely antenna and power for the downlink communication from a relay orbiter at Mars. The relay orbiter will communicate with the low orbit spacecrafts at Mars or any Martian surface elements such as robots, and relay the data back to the ground networks on Earth. The study will dive into the spacecraft downlink system design and communication link analysis between the relay orbiter and ground network on Earth for data rates ranging from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps based on the assumed scenarios and link assumptions. With high rate links at larger distances, there will be a significant impact on the antenna and power requirements and the link design will make an attempt to minimize the mass of the RF subsystem on the spacecraft. The results of this study will be presented for three data rates 1 Gbps, 500 Mbps and 100 Mbps at maximum Mars to Earth distance of 2.67AU. The design will use a Ka-band downlink with 90% link availability, along with various ground network G/T assumptions and possible bandwidth efficient modulations. The paper will conclude with what types of high rate communication links are feasible from Martian distances and also identify a range of requirements for antenna and power technologies for these high capacity communications from Mars.

  6. Functional Capacity in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Wohlgemuth Schaan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Children and adolescents with congenital heart disease often have alterations in their exercise capacity that can be evaluated by various functional testing. Objective: To evaluate the functional capacity of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD with systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: The review included observational studies, data from the first evaluation of randomized clinical trials or observational follow-up periods after clinical trials which evaluated functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress testing, six-minute walk test or step test, in children and adolescents with CHD, aged between six and 18 years, and comparisons with healthy controls in the same age group. The quantitative assessment was performed by meta-analysis, by comparing the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max of children and adolescents with CHD and respective control groups. Results: Twenty-five of 2.683 studies identified in the search met the inclusion criteria. The VO2max measurement showed that patients with CHD have a decrease of 9.31 ml/Kg/min (95% CI. -12.48 to -6.13; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001 compared with the control group. The meta-analysis of the data of maximum heart rate (HR reached during cardiopulmonary test and stress testing, retrieved from 18 studies, showed a HR value of -15.14 bpm (95% CI. -20.97 to -9.31; I2, 94.3%, P for heterogeneity < 0.001 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CHD have lower VO2max and HR compared to controls.

  7. Hazard, Vulnerability and Capacity Mapping for Landslides Risk Analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. A. P.; Innaqa, S.; Safrilah

    2017-06-01

    This research analyzed the levels of disaster risk in the Citeureup sub-District, Bogor Regency, West Java, based on its potential hazard, vulnerability and capacity, using map to represent the results, then Miles and Huberman analytical techniques was used to analyze the qualitative interviews. The analysis conducted in this study is based on the concept of disaster risk by Wisner. The result shows that the Citeureup sub-District has medium-low risk of landslides. Of the 14 villages, three villages have a moderate risk level, namely Hambalang, Tajur, and Tangkil, or 49.58% of the total land area. Eleven villages have a low level of risk, namely Pasir Mukti, Sanja, Tarikolot, Gunung Sari, Puspasari, East Karang Asem, Citeureup, Leuwinutug, Sukahati, West Karang Asem West and Puspanegara, or 48.68% of the total land area, for high-risk areas only around 1.74%, which is part of Hambalang village. The analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) prove that areas with a high risk potential does not necessarily have a high level of risk. The capacity of the community plays an important role to minimize the risk of a region. Disaster risk reduction strategy is done by creating a safe condition, which intensified the movement of disaster risk reduction.

  8. Analysis of change of retention capacity of a small water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výleta, R.; Danáčová, M.; Valent, P.

    2017-10-01

    This study is focused on the analysis of the changes of retention capacity of a small water reservoir induced by intensive erosion and sedimentation processes. The water reservoir is situated near the village of Vrbovce in the Western part of Slovakia, and the analysis is carried out for a period 2008-2017. The data used to build a digital elevation model (DEM) of the reservoir’s bed came from a terrain measurement, utilizing an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to measure the water depth in the reservoir. The DEM was used to quantify the soil loss from agricultural land situated within the basin of the reservoir. The ability of the water reservoir to transform a design flood with a return period of 100 years is evaluated for both design (2008) and current conditions (2017). The results show that the small water reservoir is a subject to siltation, with sediments comprised of fine soil particles transported from nearby agricultural land. The ability of the water reservoir to transform a 100-year flood has not changed significantly. The reduction of the reservoir’s retention capacity should be systematically and regularly monitored in order to adjust its operational manual and improve its efficiency.

  9. Capacity of cognitive radio under imperfect secondary and cross link channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of secondary user channel in a spectrum sharing scenario in which the secondary transmitter is instantaneously aware of estimated versions of the cross link (between the secondary transmitter and the primary receiver) and the secondary link Channel State Information (CSI). The secondary link optimal power profile along with the ergodic capacity are derived for a class of fading channels, under an average power constraint and an instantaneous interference outage constraint. We also show that our framework is rather general as it encompasses several previously studied spectrum sharing settings as special cases. In order to gain some insights on the capacity behavior, numerical results are shown for independent Rayleigh fading channels where it is found for instance, that at low SNR regime, only the secondary channel estimation matters and that the cross link CSI has no effect on the ergodic capacity; whereas at high SNR regime, the capacity is rather driven by the cross link CSI. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. A Geometrical-Based Model for Cochannel Interference Analysis and Capacity Estimation of CDMA Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos B. Baltzis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.

  11. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  12. A Geometrical-Based Model for Cochannel Interference Analysis and Capacity Estimation of CDMA Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltzis KonstantinosB

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common assumption in cellular communications is the circular-cell approximation. In this paper, an alternative analysis based on the hexagonal shape of the cells is presented. A geometrical-based stochastic model is proposed to describe the angle of arrival of the interfering signals in the reverse link of a cellular system. Explicit closed form expressions are derived, and simulations performed exhibit the characteristics and validate the accuracy of the proposed model. Applications in the capacity estimation of WCDMA cellular networks are presented. Dependence of system capacity of the sectorization of the cells and the base station antenna radiation pattern is explored. Comparisons with data in literature validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The degree of error of the hexagonal and the circular-cell approaches has been investigated indicating the validity of the proposed model. Results have also shown that, in many cases, the two approaches give similar results when the radius of the circle equals to the hexagon inradius. A brief discussion on how the proposed technique may be applied to broadband access networks is finally made.

  13. Effects of walking and strength training on walking capacity in individuals with claudication: meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Souza Miranda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the past few years, several clinical trials have been performed to analyze the effects of exercise training on walking ability in patients with intermittent claudication (IC. However, it remains unclear which type of physical exercise provides the maximum benefits in terms of walking ability. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by means of a meta-analysis, the effects of walking and strength training on the walking capacity in patients with IC. METHODS: Papers analyzing the effects of walking and strength training programs in patients with IC were browsed on the Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases. Randomized clinical trials scoring >4 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale and assessing claudication distance (CD and total walking distance (TWD were included in the review. RESULTS: Walking and strength training yielded increases in CD and TWD (P < 0.05. However, walking training yielded greater increases than strength training (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Walking and strength training improve walking capacity in patients with IC. However, greater improvements in TWD are obtained with walking training.

  14. De-randomizing Shannon: The Design and Analysis of a Capacity-Achieving Rateless Code

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Hari; Perry, Jonathan; Shah, Devavrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of spinal codes, a class of rateless codes proposed recently. We prove that spinal codes achieve Shannon capacity for the binary symmetric channel (BSC) and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with an efficient polynomial-time encoder and decoder. They are the first rateless codes with proofs of these properties for BSC and AWGN. The key idea in the spinal code is the sequential application of a hash function over the message bits. The sequential structure of the code turns out to be crucial for efficient decoding. Moreover, counter to the wisdom of having an expander structure in good codes, we show that the spinal code, despite its sequential structure, achieves capacity. The pseudo-randomness provided by a hash function suffices for this purpose. Our proof introduces a variant of Gallager's result characterizing the error exponent of random codes for any memoryless channel. We present a novel application of these error-exponent results within the framework of an...

  15. Use of Pile Driving Analysis for Assessment of Axial Load Capacity of Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Driven piles are commonly used in foundation engineering. Pile driving formulae, which directly relate the pile set per blow : to the capacity of the pile, are commonly used to decide whether an installed pile will have the designed capacity. However...

  16. Use of pile driving analysis for assessment of axial load capacity of piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Driven piles are commonly used in foundation engineering. Pile driving formulae, which directly relate the pile set per blow : to the capacity of the pile, are commonly used to decide whether an installed pile will have the designed capacity. However...

  17. Analysis of heat capacity and Mössbauer data for LuZnSn2 compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łątka Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New analysis of heat capacity data is presented for LuZnSn2 compound that takes into account anharmonic effects together with the existence of Einstein modes. 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the hyperfine parameters at the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the studied compound. The problem of non-unique mathematical resonance spectrum description and the problem how to choose physically meaningful set of hyperfine parameters will be thoroughly discussed. Measured quadrupole interaction constants by 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy give estimations for Vzz component of electric field gradient tensor at both Sn sites in LuZnSn2.

  18. 3D Bearing Capacity of Structured Cells Supported on Cohesive Soil: Simplified Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Galván Sergio Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simplified analysis method to compute the bearing capacity of structured cell foundations subjected to vertical loading and supported in soft cohesive soil is proposed. A structured cell is comprised by a top concrete slab structurally connected to concrete external walls that enclose the natural soil. Contrary to a box foundation it does not include a bottom slab and hence, the soil within the walls becomes an important component of the structured cell. This simplified method considers the three-dimensional geometry of the cell, the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils and the existence of structural continuity between the top concrete slab and the surrounding walls, along the walls themselves and the walls structural joints. The method was developed from results of numerical-parametric analyses, from which it was found that structured cells fail according to a punching-type mechanism.

  19. Electrochemical capacity fading of polyaniline electrode in supercapacitor: An XPS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Deng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the electrochemical capacity fading of the polyaniline (PANI electrodes in supercapacitors, for the first time, their chemical structure change during electrochemical cycles was traced with XPS analysis after the HCl doped PANI electrodes were subjected to the cyclic voltammetry test in 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte for different cycle numbers. The results showed that the chlorine disappeared in the electrode surface, while the surface element contents of sulfur and oxygen increased with the electrochemical cycles increased. It demonstrated that the hydrolytic degradation of the PANI chains and exchange of dopant occurred during the electrochemical cycling, causing the fading in the mechanical and electrochemical performance of the PANI electrodes. This understanding should lead to better design of the conductive polymer-based energy storage devices.

  20. Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Lê, Gillian; Green, Andrew; Orgill, Marsha; Komba, Adalgot; Esena, Reuben K; Nyapada, Linet; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Amde, Woldekidan K; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) is widely recognized. Universities are central to strengthening and sustaining the HPSR+A capacity as they teach the next generation of decision-makers and health professionals. However, little is known about the capacity of universities, specifically, to develop the field. In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). The capacity assessments focused on both capacity 'assets' and 'needs', and covered the wider context, as well as organizational and individual capacity levels. Six thematic areas of capacity were examined: leadership and governance, organizations' resources, scope of HPSR+A teaching and research, communication, networking and getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP), demand for HPRS+A and resource environment. The self-assessments by each university used combinations of document reviews, semi-structured interviews and staff surveys, followed by comparative analysis. A framework approach, guided by the six thematic areas, was used to analyse data. We found that HPSR+A is an international priority, and an existing activity in Africa, though still neglected field with challenges including its reliance on unpredictable international funding. All universities have capacity assets, such as ongoing HPSR+A teaching and research. There are, however, varying levels of assets (such as differences in staff numbers, group sizes and amount of HPSR+A teaching and research), which, combined with different capacity needs at all three levels (such as individual training, improvement in systems for quality assurance and fostering demand for HPSR+A work), can shape a future agenda for HPSR+A capacity strengthening. Capacity assets and needs at different levels appear related. Possible integrated strategies for strengthening

  1. Bistability, non-ergodicity, and inhibition in pairwise maximum-entropy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Vahid; Porta Mana, PierGianLuca; Grün, Sonja; Helias, Moritz

    2017-10-01

    Pairwise maximum-entropy models have been used in neuroscience to predict the activity of neuronal populations, given only the time-averaged correlations of the neuron activities. This paper provides evidence that the pairwise model, applied to experimental recordings, would produce a bimodal distribution for the population-averaged activity, and for some population sizes the second mode would peak at high activities, that experimentally would be equivalent to 90% of the neuron population active within time-windows of few milliseconds. Several problems are connected with this bimodality: 1. The presence of the high-activity mode is unrealistic in view of observed neuronal activity and on neurobiological grounds. 2. Boltzmann learning becomes non-ergodic, hence the pairwise maximum-entropy distribution cannot be found: in fact, Boltzmann learning would produce an incorrect distribution; similarly, common variants of mean-field approximations also produce an incorrect distribution. 3. The Glauber dynamics associated with the model is unrealistically bistable and cannot be used to generate realistic surrogate data. This bimodality problem is first demonstrated for an experimental dataset from 159 neurons in the motor cortex of macaque monkey. Evidence is then provided that this problem affects typical neural recordings of population sizes of a couple of hundreds or more neurons. The cause of the bimodality problem is identified as the inability of standard maximum-entropy distributions with a uniform reference measure to model neuronal inhibition. To eliminate this problem a modified maximum-entropy model is presented, which reflects a basic effect of inhibition in the form of a simple but non-uniform reference measure. This model does not lead to unrealistic bimodalities, can be found with Boltzmann learning, and has an associated Glauber dynamics which incorporates a minimal asymmetric inhibition.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect on Edge Distance of the Tensile Bearing Capacity of Embedded Hanging Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xian Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the trend of tensile bearing capacity of embedded hanging parts when change the edge distance. Based on the finite element analysis software ABAQUS, the four simulation model was established. The buried depth and strength of concrete remain unchanged, but the edge distance was gradient change. By the load - displacement curve of every model known, the greater the edge distance, the greater the bearing capacity. When the edge distance reaches 1.5 times buried depth, the effect of increasing edge distance for improving the bearing capacity will be impaired.

  3. Genomic and physiological analysis reveals versatile metabolic capacity of deep-sea Photobacterium phosphoreum ANT-2200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Da; Santini, Claire-Lise; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Guyomar, Charlotte; Garel, Marc; Chen, Hai-Tao; Li, Xue-Gong; Yin, Qun-Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Armengaud, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Martini, Séverine; Pradel, Nathalie; Vidaud, Claude; Alberto, François; Médigue, Claudine; Tamburini, Christian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria of the genus Photobacterium thrive worldwide in oceans and show substantial eco-physiological diversity including free-living, symbiotic and piezophilic life styles. Genomic characteristics underlying this variability across species are poorly understood. Here we carried out genomic and physiological analysis of Photobacterium phosphoreum strain ANT-2200, the first deep-sea luminous bacterium of which the genome has been sequenced. Using optical mapping we updated the genomic data and reassembled it into two chromosomes and a large plasmid. Genomic analysis revealed a versatile energy metabolic potential and physiological analysis confirmed its growth capacity by deriving energy from fermentation of glucose or maltose, by respiration with formate as electron donor and trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO), nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptors, or by chemo-organo-heterotrophic growth in rich media. Despite that it was isolated at a site with saturated dissolved oxygen, the ANT-2200 strain possesses four gene clusters coding for typical anaerobic enzymes, the TMAO reductases. Elevated hydrostatic pressure enhances the TMAO reductase activity, mainly due to the increase of isoenzyme TorA1. The high copy number of the TMAO reductase isoenzymes and pressure-enhanced activity might imply a strategy developed by bacteria to adapt to deep-sea habitats where the instant TMAO availability may increase with depth.

  4. Ergodicity and model quality in template-restrained canonical and temperature/Hamiltonian replica exchange coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczyńska, Agnieszka S; Czaplewski, Cezary; Krupa, Paweł; Mozolewska, Magdalena A; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Liwo, Adam

    2017-12-05

    Molecular simulations restrained to single or multiple templates are commonly used in protein-structure modeling. However, the restraints introduce additional barriers, thus impairing the ergodicity of simulations, which can affect the quality of the resulting models. In this work, the effect of restraint types and simulation schemes on ergodicity and model quality was investigated by performing template-restrained canonical molecular dynamics (MD), multiplexed replica-exchange molecular dynamics, and Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics (HREMD) simulations with the coarse-grained UNRES force field on nine selected proteins, with pseudo-harmonic log-Gaussian (unbounded) or Lorentzian (bounded) restraint functions. The best ergodicity was exhibited by HREMD. It has been found that non-ergodicity does not affect model quality if good templates are used to generate restraints. However, when poor-quality restraints not covering the entire protein are used, the improved ergodicity of HREMD can lead to significantly improved protein models. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative analysis of single- and continuously variable-capacity heat pump concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.; Fischer, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    This work is an initial assessment of the potential benefits of continuous-capacity-modulation in electric-driven, air-to-air heat pumps for residential application. The purpose of the project was to provide a quantitative estimate of the possible annual performance gains of advanced continuously modulating heat pumps relative to single-speed designs at comparable levels of development. Previous analytical design work in this area at ORNL dealt with single-design-point, heating-mode optimization of single-speed heat pumps. For that work the ORNL Steady State Heat Pump Design Model was connected to a constrained numerical optimization code. The present work represents an extension of the earlier work in two directions. First, seasonal (heating and cooling) and annual performance factor (APF) analysis capability was added to allow direct evaluation of annual energy use from heat pump performance data generated by the ORNL heat pump model. Secondly, a modulating version of the heat pump model was developed to provide a means for simulating the steady state performance of continuously variable-speed (CVS) systems. With these tools, the APFs of both single- and continuously variable-capacity (CVC) concepts could be studied as basic heat pump design variables were varied. Based on this initial evaluation of CVS systems and considering the potential for electronics costs to further decrease as electricity prices rise, we see such advanced CVS systems as a strong future competitor to single-speed systems and as decidedly superior in energy conservation potential. To achieve this position, it seems especially important that such systems be computer optimized to take full advantage of the increased design flexibility available. Further, development of PM-ECMs or equivalent technology must continue to the point of providing speed controllers of: moderate to low cost, moderate to high performance, and high reliability. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide correlates best with tissue volume from quantitative CT scanning analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarevic, Igor; Springmeyer, Steven; Gonzalez, Xavier; Sirokman, William; Coxson, Harvey O; Cooper, Christopher B

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of high-resolution chest CT scan (QCT) is an established method for determining the severity and distribution of lung parenchymal destruction inpatients with emphysema. Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)) is a traditional physiologic measure of emphysema severity and is probably influenced more by destruction of the alveolar capillary bed than by membrane diffusion per se. We reasoned that D(LCO) should correlate with tissue volume from QCT. A total of 460 patients with upper-lobe-predominant emphysema were enrolled in the study. Th e mean (SD) of percent predicted values for FEV 1 , total lung capacity, and D(LCO) were 30.6% (8.0%), 129.5% (18.1%), and 6.7% (13.1%), respectively. QCT was performed using custom soft ware; the relationship between D(LCO) and various metrics from QCT were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. On average, whole-body plethysmography volumes were higher by 841 mL compared with QCT-calculated total lung volume. However, there was a strong correlation between these measurements (r=0.824, P lung volume (r=0.314, Pvolume (r=0.498, Plung with low density (-950 Hounsfield units) (r=-0.337, Pvolume,supporting the hypothesis that pulmonary capillary blood volume is the main determinant of D(LCO) in the human lung. Th e relationships between D(LCO) and various anatomic metrics of lung parenchymal destruction from QCT inform our understanding of the relationship between structure and function of the human lung.

  7. Comparative analysis of water resources carrying capacity based on principal component analysis in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from the perspective of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanfeng; Wang, Ruimei; Zhang, Xiling; Cheng, Changlin; Song, Huan; Hu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    According to related statistics, this paper selected 15 indicators to establish the evaluation index system of water resources carrying capacity and evaluated the level of water resources carrying capacity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region during 2004 and 2014 using the principal component analysis while comparing the water resources carrying capacity in Hebei, Tianjin and Beijing. The results show that there are four factors affecting water resources carrying capacity, including industry-environment factor, agriculture-society-water supply factor, life-ecology factor and water resources exploitation factor. During the period from 2004 to 2014, Hebei Province gets the maximum score in evaluating the water resources carrying capacity, then Beijing gets the lower level, and Tianjin gets the lowest level. The water resources carrying capacity in Hebei Province decreased in the fluctuation and increased after 2012, which rose in the fluctuation in Beijing and showed a periodic variation in Tianjin.

  8. Stochastic functional differential equations with infinite delay: Existence and uniqueness of solutions, solution maps, Markov properties, and ergodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuke; Yin, George; Mei, Hongwei

    2017-02-01

    This work is devoted to stochastic functional differential equations (SFDEs) with infinite delay. First, existence and uniqueness of the solutions of such equations are examined. Because the solutions of the delay equations are not Markov, a viable alternative for studying further asymptotic properties is to use solution maps or segment processes. By examining solution maps, this work investigates the Markov properties as well as the strong Markov properties. Also obtained are adaptivity and continuity, mean-square boundedness, and convergence of solution maps from different initial data. This paper then examines the ergodicity of underlying processes and establishes existence of the invariant measure for SFDEs with infinite delay under suitable conditions.

  9. Bearing Capacity Analysis of N90T20 Rack Column Under Eccentric Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jianing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bearing capacity of cold-formed porous steel N90T20 rack column is studied, the eccentric positions, the spacing between holes, column thickness are discussed in details. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that when eccentric space is small, eccentric compression weaken column ultimate bearing capacity is small. From the results, it is clear that when eccentric space is large, eccentric compression can cause the column ultimate bearing capacity of plummeting. If the eccentricity is close proximity to the web, the ultimate bearing capacity declines to be smaller than the eccentric near the curling side of the column. The spacing of the holes on the column web do not present significant effect to the ultimate bearing capacity of the column. The wall thickness of column component greatly influence on the ultimate bearing capacity of the columns. This study makes contribution to the N90T20 rack design in the engineering practice and research areas.

  10. Heterogeneous effects of old age on human muscle oxidative capacity in vivo: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Liam F; Christie, Anita D; Kent, Jane A

    2016-11-01

    Despite intensive efforts to understand the extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity changes in older humans, the answer to this important question remains unclear. To determine what the preponderance of evidence from in vivo studies suggests, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of age on muscle oxidative capacity as measured noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary aim was to examine potential moderators contributing to differences in results across studies, including muscle group, physical activity status, and sex. Candidate papers were identified from PubMed searches (n = 3561 papers) and the reference lists of relevant papers. Standardized effects (Hedges' g) were calculated for age and each moderator using data from the 22 studies that met the inclusion criteria (n = 28 effects). Effects were coded as positive when older (age, ≥55 years) adults had higher muscle oxidative capacity than younger (age, 20-45 years) adults. The overall effect of age on oxidative capacity was positive (g = 0.171, p < 0.001), indicating modestly greater oxidative capacity in old. Notably, there was significant heterogeneity in this result (Q = 245.8, p < 0.001; I2 = ∼70%-90%). Muscle group, physical activity, and sex were all significant moderators of oxidative capacity (p ≤ 0.029). This analysis indicates that the current body of literature does not support a de facto decrease of in vivo muscle oxidative capacity in old age. The heterogeneity of study results and identification of significant moderators provide clarity regarding apparent discrepancies in the literature, and indicate the importance of accounting for these variables when examining purported age-related differences in muscle oxidative capacity.

  11. Analysis of Airspace Structure and Capacity for Decentralized Separation Using Fast-Time Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, E.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Arntzen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The workthat is presented in this paper is part of an ongoing study on the relationshipbetween airspace structure and capacity. The present paper investigates thedegree of structuring needed to maximize capacity for decentralized en-routeairspace. To this end, four

  12. Transnational higher education for capacity development? An analysis of British degree programmes in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, W.H.M.; Waters, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a project on British transnational education (TNE) programmes offered in Hong Kong, this paper interrogates the capacity development impact of TNE on the students, the Hong Kong Government and the programme providers. It addresses the questions: ‘What capacity is being developed in

  13. Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes Using Lower Bound Limit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mofidi rouchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stability of foundations near slopes is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnical engineering, which has been investigated by various methods such as limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip-line, finite element and discrete element. The complexity of this problem is resulted from the combination of two probable failures: foundation failure and overall slope failure. The current paper describes a lower bound solution for estimation of bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes. The solution is based on the finite element formulation and linear programming technique, which lead to a collapse load throughout a statically admissible stress field. Three-nodded triangular stress elements are used for meshing the domain of the problem, and stress discontinuities occur at common edges of adjacent elements. The Mohr-Coulomb yield function and an associated flow rule are adopted for the soil behavior. In this paper, the average limit pressure of strip footings, which are adjacent to slopes, is considered as a function of dimensionless parameters affecting the stability of the footing-on-slope system. These parameters, particularly the friction angle of the soil, are investigated separately and relevant charts are presented consequently. The results are compared to some other solutions that are available in the literature in order to verify the suitability of the methodology used in this research.

  14. Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge; Vega-Zamanillo, Angel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Interlocking concrete block pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (R(SL)) and surface slope (S(S)). This paper studies the infiltration behaviour of ICBP during their operational life in a car park using an improved version of the Cantabrian Fixed (CF) Infiltrometer. This laboratory device simulates direct rainfall and runoff from adjacent impervious areas over an ICBPs surface of 0.25 m(2) for different slopes (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) and three scenarios of clogging (surface newly built, surface clogged and surface clogged with maintenance). This paper presents the results of the tests and a statistical analysis based on three regression models (corresponding to each clogging scenario) depending on the R(SL) and S(S) variables. All models passed a confidence level of 95%, presenting high R(2) values and showing that R(SL) is a more influential variable than the S(S) for all clogging scenarios.

  15. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe's borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Jennifer; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana

    2012-04-01

    Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff. This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines. Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention. The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.

  16. Particle invasion, survival, and non-ergodicity in 2D diffusion processes with space-dependent diffusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherstvy, Andrey G; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-03-14

    We study the thermal Markovian diffusion of tracer particles in a 2D medium with spatially varying diffusivity D(r), mimicking recently measured, heterogeneous maps of the apparent diffusion coefficient in biological cells. For this heterogeneous diffusion process (HDP) we analyse the mean squared displacement (MSD) of the tracer particles, the time averaged MSD, the spatial probability density function, and the first passage time dynamics from the cell boundary to the nucleus. Moreover we examine the non-ergodic properties of this process which are important for the correct physical interpretation of time averages of observables obtained from single particle tracking experiments. From extensive computer simulations of the 2D stochastic Langevin equation we present an in-depth study of this HDP. In particular, we find that the MSDs along the radial and azimuthal directions in a circular domain obey anomalous and Brownian scaling, respectively. We demonstrate that the time averaged MSD stays linear as a function of the lag time and the system thus reveals a weak ergodicity breaking. Our results will enable one to rationalise the diffusive motion of larger tracer particles such as viruses or submicron beads in biological cells.

  17. KINEMATIC VARIABLES AND BLOOD ACID-BASE STATUS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COLLEGIATE SWIMMERS’ ANAEROBIC CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bielec

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Short duration repeated maximal efforts are often used in swimming training to improve lactate tolerance, which gives swimmers the ability to maintain a high work rate for a longer period of time. The aim of the study was to examine the kinematics of swimming and its relation to the changes in blood acid-base status and potassium level. Seven collegiate swimmers, with at least 6 years of training experience, volunteered to participate in the study. The test consisted of 8 x 25 m front crawl performed with maximum effort. The rest period between repetitions was set to five seconds. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip at rest, after warm-up and in the 3rd minute after completion of the test. The swimming was recorded with a video recorder, for later analysis of time, velocity and technique (stroke index. Based on the swimming velocity results, the obtained curve can be divided into rapid decrease of velocity and relatively stable velocities. The breaking point of repetition in swimming velocity was assumed as the swimming velocity threshold and it was highly correlated with the decrease of the blood acid-base status (pH r=0.82, BE r=0.87, HCO3- r=0.76; p<0.05 in all cases. There was no correlation between stroke index or fatigue index and blood acid-base status. Analysis of the swimming speed in the 8 x 25 m test seems to be helpful in evaluation of lactate tolerance (anaerobic capacity in collegiate swimmers.

  18. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.

    2009-01-01

    (PP) of WTGs using Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. Five commercial WFs in Taiwan are used as sample systems for comparative analyses. This paper combines Weibull function, cubic mean wind speed, and four existing economic-analysis methods to study different values of capacity and hub...... generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented....

  19. Building surgical capacity in low-resource countries: a qualitative analysis of task shifting from surgeon volunteers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Corlew, Scott D; Heisler, Michele E; Pannucci, Christopher J; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    Surgical volunteer organizations (SVOs) focus considerable resources on addressing the backlog of cases in low-resource countries. This model of service may perpetuate dependency. Efforts should focus on models that establish independence in providing surgical care. Independence could be achieved through surgical capacity building. However, there has been scant discussion in literature on SVO involvement in surgical capacity building. Using qualitative methods, we evaluated the perspectives of surgeons with extensive volunteer experience in low-resource countries. We collected data through in-depth interviews that centered on SVOs using task shifting as a tool for surgical capacity building. Some of the key themes from our analysis include the ethical ramifications of task shifting, the challenges of addressing technical and clinical education in capacity building for low-resource settings, and the allocation of limited volunteer resources toward surgical capacity building. These themes will be the foundation of subsequent studies that will focus on other stakeholders in surgical capacity building including host communities and SVO administrators.

  20. Golden Ratio Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Modelling and Analysis of the Capacity Expansion of Urban Road Traffic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and analysis of the capacity expansion of urban road traffic network (ICURTN. Thebilevel programming model is first employed to model the ICURTN, in which the utility of the entire network is maximized with the optimal utility of travelers’ route choice. Then, an improved hybrid genetic algorithm integrated with golden ratio (HGAGR is developed to enhance the local search of simple genetic algorithms, and the proposed capacity expansion model is solved by the combination of the HGAGR and the Frank-Wolfe algorithm. Taking the traditional one-way network and bidirectional network as the study case, three numerical calculations are conducted to validate the presented model and algorithm, and the primary influencing factors on extended capacity model are analyzed. The calculation results indicate that capacity expansion of road network is an effective measure to enlarge the capacity of urban road network, especially on the condition of limited construction budget; the average computation time of the HGAGR is 122 seconds, which meets the real-time demand in the evaluation of the road network capacity.

  1. Analysis of capacity fading effect on Lithium Cobalt cells caused by pulse current technique in fast charging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, S.; Arianto, S.; Yunaningsih, R. Y.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2017-04-01

    Charging a battery in a short time is important for portable devices. Many techniques have been developed to find out the proper method for fast charging. One of those techniques that has been patented in several fast charging methods is pulse current technique. This technique implements pulse current with adjusting pulse wide and voltage threshold in a certain values. In this paper, the capacity fading effects caused by the current pulse in lithium cobalt cells were investigated. The experiment was done by applying pulse current at high-level SOC to charge four cylindrical lithium cobalt cells. The Capacity of each cell was checked every 50 charge-discharge cycles. The experiment result shows that the changing capacity in each cell forms patterns alike. As if there was a slight increament on their capacities at first checking but rapidly decreasing at the next check. Then, their capacities continue to decrease slowly but the more often the charge-discharge cycling, the battery lifetime decreased. This research has provided analysis of pulse current effect on lithium cobalt capacity fading that should be noted as a reference in applying current pulse for fast charging methods.

  2. Analysis of Power Network for Line Reactance Variation to Improve Total Transmission Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, Ikram; Gawlik, Wolfgang; Palensky, P.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing growth in power demand and the penetration of renewable distributed generations in competitive electricity market demands large and flexible capacity from the transmission grid to reduce transmission bottlenecks. The bottlenecks cause transmission congestion, reliability problems,

  3. Analysis of Department of Defense Organic Depot Maintenance Capacity Management and Facility Utilization Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    7.5 17.5/2.5 REPR 17.5/12.5 17.5/7.5 17.5/2.5 ASSM 17.5/12.5 17.5/7.5 17.5/2.5 FINAL 17.5/12.5 17.5/7.5 17.5/2.5 BUFFER CAPACITY RECV N/A** DASH N/A...PROCESS MEAN/SPREAD RECV** * DASH M REPR 35/12.5* ** ASSM* *** FINAL***** BUFFER CAPACITY RECV N/A N/A 6 9 12 DASH N/A N/A 6 9 12 REPR N/A N/A 6 9 12...REPR 35/12.5 17.5/12..5 35 ASSM** FINL*** BUFFER CAPACITY REPR 6 6 6 58 Appendix B: Capacity Utilization Simulation Program Code MLII CPLITI/UILIWIM

  4. Impact Analysis of Headway Distributions on Single-Lane Roundabout Entry Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on observed data, this paper evaluates the performance of capacity estimation for single-lane roundabouts using the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000 model. In this study, the HCM 2000 model is indicated to be over- or under estimate roundabout entry capacity. This is because the HCM 2000 model estimates capacity using an unfit assumption of headway distribution type. According to this finding, we propose a modified model to adjust the HCM 2000 model. Based on a comparison study, the modified model produces smaller relative error (0.92 and root-mean-square deviation (12.79 than the HCM 2000 model (4.66 and 48.17, respectively. It is believe that the modified HCM 2000 model outperforms the HCM 2000 model.

  5. MIMO channel capacity with full CSI at Low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Tall, Abdoulaye

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we characterize the ergodic capacity of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Rayleigh fading channels with full channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter (CSI-T) and the receiver (CSI-R) at asymptotically low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A simple analytical expression of the capacity is derived for any number of transmit and receive antennas. This characterization clearly shows the substantial gain in terms of capacity over the no CSI-T case and gives a good insight on the effect of the number of antennas used. In addition, an On-Off transmission scheme is proposed and is shown to be asymptotically capacity-achieving. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Analysis of Paralleling Limited Capacity Voltage Sources by Projective Geometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Penin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The droop current-sharing method for voltage sources of a limited capacity is considered. Influence of equalizing resistors and load resistor is investigated on uniform distribution of relative values of currents when the actual loading corresponds to the capacity of a concrete source. Novel concepts for quantitative representation of operating regimes of sources are entered with use of projective geometry method.

  7. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    and financial stimulus are essential if Vermont hopes to increase strategic energy planning alignment and spur whole-scale energy system change. Study 2 examined local energy actors to assess their ability to develop and sustain energy action on the local level. A survey of 120 municipalities collected statewide baseline data covering the structures, processes, and activities of local energy actors. The analysis examined the role that various forms of capacity play in local energy activity. The results show that towns with higher incomes are more likely to have local energy actors and towns with higher populations have higher aggregate energy activity levels. Structurally, energy actors that had both an energy coordinator and an energy committee were more active, and municipal committees were more active than independent committees. Access to a budget and volunteer engagement were both associated with higher activity levels. The network of local energy actors in Vermont consists of committed and knowledgeable volunteers. Yet, the capacity of these local energy actors to implement sustainable energy change is limited due to resource constraints of time and money. In most cases, the scope of municipal energy planning strategy is modest. Prioritization of strategy and action at the central and local levels, along with increased interaction and coordination, is necessary to increase the regional compatibility and pace of energy system transformation.

  8. On the Capacity of Underlay Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2013-05-05

    Due to the scarcity of frequency spectrum in view of the evolution of wireless communication technologies, the cognitive radio (CR) concept has been introduced to efficiently exploit the available spectrum. This concept consists in introducing unlicensed/secondary users (SU’s) in existing networks to share the spectrum of licensed/primary users (PU’s) without harming primary communications hence the name of “spectrum sharing” technique. We study in this dissertation, the capacity and the achievable rate of the secondary user within various communication settings. We, firstly, investigate the capacity of the (SU’s) at low power regime for Nakagami fading channels and present closed form of the capacity under various types of interference and/or power constraints. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link ergodic capacity. Interestingly, we show that the low power regime analysis provides a specific insight on the capacity behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies. Next, we determine the spectral efficiency gain of an uplink CR Multi-Input Multi- Output (MIMO) system in which the SU is allowed to share the spectrum with the PU using a specific precoding scheme to communicate with a common receiver. Applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show, through numerical results, that our proposed scheme enhances considerably the cognitive achievable rate. For instance, in case of a perfect detection of the PU signal, after applying Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC), the CR rate remains non-zero for high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) which is usually impossible when we only use space alignment technique. In addition, we show that the rate gain is proportional to the allowed interference threshold by providing a fixed rate even in the high SNR range

  9. Using expanded real options analysis to evaluate capacity expansion decisions under uncertainty in the construction material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momani, Amer Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacity expansion generally requires large capital expenditure on illiquid assets. Therefore, decisions to enlarge capacity must support the organisation’s strategic objectives and provide valuable input for the budgeting process. This paper applies an expanded form of Real Options Analysis (ROA to generate and evaluate capacity expansion strategies under uncertainty in the construction material industry. ROA is applied to different expansion strategies associated with different demand scenarios. Evaluating a wider variety of strategies can reduce risk and sponsor decisions that maximise the firm’s value. The case study shows that the execution of a lead expansion strategy with 10-year intervals under a 50 per cent demand satisfaction scenario produces superior results.

  10. Utilization of an interorganizational network analysis to evaluate the development of community capacity among a community-academic partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather R; Ramirez, Albert; Drake, Kelly N; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Garney, Whitney R; Wendel, Monica L; Outley, Corliss; Burdine, James N; Player, Harold D

    2014-01-01

    Following a community health assessment the Brazos Valley Health Partnership (BVHP) organized to address fragmentation of services and local health needs. This regional partnership employs the fundamental principles of community-based participatory research, fostering an equitable partnership with the aim of building community capacity to address local health issues. This article describes changes in relationships as a result of capacity building efforts in a community-academic partnership. Growth in network structure among organizations is hypothesized to be indicative of less fragmentation of services for residents and increased capacity of the BVHP to collectively address local health issues. Each of the participant organizations responded to a series of questions regarding its relationships with other organizations. Each organization was asked about information sharing, joint planning, resource sharing, and formal agreements with other organizations. The network survey has been administered 3 times between 2004 and 2009. Network density increased for sharing information and jointly planning events. Growth in the complexity of relationships was reported for sharing tangible resources and formal agreements. The average number of ties between organizations as well as the strength of relationships increased. This study provides evidence that the community capacity building efforts within these communities have contributed to beneficial changes in interorganizational relationships. Results from this analysis are useful for understanding how a community partnership's efforts to address access to care can strengthen a community's capacity for future action. Increased collaboration also leads to new assets, resources, and the transfer of knowledge and skills.

  11. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: Subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyer Sharon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. Methods In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD, we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Results Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2–8; mean 4.8 ± 1.6. Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p Conclusion Greater capacity for change is associated with a higher probability that a practice will attain and sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  12. Exact capacity analysis of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical framework on the exact computation of the average capacity of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels. Our approach relies on the algebraic combination of Mellin and Laplace transforms to obtain exact single integral expressions which can be easily computed by Gauss-Chebyshev Quadrature (GCQ) rule. As such, the derived results are a convenient tool to analyze the average capacity of multihop transmission over amplify-and-forward relay fading channels. As an application of the analytical framework on the exact computation of the average capacity of multihop transmission, some examples are accentuated for generalized Nakagami-m fading channels. Numerical and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement. ©2010 IEEE.

  13. A capacity building approach to increase sports participation in disadvantaged urban communities: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Mathieu; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Willem, Annick

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence showed that community capacity building is one of the key methods to reach health improvements within disadvantaged communities. Physical activity and sports participation are important means to reach health improvements. This study investigates a capacity building method which aims at increasing sports participation in the community, especially for individuals at higher risk of sports deprivation. The main aims of the present study, are the following: (1) to examine differences in sports participation between individuals living in communities implementing a sports-based capacity building program and individuals living in communities without such capacity building program and (2) to investigate if the community sports program reaches the individuals known to experience higher barriers to engage in sports. In Flanders, Belgium, five disadvantaged urban communities implementing the community capacity building program (program communities) and four without (control communities) were selected based on similarity of sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Two hundred adults (aged 18-56 years) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, sports participation, and the community sports program. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results showed that adults from program communities reported on average 96 min/week more participation in sports than their counterparts living in control communities. Furthermore, 61.3% of the individuals of program communities indicated to engage in sports, whereas in control communities, this was only 42.4%. Respondents at higher risk of sports deprivation also engaged in significantly more sports participation in program communities than those in control communities. This difference was also noted for groups that are not related with sports deprivation. These results are promising and plead for a community capacity building approach to

  14. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  15. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  16. Coverage and Capacity Analysis of Sigfox, LoRa, GPRS, and NB-IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Vejlgaard, Benny; Lauridsen, Mads; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Kovács, István; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the coverage and capacity of SigFox, LoRa, GPRS, and NB-IoT is compared using a real site deployment covering 8000 km2 in Northern Denmark. Using the existing Telenor cellular site grid it is shown that the four technologies have more than 99 % outdoor coverage, while GPRS is challenged for indoor coverage. Furthermore, the study analyzes the capacity of the four technologies assuming a traffic growth from 1 to 10 IoT device per user. The conclusion is that the 95 %-tile uplink ...

  17. Coverage and Capacity Analysis of Sigfox, LoRa, GPRS, and NB-IoT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlgaard, Benny; Lauridsen, Mads; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the coverage and capacity of SigFox, LoRa, GPRS, and NB-IoT is compared using a real site deployment covering 8000 km2 in Northern Denmark. Using the existing Telenor cellular site grid it is shown that the four technologies have more than 99 % outdoor coverage, while GPRS...... uplink and downlink connectivity with less than 5 % failure rate, while SigFox is able to provide an unacknowledged uplink data service with about 12 % failure rate. Both GPRS and LoRa struggle to provide sufficient indoor coverage and capacity....

  18. Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K

    2001-05-18

    of operation is ideally suited for applications that require 1-30s engagements at very high average power. If necessary, multiple laser apertures can provide continuous operation. Land Combat mission analysis of a stressing air defense scenario including a dense attack of rockets, mortars, and artillery has indicated that multiple HEL weapon systems, based on the solid state, heat capacity laser concept, can provide significantly improved protection of high value battlefield assets. We will present EADSIM results for two government-supplied scenarios, one with temporally high threat density over a fairly large defended area, and one with fewer threats concentrating on a single defended asset. Implications for weapon system requirements will be presented. In order to demonstrate the operation of a high average power heat-capacity laser system, we have developed a flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energies in the range of 500-1000J/pulse in a 10 x 10cm{sup 2} beam. With a repetition frequency of 20Hz, an average power of 13kW has been demonstrated for operational periods of up to 10s using a stable optical resonator (see enclosed figure). Using an M=1.4 unstable resonator, a beam divergence of 5X diffraction-limited has been measured with no active wavefront correction. An adaptively corrected unstable resonator that incorporates an intracavity deformable mirror controlled by feedback from an external wavefront sensor will provide <2X diffraction-limited output integrated over an entire 10s run at an average power of 10kW. A very similar laser architecture in which the Nd:glass is replaced by Nd:GGG and the flashlamps are replaced by large diode-laser arrays will enable the scaling of the output average power from the demonstrated 10kW to 100kW (500J/pulse at 200Hz). Risk reduction experiments for diode-pumped Nd:GGG, the fabrication of large Nd:GGG amplifier slabs, as well as the progress toward a sub-scale amplifier testbed pumped by diode arrays with total

  19. Capacity Fade Analysis of Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianhua; Liu, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are receiving ever‐increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density and inexpensive raw sulfur materials. However, their rapid capacity fade has been one of the key barriers for their further improvement. It is well accepted that the major degradation mechanisms of S‐cathodes include low electrical conductivity of S and sulfides, precipitation of nonconductive Li2S2 and Li2S, and poly‐shuttle effects. To determine these degradation factors, a comprehensive study of sulfur cathodes with different amounts of electrolytes is presented here. A survey of the fundamentals of Li–S chemistry with respect to capacity fade is first conducted; then, the parameters obtained through electrochemical performance and characterization are used to determine the key causes of capacity fade in Li–S batteries. It is confirmed that the formation and accumulation of nonconductive Li2S2/Li2S films on sulfur cathode surfaces are the major parameters contributing to the rapid capacity fade of Li–S batteries. PMID:27981001

  20. Analysis of Enhancement in Available Power Transfer Capacity by STATCOM Integrated SMES by Numerical Simulation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswathi, Ananthavel; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Shanmugham, Sutha

    2016-01-01

    Power system researches are mainly focused in enhancing the available power capacities of the existing transmission lines. But still, no prominent solutions have been made due to several factors that affect the transmission lines which include the length, aging of the cables and losses...

  1. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, David; Ruhe, Mary; Weyer, Sharon; Stange, Kurt C

    2008-05-16

    The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD), we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2-8; mean 4.8 +/- 1.6). Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  2. Analysis of the capacity to produce IL-3 in murine AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenschwander, A U; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukaemia virus represent a model of murine AIDS (MAIDS). In this study we have analysed the capacity of CD4+ T cells from infected mice to produce IL-3 following stimulation with ConA for 24-72 h. In contrast to the position with IL-2, the production...

  3. Measuring the learning capacity of organisations: development and factor analysis of the Questionnaire for Learning Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, S.C.C.; Schippers, G.M.; Schramade, M.H.; Koeter, M.W.J.; van den Brink, W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate internal consistency and factor structure of a questionnaire measuring learning capacity based on Senge's theory of the five disciplines of a learning organisation: Personal Mastery, Mental Models, Shared Vision, Team Learning, and Systems Thinking. Design: Cross-sectional

  4. Capacity Fade Analysis of Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianhua; Liu, Xingbo; Li, Bingyun

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are receiving ever-increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density and inexpensive raw sulfur materials. However, their rapid capacity fade has been one of the key barriers for their further improvement. It is well accepted that the major degradation mechanisms of S-cathodes include low electrical conductivity of S and sulfides, precipitation of nonconductive Li2S2 and Li2S, and poly-shuttle effects. To determine these degradation factors, a comprehensive study of sulfur cathodes with different amounts of electrolytes is presented here. A survey of the fundamentals of Li-S chemistry with respect to capacity fade is first conducted; then, the parameters obtained through electrochemical performance and characterization are used to determine the key causes of capacity fade in Li-S batteries. It is confirmed that the formation and accumulation of nonconductive Li2S2/Li2S films on sulfur cathode surfaces are the major parameters contributing to the rapid capacity fade of Li-S batteries.

  5. Analysis of anaerobic capacity in rowers using Wingate test on cycle and rowing ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasnja, Aleksandar; Barak, Otto; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Drapsin, Miodrag; Knezević, Aleksandar; Grujić, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    The 30-s all-out Wingate test has been used in athletes of all sport specialties to measure the capacity for short duration, high power output while cycling. The aim of this study was to establish differences in measuring anaerobic capacity between the classic Wingate test on a cycling ergometer and the modified Wingate test on a rowing ergometer in rowers. A group of20 rowers was tested by both the cycle and rowing ergometers during 30s of maximum power to test anaerobic capacity and to make correlation between these tests. The parameters measured were the peak power and mean power. The peak power on the cycling ergometer was 475 +/- 75.1W and 522.4 +/- 81W (p rowing ergometer. The mean power on the cycling ergometer and the rowing ergometer was 344.4 +/- 51.1W and 473.7W +/- 67.2, (p rowing ergometer. By correlating the anaerobic parameters of the classic Wingate test and a modified Wingate test on the rowing ergometer a significant positive correlation was detected in the peak power (r = 0.63, p rowing ergometer compared to the cycling ergometer due to a better mechanical efficiency. It is concluded that the modified Wingate test on the rowing ergometer can be used in rowers for testing their anaerobic capacity as a sport specific test ergometer since it provides more precise results.

  6. Field Carrying Capacity Analysis of Agricultural Sector Based Spatial in Nagari Taram, District of Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernamaiyanti Ernamaiyanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion has changed the field carryng capacity and filed quality. The purpose of this study is to figured out of field wideness Nagari Taram, and to analyze the availability and suitability of agricultural land Nagari Taram. Analysis of Field carrying capacity based on the Regulation of the Minister of Environment No. 17 of 2009, following by Focus Group Discussion (FGD and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results, agricultural land based on type of ecosystem in the by area Nagari Taram is 1003.5 hectares consisting rice fields, dry land, ponds and open waters. Availability of agricultural land Nagari Taram is a surplus. stability of Nagari Taram slopes are low, high, less and medium. analysis showing field carrying suitability Nagari Taram is suitable for land agricultural.

  7. Comparative Polygenic Analysis of Maximal Ethanol Accumulation Capacity and Tolerance to High Ethanol Levels of Cell Proliferation in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Thiago M.; Foulquié-Moreno, María R.; Hubmann, Georg; Duitama, Jorge; Swinnen, Steve; Goovaerts, Annelies; Yang, Yudi; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v) by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance. PMID:23754966

  8. Analysis of handoff strategies in macro-femto cells environment based on per-energy capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Placing smaller cells in a heterogeneous network can be beneficial in terms of energy because better capacities can be obtained for a given energy constraint. These type of deployments not only highlight the need for appropriate metrics to evaluate how well energy is being spent, but also raise important issues that need to be taken into account when analysing the overall use of energy. In this study, handoff strategies, bandwidth allocation and path loss calculations in different scenarios, illustrate how energy can be consumed in a more efficient way when cell size is decreased. As a result, users can experience higher capacities while spending less energy, depending whether they handoff or not, increasing the overall performance of the network. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  9. Performance and capacity analysis of Poisson photon-counting based Iter-PIC OCDMA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingbin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Dingchen; Hanzo, Lajos

    2013-11-04

    In this paper, an iterative parallel interference cancellation (Iter-PIC) technique is developed for optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) systems relying on shot-noise limited Poisson photon-counting reception. The novel semi-analytical tool of extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts is used for analysing both the bit error rate (BER) performance as well as the channel capacity of these systems and the results are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed Iter-PIC OCDMA system is capable of achieving two orders of magnitude BER improvements and a 0.1 nats of capacity improvement over the conventional chip-level OCDMA systems at a coding rate of 1/10.

  10. Analysis of causes and effects errors in calculation of rolling slewing bearings capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the basic design features and essential assumption of calculation models as well as the factors influencing quality improvement and improvement of calculation process of bearing capacity of rolling slewing bearings are discussed. The aim of conducted research is the identification and elimination of sources of errors in determining the characteristics of slewing bearing capacity. The result of the research aims atdeterminingthe risk of making mistakes and specifying tips for designers of slewing bearings. It is shown that there is a necessity fora numerical method to be applied and that real conditions of bearing work must necessarily be taken into account e.g. carrying structure deformations as the first ones.

  11. An Analysis of the Impact of Ownership Types on Companies’ Innovative Capacity in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Angela; Becker, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    : In order to change the growth strategy of the Chinese economy, from the recent production focused towards an innovation-oriented approach, the government is trying to foster innovation capacity building among companies operating in China. The implementation of the current Science and Technology...... Development Plan (2006-2020) has granted enterprises special support and subsidies to increase their innovative capacity. Yet, due to specific ownership forms of firms in China the government aid varies tremendously between the various ownership types. Based on their registration status enterprise types can...... into three main dichotomies: private vs. public, domestic vs. foreign, and single vs. joint-operated enterprises. The arising particular circumstances for these companies as well as for the three dichotomies in China need to be investigated in more depth. Hence, this paper pursues three goals: (1) to derive...

  12. Operationalizing analysis of micro-level climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Moinuddin, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores vulnerability and adaptive capacity of rural communities in Southern Laos, where households are highly dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources and vulnerable to seasonal weather fluctuations. The speed and magnitude of climate-induced changes may seriously challenge...... their ability to adapt. Participatory group discussions and 271 household surveys in three villages highlight the current level of vulnerability and adaptive capacity towards climatic variability and risks. This paper visualizes three dimensions of the vulnerability framework at two levels using the Community...... Climate Vulnerability Index and household climate vulnerability cube. Results show that not only poor households are most at risk from climate change challenges, but also those better-off households highly dependent on specialized agricultural production are locally exposed to climate change risks...

  13. Neural networks and principle component analysis approaches to predict pile capacity in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benali A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of pile bearing capacity from the in-situ tests has developed considerably due to the significant development of their technology. The project presented in this paper is a combination of two approaches, artificial neural networks and main component analyses that allow the development of a neural network model that provides a more accurate prediction of axial load bearing capacity based on the SPT test data. The retropropagation multi-layer perceptron with Bayesian regularization (RB was used in this model. This was established by the incorporation of about 260 data, obtained from the published literature, of experimental programs for large displacement driven piles. The PCA method is proposed for compression and suppression of the correlation between these data. This will improve the performance of generalization of the model.

  14. Evaluation of safe bearing capacity of soil foundation by using numerical analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoullah Namdar; Xiong Feng

    2014-01-01

    The soil mechanic laboratory results help in accurate soil foundation design and enhancement failure mitigation. The mixing soil design has been used in many geotechnical engineering for soil improvement. In this paper, several types of soil foundations have been made from mixed soil. The bearing capacity of soil foundations by using mixed soil parameters and change footing dimensions have been calculated. 180 footings, placed on 15 soil foundation types have been designed. It is ...

  15. Analysis of the Storage Capacity in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård

    2015-01-01

    to suitable time slots and this makes it possible to avoid some grid storage capacity. The energy is bought based on prediction of energy prices, weather forecast and an aggregated house model on the NORD POOL day-ahead market. The bought energy is then distributed to the houses using a model free sorting...... (scheduling) algorithm. The properties of this scheduling are investigated in the paper especially the flexibility and ability to trade on the intra-day regulating market is in focus....

  16. Capacity Fade Analysis of Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium?Sulfur Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jianhua; Liu, Xingbo; Li, Bingyun

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium?sulfur (Li?S) batteries are receiving ever?increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density and inexpensive raw sulfur materials. However, their rapid capacity fade has been one of the key barriers for their further improvement. It is well accepted that the major degradation mechanisms of S?cathodes include low electrical conductivity of S and sulfides, precipitation of nonconductive Li2S2 and Li2S, and poly?shuttle effects. To determine these degradation...

  17. Analysis of Reaction Times and Aerobic Capacities of Soccer Players According to Their Playing Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz; Karakoc, Onder; Taskin, Mine; Dural, Murat

    2016-01-01

    70 soccer players in Gaziantep amateur league voluntarily participated in this study, (average of their ages 19,17±1,34years, average of their heights 181,28±5,06 cm, average of their body weights 76,75±4,43 kg and average of their sports experiences 3,78±0,95 years) to analyze visual and auditory reaction times and aerobic capacities of amateur…

  18. Dredged Material Placement Site Capacity Analysis for Navigation Improvement Project at Grays Harbor, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Site (SJDS) and the Point Chehalis Disposal Site (PCDS) respectively. The dynamic capacity for three scenarios was determined by including the... determine the optimal channel design for minimizing maintenance dredging requirements. ERDC/CHL TR-12-18 4 As stated previously, the NWS has...model formulated from a parabolic approximation equation ( Mase et al. 2005a; 2005b) with energy dissipation and diffraction terms to simulate a

  19. Analysis of Enhancement in Available Power Transfer Capacity by STATCOM Integrated SMES by Numerical Simulation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswathi, Ananthavel; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Shanmugham, Sutha

    2016-01-01

    Power system researches are mainly focused in enhancing the available power capacities of the existing transmission lines. But still, no prominent solutions have been made due to several factors that affect the transmission lines which include the length, aging of the cables and losses on generat...... independently between the transmission lines and STATCOM-(SMES) units. Complete proposed power system is implemented in numerical simulation software (Matlab/Simulink) and its performance is validated based on obtained investigation results....

  20. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  1. Analysis of Dowlink Macro-Femto Cells Environment Based on Per-Energy Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    León, Jaime

    2012-05-01

    Placing smaller cells in a heterogeneous cellular network can be beneficial in terms of energy because better capacities can be obtained for a given energy constraint. These type of deployments not only highlight the need for appropriate metrics to evaluate how well energy is being spent, but also raise important issues that need to be taken into account when analysing the overall use of energy. In this work, handoff strategies, bandwidth allocation, and path loss models in different scenarios, illustrate how energy can be consumed in a more efficient way when cell size is decreased. A handoff strategy based on per-energy capacity is studied in order to give priority to a more energy efficient handoff option. Energy can also be spent more adequately if the transmit power is adjusted as a function of interference. As a result, users can experience higher capacities while spending less energy, depending whether they handoff or not, increasing the overall performance of the network in terms of energy efficiency.

  2. Frequency Reuse, Cell Separation, and Capacity Analysis of VHF Digital Link Mode 3 TDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2003-01-01

    The most recent studies by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation industry have indicated that it has become increasingly difficult to make new VHF frequency or channel assignments to meet the aviation needs for air-ground communications. FAA has planned for several aggressive improvement measures to the existing systems, but these measures would not meet the projected voice communications needs beyond 2009. FAA found that since 1974 there has been, on the average, a 4 percent annual increase in the number of channel assignments needed to satisfy the air-ground communication traffic (approximately 300 new channel assignments per year). With the planned improvement measures, the channel assignments are expected to reach a maximum number of 16615 channels by about 2010. Hence, the FAA proposed the use of VDL Mode 3 as a new integrated digital voice and data communications systems to meet the future air traffic demand. This paper presents analytical results of frequency reuse; cell separation and capacity estimation of VDL Mode 3 TDMA systems that FAA has planned to implement the future VHF air-ground communications system by the year 2010. For TDMA, it is well understood that the frequency reuse factor is a crucial parameter for capacity estimation. Formulation of this frequency reuse factor is shown, taking into account the limitation imposed by the requirement to have a sufficient Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio. Several different values for the Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio were utilized corresponding to the current analog VHF DSB-AM systems, and the future digital VDL Mode 3. The required separation of Co-Channel cells is computed for most of the Frequency Protected Service Volumes (FPSV's) currently in use by the FAA. Additionally, the ideal cell capacity for each FPSV is presented. Also, using actual traffic for the Detroit air space, a FPSV traffic distribution model is used to generate a typical cell for channel capacity

  3. Trait correlated expression combined with expression QTL analysis reveals biological pathways and candidate genes affecting water holding capacity of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Jonas, Elisabeth; Murani, Eduard; Phatsara, Chirawath; Srikanchai, Tiranun; Walz, Christina; Schwerin, Manfred; Schellander, Karl; Wimmers, Klaus

    2008-07-31

    Leakage of water and ions and soluble proteins from muscle cells occurs during prolonged exercise due to ischemia causing muscle damage. Also post mortem anoxia during conversion of muscle to meat is marked by loss of water and soluble components from the muscle cell. There is considerable variation in the water holding capacity of meat affecting economy of meat production. Water holding capacity depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors relevant to structural and biochemical muscle fibre properties a well as ante and post slaughter metabolic processes. Expression microarray analysis of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs of 74 F2 animals of a resource population showed 1,279 transcripts with trait correlated expression to water holding capacity. Negatively correlated transcripts were enriched in functional categories and pathways like extracellular matrix receptor interaction and calcium signalling. Transcripts with positive correlation dominantly represented biochemical processes including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial pathways, as well as transporter activity. A linkage analysis of abundance of trait correlated transcripts revealed 897 expression QTL (eQTL) with 104 eQTL coinciding with QTL regions for water holding capacity; 96 transcripts had trans acting and 8 had cis acting regulation. The complex relationships between biological processes taking place in live skeletal muscle and meat quality are driven on the one hand by the energy reserves and their utilisation in the muscle and on the other hand by the muscle structure itself and calcium signalling. Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for the trait of interest and for gene expression levels for creation of a priority list of genes out of the orchestra of genes of biological networks relevant to the liability to develop elevated drip loss.

  4. Trait correlated expression combined with expression QTL analysis reveals biological pathways and candidate genes affecting water holding capacity of muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwerin Manfred

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leakage of water and ions and soluble proteins from muscle cells occurs during prolonged exercise due to ischemia causing muscle damage. Also post mortem anoxia during conversion of muscle to meat is marked by loss of water and soluble components from the muscle cell. There is considerable variation in the water holding capacity of meat affecting economy of meat production. Water holding capacity depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors relevant to structural and biochemical muscle fibre properties a well as ante and post slaughter metabolic processes. Results Expression microarray analysis of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs of 74 F2 animals of a resource population showed 1,279 transcripts with trait correlated expression to water holding capacity. Negatively correlated transcripts were enriched in functional categories and pathways like extracellular matrix receptor interaction and calcium signalling. Transcripts with positive correlation dominantly represented biochemical processes including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial pathways, as well as transporter activity. A linkage analysis of abundance of trait correlated transcripts revealed 897 expression QTL (eQTL with 104 eQTL coinciding with QTL regions for water holding capacity; 96 transcripts had trans acting and 8 had cis acting regulation. Conclusion The complex relationships between biological processes taking place in live skeletal muscle and meat quality are driven on the one hand by the energy reserves and their utilisation in the muscle and on the other hand by the muscle structure itself and calcium signalling. Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for the trait of interest and for gene expression levels for creation of a priority list of genes out of the orchestra of genes of biological networks relevant to the liability to develop elevated drip loss.

  5. Analysis of Power Network for Line Reactance Variation to Improve Total Transmission Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing growth in power demand and the penetration of renewable distributed generations in competitive electricity market demands large and flexible capacity from the transmission grid to reduce transmission bottlenecks. The bottlenecks cause transmission congestion, reliability problems, restrict competition, and limit the maximum dispatch of low cost generations in the network. The electricity system requires efficient utilization of the current transmission capability to improve the Available Transfer Capability (ATC. To improve the ATC, power flow among the lines can be managed by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices as power flow controllers, which alter the parameters of power lines. It is important to place FACTS devices on suitable lines to vary the reactance for improving Total Transmission Capacity (TTC of the network and provide flexibility in the power flow. In this paper a transmission network is analyzed based on line parameters variation to improve TTC of the interconnected system. Lines are selected for placing FACTS devices based on real power flow Performance Index (PI sensitivity factors. TTC is computed using the Repeated Power Flow (RPF method using the constraints of lines thermal limits, bus voltage limits and generator limits. The reactance of suitable lines, selected on the basis of PI sensitivity factors are changed to divert the power flow to other lines with enough transfer capacity available. The improvement of TTC using line reactance variation is demonstrated with three IEEE test systems with multi-area networks. The results show the variation of the selected lines’ reactance in improving TTC for all the test networks with defined contingency cases.

  6. Random analysis of bearing capacity of square footing using the LAS procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawa Marek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a three-dimensional problem of bearing capacity of square footing on random soil medium is analyzed. The random fields of strength parameters c and φ are generated using LAS procedure (Local Average Subdivision, Fenton and Vanmarcke 1990. The procedure used is re-implemented by the authors in Mathematica environment in order to combine it with commercial program. Since the procedure is still tested the random filed has been assumed as one-dimensional: the strength properties of soil are random in vertical direction only.

  7. MIMO Intensity-Modulation Channels: Capacity Bounds and High SNR Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-10-01

    The capacity of MIMO intensity modulation channels is studied. The nonnegativity of the transmit signal (intensity) poses a challenge on the precoding of the transmit signal, which limits the applicability of classical schemes in this type of channels. To resolve this issue, capacity lower bounds are developed by using precoding-free schemes. This is achieved by channel inversion or QR decomposition to convert the MIMO channel to a set of parallel channels. The achievable rate of a DC-offset SVD based scheme is also derived as a benchmark. Then, a capacity upper bound is derived and is shown to coincide with the achievable rate of the QR decomposition based scheme at high SNR, consequently characterizing the high-SNR capacity of the channel. The high-SNR gap between capacity and the achievable rates of the channel inversion and the DC-offset SVD based schemes is also characterized. Finally, the ergodic capacity of the channel is also briefly discussed.

  8. Measuring the learning capacity of organisations: development and factor analysis of the Questionnaire for Learning Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, S C C; Schippers, G M; Schramade, M H; Koeter, M W J; van den Brink, W

    2011-04-01

    To investigate internal consistency and factor structure of a questionnaire measuring learning capacity based on Senge's theory of the five disciplines of a learning organisation: Personal Mastery, Mental Models, Shared Vision, Team Learning, and Systems Thinking. Cross-sectional study. Substance-abuse treatment centres (SATCs) in The Netherlands. A total of 293 SATC employees from outpatient and inpatient treatment departments, financial and human resources departments. Psychometric properties of the Questionnaire for Learning Organizations (QLO), including factor structure, internal consistency, and interscale correlations. A five-factor model representing the five disciplines of Senge showed good fit. The scales for Personal Mastery, Shared Vision and Team Learning had good internal consistency, but the scales for Systems Thinking and Mental Models had low internal consistency. The proposed five-factor structure was confirmed in the QLO, which makes it a promising instrument to assess learning capacity in teams. The Systems Thinking and the Mental Models scales have to be revised. Future research should be aimed at testing criterion and discriminatory validity.

  9. Analysis of Thermal Power Generation Capacity for a Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Functional Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajing; Chen, Gang; Bai, Guanghui; Yang, Xuqiu; Li, Peng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2017-05-01

    Due to military or other requirements for hypersonic aircraft, the energy supply devices with the advantages of small size and light weight are urgently needed. Compared with the traditional energy supply method, the skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) functional structure is expected to generate electrical energy with a smaller structural space in the hypersonic aircraft. This paper mainly focuses on the responded thermal and electrical characteristics of the skutterudite-based TE functional structure (TEFS) under strong heat flux loads. We conduct TE simulations on the transient model of the TEFS with consideration of the heat flux loads and thermal radiation in the hot end and the cooling effect of the phase change material (PCM) in the cold end. We investigate several influential factors on the power generation capacity, such as the phase transition temperature of the PCM, the heat flux loads, the thickness of the TE materials and the thermal conductivity of the frame materials. The results show that better power generation capacity can be achieved with thicker TE materials, lower phase transition temperature and suitable thermal conductivity of the frame materials.

  10. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus...... fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) have reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes of temperature, throughout the north Atlantic. Meta-analytical methods based on effect sizes were employed...

  11. PV Hosting Capacity Analysis and Enhancement Using High Resolution Stochastic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Palacios-Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of CO2 emissions is a main target in the future smart grid. This goal is boosting the installation of renewable energy resources (RES, as well as a major consumer engagement that seeks for a more efficient utilization of these resources toward the figure of ‘prosumers’. Nevertheless, these resources present an intermittent nature, which requires the presence of an energy storage system and an energy management system (EMS to ensure an uninterrupted power supply. Moreover, network-related issues might arise due to the increasing power of renewable resources installed in the grid, the storage systems also being capable of contributing to the network stability. However, to assess these future scenarios and test the control strategies, a simulation system is needed. The aim of this paper is to analyze the interaction between residential consumers with high penetration of PV generation and distributed storage and the grid by means of a high temporal resolution simulation scenario based on a stochastic residential load model and PV production records. Results of the model are presented for different PV power rates and storage capacities, as well as a two-level charging strategy as a mechanism for increasing the hosting capacity (HC of the network.

  12. Thermal analysis of large-capacity LiFePO4 power batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Li, Zhao; Li, Bin; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-10-01

    Excellent design of a thermal management system requires good understanding of the thermal behaviors of power batteries. In this study, the electrochemical and heat performances of a prismatic 40 Ah C/LiFePO4 battery are investigated with a focus on the influence of temperature on cell capacity in a mixed charge-discharge cycle. In addition, the heat generation and energy efficiency of a battery are determined during charge and discharge at different current rates. The experimental results indicate that in certain temperature ranges, both the charging and discharging capacities increase significantly as the temperature increases. In addition, the energy efficiency reaches more than 95% when the battery runs at a current rate of 0.33 C-2 C and temperature of 25-45 °C. A thermal mathematical model based on experimentally obtained internal resistances and entropy coefficients is developed. Using this model, the increase in the battery temperature is simulated based on specific heat values that are measured experimentally and calculated theoretically. The results from the simulation indicate that the temperature increase agrees well with the experimental values, the measured specific heat provides better results than the calculated specific heat and the heat generated decreases as the temperature increases.

  13. Analysis of the Capacity Potential of Current Day and Novel Configurations for New York's John F. Kennedy Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Patricia; Tamburro, Ralph; Lee, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a series of systems analysis studies were conducted on John F. Kennedy Airport in New York (NY) in a collaborative effort between NASA and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). This work was performed to build a deeper understanding of NY airspace and operations to determine the improvements possible through operational changes with tools currently available, and where new technology is required for additional improvement. The analysis was conducted using tool-based mathematical analyses, video inspection and evaluation using recorded arrival/departure/surface traffic captured by the Aerobahn tool (used by Kennedy Airport for surface metering), and aural data archives available publically through the web to inform the video segments. A discussion of impacts of trajectory and operational choices on capacity is presented, including runway configuration and usage (parallel, converging, crossing, shared, independent, staggered), arrival and departure route characteristics (fix sharing, merges, splits), and how compression of traffic is staged. The authorization in March of 2015 for New York to use reduced spacing under the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Wake Turbulence Recategorization (RECAT) also offers significant capacity benefit for New York airports when fully transitioned to the new spacing requirements, and the impact of these changes for New York is discussed. Arrival and departure capacity results are presented for each of the current day Kennedy Airport configurations. While the tools allow many variations of user-selected conditions, the analysis for these studies used arrival-priority, no-winds, additional safety buffer of 5% to the required minimum spacing, and a mix of traffic typical for Kennedy. Two additional "novel" configurations were evaluated. These configurations are of interest to Port Authority and to their airline customers, and are believed to offer near-term capacity benefit with minimal operational and

  14. Streptococcus pyogenes strains in Sao Paulo, Brazil: molecular characterization as a basis for StreptInCor coverage capacity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi de Barros, Samar; De Amicis, Karine Marafigo; Alencar, Raquel; Smeesters, Pierre Robert; Trunkel, Ariel; Postól, Edilberto; Almeida Junior, João Nóbrega; Rossi, Flavia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Kalil, Jorge; Guilherme, Luiza

    2015-08-05

    Several human diseases are caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, ranging from common infections to autoimmunity. Characterization of the most prevalent strains worldwide is a useful tool for evaluating the coverage capacity of vaccines under development. In this study, a collection of S. pyogenes strains from Sao Paulo, Brazil, was analyzed to describe the diversity of strains and assess the vaccine coverage capacity of StreptInCor. Molecular epidemiology of S. pyogenes strains was performed by emm-genotyping the 229 isolates from different clinical sites, and PCR was used for superantigen profile analysis. The emm-pattern and tissue tropism for these M types were also predicted and compared based on the emm-cluster classification. The strains were fit into 12 different emm-clusters, revealing a diverse phylogenetic origin and, consequently, different mechanisms of infection and escape of the host immune system. Forty-eight emm-types were distinguished in 229 samples, and the 10 most frequently observed types accounted for 69 % of all isolates, indicating a diverse profile of circulating strains comparable to other countries under development. A similar proportion of E and A-C emm-patterns were observed, whereas pattern D was less frequent, indicating that the strains of this collection primarily had a tissue tropism for the throat. In silico analysis of the coverage capacity of StreptInCor, an M protein-conserved regionally based vaccine candidate developed by our group, had a range of 94.5 % to 59.7 %, with a mean of 71.0 % identity between the vaccine antigen and the predicted amino acid sequence of the emm-types included here. This is the first report of S. pyogenes strain characterization in Sao Paulo, one of the largest cities in the world; thus, the strain panel described here is a representative sample for vaccine coverage capacity analysis. Our results enabled evaluation of StreptInCor candidate vaccine coverage capacity against diverse M-types, indicating

  15. Systematic single-cell analysis of Pichia pastoris reveals secretory capacity limits productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Routenberg Love

    Full Text Available Biopharmaceuticals represent the fastest growing sector of the global pharmaceutical industry. Cost-efficient production of these biologic drugs requires a robust host organism for generating high titers of protein during fermentation. Understanding key cellular processes that limit protein production and secretion is, therefore, essential for rational strain engineering. Here, with single-cell resolution, we systematically analysed the productivity of a series of Pichia pastoris strains that produce different proteins both constitutively and inducibly. We characterized each strain by qPCR, RT-qPCR, microengraving, and imaging cytometry. We then developed a simple mathematical model describing the flux of folded protein through the ER. This combination of single-cell measurements and computational modelling shows that protein trafficking through the secretory machinery is often the rate-limiting step in single-cell production, and strategies to enhance the overall capacity of protein secretion within hosts for the production of heterologous proteins may improve productivity.

  16. Model for capacity analysis in research projects at higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Benedetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions in Brazil are growing strongly due to demand by industry professionals and the demand for new technologies. To exploit this growth and become a benchmark in its segment, the institutions have been deepening in methodologies applied in industries to become more competitive. Thus, this article aims to develop a model to analyze the execution capabilities in research project of a higher education institution. This model applies concepts capability, simplex method and modeling scenarios for generating scenarios, resulting in a maximization of the ratio of the rate margin total capacity contribution. This result is indicative of viability of the project under review. The validation of this study was conducted by analyzing a group of environmental research laboratory projects of a higher education institution. At the end of the study can be seen the model of efficiency for decision making, demonstrating that it is possible to generate scenarios that focus on important aspects for the given context.

  17. A variance analysis of the capacity displaced by wind energy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy generation distributed all over Europe is less variable than generation from a single region. To analyse the benefits of distributed generation, the whole electrical generation system of Europe has been modelled including varying penetrations of wind power. The model is chronologically...... simulating the scheduling of the European power plants to cover the demand at every hour of the year. The wind power generation was modelled using wind speed measurements from 60 meteorological stations, for 1 year. The distributed wind power also displaces fossil-fuelled capacity. However, every assessment...... where the pump storage plants are used more aggressively and the other where all German nuclear plants are shut off NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data have been used to recreate the same averaged time series from a data set spanning 34 years. Through this it is possible to set the year studied in detail...

  18. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) have reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes of temperature, throughout the north Atlantic. Meta-analytical methods based on effect sizes were employed...

  19. Effects of physical exercise in older adults with reduced physical capacity: meta-analysis of resistance exercise and multimodal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Chang, Wen-Pin; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene; Savage, Katie E L; Radford, Lori W; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran

    2017-12-01

    Older adults with reduced physical capacity are at greater risk of progression to care dependency. Progressive resistance strength exercise and multimodal exercise have been studied to restore reduced physical capacity. To summarize the best evidence of the two exercise regimes, this meta-analysis study appraised randomized-controlled trials from published systematic reviews. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials were searched for relevant systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently screened the relevant systematic reviews to identify eligible trials, assessed trial methodological quality, and extracted data. RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyze data on muscle strength, physical functioning, activities of daily living, and falls. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified from 22 systematic reviews. The mean age of the trial participants was 75 years or older. Almost all multimodal exercise trials included muscle strengthening exercise and balance exercise. Progressive resistance exercise is effective in improving muscle strength of the lower extremity and static standing balance. Multimodal exercise is effective in improving muscle strength of the lower extremity, dynamic standing balance, gait speed, and chair stand. In addition, multimodal exercise is effective in reducing falls. Neither type of exercise was effective in improving activities of daily living. For older adults with reduced physical capacity, multimodal exercise appears to have a broad effect on improving muscle strength, balance, and physical functioning of the lower extremity, and reducing falls relative to progressive resistance exercise alone.

  20. Pneumococcal Replicative State in Relation to its Adherence Capacity to A549-cell Line: A Preliminary in vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Desa, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to compare the replication capacity of pneumococcal isolates (serotypes 1, 7F, 19F and 23F with their adherence pattern to monolayer cells (A549. For standardization purposes, all isolates showed a normal growth curve in both bacteriological (THB + 0.5% yeast extract with and without 2% FBS and cell culture media (RPMI + 2% FBS. In the former media, a shorter lag phase was observed for isolate serotypes 1 and 7F in presence of serum while in the later; growth yield was lower for all isolates with stationary phase approaching OD600 of 0.01 as compared to 1.0 in bacteriological media. In the replicative analysis at different growth phases of the isolates in cell culture media, growth capacity at 3 h post-incubation was frequently twice as that at 1 h, and that at early-log phase was frequently higher than that at mid-log phase at both post-incubation times. Adherence was frequently the least at early-log phase although the isolates were in the most active state of replication to increase the number of pneumococcal cells to adhere. At mid- and late-log phases, pneumococcal adherence was frequently higher although the replication was reduced. This study marks the potential correlation between pneumococcal growth fitness and adherence capacity whereby the later may not be superior during the early growth phase.

  1. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2014-05-20

    This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.

  2. Systematic Chemical Analysis Approach Reveals Superior Antioxidant Capacity via the Synergistic Effect of Flavonoid Compounds in Red Vegetative Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL and ever-green leaves (GL of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies.

  3. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  4. Reliability Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Square Footing on Soil with Strength Anisotropy Due to Layered Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawa Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with reliability analysis of square footing on soil with strength anisotropy. The strength of the soil has been described with identified anisotropic strength criterion dedicated to geomaterials with layered microstructure. The analysis assumes dip angle α and azimuth angle β which define direction of lamination of the structure to be random variables with given probability density functions. Bearing capacity being a function of these variables is approximated based on results of deterministic simulations obtained for variety of orientations. The weighted regression method by Kaymaz and McMahon within the framework of Response Surface Method is used for the approximation. As a result of analysis, global factor of safety that corresponds to assumed value of probability of failure is determined. The value of the safety factor denotes the ratio between the value of the design load and the mean value of bearing capacity which is needed to reduce the probability of failure to the acceptable level. The procedure of calculating the factor has been presented for two different cases. In the first case, no information about lamination direction of the soil has been provided and thus all the orientations are assumed to be equally probable (uniform distribution. In the second case, statistical information including mean, variance and assumed probability distribution for both α and β angle is known. For the latter case, using results obtained for few different values of mean of angle α, also the influence of strength anisotropy on the value of global factor of safety is shown.

  5. Performance analysis of communication links based on VCSEL and silicon photonics technology for high-capacity data-intensive scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletti, A; Boffi, P; Martelli, P; Ferrario, M; Martinelli, M

    2015-01-26

    To face the increased demand for bandwidth, cost-effectiveness and simplicity of future Ethernet data communications, a comparison between two different solutions based on directly-modulated VCSEL sources and Silicon Photonics technologies is carried out. Also by exploiting 4-PAM modulation, the transmission of 50-Gb/s and beyond capacity per channel is analyzed by means of BER performance. Applications for optical backplane, very short reach and in case of client-optics networks and intra and inter massive data centers communications (up to 10 km) are taken into account. A comparative analysis based on the power consumption is also proposed.

  6. Deficit analysis: service capacity assessment and planning in developing countries - case study in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garric E; Magpili, Luna M; Pinto, Cesar A

    2007-12-01

    Current demand analysis methods do not formally cover the case of chronic deficits in quantity or quality of water and sanitation services. These services include drinking water supply (DWS), wastewater and sewage treatment (WST), and municipal solid waste management (MSW). Formal analysis of this case would, at minimum, define the deficit state and evaluate appropriate options for reducing it. This paper proposes for a formal analytical model for municipal sanitation systems (MSS) that operate with deficits in at least one of the constituent services of DWS, WST, or MSW. The model introduces definitions and notation for describing the deficit state for conducting demand analysis on municipal sanitation systems. This model of demand analysis for systems with chronic deficits will hereinafter be referred to as deficit analysis. A case study for Bacoor, Philippines is presented as an example.

  7. Cooperative Diversity with Mobile Nodes: Outage Capacity Rates and Durations

    CERN Document Server

    Zlatanov, Nikola; Karagiannidis, George K; Schober, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A complete evaluation of the benefits of cooperative diversity schemes does not only include the outage and error rate performance but also the second-order statistics of the achievable informationtheoretic capacity. In a non-ergodic fading channel, the system is in outage when the destination cannot decode the fixed-rate transmitted signal with negligible error probability. Because of the Doppler effect, which is induced by the mobility of the wireless nodes, these outage capacity events are correlated. In this paper, we derive exact expressions for the average outage rate (AOR) and the average outage duration (AOD) of three well-known cooperative diversity protocols operating in slow Rayleigh fading channels: variable-gain amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, and selection decode-and-forward relaying. Furthermore, we derive asymptotically tight high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) approximations for the AORs and the AODs, which offer important insights into the influence of various system and channel parame...

  8. Capacity Evaluation Requests in the Medical Setting: A Retrospective Analysis of Underlying Psychosocial and Ethical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesanti, Stephen; Hamm, Brandon; Esplin, Bryn; Karafa, Matt; Jimenez, Xavier F

    Psychosocial and ethical variables influence physicians in requesting decision-making capacity (DMC) evaluations. Previous authors have classified certain DMC evaluation requests as "unwarranted" when there is no explicit suspicion or evidence that the patient might lack DMC. To explore psychosocial and ethical reasons motivating both "warranted" and "unwarranted" DMC evaluation requests by physicians in the medical setting. A retrospective electronic health record review was approved by the institutional review board. All psychiatric consultation requests identified as DMC evaluation requests between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 were assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Each reviewer identified each DMC evaluation request as "warranted" vs "unwarranted." Unwarranted DMC evaluation requests were defined as those lacking explicit suspicion that the patient might lack DMC or those with explicit evidence of a patient with blatantly impaired DMC. We hypothesized that most (over half) DMC evaluation requests would be deemed unwarranted. Descriptive statistics, chi-square/Fisher exact tests, and t-test/ANOVA were used. A total of 146 DMC evaluations were reviewed, and 83 (56.8%) of these were deemed unwarranted. Of these, most were likely driven by a previous neuropsychiatric disturbance (p requests in a general medical setting were unwarranted. Many such requests were motivated by unarticulated psychosocial and ethical factors. DMC evaluation requests appear to serve as a means for indirectly resolving various psychosocial and ethical dilemmas beyond assessing DMC itself. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Renmao

    2014-08-29

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Wang, Yong; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Cai, Lin; Bajic, Vladimir; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  12. Analysis of Total Antioxidant Capacity on Ingredients of Lotek Menu by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Banowati Istiningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC determination has been made in the vegetable component of lotek with Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods. Samples was crushed and then extracted with water as a polar solvent and centrifuged. The residue was extracted again with acetone as a non-polar solvent. The extract is then reacted with FRAP reagent and the absorbance measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 595 nm. TAC values expressed as mM/mL extract of vegetables component of lotek for the water extract of green beans, peanuts, bean sprouts, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, and spinach respectively is 2,72; 6,79; 1,26; 0,89; 0,33; 1,86; 1,85 mM /mL extract, while the acetone extract is 1,42; 5,41; 0,44; 0,32; 0,25; 1,09; 0,93 mM/mL extract. The three largest contribution to the total TAC is a water extract of peanuts, acetone extract of peanut and water extract of green beans respectively is 25,56; 21,16 and 10,66%.Keywords: lotek, TAC, FRAP, spectrophotometer UV-Vis

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  14. Ergodicity and slowing down in glass-forming systems with soft potentials: No finite-temperature singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Procaccia, Itamar

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss some basic notions regarding generic glass-forming systems composed of particles interacting via soft potentials. Excluding explicitly hard-core interaction, we discuss the so-called glass transition in which a supercooled amorphous state is formed, accompanied by a spectacular slowing down of relaxation to equilibrium, when the temperature is changed over a relatively small interval. Using the classical example of a 50-50 binary liquid of N particles with different interaction length scales, we show the following. (i) The system remains ergodic at all temperatures. (ii) The number of topologically distinct configurations can be computed, is temperature independent, and is exponential in N . (iii) Any two configurations in phase space can be connected using elementary moves whose number is polynomially bounded in N , showing that the graph of configurations has the small world property. (iv) The entropy of the system can be estimated at any temperature (or energy), and there is no Kauzmann crisis at any positive temperature. (v) The mechanism for the super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the relaxation time is explained, connecting it to an entropic squeeze at the glass transition. (vi) There is no Vogel-Fulcher crisis at any finite temperature T>0 .

  15. Ergodicity breaking and conformational hysteresis in the dynamics of a polymer tethered at a surface stagnation point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Victor A; Shaqfeh, Eric S G

    2006-03-07

    We study the dynamics of long chain polymer molecules tethered to a plane wall and subjected to a stagnation point flow. Using a combination of theory and numerical techniques, including Brownian dynamics (BD), we demonstrate that a chain conformation hysteresis exists even for freely draining (FD) chains. Hydrodynamic interactions (HI) between the polymer and the wall are included in the BD simulations. We find qualitative agreement between the FD and HI simulations, with both exhibiting simultaneous coiled and stretched states for a wide range of fixed flow strengths. The range of state coexistence is understood by considering an equivalent projected equilibrium problem of a two state reaction. Using this formalism, we construct Kramers rate theory (from the inverse mean first passage time for a Markov process) for the hopping transition from coil to stretch and stretch to coil. The activation energy for this rate is found to scale proportionally to chain length or Kuhn step number. Thus, in the limit of infinite chain size the hopping rates at a fixed value of the suitably defined Deborah number approach zero and the states are "frozen." We present the results that demonstrate this "ergodicity breaking."

  16. Plasma density control with ergodic divertor on Tore Supra; Controle de la densite du plasma en presence du divertor ergodique dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin, B

    1998-04-30

    Plasma density control on the tokamak Tore Supra is important for the optimization of every experimental scenario dealing with the improvement of plasma performances. Specific conditions are required both in the plasma bulk and at the edge. Within the framework of the present study, a magnetic configuration is used in the e plasma edge of Tore Supra: the ergodic divertor configuration. A magnetic perturbation which is resonant with the permanent field destroys the plasma confinement locally, opening the field lines onto the material components. They aim of the study is the characterization of the edge density in every relevant scenario for Tore Supra. The first part of this work is dedicated to density and temperature measurements by a series of fixed Langmuir probes located at the very edge of the plasma. Thanks to them, density regimes have been put in evidence during experiments where the volume averaged density , an usual control parameter of the plasma, was varied. The analysis of heat and particle transport through the plasma edge region explains the mechanisms leading to those regimes. The essential factor in our analysis is the dependence of the electron conductivity and ionization depth on temperature. While heat conduction governs the heat transport, the edge density varies linearly according to . Below a critical temperature, reached when the ion flux amplification at constant power density is large enough, a parallel temperature gradient appears leading to a density gradient in the opposite direction in order to maintain the pressure constant along the field lines. A high recycling regime is obtained and the edge density varies like {sup 3}. The pressure conservation is no more satisfied during the detachment of the plasma, which is characterized by a high neutral density at low temperatures leading to a ion momentum loss by friction against the neutrals. The edge density drops in those conditions. These regimes are similar

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  18. Lean processes for optimizing OR capacity utilization: prospective analysis before and after implementation of value stream mapping (VSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Patric; Pannes, Klaus Dieter; Nathan, Michel; Reimer, Hans Jorg; Kleespies, Axel; Kuhn, Nicole; Rupp, Anne; Zügel, Nikolaus Peter

    2011-10-01

    The decision to optimize the processes in the operating tract was based on two factors: competition among clinics and a desire to optimize the use of available resources. The aim of the project was to improve operating room (OR) capacity utilization by reduction of change and throughput time per patient. The study was conducted at Centre Hospitalier Emil Mayrisch Clinic for specialized care (n = 618 beds) Luxembourg (South). A prospective analysis was performed before and after the implementation of optimized processes. Value stream analysis and design (value stream mapping, VSM) were used as tools. VSM depicts patient throughput and the corresponding information flows. Furthermore it is used to identify process waste (e.g. time, human resources, materials, etc.). For this purpose, change times per patient (extubation of patient 1 until intubation of patient 2) and throughput times (inward transfer until outward transfer) were measured. VSM, change and throughput times for 48 patient flows (VSM A(1), actual state = initial situation) served as the starting point. Interdisciplinary development of an optimized VSM (VSM-O) was evaluated. Prospective analysis of 42 patients (VSM-A(2)) without and 75 patients (VSM-O) with an optimized process in place were conducted. The prospective analysis resulted in a mean change time of (mean ± SEM) VSM-A(2) 1,507 ± 100 s versus VSM-O 933 ± 66 s (p < 0.001). The mean throughput time VSM-A(2) (mean ± SEM) was 151 min (±8) versus VSM-O 120 min (±10) (p < 0.05). This corresponds to a 23% decrease in waiting time per patient in total. Efficient OR capacity utilization and the optimized use of human resources allowed an additional 1820 interventions to be carried out per year without any increase in human resources. In addition, perioperative patient monitoring was increased up to 100%.

  19. Applied statistical training to strengthen analysis and health research capacity in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Dana R; Semakula, Muhammed; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Murray, Megan; Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Manzi, Anatole; Mukabutera, Assumpta; Karema, Corine; Condo, Jeanine; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany

    2016-09-29

    To guide efficient investment of limited health resources in sub-Saharan Africa, local researchers need to be involved in, and guide, health system and policy research. While extensive survey and census data are available to health researchers and program officers in resource-limited countries, local involvement and leadership in research is limited due to inadequate experience, lack of dedicated research time and weak interagency connections, among other challenges. Many research-strengthening initiatives host prolonged fellowships out-of-country, yet their approaches have not been evaluated for effectiveness in involvement and development of local leadership in research. We developed, implemented and evaluated a multi-month, deliverable-driven, survey analysis training based in Rwanda to strengthen skills of five local research leaders, 15 statisticians, and a PhD candidate. Research leaders applied with a specific research question relevant to country challenges and committed to leading an analysis to publication. Statisticians with prerequisite statistical training and experience with a statistical software applied to participate in class-based trainings and complete an assigned analysis. Both statisticians and research leaders were provided ongoing in-country mentoring for analysis and manuscript writing. Participants reported a high level of skill, knowledge and collaborator development from class-based trainings and out-of-class mentorship that were sustained 1 year later. Five of six manuscripts were authored by multi-institution teams and submitted to international peer-reviewed scientific journals, and three-quarters of the participants mentored others in survey data analysis or conducted an additional survey analysis in the year following the training. Our model was effective in utilizing existing survey data and strengthening skills among full-time working professionals without disrupting ongoing work commitments and using few resources. Critical to our

  20. Pushover analysis of the seismic capacity of reinforced concrete double-column bridge piers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hongwei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deacribes the basic principle and implementation steps of the Pushover analysis method.By a numerical example,RC double-column piers with different lateral force distribution pattern,different heights and different reinforcement ratio were analyzed.The results show that the analysis results for lower piers of simple supported beam bridges are approximately identical under different lateral force distribution,while with the increase of pier height and longitudinal ratio of reinforcement,the displacement ductility factor is reduced.

  1. Concepts of mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis of expert evidence presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Annabel; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Wiseman, Theresa; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-04-22

    In May 2013 a new Assisted Dying Bill was tabled in the House of Lords and is currently scheduled for a second reading in May 2014. The Bill was informed by the report of the Commission on Assisted Dying which itself was informed by evidence presented by invited experts.This study aims to explore how the experts presenting evidence to the Commission on Assisted Dying conceptualised mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide and examine these concepts particularly in relation to the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. This study was a secondary qualitative analysis of 36 transcripts of oral evidence and 12 pieces of written evidence submitted by invited experts to the Commission on Assisted Dying using a framework approach. There was agreement on the importance of mental capacity as a central safeguard in proposed assisted dying legislation. Concepts of mental capacity, however, were inconsistent. There was a tendency towards a conceptual and clinical shift toward a presumption of incapacity. This appeared to be based on the belief that assisted suicide should only be open to those with a high degree of mental capacity to make the decision.The 'boundaries' around the definition of mental capacity appeared to be on a continuum between a circumscribed legal 'cognitive' definition of capacity (in which most applicants would be found to have capacity unless significantly cognitively impaired) and a more inclusive definition which would take into account wider concepts such as autonomy, rationality, voluntariness and decision specific factors such as motivation for decision making. Ideas presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying about mental capacity as it relates to assisted suicide were inconsistent and in a number of cases at variance with the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Further work needs to be done to establish a consensus as to what constitutes capacity for this decision and whether current legal frameworks are able to

  2. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  3. Developing Capacity for Change: A Policy Analysis for the Music Education Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Ronald P., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Policy can be a useful tool for effecting change, but policy analysis, which shapes policy development, has been underused in music education research. This paper demonstrates how Bardach's (2000) Eightfold Path can be used to develop solutions to problems in music education. Some have argued that school music programs do not prepare students to…

  4. Latent class analysis derived subgroups of low back pain patients - do they have prognostic capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard Nielsen, Anne; Hestbaek, Lise; Vach, Werner

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in patients with low back pain is well recognised and different approaches to subgrouping have been proposed. One statistical technique that is increasingly being used is Latent Class Analysis as it performs subgrouping based on pattern recognition with high accuracy. Pr...

  5. Use of pile driving analysis for assessment of axial load capacity of piles : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic response of a pile during driving is very : complex, involving the interactions of the hammer, cushion, : pile and soil during application of an impact load. : The first analysis aimed at simulating a hammer blow on : a pile was published...

  6. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  7. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  8. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Liu, Huiquan; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-04-23

    Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a complex

  9. Constraint-based analysis of metabolic capacity of Salmonella typhimurium during host-pathogen interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with Salmonella cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Replication of Salmonella typhimurium inside its host cell is a model system for studying the pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections. Genome-scale modeling of bacterial metabolic networks provides a powerful tool to identify and analyze pathways required for successful intracellular replication during host-pathogen interaction. Results We have developed and validated a genome-scale metabolic network of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 (iRR1083. This model accounts for 1,083 genes that encode proteins catalyzing 1,087 unique metabolic and transport reactions in the bacterium. We employed flux balance analysis and in silico gene essentiality analysis to investigate growth under a wide range of conditions that mimic in vitro and host cell environments. Gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium isolated from macrophage cell lines was used to constrain the model to predict metabolic pathways that are likely to be operational during infection. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that there is a robust minimal set of metabolic pathways that is required for successful replication of Salmonella inside the host cell. This model also serves as platform for the integration of high-throughput data. Its computational power allows identification of networked metabolic pathways and generation of hypotheses about metabolism during infection, which might be used for the rational design of novel antibiotics or vaccine strains.

  10. Comparative analysis of waste-to-energy alternatives for a low-capacity power plant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Elzimar Tadeu de F; Balestieri, José Antonio P

    2018-01-01

    The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy has been implemented with some difficulty, especially in convincing the different actors of society about the importance of conscious awareness among every citizen and businesses concerning adequate solid waste disposal and recycling. Technologies for recovering energy from municipal solid waste were considered in National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), given that their technical and environmental viability is ensured, being the landfill biogas burning in internal combustion engines and solid waste incineration suggested options. In the present work, an analysis of current technologies and a collection of basic data on electricity generation using biogas from waste/liquid effluents is presented, as well as an assessment of the installation of a facility that harnesses biogas from waste or liquid effluents for producing electricity. Two combined cycle concepts were evaluated with capacity in the range 4-11 MW, gas turbine burning landfill biogas and an incinerator that burns solid waste hybrid cycle, and a solid waste gasification system to burn syngas in gas turbines. A comparative analysis of them demonstrated that the cycle with gasification from solid waste has proved to be technically more appealing than the hybrid cycle integrated with incineration because of its greater efficiency and considering the initially defined guidelines for electricity generation. The economic analysis does not reveal significant attractive values; however, this is not a significant penalty to the project given the fact that this is a pilot low-capacity facility, which is intended to be constructed to demonstrate appropriate technologies of energy recovery from solid waste.

  11. Reduced dopamine receptors and transporters but not synthesis capacity in normal aging adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Teresa M; Josef, Anika K; Mata, Rui; Morris, Evan D; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R

    2017-09-01

    Many theories of cognitive aging are based on evidence that dopamine (DA) declines with age. Here, we performed a systematic meta-analysis of cross-sectional positron emission tomography and single-photon emission-computed tomography studies on the average effects of age on distinct DA targets (receptors, transporters, or relevant enzymes) in healthy adults (N = 95 studies including 2611 participants). Results revealed significant moderate to large, negative effects of age on DA transporters and receptors. Age had a significantly larger effect on D1- than D2-like receptors. In contrast, there was no significant effect of age on DA synthesis capacity. The average age reductions across the DA system were 3.7%-14.0% per decade. A meta-regression found only DA target as a significant moderator of the age effect. This study precisely quantifies prior claims of reduced DA functionality with age. It also identifies presynaptic mechanisms (spared synthesis capacity and reduced DA transporters) that may partially account for previously unexplained phenomena whereby older adults appear to use dopaminergic resources effectively. Recommendations for future studies including minimum required samples sizes are provided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Liu, Huiquan; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2014-01-03

    The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH

  13. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  14. Performance analysis of cognitive multihop relaying with m-QAM detect-and-forward in Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we investigate the performance of cognitive multihop regenerative relaying systems in the "underlay" spectrum sharing scenario. The multiple relays perform "detect-and-forward" relaying strategy to convey a message with an order m quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) from the source to the destination over independent but not necessarily identical Nakagami-m fading channels. We adopt a closed-form analysis framework based on univariate and bivariate Meijer G-functions to derive the end-to-end error performance (in terms of bit and symbol error rates), the outage probability, and the ergodic capacity. Various numerical examples are presented to illustrate the results with a large combination of system and fading parameters, and simulation results confirm the accuracy of our closed-form analysis. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Systematic genomic analysis reveals the complementary aerobic and anaerobic respiration capacities of the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Thiele, Ines

    2014-01-01

    Because of the specific anatomical and physiological properties of the human intestine, a specific oxygen gradient builds up within this organ that influences the intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiome has been intensively studied in recent years, and certain respiratory substrates used by gut inhabiting microbes have been shown to play a crucial role in human health. Unfortunately, a systematic analysis has not been previously performed to determine the respiratory capabilities of human gut microbes (HGM). Here, we analyzed the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiratory reductases in 254 HGM genomes. In addition to the annotation of known enzymes, we also predicted a novel microaerobic reductase and novel thiosulfate reductase. Based on this comprehensive assessment of respiratory reductases in the HGM, we proposed a number of exchange pathways among different bacteria involved in the reduction of various nitrogen oxides. The results significantly expanded our knowledge of HGM metabolism and interactions in bacterial communities.

  16. ANALYSIS OF INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN ARRIVALS OF TOURISTS IN BOARDING HOUSES, ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY AND RELATIVE POVERTY RATE TO REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIZDEANU ION

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the activity area, the link between the firm, sustainability and the necessary means to achieve that desideratum, is real and accepted in the context in which scientists, investors, entrepreneurs, state and citizens are becoming more and more aware of the devastating impact of the chaotic activities aimed at making a profit at any cost. Being aware of the importance of the correlation between ecotourism and sustainability, after a preliminary conceptualization of the means to promote green tourism business, and some elements of ecological marketing an analysis has been attempted via the linear regression model of interdependence between arrivals of tourists in the rural boarding houses, accommodation capacity and the relative poverty rate at the level of development region in Romania. In this sense, the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics have been used.

  17. A Vertical Bearing Capacity Experimental Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Piles Based on Material Constitutive Relation of Piles and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to research the vertical bearing capacity and settlement idiosyncracies of prestressed concrete piles. In-situ experiments, which was carried out by anchor-pile beam counterforce device, and numerical analysis methods was adopted as research methods on 3 tested piles. Mohr-Coulomb model was employed as the constitutive model of soil mass and isotropic elastic damage model as the constitutive model of piles to analyze its yield functions. Furthermore, the basic idea of modelling large deformation problems was analyzed based on Finite Difference Method (FDM. The comparison results was obtained in the paper and it suggested that the simulated data is highly identical with the experimental ones. Load-settlement curve basically presents a quadratic function form.

  18. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior-in a unified fashion-to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial contexts.

  19. Does Whole-Body Vibration Improve the Functional Exercise Capacity of Subjects With COPD? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Adriane B; Marinho, Patrícia Em; Nascimento, Jasiel F; Fuzari, Helen Kb; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle

    2016-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered a type of physical activity based on the assumption that it results in an increase in muscle strength and performance and, therefore, may be a promising way to exercise patients with COPD. A comprehensive database search (PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and COCHRANE Library) for randomized trials, including original articles, that compared WBV groups versus control groups was conducted and studies were selected for comparison. The effect of WBV treatment was compared for minimum clinically important differences. The statistical heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I2 statistic; the results are expressed as percentages. Inconsistencies of up to 25% were considered low, those between 50 and 75% were considerate moderate, and those > 75% were considered high. Risk of bias was classified based on the Cochrane Collaboration tool, the meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3 software, and the level of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. The primary outcome was functional exercise capacity. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, performance in activities of daily living, muscle strength of the lower limbs, and possible adverse effects assessed clinically or by subject reports. We included 4 articles involving 185 subjects for analysis. All subjects in the groups undergoing WBV showed improvement in distance walked in the 6-min walk test compared with the control group (57.85 m, 95% CI 16.36-99.33 m). Regarding the secondary end points, just one article reported improved quality of life and activities of daily living. The only article that assessed muscle strength found no difference between the groups. The quality of evidence for functional exercise capacity outcome was considered moderate. WBV seems to benefit subjects with COPD by improving their functional exercise capacity, without producing adverse effects. The quality of evidence is moderate, but the degree of

  20. Partnership capacity for community health improvement plan implementation: findings from a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J Mac; Eisen-Cohen, Eileen; Salas, S Bianca

    2016-07-13

    Many health departments collaborate with community organizations on community health improvement processes. While a number of resources exist to plan and implement a community health improvement plan (CHIP), little empirical evidence exists on how to leverage and expand partnerships when implementing a CHIP. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of the network involved in implementing the CHIP in one large community. The aims of this analysis are to: 1) identify essential network partners (and thereby highlight potential network gaps), 2) gauge current levels of partner involvement, 3) understand and effectively leverage network resources, and 4) enable a data-driven approach for future collaborative network improvements. We collected primary data via survey from n = 41 organizations involved in the Health Improvement Partnership of Maricopa County (HIPMC), in Arizona. Using the previously validated Program to Analyze, Record, and Track Networks to Enhance Relationships (PARTNER) tool, organizations provided information on existing ties with other coalition members, including frequency and depth of partnership and eight categories of perceived value/trust of each current partner organization. The coalition's overall network had a density score of 30 %, degree centralization score of 73 %, and trust score of 81 %. Network maps are presented to identify existing relationships between HIPMC members according to partnership frequency and intensity, duration of involvement in the coalition, and self-reported contributions to the coalition. Overall, number of ties and other partnership measures were positively correlated with an organization's perceived value and trustworthiness as rated by other coalition members. Our study presents a novel use of social network analysis methods to evaluate the coalition of organizations involved in implementing a CHIP in an urban community. The large coalition had relatively low network density but high

  1. The Ergodic revisited : spatiality as a governing principle of digital literature

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, James

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of the spatial in four works of digital interactive literature. These works are Dreamaphage by Jason Nelson (2003), Last Meal Requested by Sachiko Hayashi (2003), Façade by Michael Mateas and Andrew Stern (2005) and Egypt: The Book of Going Forth by Day by M. D. Coverley (2006). The study employs an original analytical method based on close reading and spatial analysis, which combines narrative, design and interaction theories. The resulting critique argues...

  2. MGF Approach to the Analysis of Generalized Two-Ray Fading Models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consist of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase plus a diffuse component. We derive a closedform expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for this model, which greatly simplifies its analysis. This expression arises from the observation that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of a conditional underlying Rician distribution. We illustrate the approach to derive simple expressions for statistics and performance metrics of interest such as the amount of fading, the level crossing rate, the symbol error rate, and the ergodic capacity in GTR fading channels. We also show that the effect of considering a more general distribution for the phase difference between the LOS components has an impact on the average SNR.

  3. Performance analysis of underlay cognitive multihop regenerative relaying systems with multiple primary receivers

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2013-12-01

    Multihop relaying is an efficient strategy to improve the connectivity and extend the coverage area of secondary networks in underlay cognitive systems. In this work, we provide a comprehensive performance study of cognitive multihop regenerative relaying systems in an underlay spectrum sharing scenario with the presence of multiple primary receivers. Both interference power and peak power constraints are taken into account. In our analysis, all the links are subject to independent, non-identically distributed Nakagami-m fading. We derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, high-order amount of fading, bit error rate, symbol error rate, and ergodic capacity. Different scenarios are presented to illustrate the obtained results and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the accuracy of our analytical derivations. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Performance Analysis of FSO Links over Unified Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection). We, then, present unified exact closed-form expressions for various statistical characteristics of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system. We capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. On the Performance Analysis of Digital Communications over Weibull-Gamma Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the performance analysis of digital communications over a composite Weibull-Gamma (WG) multipath-fading and shadowing channel is presented wherein WG distribution is appropriate for modeling fading environments when multipath is superimposed on shadowing. More specifically, in this work, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function, and the moments of a composite WG channel. Capitalizing on these results, new exact closed-form expressions are offered for the outage probability, the higher- order amount of fading, the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity under various types of transmission policies, mostly in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions. These new analytical results were also verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulation results. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. Compatibility between mental disorder and mental capacity: analysis of a particular case of group sexual homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, Felice; Vinci, Francesco; Catanesi, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    On the night of August 19, 2000, at the foot of Castel del Monte, an 8-year-old girl was brutally murdered. The perpetrators were identified as five young men who captured their victim and sexually abused her. The policemen found the cadaver by following "Mario," one of the five, who had been discovered lying on the ground, near the castle. Investigation led to demonstrate that the murder was not premeditated. The only desire of the group was to sexually molest the little girl. Mario showed signs of psychiatric pathology and for that he underwent psychiatric evaluation by judicial authorities. Analysis of this case, combined with a criminological and medical-legal perspective led to conclusions very much different from the expectations of Mario's defense attorneys. Mario, a marginal figure and seemingly the least intelligent, played the role of group instigator, both in the initiation of sexually abusing the child, as well as in the elimination of an inconvenient witness. However, the group was able to activate Mario's sadistic fantasies and his sexual perversions, and he ended up in a catalyzing role influencing the behavior of others and realizing what would otherwise remain only fantasies. The circularity of the group allows people like Mario, who are apparently subordinate, to influence the behavior of others. Mario was found to have a mental disorder but it was not sufficient to diminish his personal responsibility related to the crime. In fact, according to Italian judicial code, it is necessary that the motivation for the crime was psychopathological. It was for this reason that, according to Italian law, all of the members of the group were considered to be responsible for the crimes committed and were condemned.

  7. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  8. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  9. Analysis of bit-stuffing codes and lower bounds on capacity for 2-D constrained arrays using quasistationary measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2004-01-01

    A method for designing quasistationary probability measures for two-dimensional (2-D) constraints is presented. This measure is derived from a modified bit-stuff coding scheme and it gives the capacity of the coding scheme. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D...

  10. A computational fluid dynamics analysis on stratified scavenging system of medium capacity two-stroke internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitta Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to make a computational study of stratified scavenging system in two-stroke medium capacity engines to reduce or to curb the emissions from the two-stroke engines. The 3-D flows within the cylinder are simulated using computational fluid dynamics and the code Fluent 6. Flow structures in the transfer ports and the exhaust port are predicted without the stratification and with the stratification, and are well predicted. The total pressure and velocity map from computation provided comprehensive information on the scavenging and stratification phenomenon. Analysis is carried out for the transfer ports flow and the extra port in the transfer port along with the exhaust port when the piston is moving from the top dead center to the bottom dead center, as the ports are closed, half open, three forth open, and full port opening. An unstructured cell is adopted for meshing the geometry created in CATIA software. Flow is simulated by solving governing equations namely conservation of mass momentum and energy using SIMPLE algorithm. Turbulence is modeled by high Reynolds number version k-e model. Experimental measurements are made for validating the numerical prediction. Good agreement is observed between predicted result and experimental data; that the stratification had significantly reduced the emissions and fuel economy is achieved.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two Vibrio toranzoniae Strains with Different Virulence Capacity Reveals Clues on Its Pathogenicity for Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Gibas, Cynthia J; Romalde, Jesús L

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio toranzoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Splendidus clade within the Vibrio genus. V. toranzoniae was first isolated from healthy clams in Galicia (Spain) but recently was also identified associated to disease outbreaks of red conger eel in Chile. Experimental challenges showed that the Chilean isolates were able to produce fish mortalities but not the strains isolated from clams. The aim of the present study was to determine the differences at the genomic level between the type strain of the species (CECT 7225(T)) and the strain R17, isolated from red conger eel in Chile, which could explain their different virulent capacity. The genome-based comparison showed high homology between both strains but differences were observed in certain gene clusters that include some virulence factors. Among these, we found that iron acquisition systems and capsule synthesis genes were the main differential features between both genomes that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the strains. Besides, the studied genomes presented genomic islands and toxins, and the R17 strain presented CRISPR sequences that are absent on the type strain. Taken together, this analysis provided important insights into virulence factors of V. toranzoniae that will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenic process.

  12. Genome-guided analysis of physiological capacities of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans provides insights into environmental adaptations and syntrophic acetate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bettina; Manzoor, Shahid; Niazi, Adnan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Schnürer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the genome-based analysis of Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans strain Re1, a syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacterium (SAOB). Principal issues such as environmental adaptations, metabolic capacities, and energy conserving systems have been investigated and the potential consequences for syntrophic acetate oxidation discussed. Briefly, in pure culture, T. acetatoxydans grows with different organic compounds and produces acetate as the main product. In a syntrophic consortium with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, it can also reverse its metabolism and instead convert acetate to formate/H2 and CO2. It can only proceed if the product formed is continuously removed. This process generates a very small amount of energy that is scarcely enough for growth, which makes this particular syntrophy of special interest. As a crucial member of the biogas-producing community in ammonium-rich engineered AD processes, genomic features conferring ammonium resistance, bacterial defense, oxygen and temperature tolerance were found, as well as attributes related to biofilm formation and flocculation. It is likely that T. acetatoxydans can form an electrochemical gradient by putative electron-bifurcating Rnf complex and [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases, as observed in other acetogens. However, genomic deficiencies related to acetogenic metabolism and anaerobic respiration were discovered, such as the lack of formate dehydrogenase and F1F0 ATP synthase. This has potential consequences for the metabolic pathways used under SAO and non-SAO conditions. The two complete sets of bacteriophage genomes, which were found to be encoded in the genome, are also worthy of mention.

  13. Health policy and systems research and analysis in Nigeria: examining health policymakers' and researchers' capacity assets, needs and perspectives in south-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-02-24

    Health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) has been noted as central to health systems strengthening, yet the capacity for HPSR+A is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Building the capacity of African institutions, rather than relying on training provided in northern countries, is a more sustainable way of building the field in the continent. Recognising that there is insufficient information on African capacity to produce and use HPSR+A to inform interventions in capacity development, the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (2011-2015) conducted a study with the aim to assess the capacity needs of its African partner institutions, including Nigeria, for HPSR+A. This paper provides new knowledge on health policy and systems research assets and needs of different stakeholders, and their perspectives on HPSR+A in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Enugu state, south-east Nigeria. It involved reviews and content analysis of relevant documents and interviews with organizations' academic staff, policymakers and HPSR+A practitioners. The College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu campus (COMUNEC), was used as the case study and the HPSR+A capacity needs were assessed at the individual, unit and organizational levels. The HPSR+A capacity needs of the policy and research networks were also assessed. For academicians, lack of awareness of the HPSR+A field and funding were identified as barriers to strengthening HPSR+A in Nigeria. Policymakers were not aware of the availability of research findings that could inform the policies they make nor where they could find them; they also appeared unwilling to go through the rigors of reading extensive research reports. There is a growing interest in HPSR+A as well as a demand for its teaching and, indeed, opportunities for building the field through research and teaching abound. However, there is a need to incorporate HPSR+A teaching and research at an

  14. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-08-12

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  15. Ergodicity of financial indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, A. V.; Rühl, T.

    2010-05-01

    We introduce the concept of the ensemble averaging for financial markets. We address the question of equality of ensemble and time averaging in their sequence and investigate if these averagings are equivalent for large amount of equity indices and branches. We start with the model of Gaussian-distributed returns, equal-weighted stocks in each index and absence of correlations within a single day and show that even this oversimplified model captures already the run of the corresponding index reasonably well due to its self-averaging properties. We introduce the concept of the instant cross-sectional volatility and discuss its relation to the ordinary time-resolved counterpart. The role of the cross-sectional volatility for the description of the corresponding index as well as the role of correlations between the single stocks and the role of non-Gaussianity of stock distributions is briefly discussed. Our model reveals quickly and efficiently some anomalies or bubbles in a particular financial market and gives an estimate of how large these effects can be and how quickly they disappear.

  16. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  17. Correlation, by multivariate statistical analysis, between the scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species and the bioactive compounds from frozen fruit pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Cynara Vissotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoids (TF, and ascorbic acid (AA of 18 frozen fruit pulps and their scavenging capacities against peroxyl radical (ROO•, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (•OH were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that TPC (total phenolic compounds and AA (ascorbic acid presented positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against ROO•, and TF (total flavonoids showed positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against •OH and ROO• However, the scavenging capacity against H2O2 presented low correlation with TF (total flavonoids, TPC (total phenolic compounds, and AA (ascorbic acid. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA allowed the classification of the fruit pulps into three groups: one group was formed by the açai pulp with high TF, total flavonoids, content (134.02 mg CE/100 g pulp and the highest scavenging capacity against ROO•, •OH and H2O2; the second group was formed by the acerola pulp with high TPC, total phenolic compounds, (658.40 mg GAE/100 g pulp and AA , ascorbic acid, (506.27 mg/100 g pulp contents; and the third group was formed by pineapple, cacao, caja, cashew-apple, coconut, cupuaçu, guava, orange, lemon, mango, passion fruit, watermelon, pitanga, tamarind, tangerine, and umbu pulps, which could not be separated considering only the contents of bioactive compounds and the scavenging properties.

  18. Capacity Analysis of a Family Care Clinic Using Computer Simulation to Determine Optimal Enrollment Under Capitated Resource Allocation Contraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prevo, William

    1998-01-01

    ... own process for delivering health care services. The Twelfth Medical Group is the Air Force's largest freestanding ambulatory clinic in the United States, currently enrolled at 63 percent of its estimated 18,000 enrollee capacity...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) Model to User-specified Starting Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Alan

    1999-01-01

    ...) program is a methodology for estimating training and testing land carrying capacity. The methodology is used to determine land rehabilitation and maintenance costs associated with land-based training and other uses...

  20. TRAINING MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR HUMAN RESOURCE CAPACITY BUILDING (ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING AGENCY, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Mustakim

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholderis a driving force in an organization. However, over time, an organizationcannot be avoided with the crisis of leadership. This condition is due to thelack of human resources that has credibility and capacity as a leader. Throughthe Training Management Model, it aims to improve the capacity of humanresources, which is expected to become a model of the emergence of futureleaders. The civil service is a state apparatus that works to serve the Stateof the Republic of Indonesia. Then, ...

  1. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J.; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were p...

  2. Comparative analysis of CRT Buffer, GC saliva check buffer tests and laboratory titration to evaluate saliva buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldupa, Ilze; Brinkmane, Anda; Mihailova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of two commercial strip tests and laboratory titration to detect saliva buffer capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sixty-four patients were examined. Stimulated saliva was collected and buffer capacity was determined with two different chair-side strip tests in addition to immediate transportation to the laboratory to check the buffering ability by titrating with 0.005 M HCl and measuring pH by digital pH/Ion meter, used as a gold standart. The correlation were analyzed using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient and Pearson's Correlation test, p buffer capacity was found in 23.4% of cases, medium in 62.5%, and low in 14.1%. The Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient between the titration method and CRT Buffer test was 0.685 and the GC Saliva Check Buffer was 0.837. The Kappa coefficient for the CRT Buffer test was 0.508, while the coefficient for the GC Saliva Check Buffer was 0.752. The Pearson Correlation for the GC Saliva Check was 0.675. The difference is found in the buffer capacity at initial pH and at pH value 3. CONCLUSIONS. Both colorimetric tests correlate with the acid titration method in laboratory and are usable for saliva buffer capacity detection in dental offices. Buffer capacity detected in laboratory at different pH values can provide more information regarding caries risk.

  3. Capacity of Bicycle Platoon Flow at Two-Phase Signalized Intersection: a Case Analysis of Xi’an City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gang Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the operation of signalized intersections, little or no empirical research has been conducted regarding bicycle capacity at these locations and the correspondent contributory factors. The purpose of this study is to accurately quantify the capacity of bikeway at signalized intersection through a fluid dispersion approach, and ultimately the lane group capacity. Using this total dispersion of bicycle flow, a relationship is also described between bicycle volume per hour and per unit width, signal parameters (length of signal cycle and green time, bicycle flow (arrival rate, density, moving velocity and geometric intersection distance. Through the videotaping of four intersections that have significant bicycle traffic around Xiaozhai in Xi’an, China, it is ascertained that bicycle capacity varies linearly (but limited by an asymptote domain associated with the adjustment of these parameters. The analytical results indicate that the impact saturation flow of lane groups containing right-turning vehicles and pedestrian flow at signalized intersections on bicycles is being underestimated. If this is the case, then capacity is being overestimated through the HCM 2000 capacity model and JJ37-90 approach and intersections are not being adequately designed, due to the neglect of conflict nature of mixed traffic arrivals in competing for space.

  4. A Unified Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links over Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2013-11-13

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity, all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Capacity of Fading Channels in the Low Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The low power regime has attracted various researchers in the information theory and communication communities to understand the performance limits of wireless systems. Indeed, the energy consumption is becoming one of the major limiting factors in wireless systems. As such, energy-efficient wireless systems are of major importance to the next generation wireless systems designers. The capacity is a metric that measures the performance limit of a wireless system. The study of the ergodic capacity of some fading channels in the low power regime is the main subject of this thesis. In our study, we consider that the receiver has always a full knowledge of the channel state information. However, we assume that the transmitter has possibly imperfect knowledge of the channel state information, i.e. he knows either perfectly the channel or only an estimated version of the channel. Both radio frequency and free space optical communication channel models are considered. The main contribution of this work is the explicit characterization of how the capacity scales as function of the signal-to-noise ratio in the low power regime. This allows us to characterize the gain due to the perfect knowledge compared to no knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter. In particular, we show that the gain increases logarithmically for radio frequency communication. However, the gain increases as log2(Pavg) or log4(Pavg) for free-space optical communication, where Pavg is the average power constraint imposed to the input. Furthermore, we characterize the capacity of cascaded fading channels and we applied the result to Rayleigh-product fading channel and to a free-space optical link over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence in the presence of pointing errors. Finally, we study the capacity of Nakagami-m fading channel under quality of service constraints, namely the effective capacity. We have shown that the effective capacity converges to Shannon capacity in the very low

  6. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Koseki, Sayaka; Feeley, Frank G; Beard, Jennifer

    2013-10-02

    Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005-2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening. Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff. By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory compliance systems were in place, training

  7. On the low SNR capacity of maximum ratio combining over rician fading channels with full channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-04-01

    In this letter, we study the ergodic capacity of a maximum ratio combining (MRC) Rician fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime and we show that the capacity scales as L ΩK+L SNRx log(1SNR), where Ω is the expected channel gain per branch, K is the Rician fading factor, and L is the number of diversity branches. We show that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme. Our framework can be seen as a generalization of recently established results regarding the fading-channels capacity characterization in the low-SNR regime. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  9. A model for Southern Mediterranean research institute self-assessment: a SWOT analysis-based approach to promote capacity building at Theodor Bilharz Research Institute in Cairo (Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinolfi, Davide; El Baz, Hanan G; Borgonovi, Elio; Radwan, Amr; Laurence, Ola; Sayed, Hanan A; De Simone, Paolo; Abdelwadoud, Moaz; Stefani, Alessandro; Botros, Sanaa S; Filipponi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    THEBERA is a project funded by the European Union (EU), as an ERA-WIDE FP7 project, aiming to strengthen the Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) capacities. A SWOT (strength/weakness/opportunities/threats) analysis of human, structural and organisational existing resources was performed in light of an extensive analysis of liver disease research and clinical management in Egypt, for a full understanding of TBRI needs. Strength and weakness features were identified and analysed, so were actions to be implemented and targets to be accomplished, to develop a business plan gathering the required critical mass (political, scientific, industrial, social) to select investment priorities, to sacrifice non-strategic areas of research, to promote national and international connections and industrial innovations, to update diagnostics and research device technologies and clinical management processes at European levels, to implement fundraising activities, to organise and properly assess training activities for young researchers, physicians, nurses, and technicians. Research institute self assessment is a priority need for sustainable capacity building and for future build-up of a competent health care research institute. Sustainable capacity building strategies must be designed on needs assessment, involving salient requirements: clear strategy, leverage of administrative capacities, industrial support and connections, systematised training programmes and enhancement of mobility of health care staff implemented within ill-defined boundaries and continuously re-evaluated with multiple feedback loops in order to build a complex, adaptable and reliable system based on value. Copyright © 2014 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz County, California, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Santa Cruz, conducted bathymetric and topographic surveys to determine the water storage capacity of, and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. The topographic survey was done as a supplement to the bathymetric survey to obtain information about temporal changes in the upper reach of the reservoir where the water is shallow or the reservoir may be dry, as well as to obtain information about shoreline changes throughout the reservoir. Results of a combined bathymetric and topographic survey using a new, state-of-the-art method with advanced instrument technology indicate that the maximum storage capacity of the reservoir at the spillway altitude of 577.5 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) was 8,646 ±85 acre-feet in March 2009, with a confidence level of 99 percent. This new method is a combination of bathymetric scanning using multibeam-sidescan sonar, and topographic surveying using laser scanning (LiDAR), which produced a 1.64-foot-resolution grid with altitudes to 0.3-foot resolution and an estimate of total water storage capacity at a 99-percent confidence level. Because the volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in water-storage capacity, sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir was determined by estimating the change in storage capacity by comparing the reservoir bed surface defined in the March 2009 survey with a revision of the reservoir bed surface determined in a previous investigation in November 1998. This revised reservoir-bed surface was defined by combining altitude data from the 1998 survey with new data collected during the current (2009) investigation to fill gaps in the 1998 data. Limitations that determine the accuracy of estimates of changes in the volume of sedimentation from that estimated in each of the four previous investigations (1960, 1971, 1982, and 1998

  11. Diversity Performance Analysis on Multiple HAP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main design challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is achieving a high-data-rate transmission for individual sensor devices. The high altitude platform (HAP is an important communication relay platform for WSNs and next-generation wireless networks. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO techniques provide the diversity and multiplexing gain, which can improve the network performance effectively. In this paper, a virtual MIMO (V-MIMO model is proposed by networking multiple HAPs with the concept of multiple assets in view (MAV. In a shadowed Rician fading channel, the diversity performance is investigated. The probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR are derived. In addition, the average symbol error rate (ASER with BPSK and QPSK is given for the V-MIMO model. The system capacity is studied for both perfect channel state information (CSI and unknown CSI individually. The ergodic capacity with various SNR and Rician factors for different network configurations is also analyzed. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the performance analysis. It is shown that the performance of the HAPs network in WSNs can be significantly improved by utilizing the MAV to achieve overlapping coverage, with the help of the V-MIMO techniques.

  12. Associations between fitness and mobility capacity in school-aged children with cerebral palsy: a longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, A.C.J.; van Wely, L.; Becher, J.G.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the longitudinal associations among fitness components and between fitness and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Forty-six children (26 males, 20 females; mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 8mo]) with a bilateral (n=24) or a unilateral

  13. Numerical Modelling and Analysis of Hydrostatic Thrust Air Bearings for High Loading Capacities and Low Air Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunluo; Pu, Guang; Jiang, Kyle

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation study on hydrostatic thrust air bearings to assess the load capacity, compressed air consumptions, and the dynamic response. Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) are combined to solve the non-linear Reynolds equation to find the pressure distribution of the air bearing gas film and the total loading capacity of the bearing. The influence of design parameters on air film gap characteristics, including the air film thickness, supplied pressure, depth of the groove and external load, are investigated based on the proposed FDM model. The simulation results show that the thrust air bearings with a groove have a higher load capacity and air consumption than without a groove, and the load capacity and air consumption both increase with the depth of the groove. Bearings without the groove are better damped than those with the grooves, and the stability of thrust bearing decreases when the groove depth increases. The stability of the thrust bearings is also affected by their loading.

  14. The Contributions of Primary and Secondary Memory to Working Memory Capacity: An Individual Differences Analysis of Immediate Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J.; Brewer, Gene A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the dual-component model of working memory capacity (WMC) by examining estimates of primary memory and secondary memory from an immediate free recall task. Participants completed multiple measures of WMC and general intellectual ability as well as multiple trials of an immediate free recall task. It was demonstrated that…

  15. Capacity expansion analysis of UGSs rebuilt from low-permeability fractured gas reservoirs with CO2 as cushion gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of pressurized mining and hydraulic fracturing are often used to improve gas well productivity at the later development stage of low-permeability carbonate gas reservoirs, but reservoirs are watered out and a great number of micro fractures are produced. Therefore, one of the key factors for underground gas storages (UGS rebuilt from low-permeability fractured gas reservoirs with CO2 as the cushion gas is how to expand storage capacity effectively by injecting CO2 to displace water and to develop control strategies for the stable migration of gas–water interface. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to simulate the gas–water flow when CO2 was injected into dual porosity reservoirs to displace water. Then, the gas–water interface migration rules while CO2 was injected in the peripheral gas wells for water displacement were analyzed with one domestic UGS rebuilt from fractured gas reservoirs as the research object. And finally, discussion was made on how CO2 dissolution, bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP, CO2 injection rate and micro fracture parameters affect the stability of gas–water interface in the process of storage capacity expansion. It is shown that the speed of capacity expansion reaches the maximum value at the fifth cycle and then decreases gradually when UGS capacity is expanded in the pattern of more injection and less withdrawal. Gas–water interface during UGS capacity expansion is made stable due to that the solubility of CO2 in water varies with the reservoir pressure. When the UGS capacity is expanded at constant BHFP and the flow rate, the expansion speed can be increased effectively by increasing the BHFP and the injection flow rate of gas wells in the central areas appropriately. In the reservoir areas with high permeability and fracture-matrix permeability ratio, the injection flow rate should be reduced properly to prevent gas–water interface fingering caused by a high-speed flow

  16. Performance Analysis of Capacity of MIMO Systems under Multiuser Interference Based on Worst-Case Noise Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorswieck E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of a cellular multiuser MIMO system depends on various parameters, for example, the system structure, the transmit and receive strategies, the channel state information at the transmitter and the receiver, and the channel properties. Recently, the main focus of research was on single-user MIMO systems, their channel capacity, and their error performance with space-time coding. In general, the capacity of a cellular multiuser MIMO system is limited by additive white Gaussian noise, intracell interference from other users within the cell, and intercell interference from users outside the considered cell. We study one point-to-point link, on which interference acts. The interference models the different system scenarios and various parameters. Therefore, we consider three scenarios in which the noise is subject to different constraints. A general trace constraint is used in the first scenario. The noise covariance matrix eigenvalues are kept fixed in the second scenario, and in the third scenario the entries on the diagonal of the noise covariance matrix are kept fixed. We assume that the receiver as well as the transmitter have perfect channel state information. We solve the corresponding minimax programming problems and characterize the worst-case noise and the optimal transmit strategy. In all scenarios, the achievable capacity of the MIMO system with worst-case noise is equal to the capacity of some MIMO system in which either the channels are orthogonal or the transmit antennas are not allowed to cooperate or in which no channel state information is available at the transmitter. Furthermore, the minimax expressions fulfill a saddle point property. All theoretical results are illustrated by examples and numerical simulations.

  17. Capacity Evaluation of Several Types of DG Systems in Micro-grid using Load Demand Analysis and Frequency Response of DG Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Eisuke; Numata, Shigeo; Baba, Jumpei; Nitta, Tanzo; Masada, Eisuke

    The micro-grid has been operating at institute of technology of Shimizu Corporation since July, 2006. Main generators are two gas engine CHP systems which capacity are 350kW and 90kW. Two power storage devices, secondary battery and electric double layer capacitor, are also installed to compensate rapid load fluctuation. In this paper, load demand is analyzed by using frequency analysis and this sampling interval is decided by probability distribution of power transition. DG systems' characteristics such as frequency response, fuel efficiency and frequency stabilization capability are also assessed. Capacity of DG Systems in the Micro-grid is evaluated by results of load demand analysis and DG systems' characteristics assessment.

  18. Regional public health preparedness teams in North Carolina: an analysis of their structural capacity and impact on services provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; Meyer, Anne Marie; Casani, Julie; Hegle, Jennifer; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2011-01-01

    In December 2001, the North Carolina Division of Public Health established Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) to build local public health capacity to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents and events. Seven PHRSTs are colocated at local health departments (LHDs) around the state. The authors assessed structural capacity of the PHRSTs and analyzed the relationship between structural capacity and the frequency of support and services provided to LHDs by PHRSTs. Five categories of structural capacity were measured: human, fiscal, informational, physical, and organizational resources. In addition, variation in structural capacity among teams was also examined. The most variation was seen in human resources. Although each team was originally designed to include a physician/epidemiologist, industrial hygienist, nurse/epidemiologist, and administrative support technician, team composition varied such that only the administrative support technician is common to all teams. Variation in team composition was associated with differences in the support and services that PHRSTs provide to LHDs. Teams that reported having a medical doctor or a doctor of osteopathic medicine (chi2 = 9.95; p < 0.01) or an epidemiologist (chi2 = 5.35; p < 0.02) had larger budgets and provided more support and services, and teams that housed a pharmacist reported more partners (chi2 = 52.34; p < 0.01). Teams that received directives from more groups (such as LHDs) also provided more support and services in planning (Z = 21.71; p < 0.01), communication and liaison (Z = 12.11; p < 0.01), epidemiology and surveillance (Z = 5.09; p < 0.01), consultation and technical support (Z = 2.25; p = 0.02), H1N1 outbreak assistance (Z = 10.25; p < 0.01), and public health event response (Z = 2.19; p = 0.03). In the last 10 years, significant variation in structural capacity, particularly in human resources, has been introduced among PHRSTs. These differences

  19. Shear capacity of ASR damaged structures – in-depth analysis of some in-situ shear tests on bridge slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1...... as the measured concrete compressive strength indicates. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the ASR-induced prestress may be the reason for this phenomenon....

  20. The analysis of functional capacity of people with tetraplegia during the 1st level of the Active Rehabilitation camp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozefowsky Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze functional capacity during the 1st level of the Active Rehabilitation camp of people after spinal cord injury (SCI in cervical segment. The individual functional indicators as: self-service, sphincter control, mobility, locomotion and communication have been analyzed. The study included 30 men with SCI in cervical segment and in age of 18-45. The clinimetric scale for functional rating of neurological patients - The Functional Indicator "Repty" was used in the study. The test were conducted twice: immediately before the beginning of the camp and after. An improvement in functional capacity occurred among all respondents during the 1st level of the AR camp. The greatest improvements concerned the mobility and self-service, smaller improvement occurred in locomotion and sphincter control. There was no significant improvement in level of communication.

  1. Dynamics of ethanol production from deproteinized whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus: An analysis about buffering capacity,thermal and nitrogen tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Lima Moreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of value-added products could be a valuable option for cheese wastewater management. However, this kind of study cannot just focus alone on getting the final product. This also necessitates studies on the dynamics of bioprocesses. With these as background, the present investigation aimed at evaluating the buffering capacity of deproteinized whey and effect of temperature and nitrogen source on ethanol yields from it. The batch fermentation conditions used to evaluate ethanol production were temperatures 30, 35, 40°C and pH 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0. To study the influence of nitrogen source on ethanol yield, a design matrix was applied using yeast extract and (NH42SO4.The final pH was analyzed to evaluate the buffering capacity. The results showed that the Kluyveromyces marxianus was thermotolerance to produce ethanol at 35 and 40°C, which was not observed at 30°C. Results also showed that the deproteinization procedure did not affect the buffering capacity of cheese whey. Finally, higher ethanol production was obtained using yeast extract (3% v/v. These results could be important for developing low-cost method for industrial production of ethanol from deproteinized whey.

  2. Strengthening post-graduate educational capacity for health policy and systems research and analysis: the strategy of the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin; Lehmann, Uta; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Alwar, John; de Savigny, Don; Kamuzora, Peter; Mirzoev, Tolib; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Tomson, Göran; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-04-12

    The last 5-10 years have seen significant international momentum build around the field of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR + A). Strengthening post-graduate teaching is seen as central to the further development of this field in low- and middle-income countries. However, thus far, there has been little reflection on and documentation of what is taught in this field, how teaching is carried out, educators' challenges and what future teaching might look like. Contributing to such reflection and documentation, this paper reports on a situation analysis and inventory of HPSR + A post-graduate teaching conducted among the 11 African and European partners of the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA), a capacity development collaboration. A first questionnaire completed by the partners collected information on organisational teaching contexts, while a second collected information on 104 individual courses (more in-depth information was subsequently collected on 17 of the courses). The questionnaires yielded a mix of qualitative and quantitative data, which were analysed through counts, cross-tabulations, and the inductive grouping of material into themes. In addition, this paper draws information from internal reports on CHEPSAA's activities, as well as its external evaluation. The analysis highlighted the fluid boundaries of HPSR + A and the range and variability of the courses addressing the field, the important, though not exclusive, role of schools of public health in teaching relevant material, large variations in the time investments required to complete courses, the diversity of student target audiences, the limited availability of distance and non-classroom learning activities, and the continued importance of old-fashioned teaching styles and activities. This paper argues that in order to improve post-graduate teaching and continue to build the field of HPSR + A, key questions need to be

  3. Low SNR capacity for MIMO Rician and Rayleigh-product fading channels with single co-channel interferer and noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2010-09-01

    This paper studies the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a single co-channel interferer in the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. Two MIMO models namely Rician and Rayleigh-product channels are investigated. Exact analytical expressions for the minimum energy per information bit, {Eb/N0min, and wideband slope, S0, are derived for both channels. Our results show that the minimum energy per information bit is the same for both channels while their wideband slopes differ significantly. Further, the impact of the numbers of transmit and receive antennas, the Rician K factor, the channel mean matrix and the interference-to-noise-ratio (INR) on the capacity, is addressed. Results indicate that interference degrades the capacity by increasing the required minimum energy per information bit and reducing the wideband slope. Simulation results validate our analytical results. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. GC×GC-TOF/MS Chromatographic Analysis, Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Rosa Canina L. at Different Maturities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ozyurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between food and health has become increasingly significant as consumers now demand healthy, tasty and natural foods which perform a useful function in the body. In Turkey, rose hip (Rosa canina L. is in popular use in foodstuffs such as marmalade, pestil (a traditional Turkish sweet and syrup or in traditional medicine, mainly as herbal tea. The composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total phenolic content (TPC of volatiles of rose hip samples were compared in relation to their stage of maturity and collection location. Rose hip fruit and seed were analyzed using a direct thermal desorption technique coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS. The major components found in the volatile fraction released on extraction were free fatty acids. The various stages of maturity of rose hips (green, light yellow, yellow, orange and red coloured and the place of collection (Istanbul, Mersin, York resulted in some changes in volatile compound speciation, in TAC and TPC levels. Various extraction methods were compared; methanol extraction, traditional hot water infusion and boiling in water. Boiling in water for ten minutes was the method which demonstrated the highest extraction efficiency. TAC and TPC were determined using different electron transfer−based assays; the Cerium (IV ions reducing antioxidant capacity, Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. The highest TAC and TPC were found in the red coloured (fully ripe rose hip fruit, suggesting that colour is a suitable indicator for optimal harvesting time.

  5. Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Phu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC, which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. On the Ergodic Secret-Key Agreement over Spatially Correlated Multiple-Antenna Channels with Public Discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-09-28

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Rayleigh fast-fading channels under correlated environment. We assume that transmit, legitimate receiver and eavesdropper antennas are correlated. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the correlation matrices. First, we derive the expression of the secret-key capacity under the considered setup. We prove that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the secret-key capacity consists in transmitting independent Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the transmit correlation matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution to a numerical optimization problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming (i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode) to be capacity-achieving is derived. Moreover, we analyze the impact of correlation matrices on the system performance. Finally, we study the system’s performance in the two extreme power regimes. In the high-power regime, we provide closed-form expressions of the gain/loss due to correlation. In the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, we investigate the energy efficiency of the system by determining the minimum energy required for sharing a secret-key bit and the wideband slope while highlighting the impact of correlation matrices.

  7. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  8. On-line capacity-building program on "analysis of data" for medical educators in the South Asia region: a qualitative exploration of our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, A R; Chacko, T V; Banu, S; Bhandary, S; Sahasrabudhe, R A; Philip, S; Deshmukh, P R

    2010-11-01

    In medical education, using the World Wide Web is a new approach for building the capacity of faculty. However, there is little information available on medical education researchers' needs and their collective learning outcomes in such on-line environments. Hence, the present study attempted: 1)to identify needs for capacity-building of fellows in a faculty development program on the topic of data analysis; and 2) to describe, analyze and understand the collective learning outcomes of the fellows during this need-based on-line session. The present research is based on quantitative (on-line survey for needs assessment) and qualitative (contents of e-mails exchanged in listserv discussion) data which were generated during the October 2009 Mentoring and Learning (M-L) Web discussion on the topic of data analysis. The data sources were shared e-mail responses during the process of planning and executing the M-L Web discussion. Content analysis was undertaken and the categories of discussion were presented as a simple non-hierarchical typology which represents the collective learning of the project fellows. We identified the types of learning needs on the topic 'Analysis of Data' to be addressed for faculty development in the field of education research. This need-based M-L Web discussion could then facilitate collective learning on such topics as 'basic concepts in statistics', tests of significance, Likert scale analysis, bivariate correlation, and simple regression analysis and content analysis of qualitative data. Steps like identifying the learning needs for an on-line M-L Web discussion, addressing the immediate needs of learners and creating a flexible reflective learning environment on the M-L Web facilitated the collective learning of the fellows on the topic of data analysis. Our outcomes can be useful in the design of on-line pedagogical strategies for supporting research in medical education.

  9. An analysis of hospital preparedness capacity for public health emergency in four regions of China: Beijing, Shandong, Guangxi, and Hainan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingming; Huang, Jianshi; Zhang, Hui

    2008-09-20

    Hospital preparedness is critical for the early detection and management of public health emergency (PHE). Understanding the current status of PHE preparedness is the first step in planning to enhance hospitals' capacities for emergency response. The objective of this study is to understand the current status of hospital PHE preparedness in China. Four hundred hospitals in four city and provinces of China were surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Data related to hospital demographic data; PHE preparation; response to PHE in community; stockpiles of drugs and materials; detection and identification of PHE; procedures for medical treatment; laboratory diagnosis and management; staff training; and risk communication were collected and analyzed. Valid responses were received from 318 (79.5%) of the 400 hospitals surveyed. Of the valid responses, 264 (85.2%) hospitals had emergency plans; 93.3% had command centres and personnel for PHE; 22.9% included community organisations during the training for PHE; 97.4% could transport needed medical staff to a PHE; 53.1% had evaluated stockpiles of drugs; 61.5% had evaluated their supply systems; 55.5% had developed surveillance systems; and 74.6% could monitor the abnormity(See in appendix). Physicians in 80.2% of the analyzed hospitals reported up-to-date knowledge of their institution's PHE protocol. Of the 318 respondents, 97.4% followed strict laboratory regulations, however, only about 33.5% had protocols for suspected samples. Furthermore, only 59.0% could isolate and identify salmonella and staphylococcus and less than 5% could isolate and identify human H5N1 avian flu and SARS. Staff training or drill programs were reported in 94.5% of the institutions; 50.3% periodically assessed the efficacy of staff training; 45% had experts to provide psychological counselling; 12.1% had provided training for their medical staff to assess PHE-related stress. All of the above capacities related to the demographic

  10. An analysis of hospital preparedness capacity for public health emergency in four regions of China: Beijing, Shandong, Guangxi, and Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jianshi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital preparedness is critical for the early detection and management of public health emergency (PHE. Understanding the current status of PHE preparedness is the first step in planning to enhance hospitals' capacities for emergency response. The objective of this study is to understand the current status of hospital PHE preparedness in China. Methods Four hundred hospitals in four city and provinces of China were surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Data related to hospital demographic data; PHE preparation; response to PHE in community; stockpiles of drugs and materials; detection and identification of PHE; procedures for medical treatment; laboratory diagnosis and management; staff training; and risk communication were collected and analyzed. Results Valid responses were received from 318 (79.5% of the 400 hospitals surveyed. Of the valid responses, 264 (85.2% hospitals had emergency plans; 93.3% had command centres and personnel for PHE; 22.9% included community organisations during the training for PHE; 97.4% could transport needed medical staff to a PHE; 53.1% had evaluated stockpiles of drugs; 61.5% had evaluated their supply systems; 55.5% had developed surveillance systems; and 74.6% could monitor the abnormity(See in appendix. Physicians in 80.2% of the analyzed hospitals reported up-to-date knowledge of their institution's PHE protocol. Of the 318 respondents, 97.4% followed strict laboratory regulations, however, only about 33.5% had protocols for suspected samples. Furthermore, only 59.0% could isolate and identify salmonella and staphylococcus and less than 5% could isolate and identify human H5N1 avian flu and SARS. Staff training or drill programs were reported in 94.5% of the institutions; 50.3% periodically assessed the efficacy of staff training; 45% had experts to provide psychological counselling; 12.1% had provided training for their medical staff to assess PHE-related stress. All of the above

  11. System Coverage and Capacity Analysis on Millimeter-Wave Band for 5G Mobile Communication Systems with Massive Antenna Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Suk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a millimeter-wave band defined as a 30–300 GHz range is significant element for improving performance of 5th generation (5G mobile communication systems. However, since the millimeter-wave signal has peculiar propagation characteristics especially toward non-line-of-sight regions, the system architecture and antenna structure for 5G mobile communications should be designed to overcome these propagation limitations. For realization of the 5G mobile communications, electronics and telecommunications research institute (ETRI is developing central network applying various massive antenna structures with beamforming. In this paper, we have introduced the central network and evaluated the system coverage and capacity through C++ language-based simulations with real geospatial information.

  12. Association of pulse wave velocity with total lung capacity: A cross-sectional analysis of the BOLD London study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Patel, Jaymini; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Jones, Meinir; Burney, Peter G J

    2015-12-01

    Low lung function, measured using spirometry, has been associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease, but whether this is explained by airflow obstruction or restriction is a question that remains unanswered. To assess the association of total lung capacity (TLC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) with several cardio-metabolic and inflammatory markers. In the follow up of the Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) study in London, acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometric, pulse rate, pulse wave velocity and blood pressure data were obtained from 108 participants. Blood samples for measurement of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory markers were also collected from these participants. Association of lung function and volume with the different biomarkers was examined in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Following adjustment for age, sex, height, and ethnicity, TLC (adjusted coefficient = -1.53; 95% CI: -2.57, -0.49) and FVC (adjusted coefficient = -2.66; 95% CI: -4.98, -0.34) were inversely associated with pulse wave velocity, and further adjustment for smoking status, pack-years and body mass index (BMI) did not materially change these results. FEV1 was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, and adjustment for smoking status, pack-years and BMI made this association stronger (adjusted coefficient = -9.47; 95% CI: -15.62, -3.32). The inverse association of pulse wave velocity, which is a marker of cardiovascular disease, with TLC suggests that the association of the former with low FVC is independent of airflow obstruction. The association between FEV1 with systolic blood pressure after adjustment for FVC suggests an association with airflow obstruction rather than with restricted spirometry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Building local capacity for genomics research in Africa: recommendations from analysis of publications in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Babatunde O; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2016-01-01

    The poor genomics research capacity of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) could prevent maximal benefits from the applications of genomics in the practice of medicine and research. The objective of this study is to examine the author affiliations of genomic epidemiology publications in order to make recommendations for building local genomics research capacity in SSA. SSA genomic epidemiology articles published between 2004 and 2013 were extracted from the Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) database. Data on authorship details, country of population studied, and phenotype or disease were extracted. Factors associated with the first author, who has an SSA institution affiliation (AIAFA), were determined using a Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. The most commonly studied population was South Africa, accounting for 31.1%, followed by Ghana (10.6%) and Kenya (7.5%). About one-tenth of the papers were related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer (6.1%) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (4.3%). Fewer than half of the first authors (46.9%) were affiliated with an African institution. Among the 238 articles with an African first author, over three-quarters (79.8%) belonged to a university or medical school, 16.8% were affiliated with a research institute, and 3.4% had affiliations with other institutions. Significant disparities currently exist among SSA countries in genomics research capacity. South Africa has the highest genomics research output, which is reflected in the investments made in its genomics and biotechnology sector. These findings underscore the need to focus on developing local capacity, especially among those affiliated with SSA universities where there are more opportunities for teaching and research.

  14. Estimation of railroad capacity using parametric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews different methodologies used for railroad capacity estimation and presents a user-friendly method to measure capacity. The objective of this paper is to use multivariate regression analysis to develop a continuous relation of the d...

  15. Aerobic Capacity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Heine, Martin; Kwakkel, Gert; Dalgas, Ulrik

    Background Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is a strong health and performance predictor and is regarded as a key physiological measure in the healthy population and in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). However, no studies have tried to synthesize the existing knowledge regarding VO2max in PwMS.

  16. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the ergodicity of Markov chains with transition Δm,n(Δ′m,n-matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abolnikov

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper isolates and studies a class of Markov chains with a special quasi-triangular form of the transition matrix [so-called Δm,n(Δ′m,n-matrix]. Many discrete stochastic processes encountered in applications (queues, inventories and dams have transition matrices which are special cases of a Δm,n(Δ′m,n-matrix. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the ergodicity of a Markov chain with transition Δm,n(Δ′m,n-matrix are determined in the article in two equivalent versions. According to the first version, these conditions are expressed in terms of certain restrictions imposed on the generating functions Ai(x of the elements of the i-th row of the transition matrix, i=0,1,2,…; in the other version they are connected with the characterization of the roots of a certain associated function in the unit circle of the complex plane. Results obtained in the article generalize, complement, and refine similar results existing in the literature.

  17. Informational Capacity of the Financial Statements of Brazilian Banks: An Analysis from the Perspective of Liquidity Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orleans Silva Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the financial statements of Brazilian banks, from the perspective of liquidity risk by exploring whether the Statements of Cash Flows and Notes to these companies meet the requirements concerning the dissemination of liquidity risk demands by IFRS 7 and the principles of the Basel Committee. Additionally, we investigated whether the coefficients of box cover these companies, calculated from the DFC, show some respect to compliance with those requirements. For that, was raised a theoretical framework about liquidity and liquidity risk, and the role of DFC and Notes before the disclosure of information relating to liquidity. Accordingly, an exploratory study was conducted with the 28 companies that comprise the Banks segment of the BM&F Bovespa, through its financial statements for the year 2009. The main results indicate a low capacity of these informative statements about the situation and liquidity risk, given that only 60.71% of the requirements contained in the standards were met. Still, we conclude that the mere fact that it has good cash coverage ratios is not a necessary condition to be among the companies that meet the disclosure requirements of the situation and liquidity risk, or vice versa. Thus, even when companies have good liquidity indicators, the information required by the IASB and the BCBS has not been disclosed in its financial statements.

  18. Interference statistics and capacity analysis for uplink transmission in two-tier small cell networks: A geometric probability approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to derive the statistics of the interference considering dedicated and shared spectrum access for uplink transmission in two-tier small cell networks such as the macrocell-femtocell networks. The framework exploits the distance distributions from geometric probability theory to characterize the uplink interference while considering a traditional grid-model set-up for macrocells along with the randomly deployed femtocells. The derived expressions capture the impact of path-loss, composite shadowing and fading, uniform and non-uniform traffic loads, spatial distribution of femtocells, and partial and full spectral reuse among femtocells. Considering dedicated spectrum access, first, we derive the statistics of co-tier interference incurred at both femtocell and macrocell base stations (BSs) from a single interferer by approximating generalized- K composite fading distribution with the tractable Gamma distribution. We then derive the distribution of the number of interferers considering partial spectral reuse and moment generating function (MGF) of the cumulative interference for both partial and full spectral reuse scenarios. Next, we derive the statistics of the cross-tier interference at both femtocell and macrocell BSs considering shared spectrum access. Finally, we utilize the derived expressions to analyze the capacity in both dedicated and shared spectrum access scenarios. The derived expressions are validated by the Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results are generated to assess the feasibility of shared and dedicated spectrum access in femtocells under varying traffic load and spectral reuse scenarios. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Numerical Modelling of Building Vibrations due to Railway Traffic: Analysis of the Mitigation Capacity of a Wave Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Ribes-Llario

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of train-induced vibrations to buildings located in the vicinity of the track is one of the main negative externalities of railway transport, since both human comfort and the adequate functioning of sensitive equipment may be compromised. In this paper, a 3D FEM model is presented and validated with data from a real track stretch near Barcelona, Spain. Furthermore, a case study is analyzed as an application of the model, in order to evaluate the propagation and transmission of vibrations induced by the passage of a suburban train to a nearby 3-storey building. As a main outcome, vertical vibrations in the foundation slab are found to be maximum in the corners, while horizontal vibrations keep constant along the edges. The propagation within the building structure is also studied, concluding that vibrations invariably increase in their propagation upwards the building. Moreover, the mitigation capacity of a wave barrier acting as a source isolation is assessed by comparing vibration levels registered in several points of the building structure with and without the barrier. In this regard, the wave barrier is found to effectively reduce vibration in both the soil and the structure.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  1. Effect of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in people with cardiometabolic disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chou, Chih-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) with active recovery and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME) on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in adults with cardiometabolic disorders through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies were selected from 5 electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro] and Cochrane Library Register of Controlled Trials). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in English, that compared the effects of AIT with CME on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in adults with cardiometabolic disorders were included. Aerobic interval training was defined as high-intensity training separated by active recovery periods; CME incurred identical energy expenditure as AIT. Each trial was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CIs were used to determine the effect size for each outcome. Six RCTs with 153 participants (40 overweight/obesity, 19 with metabolic syndrome, and 94 with heart disease) were included. The mean value on the PEDro scale for these studies was 5.0. Aerobic interval training significantly increased peak oxygen consumption (WMD, 3.6 mL·kg·min; 95% CI, 2.3-4.9) with a trend of decreasing fasting glucose (WMD, -0.4 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.9 to 0.2, P = .18) compared with CME. The effects on other metabolic risk factors were similar between AIT and CME. Analysis of a limited number of studies with small sample sizes indicates that AIT is superior to CME in terms of improving exercise capacity. Further high quality studies with larger sample size are required to confirm this finding in adults with cardiometabolic disorders.

  2. Performance Analysis of Beamforming in MU-MIMO Systems for Rayleigh Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hassan, Ahmad K.

    2017-03-25

    This paper characterizes the performance metrics of MU-MIMO systems under Rayleigh fading channels in the presence of both cochannel interference and additive noise with unknown channel state information and known correlation matrices. In the first task, we derive analytical expressions for the cumulative distribution function of the instantaneous signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for any deterministic beamvectors. As a second task, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the instantaneous capacity, the upper bound on ergodic capacity, and the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization-based ergodic capacity for similar intra-cell correlation coefficients. Finally, we present the utility of several structured-diagonalization techniques, which can achieve the tractability for the approximate solution of ergodic capacity for both similar as well as different intra-cell correlation matrices. The novelty of this paper is to formulate the received SINR in terms of indefinite quadratic forms, which allows us to use complex residue theory to characterize the system behavior. The analytical expressions obtained closely match simulation results.

  3. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  4. Opportunities for strategic use of e-learning in scaling up disaster management capacity in Eastern Africa: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Mayega Roy; Elzie, D; Sebuwufu, D; Kiguli, J; Bazeyo, W

    2013-06-01

    The growing need for disaster management skills at all levels in Eastern Africa requires innovative approaches to training planners at all levels. While information technology tools provide a viable option, few studies have assessed the capacity for training institutions to use technology for cascading disaster management skills. The design was an explorative survey. A pre-training survey was conducted among 16 faculty members (9 academic staff and 7 information technology (IT) staff) from 7 schools of public health in Eastern Africa. Key informant interviews with 4 students and 4 staff members were conducted at the school of public health in Makerere. IT staff also conducted observations on trends of use of information technology infrastructure. Current levels of use of ICT among teaching and IT staff is variable. On-site use of the internet is high, but off-site access is low. Personal computers, e-mail, discussion forums and other web-based learning management platforms and open education resources (OERs) have been variably used by faculty and students to facilitate learning. On the other hand, videos, web-conferencing, social media, web-based document management tools, and mobile telephone applications were much less frequently used. A disaster management short course produced by the Health Emergencies Management Project (HEMP) has been adapted to a web-based open education resource and an interactive CD-ROM. Challenges included low levels of awareness and skills in technology options among students and faculty and access to reliable internet. Despite the existing challenges, technology tools are a viable platform for cascading disaster management skills in Eastern Africa.

  5. Influence of Installation Effects on Pile Bearing Capacity in Cohesive Soils – Large Deformation Analysis Via Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkol Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the whole process of pile construction and performance during loading is modelled via large deformation finite element methods such as Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL and Updated Lagrangian (UL. Numerical study consists of installation process, consolidation phase and following pile static load test (SLT. The Poznań site is chosen as the reference location for the numerical analysis, where series of pile SLTs have been performed in highly overconsolidated clay (OCR ≈ 12. The results of numerical analysis are compared with corresponding field tests and with so-called “wish-in-place” numerical model of pile, where no installation effects are taken into account. The advantages of using large deformation numerical analysis are presented and its application to the pile designing is shown.

  6. On the capacity of cognitive radio under limited channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2010-09-01

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link, but knows only the statistics of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver link, is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels (with continuous probability density function) under average and peak transmit-power constraints and with respect to two different interference constraints: an interference outage constraint and a signal-to-interference (SI) outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show that the interference constraint is harmful at high-power regime, whereas at lowpower regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance may be achieved. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. On the capacity of cognitive radio under limited channel state information over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-06-01

    A spectrum-sharing communication system where the secondary user is aware of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link, but knows only the statistics and an estimated version of the secondary transmitter-primary receiver (ST-PR) link, is investigated. The optimum power profile and the ergodic capacity of the secondary link are derived for general fading channels (with continuous probability density function) under average and peak transmit-power constraints and with respect to two different interference constraints: an interference outage constraint and a signal-to-interference (SI) outage constraint. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, our results show, for instance, that the interference constraint is harmful at high-power regime, whereas at low-power regime, it has a marginal impact and no-interference performance may be achieved. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider secure broadcasting over fast fading channels. Assuming imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, we first provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity when a common message is broadcasted to multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of one eavesdropper. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link. Then, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate when each legitimate receiver is interested in an independent message. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained results for the case of independent but not necessarily identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  9. Adding biofuel/bioproduct capacity to existing U.S. mills. Part 1, Options : Agenda 2020 analysis charts a course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Belin; Craig Brown; Eric Connor; Jim Frederick; Peter Ince; Ryan Katofsky; Gerard Closset

    2008-01-01

    The chief technology officers of the American Forest & Paper Association’s Agenda 2020 Technology Alliance recently conducted an analysis of the most feasible and effective routes for forest products facilities in this country to add energy, biofuels and bio-based chemicals to their existing product streams. Considering that at least 21 billion gallons of the...

  10. Co-authorship Network Analysis: A Powerful Tool for Strategic Planning of Research, Development and Capacity Building Programs on Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Carlos Medicis; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Background New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. Conclusions/Significance Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building objectives and a more

  11. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Carlos Medicis; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2009-08-18

    New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building objectives and a more consistent engagement of institutions and authors from endemic regions

  12. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medicis Morel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building

  13. Water Environmental Capacity Analysis of Taihu Lake and Parameter Estimation Based on the Integration of the Inverse Method and Bayesian Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranran Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach using the inverse method and Bayesian approach, combined with a lake eutrophication water quality model, was developed for parameter estimation and water environmental capacity (WEC analysis. The model was used to support load reduction and effective water quality management in the Taihu Lake system in eastern China. Water quality was surveyed yearly from 1987 to 2010. Total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP were selected as water quality model variables. Decay rates of TN and TP were estimated using the proposed approach. WECs of TN and TP in 2011 were determined based on the estimated decay rates. Results showed that the historical loading was beyond the WEC, thus, reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus input is necessary to meet water quality goals. Then WEC and allowable discharge capacity (ADC in 2015 and 2020 were predicted. The reduction ratios of ADC during these years were also provided. All of these enable decision makers to assess the influence of each loading and visualize potential load reductions under different water quality goals, and then to formulate a reasonable water quality management strategy.

  14. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  15. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DISK SPRING CONFIGURATIONS WITH REGARD TO LOAD CAPACITY OF SAFETY PROGRESSIVE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł LONKWIC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of various disk spring package configurations on brake load of safety progressive gears. The numerical analysis is performed using the Abaqus/CAE software and the designed 3D models. The numerical results are then verified in experimental tests. The tests also examine the effect of lubrication on brake load of spring packages. In addition, the paper investigates the work conditions of safety progressive gears at emergency braking. The experimental results show agreement with the numerical results.

  16. Determination of heat-set gelation capacity of a quinoa protein isolate (Chenopodium quinoa) by dynamic oscillatory rheological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspchak, Elaine; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Schüler de; Simas, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Franco, Célia Regina Cavicchiolo; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to study the influence of pH (3.5 and 7.0) and CaCl2 and MgCl2 addition on heat-set gelation of a quinoa protein isolate at 10% and 15% (w/w). The protein isolate obtained was composed mainly of 11S globulin as was observed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Heat-set gelation occurred at both pH values studied. Nevertheless, the gels formed at pH 3.5 were more viscoelastic and denser than those formed at pH 7.0, that was coarser and presented syneresis. The CaCl2 and MgCl2 addition increased the gel strength during rheological analysis at pH 3.5, possibly due to the formation of fiber-like connections in the gel network. At pH 7.0, the divalent salts resulted in weaker gels formed by agglomerates, suggesting a neutralization of the protein surface charges. The differences in quinoa protein gelation were attributed to solubility, and the flexibility of proteins secondary structure at the pH studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing of monitoring setup for vibration signature analysis of steam turbine driven high capacity rotary screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, T.; Vinod, J. [Birla VXL Ltd., Porbandar (India)

    1997-12-31

    Tracking the behaviour by signature analysis of machines like Screw Compressor having large number of auxiliaries, high power transmissions, variation of process gas properties, changes of load condition, fluctuating revolutions is truly a challenging job. These unavoidable process conditions often disturb the whole setup and there is every possibility to miss important and relevant information. Standards for overall monitoring as well as for peak-amplitudes responsible for root cause identification are not always available because these machines are `custom designed` and manufacturer`s standards are of paramount importance to consider. The health of these machines cannot be assessed by simply comparing with the international standards unlike most common machines such as fans, pumps, motors etc. with minimum number of auxiliaries. There may also be limitations in the features of the instruments used for the purpose. In this presentation, an attempt has been made to setup a monitoring approach for screw compressor which will help the industries initially setting base-line data to implement vibration analysis based off-line predictive maintenance programme either with the help of an analyser or with a latest software. (orig.) 3 refs.

  18. Response theory of the ergodic many-body delocalized phase: Keldysh Finkel'stein sigma models and the 10-fold way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunxiang; Levchenko, Alex; Foster, Matthew S.

    2017-11-01

    We derive the finite temperature Keldysh response theory for interacting fermions in the presence of quenched short-ranged disorder, as applicable to any of the 10 Altland-Zirnbauer classes in an Anderson delocalized phase with at least a U(1) continuous symmetry. In this formulation of the interacting Finkel'stein nonlinear sigma model, the statistics of one-body wave functions are encoded by the constrained matrix field, while physical correlations follow from the hydrodynamic density or spin response field, which decouples the interactions. Integrating out the matrix field first, we obtain weak (anti) localization and Altshuler-Aronov quantum conductance corrections from the hydrodynamic response function. This procedure automatically incorporates the correct infrared cutoff physics, and in particular gives the Altshuler-Aronov-Khmelnitsky (AAK) equations for dephasing of weak (anti)localization due to electron-electron collisions. We explicate the method by deriving known quantumcorrections in two dimensions for the symplectic metal class AII, as well as the spin-SU(2) invariant superconductor classes C and CI. We show that quantum conductance corrections due to the special modes at zero energy in nonstandard classes are automatically cut off by temperature, as previously expected, while the Wigner-Dyson class Cooperon modes that persist to all energies are cut by dephasing. We also show that for short-ranged interactions, the standard self-consistent solution for the dephasing rate is equivalent to a particular summation of diagrams via the self-consistent Born approximation. This should be compared to the corresponding AAK solution for long-ranged Coulomb interactions, which exploits the Markovian noise correlations induced by thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. We discuss prospects for exploring the many-body localization transition as a dephasing catastrophe in short-range interacting models, as encountered by approaching from the ergodic

  19. 3-dimensional plasma-boundary-layer simulations in uncompletely ergodized magnetic fields; 3-dimensionale Plasmarandschicht-Simulationen in unvollstaendig ergodisierten Magnetfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harting, Derek M.

    2008-03-16

    Within this work, a numerical tool, the EMC3/EIRENE code, is presented which solves self-consistently the strongly anisotropic 3D fluid equations for the main plasma (hydrogen) and plasma impurities (e.g. carbon) in an ergodic edge plasma layer. The model equations of the EMC3 code are discussed in detail and essential technical extensions are described and carried out, which enables realistic simulations of the edge plasma at TEXTOR-DED. In course of the simulations for the different base mode configurations of the DED, it turned out that a helical structure of laminar flux tubes (bunch of field-lines with one poloidal turn) is formed by the resonant perturbation field. Due to the dominant parallel streaming to the wall being the loss channel in this helical laminar flux tubes and the perpendicular transport into them being the source channel, the laminar flux tubes act like an extended helical scrape of layer, and thus the density and electron temperature are reduced locally in these flux tubes. Additionally, a promising scenario could be identified in the 3/1 base mode configuration of the DED, where remanent island structures exist near the recycling DED surface. Due to the ionization of the recycled hydrogen atoms in this remanent islands, the density increases strongly in these remanent islands and the electron and ion temperatures are reduced locally. It has been shown that in this case, the recycling is significantly changed and even a local high recycling regime is presumed. Some kinetic corrections on the classical parallel electron heatconductivity and the parallel viscosity of ions were implemented into the EMC3 code. (orig.)

  20. Biodegradation of methyl red by Bacillus sp. strain UN2: decolorization capacity, metabolites characterization, and enzyme analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Peng-Fei; Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Guan; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Azo dyes are recalcitrant and refractory pollutants that constitute a significant menace to the environment. The present study is focused on exploring the capability of Bacillus sp. strain UN2 for application in methyl red (MR) degradation. Effects of physicochemical parameters (pH of medium, temperature, initial concentration of dye, and composition of the medium) were studied in detail. The suitable pH and temperature range for MR degradation by strain UN2 were respectively 7.0-9.0 and 30-40 °C, and the optimal pH value and temperature were respectively 8.0 and 35 °C. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were found to significantly accelerate the MR removal rate, while the enhancement by either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) was slight. Under the optimal degradation conditions, strain UN2 exhibited greater than 98 % degradation of the toxic azo dye MR (100 ppm) within 30 min. Analysis of samples from decolorized culture flasks confirmed biodegradation of MR into two prime metabolites: N,N'dimethyl-p-phenyle-nediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of MR, in the control and cells obtained during (10 min) and after (30 min) degradation, showed a significant increase in the activities of azoreductase, laccase, and NADH-DCIP reductase. Furthermore, a phytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the germination inhibition was almost eliminated for both the plants Triticum aestivum and Sorghum bicolor by MR metabolites at 100 mg/L concentration, yet the germination inhibition of parent dye was significant. Consequently, the high efficiency of MR degradation enables this strain to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewater containing MR.

  1. Confrontation of fibroblasts with cancer cells in vitro: gene network analysis of transcriptome changes and differential capacity to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyenko, Andrey; Alkasalias, Twana; Pavlova, Tatiana; Szekely, Laszlo; Kashuba, Vladimir; Rundqvist, Helene; Wiklund, Peter; Egevad, Lars; Csermely, Peter; Korcsmaros, Tamas; Guven, Hayrettin; Klein, George

    2015-06-18

    There is growing evidence that emerging malignancies in solid tissues might be kept under control by physical intercellular contacts with normal fibroblasts. Here we characterize transcriptional landscapes of fibroblasts that confronted cancer cells. We studied four pairs of in vitro and ex vivo fibroblast lines which, within each pair, differed in their capacity to inhibit cancer cells. The natural process was modeled in vitro by confronting the fibroblasts with PC-3 cancer cells. Fibroblast transcriptomes were recorded by Affymetrix microarrays and then investigated using network analysis. The network enrichment analysis allowed us to separate confrontation- and inhibition-specific components of the fibroblast transcriptional response. Confrontation-specific differences were stronger and were characterized by changes in a number of pathways, including Rho, the YAP/TAZ cascade, NF-kB, and TGF-beta signaling, as well as the transcription factor RELA. Inhibition-specific differences were more subtle and characterized by involvement of Rho signaling at the pathway level and by potential individual regulators such as IL6, MAPK8, MAP2K4, PRKCA, JUN, STAT3, and STAT5A. We investigated the interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts in order to shed light on the potential mechanisms and explain the differential inhibitory capacity of the latter, which enabled both a holistic view on the process and details at the gene/protein level. The combination of our methods pointed to proteins, such as members of the Rho pathway, pro-inflammatory signature and the YAP1/TAZ cascade, that warrant further investigation via tools of experimental perturbation. We also demonstrated functional congruence between the in vitro and ex vivo models. The microarray data are made available via the Gene Expression Omnibus as GSE57199.

  2. Performance analysis of OOK-based FSO systems in Gamma-Gamma turbulence with imprecise channel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2017-11-01

    For an FSO communication system with imprecise channel model, we investigate its system performance based on outage probability, average BEP and ergodic capacity. The exact FSO links are modeled as Gamma-Gamma fading channel in consideration of both atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors, and the imprecise channel model is treated as the superposition of exact channel gain and a Gaussian random variable. After we derive the PDF, CDF and nth moment of the imprecise channel gain, and based on these statistics the expressions for the outage probability, the average BEP and the ergodic capacity in terms of the Meijer's G functions are obtained. Both numerical and analytical results are presented. The simulation results show that the communication performance deteriorates in the imprecise channel model, and approaches to the exact performance curves as the channel model becomes accurate.

  3. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization: A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experiences (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64831. Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate. Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of Cecal Microbiome Identified Microbiota and Functional Capacities Associated with Feed Efficiency in Landrace Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE appears to vary even within closely related pigs, and may be partly affected by the diversity in the composition and function of gut microbes. To investigate the components and functional differences of gut microbiota of low and high FE pigs, high throughput sequencing and de novo metagenomics were performed on pig cecal contents. Pigs were selected in pairs with low and high feed conversion ratio. The microorganisms of individuals with different FE were clustered according to diversity. The genus Prevotella was the most enriched in both groups, and the abundance of species Prevotella sp. CAG:604 was significantly increased in low efficiency individuals compared to that in animals showing high efficiency. In contrast, other differential species, including lactic acid bacteria, were all enriched in the group with good feeding characteristics. Functional analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases demonstrated that differential genes for the metabolism of carbohydrates were most abundant in both groups, but pathways of pyruvate-related metabolism were more intense in pigs with higher FE. All these data indicated that the microbial environment was closely related to the growth traits of pigs, and regulating microbial composition could aid developing strategies to improve FE for pigs.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Cecal Microbiome Identified Microbiota and Functional Capacities Associated with Feed Efficiency in Landrace Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen; Yang, Ting; Wang, Yuan; Xing, Kai; Zhang, Fengxia; Zhao, Xitong; Ao, Hong; Chen, Shaokang; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Chuduan

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) appears to vary even within closely related pigs, and may be partly affected by the diversity in the composition and function of gut microbes. To investigate the components and functional differences of gut microbiota of low and high FE pigs, high throughput sequencing and de novo metagenomics were performed on pig cecal contents. Pigs were selected in pairs with low and high feed conversion ratio. The microorganisms of individuals with different FE were clustered according to diversity. The genus Prevotella was the most enriched in both groups, and the abundance of species Prevotella sp. CAG:604 was significantly increased in low efficiency individuals compared to that in animals showing high efficiency. In contrast, other differential species, including lactic acid bacteria, were all enriched in the group with good feeding characteristics. Functional analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases demonstrated that differential genes for the metabolism of carbohydrates were most abundant in both groups, but pathways of pyruvate-related metabolism were more intense in pigs with higher FE. All these data indicated that the microbial environment was closely related to the growth traits of pigs, and regulating microbial composition could aid developing strategies to improve FE for pigs.

  6. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization. A Summary of High-Renewable Modeling Experience for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical and computational models are widely used for the analysis and design of both physical and financial systems. Modeling the electric grid is of particular importance to China for three reasons. First, power-sector assets are expensive and long-lived, and they are critical to any country's development. China's electric load, transmission, and other energy-related infrastructure are expected to continue to grow rapidly; therefore it is crucial to understand and help plan for the future in which those assets will operate (NDRC ERI 2015). Second, China has dramatically increased its deployment of renewable energy (RE), and is likely to continue further accelerating such deployment over the coming decades. Careful planning and assessment of the various aspects (technical, economic, social, and political) of integrating a large amount of renewables on the grid is required. Third, companies need the tools to develop a strategy for their own involvement in the power market China is now developing, and to enable a possible transition to an efficient and high RE future.

  7. Customer Driven Capacity Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Hübl, Alexander; Altendorfer, Klaus; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Pilstl, Josef

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this article is to develop a method for short and medium term capacity setting decisions for providing a market oriented level of available capacity for the investigated machine groups. An MTO (make to order) production system is considered. The basic concept is that the cumulative available capacity of the machine group has to be greater than or equal to the cumulative needed capacity influenced by the customer orders. The cumulative needed capacity is ...

  8. Comparative genome analysis of rice-pathogenic Burkholderia provides insight into capacity to adapt to different environments and hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, Jungwook; Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Cheong, Hoon; Kim, Sang-Mok; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu

    2015-05-06

    In addition to human and animal diseases, bacteria of the genus Burkholderia can cause plant diseases. The representative species of rice-pathogenic Burkholderia are Burkholderia glumae, B. gladioli, and B. plantarii, which primarily cause grain rot, sheath rot, and seedling blight, respectively, resulting in severe reductions in rice production. Though Burkholderia rice pathogens cause problems in rice-growing countries, comprehensive studies of these rice-pathogenic species aiming to control Burkholderia-mediated diseases are only in the early stages. We first sequenced the complete genome of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T. Second, we conducted comparative analysis of the newly sequenced B. plantarii ATCC 43733T genome with eleven complete or draft genomes of B. glumae and B. gladioli strains. Furthermore, we compared the genome of three rice Burkholderia pathogens with those of other Burkholderia species such as those found in environmental habitats and those known as animal/human pathogens. These B. glumae, B. gladioli, and B. plantarii strains have unique genes involved in toxoflavin or tropolone toxin production and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated bacterial immune system. Although the genome of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T has many common features with those of B. glumae and B. gladioli, this B. plantarii strain has several unique features, including quorum sensing and CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems. The complete genome sequence of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T and publicly available genomes of B. glumae BGR1 and B. gladioli BSR3 enabled comprehensive comparative genome analyses among three rice-pathogenic Burkholderia species responsible for tissue rotting and seedling blight. Our results suggest that B. glumae has evolved rapidly, or has undergone rapid genome rearrangements or deletions, in response to the hosts. It also, clarifies the unique features of rice pathogenic Burkholderia species relative to other

  9. The capacity of absorption of the international technology transfer, its limits and the analysis of the possibilities of production of knowledge in developing countries: The case of Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Pisaniuc

    2014-01-01

    This article is based indirectly on the analysis of the interdependencies between economic development of world states and the technological potential. In this article we set the objective to analyse the interdependence between the capacity of production and generation of modern technologies and the absorption capacity. The appreciation of the possibilities of developing countries to create and disseminate technologies, in which form of organization and financing could that, be done. Determin...

  10. Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Exercise Capacity, Muscle Strength and Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes Neto

    Full Text Available Many HIV-infected patients demonstrate disability and lower aerobic capacity. The inclusion of resistance training combined with aerobic exercise in a single program is known as combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CARE and seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle weakness, as well as aerobic capacity in HIV-infected patients. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients.We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to august 2014 for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.Seven studies met the study criteria. CARE resulted in improvement in Peak VO2 WMD (4.48 mL·kg-1·min-1 95% CI: 2.95 to 6.0, muscle strength of the knee extensors WMD (25.06 Kg 95% CI: 10.46 to 39.66 and elbow flexors WMD (4.44 Kg 95% CI: 1.22 to 7.67 compared with no exercise group. The meta-analyses also showed significant improvement in Health status, Energy/Vitality and physical function domains of quality of life for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. A nonsignificant improvement in social function domain of quality of life was found for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group.Combined aerobic and resistance exercise may improve peak VO2, muscle strength and health status, energy and physical function domains of quality of life and should be considered as a component of care of HIV-infected individuals.

  11. Brownian motion on \\lbrack 0,\\infty) with linear drift, reflected at zero: exact asymptotics for ergodic means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalov, V. R.

    2017-07-01

    For the Brownian motion X_μ(t) on the half-axis \\lbrack 0,∞) with linear drift μ, reflected at zero and for fixed numbers p>0, δ>0, d>0, a ≥ 0, we calculate the exact asymptotics as T\\to∞ of the mathematical expectations and probabilities \\displaystyle \\mathsf E\\biggl \\lbrack \\exp\\biggl\\{-δ\\int_0T X_μ......l\\{\\frac1 T\\int_0T X_μ^p(t) dt as well as of their conditional versions. For p=1 we give explicit formulae for the emerging constants via the Airy function. We consider an application of the results obtained to the problem of studying the behaviour of a Brownian particle in a gravitational field in a container bounded below by an impenetrable wall when μ=-mg/(2kT K), where m is the mass of the Brownian particle, g is the gravitational acceleration, k is the Boltzmann constant, T K is the temperature in the Kelvin scale. The analysis is conducted by the Laplace method for the sojourn time of homogeneous Markov processes. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  12. Effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibing; Liu, Xiaodan; Wang, Longbing; Wang, Zhenwei; Hu, Jun; Yan, Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise that has been widely practiced in the People's Republic of China for many centuries. This exercise has also been applied as a training modality in pulmonary rehabilitation programs for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in COPD patients. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Biology Medicine disc) were searched. Entries published from January 1980 to March 2014 were included in the search. Eligible studies included those that involved randomized controlled trials and those that lasted for at least 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were six-minute walking distance (6 MWD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). Effect estimates were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Eleven articles involving 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. All included articles compared COPD patients in a Tai Chi group versus COPD patients in nonexercise and/or physical exercise groups. The meta-analysis showed that compared with the nonexercise group, the COPD patients practicing Tai Chi demonstrated significantly enhanced 6 MWD (mean difference 35.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.63-56.35, P=0.0005), decreased SGRQ total score (mean difference -10.02, 95% CI -17.59, -2.45, P=0.009), and increased CRQ total score (mean difference 0.95, 95% CI 0.22-1.67, P=0.01). Compared with the physical exercise group, the Tai Chi group showed significantly reduced SGRQ total score (mean difference -3.52, 95% CI -6.07, -0.97, P=0.007), but no statistical significance was found for 6 MWD between the two groups (mean difference 13.65, 95% CI -1.06, 28.37, P

  13. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  14. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  15. Genome-Scale Model and Omics Analysis of Metabolic Capacities ofAkkermansia muciniphilaReveal a Preferential Mucin-Degrading Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottman, Noora; Davids, Mark; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Boeren, Sjef; Schaap, Peter J; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Smidt, Hauke; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-09-15

    The composition and activity of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract are primarily shaped by nutrients derived from either food or the host. Bacteria colonizing the mucus layer have evolved to use mucin as a carbon and energy source. One of the members of the mucosa-associated microbiota is Akkermansia muciniphila , which is capable of producing an extensive repertoire of mucin-degrading enzymes. To further study the substrate utilization abilities of A. muciniphila , we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model to test amino acid auxotrophy, vitamin biosynthesis, and sugar-degrading capacities. The model-supported predictions were validated by in vitro experiments, which showed A. muciniphila to be able to utilize the mucin-derived monosaccharides fucose, galactose, and N -acetylglucosamine. Growth was also observed on N -acetylgalactosamine, even though the metabolic model did not predict this. The uptake of these sugars, as well as the nonmucin sugar glucose, was enhanced in the presence of mucin, indicating that additional mucin-derived components are needed for optimal growth. An analysis of whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) comparing the gene expression of A. muciniphila grown on mucin with that of the same bacterium grown on glucose confirmed the activity of the genes involved in mucin degradation and revealed most of these to be upregulated in the presence of mucin. The transcriptional response was confirmed by a proteome analysis, altogether revealing a hierarchy in the use of sugars and reflecting the adaptation of A. muciniphila to the mucosal environment. In conclusion, these findings provide molecular insights into the lifestyle of A. muciniphila and further confirm its role as a mucin specialist in the gut. IMPORTANCE Akkermansia muciniphila is among the most abundant mucosal bacteria in humans and in a wide range of other animals. Recently, A. muciniphila has attracted considerable attention because of its capacity to protect

  16. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  17. Evaluation of the Capacity of PCR and High-Resolution Melt Curve Analysis for Identification of Mixed Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A Ghorashi

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity and presentation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection may differ from one strain to another and this may have implications on control measures. Infection of individual birds with more than one MG strain has been reported. A PCR followed by high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis has been developed in our laboratory and routinely used for detection and differentiation of MG strains. However the potential of this test for identification of MG strains in a mixed specimen has not been evaluated. In the present study, the capability of PCR-HRM curve analysis technique, targeting vlhA and pvpA genes was assessed for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed population. Different DNA ratios of two MG strains from 1 to 10(-4 ng were tested with some generated conventional and normalized curves distinct from those of individual strains alone. Using genotype confidence percentages (GCP generated from HRM curve analysis, it was found that vlhA PCR-HRM was more consistent than pvpA PCR-HRM for the detection of MG ts-11 vaccine strain mixed with any of the MG strains 6/85, F, S6 or a field isolate. The potential of vlhA PCR-HRM to detect mixed MG strains in a specimen was found to be primarily dependent on quantity and proportion of the target DNAs in the mixture. This is the first study examining the capacity of PCR-HRM technique for identification of individual MG strains in a mixed strain population.

  18. Decision Space and Capacities in the Decentralization of Health Services in FijiComment on "Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Thomas J

    2016-05-08

    The study of decentralization in Fiji shows that increasing capacities is not necessarily related to increasing decision space of local officials, which is in contrast with earlier studies in Pakistan. Future studies should address the relationship among decision space, capacities, and health system performance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. Comparative genomics analysis of a series of Yarrowia lipolytica WSH-Z06 mutants with varied capacity for α-ketoglutarate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhu; Fang, Fang; Liu, Song; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Jingwen

    2016-12-10

    Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the most intensively investigated α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) producers, and metabolic engineering has proven effective for enhancing production. However, regulation of α-KG metabolism remains poorly understood. Genetic engineering of new strains is accompanied by potential safety concerns in some countries and regions. A series of mutants with varied capacity for α-KG production were obtained using random mutagenesis of Y. lipolytica WSH-Z06. Comparative genomics analysis was implemented to identify genes candidates associated with α-KG production. Manipulation of genes regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism could improve α-KG production, while genes involved in regulating transformation between keto acids and amino acids may decrease production. One gene associated with cell cycle control well represented in all mutants, whereas this gene involved in cell concentration do not appear to influence α-KG production. The results shed light on α-KG production in eukaryotic cells, and pave the way for a high-throughput screening and random mutagenesis method for enhancing α-KG production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional cell culture array using magnetic force-based cell patterning for analysis of invasive capacity of BALB/3T3/v-src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Mina; Takano, Sho; Isaji, Yayoi; Senga, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-07

    A three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system has been fabricated using a magnetic force based cell patterning method, demonstrating a facile approach for the analysis of invasive capacity of BALB/3T3/v-src using an magnetic force and magnetite nanoparticles. The 3D cell patterning was performed using an external magnetic force and a pin holder, which enables the assembly of the magnetically labeled cells on the collagen gel-coated surface as array-like cell patterns, resulting in the development of a 3D in vitro culture model. The cells embedded in type I collagen showed a compacted, spheroid like configuration at each spot, and distinct, accelerated cell growth was observed in cancer model cells compared with the control cells. The developed 3D cell culture array was applied to the susceptibility assay of the GM6001 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, a collagenase inhibitor; a distinct suppression of cell proliferation was observed, while little change was observed in 2D. The developed 3D cell culture array system is useful to assess the effects of pharmacologic and/or microenvironmental influences on tumor cell invasion.

  1. Capacity of English NHS hospitals to monitor quality in infection prevention and control using a new European framework: a multilevel qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Michiyo; Ahmad, Raheelah; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Birgand, Gabriel; Johnson, Alan P; Holmes, Alison

    2017-01-23

    (1) To assess the extent to which current English national regulations/policies/guidelines and local hospital practices align with indicators suggested by a European review of effective strategies for infection prevention and control (IPC); (2) to examine the capacity of local hospitals to report on the indicators and current use of data to inform IPC management and practice. A national and local-level analysis of the 27 indicators was conducted. At the national level, documentary review of regulations/policies/guidelines was conducted. At the local level data collection comprised: (a) review of documentary sources from 14 hospitals, to determine the capacity to report performance against these indicators; (b) qualitative interviews with 3 senior managers from 5 hospitals and direct observation of hospital wards to find out if these indicators are used to improve IPC management and practice. 2 acute English National Health Service (NHS) trusts and 1 NHS foundation trust (14 hospitals). 3 senior managers from 5 hospitals for qualitative interviews. As primary outcome measures, a 'Red-Amber-Green' (RAG) rating was developed reflecting how well the indicators were included in national documents or their availability at the local organisational level. The current use of the indicators to inform IPC management and practice was also assessed. The main secondary outcome measure is any inconsistency between national and local RAG rating results. National regulations/policies/guidelines largely cover the suggested European indicators. The ability of individual hospitals to report some of the indicators at ward level varies across staff groups, which may mask required improvements. A reactive use of staffing-related indicators was observed rather than the suggested prospective strategic approach for IPC management. For effective patient safety and infection prevention in English hospitals, routine and proactive approaches need to be developed. Our approach to evaluation can

  2. Effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Weibing Wu,1 Xiaodan Liu,2 Longbing Wang,1 Zhenwei Wang,3 Jun Hu,2 Juntao Yan41Department of Sports Medicine, Shanghai University of Sport, 2School of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise that has been widely practiced in the People's Republic of China for many centuries. This exercise has also been applied as a training modality in pulmonary rehabilitation programs for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of Tai Chi on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in COPD patients.Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Biology Medicine disc were searched. Entries published from January 1980 to March 2014 were included in the search. Eligible studies included those that involved randomized controlled trials and those that lasted for at least 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were six-minute walking distance (6MWD, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ. Effect estimates were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis.Results: Eleven articles involving 824 patients met the inclusion criteria. All included articles compared COPD patients in a Tai Chi group versus COPD patients in nonexercise and/or physical exercise groups. The meta-analysis showed that compared with the nonexercise group, the COPD patients practicing Tai Chi demonstrated significantly enhanced 6MWD (mean difference 35.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.63–56.35, P

  3. Effective capacity of Nakagami-m fading channels with full channel state information in the low power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-09-01

    The effective capacity have been introduced by Wu and Neji as a link-layer model supporting statistical delay QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose to study the effective capacity of a Nakagami-m fading channel with full channel state information (CSI) at both the transmitter and at the receiver. We focus on the low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) regime. We show that the effective capacity for any arbitrary but finite statistically delay Quality of Service (QoS) exponent θ, scales essentially as S NRlog(1/SNR) exactly as the ergodic capacity, independently of any QoS constraint. We also characterize the minimum energy required for reliable communication, and the wideband slope to show that our results are in agreement with results established recently by Gursoy et al. We also propose an on-off power control scheme that achieves the capacity asymptotically using only one bit CSI feedback at the transmitter. Finally, some numerical results are presented to show the accuracy of our asymptotic results. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. On the Performance Analysis of Hybrid ARQ With Incremental Redundancy and With Code Combining Over Free-Space Optical Channels With Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-07-16

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) and with code combining (CC) from an information-theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce new closed-form expressions for the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function, and the moments of an FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading channel subject to pointing errors and using intensity modulation with direct detection technique at the receiver. Based on these formulas, we derive exact results for the average bit error rate and the capacity in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions. Moreover, we present asymptotic expressions by utilizing the Meijer\\'s G function expansion and using the moments method, too, for the ergodic capacity approximations. Then, we provide novel analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. Besides, we offer asymptotic expressions for these results in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we compare the performance of HARQ with IR and HARQ with CC. Our analysis demonstrates that HARQ with IR outperforms HARQ with CC.

  5. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  6. LONGITUDINAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH AND COUGH CAPACITY IN PERSONS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : AN EXPLORATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Karin; Vlemmix, Lonneke Y.; Haisma, Janneke A.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe A. R.; Stam, Henk J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with recent spinal cord injury. Design: Longitudinal analyses. Subjects: Forty persons with recent spinal cord injury and impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Measurements were

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON SPATIAL PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Muta'ali

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to examine environmental carrying capacity analyzed based on aspects of spatial planning and eco-region. The result showed that Kulonprogo Regency has low value of environmental carrying capacity and can only support as much as 79.81% of its total population. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of environmental carrying capacity of protected and cultivated area. The main factor among 12 variables determining the degree of environmen...

  8. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    It has not been established which physiological processes contribute to endurance training-related changes (Delta) in aerobic performance. For example, the relationship between intramuscular metabolic responses at the intensity used during training and improved human functional capacity has...... Deltalactate (r(2) = 0.32; P humans are not related to altered maximal oxygen transport capacity. Altered muscle metabolism may provide the link between training...

  9. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Céline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16. These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°. All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value. The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2, and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility.

  10. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  11. Harmonic analysis a comprehensive course in analysis, part 3

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Barry

    2015-01-01

    A Comprehensive Course in Analysis by Poincaré Prize winner Barry Simon is a five-volume set that can serve as a graduate-level analysis textbook with a lot of additional bonus information, including hundreds of problems and numerous notes that extend the text and provide important historical background. Depth and breadth of exposition make this set a valuable reference source for almost all areas of classical analysis. Part 3 returns to the themes of Part 1 by discussing pointwise limits (going beyond the usual focus on the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function by including ergodic theorems and m

  12. Contextual effects of community mobilization and communication capacity as a positive factor for self-rated health status: a multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Bigman-Galimore, Cabral A; Viswanath, K

    2014-04-01

    We examined relationships between individual-level community participation, two types of contextual effects-community capacity for mobilization and capacity for health communication--and residents' self-reported health status in order to explore the role health communication may play in community building for health. To estimate multi-level effects of the community participation and the two contextual indicators with self-rated health status, we applied hierarchical generalized linear regression to crosssectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for individual- and community-level confounders, the likelihood of having high self-rated health status is significantly higher among those who live in a region with higher community capacity for mobilization, higher health communication capacity at the community level, and higher participation in community groups at the individual-level. Our findings suggest that living in a community characterized by higher levels of communication and mobilization capacity is beneficial to residents' self-rated health status--increasing the odds of high health status by up to 9 %. Thus, building community capacity in mobilization and health communication may help develop better health promotion campaigns.

  13. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....

  14. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thompson

    Full Text Available The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  16. Evaluation of biocompatibility of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide using the analysis of the adherence capacity and morphology of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfora, Kattyenne Kabbaz; Santos, Maria do Carmo Moreira da Silva; Montes, Marcos Antonio Japiassú Resende; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of the most used bleaching materials for pulpless teeth, sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide, in an experimental model of macrophages, through analysis of the adherence index and the cellular morphology. Inflammatory macrophages were obtained from peritoneal washed of Wistar rats. The evaluation of the adherence capacity of these cells to the plastic surface was conducted in Eppendorf tubes containing RPMI, after treatment with the bleaching agents diluted in 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 for 15 and 30 min, and incubation at 37 degrees C and humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air. The cellular morphology was verified after incubation of the cells treated with the bleaching agents in culture plaques and compared with normal cells in culture medium. Results showed that sodium perborate neither increased the adherence index, nor altered the cellular morphology when compared to the control group. The distribution, cellular morphology, cytoplasmatic and nuclear characteristics, reproduced the aspects observed in normal macrophages. However, the treatment with 30% hydrogen peroxide presented an increase in adherence index when compared to the control group (RPMI), in all dilutions, according to Mann-Whitney test (n=08 and p=0.001 for dilutions 1:10 and 1:100, and n=08 and p=0.004 for dilution 1:1000). The morphology of the cells treated with this product presented structural alterations proportionally greater, depending on the dilution of this bleaching agent, and even in the highest dilution (1:1000) the cells presented very evident alterations. This irreversible cellular damage as well as the elevation of the adherence index, characterizes the aggressive potential of 30% hydrogen peroxide, regardless of its dilution. Sodium perborate, on the other hand, showed biocompatibitity, since, no morphological nor functional alteration was observed in macrophages.

  17. Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors Improve Clinical Outcomes, Exercise Capacity and Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchis, Renato; Cesaro, Arturo; Ariano, Carmelina; Giasi, Anna; Cioppa, Carmela

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have compared the use of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors sildenafil or udenafil with the placebo in patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left chronic heart failure (CHF), corresponding to group 2 (PH due to left heart disease) of the PH classification (according to 2015 ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PH). The results of the use of PDE5 inhibitors in the PH due to left heart disease were inconsistent and heterogeneous. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the effect of PDE5 inhibitors in this clinical setting, i.e., patients with left CHF. A systematic search was conducted using the PubMed and Embase electronic archives. Studies had to be prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In each of the RCTs admitted to meta-analysis, a comparison was made between a group of CHF patients taking a PDE5 inhibitor and a second group assigned a placebo. Studies were incorporated in the meta-analysis provided that they had sufficient information about two or more of the following clinical, ergospirometric or hemodynamic outcomes: the composite of all-cause death and hospitalization, adverse events, peak VO2, 6-min walking distance (6MWD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), E/e' ratio, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Fourteen studies enrolling a total of 928 patients were incorporated in the meta-analysis. Among them,13 were RCTs and one was a subgroup analysis. Among patients with CHF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF, n = 555), a significant benefit was conferred by PDE5 inhibitors against the risk of the composite endpoint of death and hospitalizations (odds ratio (OR): 0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10 - 0.74; P = 0.03). Furthermore, among HFREF patients, PDE5 inhibitors were associated with a significant improvement in peak VO2 (difference in means (MD): 3

  18. Fingerprinting TCE Sources and Natural Attenuation Capacity of a Sedimentary Bedrock Aquifer using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis - A Case Study in the City of Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P. L.; Aravena, R.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds were detected in an industrial facility (site) in the upper part of the underlying dolomite bedrock aquifer. The primary chlorinated solvent detected at the site is trichloroethene (TCE), and associated daughter products, such as cis-1,2- dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), are also present. Several conventional monitoring wells installed at the site were recently sampled for VOCs analysis, inorganic sensitive REDOX parameters and Compound Specific Isotope Analyses (CSIA) of 13C and 37Cl in order to evaluate the natural attenuation capacity of the local upper bedrock aquifer. A municipal well was also included in this study. The municipal well is located approximately 500 meters southwest from the investigated site and consists of anuncased bedrock well completed to 102 meters below ground surface (mbgs). Chlorinated volatile organic compounds were detected in this well during the evaluation of municipal groundwater resources performed in the early 1990s by the City of Guelph. Neither the City nor the Ministry of the Environment of the Province of Ontario (MOE) have been able to satisfactorily determine the origin of these compounds. Groundwater for VOCs analysis and CSIA were therefore collected in the municipal well in order to evaluate the relationship between the TCE detected in the municipal well and the TCE plume detected in the nearby industrial facility. The inorganic data indicated that the local upper aquifer is under sulfate-reducing conditions in some areas where typical VOC's daughter products and highly enriched δ13C and δ 37Cl values of TCE and cis-1,2-DCE were observed. These findings indicated that microbial reductive dechlorination of TCE is occurring in some areas of the local aquifer. The δ 13C values of TCE obtained in groundwater from the conventional wells were approximately 10 ‰ more depleted than δ 13C values obtained for the deep municipal production well. These data indicate

  19. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  20. Peak aerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Bouten, C.; Gwinn, T.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To give a descriptive analysis of aerobic capacity among elite wheelchair athletes in association with various personal characteristics and sprint or anaerobic capacity. Design: Sixty-eight wheelchair athletes who participated in the World Games and Championships for the Disabled were

  1. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different cap...

  2. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Masatoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Methods Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model, and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model. Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. Results The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, p  Conclusions Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using thecapacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  3. New Insight into the Reaction Mechanism for Exceptional Capacity of Ordered Mesoporous SnO2 Electrodes via Synchrotron-Based X-ray Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Park, Gwi Ok; Kim, Yunok; Muhammad, Shoaib; Yoo, Jaeseung; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Min-Gyu; Lee, Byungju; Kang, Kisuk; Kim, Hansu; Kim, Ji Man; Yoon, WonSub

    2014-11-25

    Tin oxide-based materials, operating via irreversible conversion and reversible alloying reaction, are promising lithium storage materials due to their higher capacity. Recent studies reported that nanostructured SnO2 anode provides higher capacity beyond theoretical capacity based on the alloying reaction mechanism; however, their exact mechanism remains still unclear. Here, we report the detailed lithium storage mechanism of an ordered mesoporous SnO2 electrode material. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy reveal that some portion of Li2O decomposes upon delithiation and the resulting oxygen reacts with Sn to form the SnOx phase along with dealloying of LixSn, which are the main reasons for unexpected high capacity of an ordered mesoporous SnO2 material. This finding will not only be helpful in a more complete understanding of the reaction mechanism of Sn-based oxide anode materials but also will offer valuable guidance for developing new anode materials with abnormal high capacity for next generation rechargeable batteries

  4. Exact Performance Analysis of Dual-Hop Semi-Blind AF Relaying over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2011-10-01

    Relay transmission is promising for future wireless systems due to its significant cooperative diversity gain. The performance of dual-hop semi-blind amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems was extensively investigated, for transmissions over Rayleigh fading channels or Nakagami- fading channels with integer fading parameter. For the general Nakagami- fading with arbitrary values, the exact closed-form system performance analysis is more challenging. In this paper, we explicitly derive the moment generation function (MGF), probability density function (PDF) and moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over arbitrary Nakagami- fading channels with semi-blind AF relay. With these results, the system performance evaluation in terms of outage probability, average symbol error probability, ergodic capacity and diversity order, is conducted. The analysis developed in this paper applies to any semi-blind AF relaying systems with fixed relay gain, and two major strategies for computing the relay gain are compared in terms of system performance. All analytical results are corroborated by simulation results and they are shown to be efficient tools to evaluate system performance.

  5. [Environment capacity of eco-tourism resort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Wang, R

    2000-08-01

    The results of quantitative analysis on the amount of tourist, service-environment capacity, eco-environment capacity, and their relations in Five-finger Mountain eco-tourism resort indicate that the amount of tourist in common situation and in its extreme was 1918 and 2301 visitor-hour per day, and the service-environment capacity and eco-environment capacity were 6000 and 2400 visitor-hour per day, respectively. The eco-environment capacity was smaller than its service-environment capacity, and would become the first limiting factor to the increase of tourist amount, which was mainly due to the ecological fragility of resort, the lower resistance of biological communities to the disturbance, and the slower speed of ecosystem restoration after its being destroyed.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, radical scavenger activity, lipid oxidation protection analysis and antimicrobial activity of red grape extracts from different varieties cultivated in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana C; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity, radical scavenger activity, lipid oxidation protection and antimicrobial activity of grape extracts from 12 different red grape varieties cultivated in Portugal. The mean values of total phenolic content quantified in grape extracts varied from 833.7 to 2005.6 mg/L gallic acid. Antioxidant capacity results showed different values for each grape variety ranging from 3.96 to 32.96 mm/L Fe(II). The scavenger activity values ranged from 15.99% to 54.82% for the superoxide radical and from 11.79% to 29.67% for the hydroxyl radical. The grape extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity had a positive effect on the lipid oxidation protection and induced low peroxide values in butter samples. Finally, concerning antimicrobial activity, grape extracts from Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz grape varieties had significant antimicrobial activity, especially notable for total mesophilic aerobics.

  7. Innovative Procedures to Assess Seismic Behaviour of Existing Structures by Means of Non Linear Static Analysis: Polar Spectrum and Capacity Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Marino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the need to evaluate the seismic performances of buildings on sustaining strong motion has encouraged the development of simplified non-linear static analyses. Several procedures are available today to assess the behavior of plane-frame systems or plan-regular framed buildings suitable for engineering purposes. Less accurate procedures are instead available for irregular structures. This study introduces new tools to assess the seismic performance of irregular structures by using capacity domains and polar spectra. In particular, the capacity domains, plotted in terms of base shear and node control displacements and obtained by means of static non-linear analyses, lead to the evaluation of the direction of least seismic capacity of the investigated structure. The polar spectrum, instead, leads to taking into account the directivity and site effects of seismic events. In particular, the polar spectrum represents the spectral seismic response evaluated for different in-plan directions.

  8. Performance Analysis of Mixed Nakagami- m and Gamma–Gamma Dual-Hop FSO Transmission Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of a dual-hop relay system over the asymmetric links composed of both radio-frequency (RF) and unified free-space optical (FSO) links under the effect of pointing errors. Both fixed and variable gain relay systems are studied. The RF link is modeled by the Nakagami-m fading channel and the FSO link by the Gamma-Gamma fading channel subject to both types of detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection). In particular, we derive new unified closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function (MGF), and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of these systems in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function. Based on these formulas, we offer exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability (OP), the higher order amount of fading, and the average bit error rate (BER) of a variety of binary modulations in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function. Furthermore, an exact closed-form expression of the end-to-end ergodic capacity is derived in terms of the bivariate G function. Additionally, by using the asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function at the high-SNR regime, we derive new asymptotic results for the OP, the MGF, and the average BER in terms of simple elementary functions.

  9. On the Performance Analysis of Dual-Hop Mixed FSO/RF Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2016-02-03

    This paper presents novel results for the performance analysis of dual-hop free-space optical/radio frequency (FSO/RF) transmission systems where the FSO link is modeled by the Gamma-Gamma distribution with pointing error impairments and under both heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD), and the RF link experiences the Generalized Nakagami-m fading. Using amplify-and-forward fixed-gain relaying as well as channel-state-information(CSI)- assisted relaying, we derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the average bit-error rate (BER), and the ergodic capacity in terms of the bivariate H-Fox function. For a special case, we obtain simplified results for Nakagami-m fading channels in the RF link. Further, new asymptotic results for the outage probability and the average BER at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime are presented in terms of simple functions. Numerical and Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of the newly proposed results, and a perfect agreement is observed.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE EXISTING ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY AND THE NUMBER OF TOURISTS ARRIVED IN SUCEAVA COUNTY STRUCTURES OF TOURISTIC RECEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ZAHARIA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the international touristic practice, but also in the specialized literature, it is perceived the population’s trend to spend the leisure time in an active way, by practicing tourism. It is also noted the fact that the forms of tourism organized in the big crowded centers, with fixed, rigid, monotonous programs, with journeys from a crowded environment to another, don’t satisfy anymore the tourists’ aspirations, motivations, options. They prefer the countryside zones that offer a non-polluted environment, with a natural and cultural potential very slightly altered. Such an area, which is inscribed in the rich heritage of the Romanian tourism, is Suceava County, which, by its offer, may be envisaged as an exceptional touristic zone of Romania.  Suceava County, Bârsa Land’s progress demands the inclusion of the principals of the lasting regional development in its development strategy. Within this framework, the importance of studying and analyzing the touristic activity’s evolution can be noted. The need of acknowledging the fluctuations registered by the results of the touristic activity deployment allowed the approach of the issue related to the correlation stage between the existing accommodation capacity and the number of tourists arrived in the accommodation structures of Suceava County during the 2000-2006 period. The mutual involvement relationship, the existence, the direction, the form and the intensity of the connection between the two indicators are analyzed in this paper. The conclusions stated following the analysis of the obtained result, represent an upper step for filling in the image regarding the regional tourism activity in the conditions of the establishment and application of certain regional lasting development strategies.

  11. Particle exhaust with vented structures: application to the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra; Pompage des particules dans les tokamaks au moyen d'une structure a events: le divertor ergodique de Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, A

    2000-04-04

    In a thermonuclear reactor, one must continuously fuel the discharge and extract the ashes resulting from fusion reactions. To avoid the risk of discharge poisoning, {alpha}-particle concentration is limited to {approx} 10 %. To allow for steady-state conditions requires then to extract {>=}2 % of the helium out flux. In Tore Supra, the ergodic divertor is the main component managing the heat and particle fluxes at the edge. Its principle consists in generating a resonant perturbation able to destroy magnetic surfaces at the plasma periphery. In this region, the field lines are open and connected at both ends to neutralizers which are wetted by the major part of the heat and particle fluxes and are the structures through which a part of the plasma out flux is pumped for maintaining the discharge in steady-state conditions. This work describes the neutral recirculation around the ergodic divertor and is based on a data base of 56 discharges. One discuss the two processes allowing for particle exhaust: the ballistic collection of ions and that of neutrals backscattered by atomic reactions. These two processes are modelled accounting for a realistic description of the divertor geometry. A comparison between simulations and experiments is presented for measurements characterising the three main actors of plasma-wall interaction: the edge plasma, the D{sub {alpha}} light emission and the neutral pressure in the divertor plenum. Last, one question how such a system can be extrapolated to next step machines, for which one must account for technical constraints linked to the presence of the shield protecting the coils from the high neutron flux. (author)

  12. Distributed Antenna Channels with Regenerative Relaying: Relay Selection and Asymptotic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Coso Aitor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO techniques have been widely proposed as a means to improve capacity and reliability of wireless channels, and have become the most promising technology for next generation networks. However, their practical deployment in current wireless devices is severely affected by antenna correlation, which reduces their impact on performance. One approach to solve this limitation is relaying diversity. In relay channels, a set of wireless nodes aids a source-destination communication by relaying the source data, thus creating a distributed antenna array with uncorrelated path gains. In this paper, we study this multiple relay channel (MRC following a decode-and-forward (D&F strategy (i.e., regenerative forwarding, and derive its achievable rate under AWGN. A half-duplex constraint on relays is assumed, as well as distributed channel knowledge at both transmitter and receiver sides of the communication. For this channel, we obtain the optimum relay selection algorithm and the optimum power allocation within the network so that the transmission rate is maximized. Likewise, we bound the ergodic performance of the achievable rate and derive its asymptotic behavior in the number of relays. Results show that the achievable rate of regenerative MRC grows as the logarithm of the Lambert W function of the total number of relays, that is, . Therefore, D&F relaying, cannot achieve the capacity of actual MISO channels.

  13. Distributed Antenna Channels with Regenerative Relaying: Relay Selection and Asymptotic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor del Coso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO techniques have been widely proposed as a means to improve capacity and reliability of wireless channels, and have become the most promising technology for next generation networks. However, their practical deployment in current wireless devices is severely affected by antenna correlation, which reduces their impact on performance. One approach to solve this limitation is relaying diversity. In relay channels, a set of N wireless nodes aids a source-destination communication by relaying the source data, thus creating a distributed antenna array with uncorrelated path gains. In this paper, we study this multiple relay channel (MRC following a decode-and-forward (D&F strategy (i.e., regenerative forwarding, and derive its achievable rate under AWGN. A half-duplex constraint on relays is assumed, as well as distributed channel knowledge at both transmitter and receiver sides of the communication. For this channel, we obtain the optimum relay selection algorithm and the optimum power allocation within the network so that the transmission rate is maximized. Likewise, we bound the ergodic performance of the achievable rate and derive its asymptotic behavior in the number of relays. Results show that the achievable rate of regenerative MRC grows as the logarithm of the Lambert W function of the total number of relays, that is, 𝒞=log⁡2(W0(N. Therefore, D&F relaying, cannot achieve the capacity of actual MISO channels.

  14. An Information-Spectrum Approach to the Capacity Region of the Interference Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a general formula for the capacity region of a general interference channel with two pairs of users is derived, which reveals that the capacity region is the union of a family of rectangles. In the region, each rectangle is determined by a pair of spectral inf-mutual information rates. The presented formula provides us with useful insights into the interference channels in spite of the difficulty of computing it. Specially, when the inputs are discrete, ergodic Markov processes and the channel is stationary memoryless, the formula can be evaluated by the BCJR (Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv algorithm. Also the formula suggests that considering the structure of the interference processes contributes to obtaining tighter inner bounds than the simplest one (obtained by treating the interference as noise. This is verified numerically by calculating the mutual information rates for Gaussian interference channels with embedded convolutional codes. Moreover, we present a coding scheme to approach the theoretical achievable rate pairs. Numerical results show that the decoding gains can be achieved by considering the structure of the interference.

  15. National survey and analysis of barriers to the utilisation of the 2005 mental capacity act by people with bipolar disorder in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Richard; Mudigonda, Mohan; Bartlett, Peter; Chopra, Arun; Jones, Steven

    2017-06-23

    The Mental Capacity Act (2005) (MCA) provides a legal framework for advance planning for both health and welfare in England and Wales for people if they lose mental capacity, for example, through mania or severe depression. To determine the proportion of people with bipolar disorder (BD) who utilise advance planning, their experience of using it and barriers to its implementation. National survey of people with clinical diagnosis of BD of their knowledge, use and experience of the MCA. Thematically analysed qualitative interviews with maximum variance sample of people with BD. A total of 544 respondents with BD participated in the survey; 18 in the qualitative study. 403 (74.1%) believed making plans about their personal welfare if they lost capacity to be very important. A total of 199 (36.6%) participants knew about the MCA. A total 54 (10%), 62 (11%) and 21 (4%) participants made advanced decisions to refuse treatment, advance statements and lasting power of attorney, respectively. Barriers included not understanding its different forms, unrealistic expectations and advance plans ignored by services. In BD, the demand for advance plans about welfare with loss of capacity was high, but utilisation of the MCA was low with barriers at service user, clinician and organisation levels.

  16. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  17. Effects of exercise training on cardiac performance, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, B.A. van; Huijsmans, R.J.; Kroon, D.W.; Schothorst, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), a number of patients still suffer from dyspnoea, fatigue, diminished exercise capacity and poor quality of life. It is in this context that exercise training is being intensively evaluated for any

  18. Revealing Future Research Capacity from an Analysis of a National Database of Discipline-Coded Australian PhD Thesis Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittayachawan, Siddhi; Macauley, Peter; Evans, Terry

    2016-01-01

    This article reports how statistical analyses of PhD thesis records can reveal future research capacities for disciplines beyond their primary fields. The previous research showed that most theses contributed to and/or used methodologies from more than one discipline. In Australia, there was a concern for declining mathematical teaching and…

  19. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinnan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS+˙free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Power Limited Spectrum Sharing System with TAS/MRC

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Capacity of the cognitive radio network degrades due to the interference constraint from the primary network. The secondary network capacity can be enhanced in a cost effective way by means of spatial diversity, that can be achieved by adding multiple antennas on the secondary network terminals and performing antenna selection. In this paper, the performance of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) secondary link with transmit antenna selection (TAS) at the transmitter and maximum ratio combining (MRC) at the receiver is analyzed. A peak transmit power constraint at the secondary transmitter is considered in addition to the interference power constraint and two scenarios are considered; 1) the MIMO cognitive system with TAS/MRC (MCS-TM) does not experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-NI), and 2) MCS-TM does experience interference from the primary network (denote by MCS-TM-WI). The performance of both MCS-TM-NI and MCS-TM-WI is analyzed and, for a Rayleigh faded channel, closed-form expression for the outage probability is derived. In addition, closed-form expressions of the moment generating function, the symbol error rate and the ergodic capacity are obtained for the MCS-TM-NI. Asymptotic performance analysis of the MCS-TM-NI reveals that TAS/MRC in a MIMO cognitive system achieves a generalized diversity gain equal to the product of the number of transmit and receive antennas. Numerical results are also presented to corroborate the derived analytical results. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  1. Building capacity in Benin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sigp1. Building capacity in. Benin. Training of technical staff of municipalities in the Okpara Basin of Benin in the use of GIS tools for water management, hydrological modeling and soil conservation. Introduction. A training workshop was ...

  2. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  3. The effects of short-term high-fat feeding on exercise capacity: multi-tissue transcriptome changes by RNA sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Wang, Wanshan; Chen, Liguo; Chen, Jieyu; Jiang, Pingping; Fu, Xiuqiong; Nie, Xiaoli; Kwan, Hiuyee; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2017-02-02

    The effects of short-term high fat diets on physiology are elusive and the molecular changes following fat overconsumption remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate exercise capacity in mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 3 days and investigate the molecular mechanisms in the early response to high-fat feeding. Exercise capacity was assessed by weight-loaded swimming test in mice fed a control diet (10 kcal% fat) or a HFD (60 kcal% fat) for 3 days. Global gene expression of ten important tissues (brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, duodenum, skeletal muscle and blood) was analyzed using RNA Sequencing. A HFD for just 3 days can induce 71% decrease of exercise performance prior to substantial weight gain (P high-fat feeding, especially revealing that the lung maybe as a new important target attacked by short-term high-fat feeding.

  4. Exercise capacity in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: an analysis from the Cardiac Risk Factors in Childhood Cancer Survivors Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela M; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Somarriba, Gabriel; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Hinkle, Andrea S; Constine, Louis S; Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L

    2013-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors may have premature symptomatic cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases that contribute to reduced capacity for physical activity. Studies of exercise capacity and identification of risk factors for reduced capacity in survivors are limited. We assessed maximal myocardial oxygen consumption (V(O(2)max), a measure of exercise capacity) in survivors at least 4 years after cancer diagnosis and sibling controls. We evaluated associations between V(O(2)max) and age, sex, treatments, cardiac structure and function, biomarkers, endocrine function, and physical activity. Of 72 survivors (mean age, 22 years; range, 8.0-40 years) and 32 siblings (mean age, 20.2 years; range, 8-46 years), about half were male. Mean time since diagnosis was 13.4 years (range, 4.5-31.6 years). In age- and sibling-pair adjusted analyses, V(O(2)max) was lower in survivors than siblings (males, 28.53 vs. 30.90 ml/kg/minute, P = 0.08; females, 19.81 vs. 23.40 ml/kg/minute, P = 0.03). In males, older age (P = 0.01), higher percent body fat (P survivors and controls was poor and generally lower in survivors, particularly females. Older age, higher body fat, methotrexate exposure, and extremes of LV mass/function were associated with lower V(O(2)max) in survivors. Because physical activity can improve nutritional and cardiac conditions, survivors should be encouraged to exercise regularly with close monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Optical information capacity of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing and data storage systems increasingly rely on parallel architectures where processing and storage load is distributed within a cluster of nodes. The necessity for high-bandwidth data links has made optical communication a critical constituent of modern information systems and silicon the leading platform for creating the necessary optical components. While silicon is arguably the most extensively studied material in history, one of its most important attributes, an analysis of its capacity to carry optical information, has not been reported. The calculation of the information capacity of silicon is complicated by nonlinear losses, phenomena that emerge in optical nanowires as a result of the concentration of optical power in a small geometry. Nonlinear losses are absent in silica glass optical fiber and other common communication channels. While nonlinear loss in silicon is well known, noise and fluctuations that arise from it have never been considered. Here we report sources of fluctuations...

  6. Unified Performance Analysis of Mixed Line of Sight RF-FSO Fixed Gain Dual-Hop Transmission Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-04-03

    In the work, we carry out a unified performance analysis of a dual-hop fixed gain relay system over asymmetric links composed of both radio-frequency (RF) and unified free- space optics (FSO) under the effect of pointing errors. The RF link is modeled by the Nakagami-m fading channel and the FSO link by the Gamma-Gamma fading channel subject to both types of detection techniques (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). In particular, we derive new unified closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generation function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio of these systems in terms of the Meijer’s G function. Based on these formulas, we offer exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the higher-order amount of fading, and the average bit-error rate of a variety of binary modulations in terms of the Meijer’s G function. Further, an exact closed-form expression for the end-to-end ergodic capacity for the Nakagami-m-unified FSO relay links is derived in terms of the bivariate G function. All the given results are verified via Computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  7. Forensic psychiatry determination of mental capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic psychiatry determination is, ordered by a court, the analysis and interpretation of medical facts with important legal implications. In that sense, psychiatrists (or neuropsychiatrists, apart from their professional expertise, must be familiar with legal, economical and social significance of medical data, so that their forensic reports are clear and useful in the context of legal procedure. This review deals with forensic psychiatry aspects of mental capacity. In the introduction of the article, the explanation of relevant concepts such as mental capacity, contractual and testamentary capacity, informed consent, undue influence and forensic determination in light of Serbian statutory law is presented. Further, the authors present basic principles of making forensic reports on mental capacity as well as contractual and testamentary capacity, and informed consent for eventual medical examination and treatment.

  8. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  9. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  10. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  11. Emergent biosynthetic capacity in simple microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chao Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity--instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a "Goldilocks" principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together

  12. Is high-intensity interval training more effective on improving cardiometabolic risk and aerobic capacity than other forms of exercise in overweight and obese youth? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A; Cerrillo-Urbina, A J; Herrera-Valenzuela, T; Cristi-Montero, C; Saavedra, J M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V

    2016-06-01

    The scientific interest in high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has greatly increased during recent years. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of HIIT interventions on cardio-metabolic risk factors and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese youth, in comparison with other forms of exercise. A computerized search was made using seven databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of HIIT interventions on cardio-metabolic and/or aerobic capacity in pediatric obesity (6-17 years old). Nine studies using HIIT interventions were selected (n = 274). Standarized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The DerSimonian-Laird approach was used. HIIT interventions (4-12 week duration) produced larger decreases in systolic blood pressure (SMD = 0.39; -3.63 mmHg) and greater increases in maximum oxygen uptake (SMD = 0.59; 1.92 ml/kg/min) than other forms of exercise. Also, type of comparison exercise group and duration of study were moderators. HIIT could be considered a more effective and time-efficient intervention for improving blood pressure and aerobic capacity levels in obese youth in comparison to other types of exercise. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  13. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, Martijn; Siemonsma, Petra C; Heus, Inge; Sont, Jacob K; Rövekamp, Ton Ajm; van Meeteren, Nico Lu

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise volume. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched from inception until 17 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of supervised exercise training vs. usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The references of included studies and review articles were hand searched for additional references and key authors of included trials were crosschecked in PubMed for any missed references. Two reviewers independently assessed therapeutic validity of exercise training and methodological quality of included studies. Overall effects were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 13 studies involving 756 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included. Significant differences in maximal exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.74) and endurance exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.73, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.96) in favor of physical exercise training were found. The volume of physical exercise per week, the total volume of physical exercise, or their associations did not significantly influence the effect of training. Effects of supervised physical exercise was not significantly altered by therapeutic validity. A combination of aerobic exercise and strength training was found to be more effective than strength training or endurance training alone in increasing the 6-minute walking distance.

  14. Persistent right ventricular dysfunction, functional capacity limitation, exercise intolerance, and quality of life impairment following pulmonary embolism: Systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Miller, Larry E; Kahn, Susan R; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term right ventricular (RV) function, functional capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life following pulmonary embolism (PE), and the impact of thrombolysis, are unclear. A systematic review of studies that evaluated these outcomes with ⩾ 3-month mean follow-up after PE diagnosis was performed. For each outcome, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Twenty-six studies (3671 patients) with 18-month median follow-up were included. The pooled prevalence of RV dysfunction was 18.1%. Patients treated with thrombolysis had a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of RV dysfunction versus those treated with anticoagulation (odds ratio: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.13, p=0.10). Pooled prevalence of at least mild functional impairment (NYHA II-IV) was 33.2%, and at least moderate functional impairment (NYHA III-IV) was 11.3%. Patients treated with thrombolysis had a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of at least moderate functional impairment versus those treated with anticoagulation (odds ratio: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.15 to 1.49, p=0.20). Pooled 6-minute walk distance was 415 m (95% CI: 372 to 458 m), SF-36 Physical Component Score was 44.8 (95% CI: 43 to 46), and Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire total score was 9.1. Main limitations included heterogeneity among studies for many outcomes, variation in the completeness of data reported, and inclusion of data from non-randomized, non-controlled, and retrospective studies. Persistent RV dysfunction, impaired functional status, diminished exercise capacity, and reduced QoL are common in PE survivors. The effect of thrombolysis on RV function and functional status remains unclear.

  15. Mutational analysis of vaccinia virus E3 protein: the biological functions do not correlate with its biochemical capacity to bind double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, Kevin J; Hu, YuanShen Sandy; Chen, Peter; Deschambault, Yvon; Lee, Jocelyn; Varga, Jessie; Cao, Jingxin

    2015-05-01

    Vaccinia E3 protein has the biochemical capacity of binding to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The best characterized biological functions of the E3 protein include its host range function, suppression of cytokine expression, and inhibition of interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral activity. Currently, the role of the dsRNA binding capacity in the biological functions of the E3 protein is not clear. To further understand the mechanism of the E3 protein biological functions, we performed alanine scanning of the entire dsRNA binding domain of the E3 protein to examine the link between its biochemical capacity of dsRNA binding and biological functions. Of the 115 mutants examined, 20 were defective in dsRNA binding. Although the majority of the mutants defective in dsRNA binding also showed defective replication in HeLa cells, nine mutants (I105A, Y125A, E138A, F148A, F159A, K171A, L182A, L183A, and I187/188A) retained the host range function to various degrees. Further examination of a set of representative E3L mutants showed that residues essential for dsRNA binding are not essential for the biological functions of E3 protein, such as inhibition of protein kinase R (PKR) activation, suppression of cytokine expression, and apoptosis. Thus, data described in this communication strongly indicate the E3 protein performs its biological functions via a novel mechanism which does not correlate with its dsRNA binding activity. dsRNAs produced during virus replication are important pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for inducing antiviral immune responses. One of the strategies used by many viruses to counteract such antiviral immune responses is achieved by producing dsRNA binding proteins, such as poxvirus E3 family proteins, influenza virus NS1, and Ebola virus V35 proteins. The most widely accepted model for the biological functions of this class of viral dsRNA binding proteins is that they bind to and sequester viral dsRNA PAMPs; thus, they suppress the related

  16. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  17. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  18. Testamentary capacity and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford

    2010-09-01

    With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.

  19. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their concept, establishment, evaluates the factors leading to their production capacity, for developing efficiency measures and model presentation.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the