WorldWideScience

Sample records for eradication systematic review

  1. Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuri, Elisa; Evans, David B; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases elimination and eradication have become important areas of focus for global health and countries. Due to the substantial up-front investments required to eliminate and eradicate, and the overall shortage of resources for health, economic analysis can inform decision making on whether elimination/eradication makes economic sense and on the costs and benefits of alternative strategies. In order to draw lessons for current and future initiatives, we review the economic literature that has addressed questions related to the elimination and eradication of infectious diseases focusing on: why, how and for whom? A systematic review was performed by searching economic literature (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and economic impact analyses) on elimination/eradication of infectious diseases published from 1980 to 2013 from three large bibliographic databases: one general (SCOPUS), one bio-medical (MEDLINE/PUBMED) and one economic (IDEAS/REPEC). A total of 690 non-duplicate papers were identified from which only 43 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, only one paper focusing on equity issues, the "for whom?" question, was found. The literature relating to "why?" is the largest, much of it focusing on how much it would cost. A more limited literature estimates the benefits in terms of impact on economic growth with mixed results. The question of how to eradicate or eliminate was informed by an economic literature highlighting that there will be opportunities for individuals and countries to free-ride and that forms of incentives and/or disincentives will be needed. This requires government involvement at country level and global coordination. While there is little doubt that eliminating infectious diseases will eventually improve equity, it will only happen if active steps to promote equity are followed on the path to elimination and eradication. The largest part of the literature has focused on costs and economic benefits of elimination/eradication

  2. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies in Korea: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Chan Hyuk; Park, Jung Ho; Nam, Eunwoo; Lee, Hang Lak

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens may depend on the country where the studies were performed because of the difference in antibiotic resistance. We aimed to analyze the efficacy of H. pylori eradication regimens in Korea where clarithromycin resistance rate is high. We searched for all relevant randomized controlled trials published until November 2016 that investigated the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies in Korea. A network meta-analysis was performed to calculate the direct and indirect estimates of efficacy among the eradication regimens. Forty-three studies were identified through a systematic review, of which 34 studies, published since 2005, were included in the meta-analysis. Among 21 included regimens, quinolone-containing sequential therapy for 14 days (ST-Q-14) showed the highest eradication rate (91.4% [95% confidence interval [CI], 86.9%-94.4%] in the intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis). The eradication rate of the conventional triple therapy for 7 days, standard sequential therapy for 10 days, hybrid therapy for 10-14 days, and concomitant therapy for 10-14 days was 71.1% (95% CI, 68.3%-73.7%), 76.2% (95% CI, 72.8%-79.3%), 79.4% (95% CI, 75.5%-82.8%), and 78.3% (95% CI, 75.3%-80.9%), respectively, in the ITT analysis. In the network meta-analysis, ST-Q-14 showed a better comparative efficacy than the conventional triple therapy, standard sequential therapy, hybrid therapy, and concomitant therapy. In addition, tolerability of ST-Q-14 was comparable to those regimens. In Korea, ST-Q-14 showed the highest efficacy in terms of eradication and a comparable tolerability, compared to the results reported for the conventional triple therapy, standard sequential therapy, hybrid therapy, and concomitant therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Engaging veterinarians and farmers in eradicating bovine viral diarrhoea: a systematic review of economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Matt J; Thrusfield, Michael V

    2017-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a significant drain on efficient and successful cattle production in both dairy and beef systems around the world. Several countries have achieved eradication of this disease, but always through the motivation of stakeholders who accept the benefits of eradication. These include increased cattle welfare and fitness of cattle to withstand other diseases, and decreased costs of production, the latter resulting from both decreased costs spent on managing the disease and decreased losses. This paper provides a systematic review of 31 papers, published between 1991 and 2015, that address the economic impact of BVD. Each paper takes a different approach, in either beef or dairy production or both. However with the breadth of work collated, a stakeholder engaged in BVD eradication should find an economic figure of most relevance to them. The reported economic impact ranges from £0 to £552 per cow per year (£2370 including outliers). This range represents endemic or subclinical disease situations seen in herds with stable BVD virus infection, and epidemic or severe acute situations, most often seen in naïve herds. The outcome of infection is therefore dependent on the immune status of the animal and severity of the strain. The variations in figures for the economic impact of BVD relate to these immune and pathogenicity factors, along with the variety of impacts monitored. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, H; Horvath, A; Kołodziej, M

    2015-06-01

    Unsatisfactory Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and therapy-associated side effects remain a problem. To update our 2010 meta-analysis on the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii as supplementation to a standard eradication regimen on H. pylori eradication rates and therapy-associated side effects. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched from July 2010 (end date of last search) to February 2015, with no language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs); additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Eleven RCTs (2200 participants, among them 330 children) met the inclusion criteria. Of the 853 patients in the S. boulardii group, 679 (80%, 95% CI 77-82) experienced eradication compared with 608 of the 855 patients (71%, 95% CI 68-74) in the control group [relative risk (RR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.17; moderate quality evidence]. S. boulardii compared with control reduced the risk of overall H. pylori therapy-related adverse effects (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.31-0.64; moderate quality evidence), particularly of diarrhoea (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.42-0.62; high quality evidence) and nausea [RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.44-0.83 (moderate quality of evidence)]. In the populations studied, the effectiveness of standard triple therapy was unsatisfactory. The addition of S. boulardii significantly increased the eradication rate, but it was still below the desired level of success. Saccharomyces boulardii significantly decreased some therapy-related side effects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Helicobacter pylori eradication: gastric cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Ford, Alexander Charles

    2015-12-01

    The principal effect of Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong chronic gastritis, affecting up to 20% of younger adults but 50% to 80% of adults born in resource-rich countries before 1950. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of H pylori eradication treatment on the risk of developing gastric cancer? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 208 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 166 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 124 studies and the further review of 42 full publications. Of the 42 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for one intervention based on information about the effectiveness and safety of H pylori eradication treatment for the prevention of gastric cancer.

  6. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: Systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Feng, Juerong; Chen, Pengfei; Liu, Xiaoping; Ma, Minxing; Zhou, Rui; Chang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Li, Jin; Zhao, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    Several probiotics were effective in the eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori (Hp), but their comparative efficacy was unknown. To compare the efficacy of different probiotics when supplemented in Hp eradication therapy. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all relevant studies in multiple databases and previous meta-analyses. Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to combine direct and indirect evidence and estimate the relative effects. One hundred and forty studies (44 English and 96 Chinese) were identified with a total of 20,215 patients, and more than 10 probiotic strategies were supplemented in Hp eradication therapy. The rates of eradication and adverse events were 84.1 and 14.4% in probiotic group, while 70.5 and 30.1% in the control group. In general, supplementary probiotics were effective in improving the efficacy of Hp eradication and decreasing the incidence of adverse events, despite of few ineffective subtypes. In triple eradication therapy, there was no significant difference among the effective probiotics, and combined probiotics did not show a better efficacy and tolerance than single use. In triple therapy of 7 days and 14 days, Lactobacillus acidopilus was a slightly better choice, while Saccharomyces boulardii was more applicable for 10-day triple therapy. Compared to placebo, most probiotic strategies were effective when supplemented in Hp eradication therapy. In triple eradication therapy, no probiotic showed a superior efficacy to the others. Compared to single use, combined probiotics could not improve the efficacy or tolerance significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) cases: a systematic review and implications for polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jean; Bolivar-Wagers, Sara; Srinivas, Nivedita; Holubar, Marisa; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2015-03-03

    Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), strains of poliovirus mutated from the oral polio vaccine, pose a challenge to global polio eradication. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) are a type of VDPV which may serve as sources of poliovirus reintroduction after the eradication of wild-type poliovirus. This review is a comprehensive update of confirmed iVDPV cases published in the scientific literature from 1962 to 2012, and describes clinically relevant trends in reported iVDPV cases worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of published iVDPV case reports from January 1960 to November 2012 from four databases. We included cases in which the patient had a primary immunodeficiency, and the vaccine virus isolated from the patient either met the sequencing definition of VDPV (>1% divergence for serotypes 1 and 3 and >0.6% for serotype 2) and/or was previously reported as an iVDPV by the World Health Organization. We identified 68 iVDPV cases in 49 manuscripts reported from 25 countries and the Palestinian territories. 62% of case patients were male, 78% presented clinically with acute flaccid paralysis, and 65% were iVDPV2. 57% of cases occurred in patients with predominantly antibody immunodeficiencies, and the overall all-cause mortality rate was greater than 60%. The median age at case detection was 1.4 years [IQR: 0.8, 4.5] and the median duration of shedding was 1.3 years [IQR: 0.7, 2.2]. We identified a poliovirus genome VP1 region mutation rate of 0.72% per year and a higher median percent divergence for iVDPV1 cases. More cases were reported from high income countries, which also had a larger age variation and different distribution of immunodeficiencies compared to upper and lower middle-income countries. Our study describes the incidence and characteristics of global iVDPV cases reported in the literature in the past five decades. It also highlights the regional and economic disparities of reported iVDPV cases. Copyright © 2015

  8. Does exchange arthroplasty of an infected shoulder prosthesis provide better eradication rate and better functional outcome, compared to a permanent spacer or resection arthroplasty? a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D A; Volpin, A; Scarponi, S; Haddad, F S; Romanò, C L

    2016-02-01

    The best surgical modality for treating chronic periprosthetic shoulder infections has not been established, with a lack of randomised comparative studies. This systematic review compares the infection eradication rate and functional outcomes after single- or two-stage shoulder exchange arthroplasty, to permanent spacer implant or resection arthroplasty. Full-text papers and those with an abstract in English published from January 2000 to June 2014, identified through international databases, such as EMBASE and PubMed, were reviewed. Those reporting the success rate of infection eradication after a single-stage exchange, two-stage exchange, resection arthroplasty or permanent spacer implant, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and sample size of 5 patients were included. Eight original articles reporting the results after resection arthroplasty (n = 83), 6 on single-stage exchange (n = 75), 13 on two-stage exchange (n = 142) and 8 papers on permanent spacer (n = 68) were included. The average infection eradication rate was 86.7 % at a mean follow-up of 39.8 months (SD 20.8) after resection arthroplasty, 94.7 % at 46.8 months (SD 17.6) after a single-stage exchange, 90.8 % at 37.9 months (SD 12.8) after two-stage exchange, and 95.6 % at 31.0 months (SD 9.8) following a permanent spacer implant. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.650). Regarding functional outcome, patients treated with single-stage exchange had statistically significant better postoperative Constant scores (mean 51, SD 13) than patients undergoing a two-stage exchange (mean 44, SD 9), resection arthroplasty (mean 32, SD 7) or a permanent spacer implant (mean 31, SD 9) (p = 0.029). However, when considering studies comparing pre- and post-operative Constant scores, the difference was not statistically significant. This systematic review failed to demonstrate a clear difference in infection eradication and functional improvement between all four

  9. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  10. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Min; Qian, Wei; Qin, Ying-Yi; He, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Hao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the effect of probiotics by using a meta-analytic approach. METHODS: In July 2013, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, the Cochrane Library, and three Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Medical Current Content, and Chinese Scientific Journals database) to identify relevant RCTs. We included RCTs investigating the effect of a combination of probiotics and standard therapy (probiotics group) with standard therapy alone (control group). Risk ratios (RRs) were used to measure the effect of probiotics plus standard therapy on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rates, adverse events, and patient compliance using a random-effect model. RESULTS: We included data on 6997 participants from 45 RCTs, the overall eradication rates of the probiotic group and the control group were 82.31% and 72.08%, respectively. We noted that the use of probiotics plus standard therapy was associated with an increased eradication rate by per-protocol set analysis (RR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.08-1.15; P probiotics group and 36.27% in the control group, and it was found that the probiotics plus standard therapy significantly reduced the risk of adverse events (RR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.48-0.71; P probiotics in reducing adverse events associated with H. pylori eradication therapy. The specific reduction in adverse events ranged from 30% to 59%, and this reduction was statistically significant. Finally, probiotics plus standard therapy had little or no effect on patient compliance (RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.68-1.39; P = 0.889). CONCLUSION: The use of probiotics plus standard therapy was associated with an increase in the H. pylori eradication rate, and a reduction in adverse events resulting from treatment in the general population. However, this therapy did not improve patient compliance. PMID:25892886

  11. A Review on Malaria Eradication: What hope for Nigeria? * AMADI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    transmission dynamics are well discussed in this review paper. ... A Review on Malaria Eradication. 783 ... The disease has engaged the attention of public ... century. Although, pragmatic efforts are made to reduce the scourge of the disease, ..... impregnated bed nets and the selective treatment of .... A Research Excursion.

  12. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the ...

  13. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2009-12-01

    To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. We identified eligible systematic reviews through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological quality of systematic reviews was low for all ten items, but the quality of Cochrane systematic reviews was significantly higher than systematic reviews published in regular journals. On a 1-7 scale, the median overall quality score for all systematic reviews was 2 (range 1-7), with a score of 1 (range 1-7) for systematic reviews in regular journals compared to 6 (range 3-7) in Cochrane systematic reviews (pmethodological flaws leading to a high risk of bias. While Cochrane systematic reviews were of higher methodological quality than systematic reviews in regular journals, some of them also had methodological problems. Therefore, the methodology of each individual systematic review should be scrutinized before accepting its results.

  14. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...

  15. Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F Mueller

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before

  16. The Impact of Polio Eradication on Routine Immunization and Primary Health Care: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closser, Svea; Cox, Kelly; Parris, Thomas M.; Landis, R. Matthew; Justice, Judith; Gopinath, Ranjani; Maes, Kenneth; Banteyerga Amaha, Hailom; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Omidian, Patricia A.; Varley, Emma; Tedoff, Pauley; Koon, Adam D.; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Luck, Matthew A.; Pont, W. Frank; Neergheen, Vanessa; Rosenthal, Anat; Nsubuga, Peter; Thacker, Naveen; Jooma, Rashid; Nuttall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background. After 2 decades of focused efforts to eradicate polio, the impact of eradication activities on health systems continues to be controversial. This study evaluated the impact of polio eradication activities on routine immunization (RI) and primary healthcare (PHC). Methods. Quantitative analysis assessed the effects of polio eradication campaigns on RI and maternal healthcare coverage. A systematic qualitative analysis in 7 countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessed impacts of polio eradication activities on key health system functions, using data from interviews, participant observation, and document review. Results. Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Conclusions. Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts. PMID:24690667

  17. Two-stage revision of septic knee prosthesis with articulating knee spacers yields better infection eradication rate than one-stage or two-stage revision with static spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, C L; Gala, L; Logoluso, N; Romanò, D; Drago, L

    2012-12-01

    The best method for treating chronic periprosthetic knee infection remains controversial. Randomized, comparative studies on treatment modalities are lacking. This systematic review of the literature compares the infection eradication rate after two-stage versus one-stage revision and static versus articulating spacers in two-stage procedures. We reviewed full-text papers and those with an abstract in English published from 1966 through 2011 that reported the success rate of infection eradication after one-stage or two-stage revision with two different types of spacers. In all, 6 original articles reporting the results after one-stage knee exchange arthoplasty (n = 204) and 38 papers reporting on two-stage revision (n = 1,421) were reviewed. The average success rate in the eradication of infection was 89.8% after a two-stage revision and 81.9% after a one-stage procedure at a mean follow-up of 44.7 and 40.7 months, respectively. The average infection eradication rate after a two-stage procedure was slightly, although significantly, higher when an articulating spacer rather than a static spacer was used (91.2 versus 87%). The methodological limitations of this study and the heterogeneous material in the studies reviewed notwithstanding, this systematic review shows that, on average, a two-stage procedure is associated with a higher rate of eradication of infection than one-stage revision for septic knee prosthesis and that articulating spacers are associated with a lower recurrence of infection than static spacers at a comparable mean duration of follow-up. IV.

  18. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews

  19. Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies – such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined – have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions. PMID:19705014

  20. Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Rafael; Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn

    2009-08-01

    Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies - such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined - have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions.

  1. A desk evaluation review of project URT/5/007 tsetse fly eradication. Project desk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    Project URT/5/007 was initiated in 1984 to assist the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in developing membrane feeding technology for the mass breeding of tsetse flies, which is required for the application of the sterile insect technique to eradicate the tsetse fly from the island of Zanzibar. As the project progressed the objectives focused on the development of inter-related management practices with SIT to control and eventually eradicate the tsetse species infesting Zanzibar. As depicted by the project title, tsetse fly eradication on Zanzibar is the ultimate goal of on-going work of project URT/5/007; however, tsetse fly eradication is not the immediate objective of this project. The total budget of the project for the years 1984 through 1994 includes 53 man-months of expert services, $402,755 for equipment, and $1,959 for fellowship training. Additional funds for 57 man-months of fellowship training were provided from sources outside of the project. Resources provided by the United Republic of Tanzania for the project included staff, local facilities, and local running costs. A Desk Evaluation Review (DER) of Project URT/5/007 was requested by the Africa Section to provide an assessment of project achievements and to determine to what end the project may lead in the near future. Also the review could help determine how experiences gained during the developments of this project might be utilized in the management and implementation of similar projects in Tanzania or the region.

  2. A desk evaluation review of project URT/5/007 tsetse fly eradication. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project URT/5/007 was initiated in 1984 to assist the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in developing membrane feeding technology for the mass breeding of tsetse flies, which is required for the application of the sterile insect technique to eradicate the tsetse fly from the island of Zanzibar. As the project progressed the objectives focused on the development of inter-related management practices with SIT to control and eventually eradicate the tsetse species infesting Zanzibar. As depicted by the project title, tsetse fly eradication on Zanzibar is the ultimate goal of on-going work of project URT/5/007; however, tsetse fly eradication is not the immediate objective of this project. The total budget of the project for the years 1984 through 1994 includes 53 man-months of expert services, $402,755 for equipment, and $1,959 for fellowship training. Additional funds for 57 man-months of fellowship training were provided from sources outside of the project. Resources provided by the United Republic of Tanzania for the project included staff, local facilities, and local running costs. A Desk Evaluation Review (DER) of Project URT/5/007 was requested by the Africa Section to provide an assessment of project achievements and to determine to what end the project may lead in the near future. Also the review could help determine how experiences gained during the developments of this project might be utilized in the management and implementation of similar projects in Tanzania or the region

  3. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  4. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  5. Comparison of search strategies in systematic reviews of adverse effects to other systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.

  6. The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Ng, Sueko Matsumura; Chuck, Roy S; Li, Tianjing

    2017-09-05

    Systematic reviews should inform American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP) guidelines. The quality of systematic reviews related to the forthcoming Preferred Practice Pattern® guideline (PPP) Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery is unknown. We sought to identify reliable systematic reviews to assist the AAO Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery PPP. Systematic reviews were eligible if they evaluated the effectiveness or safety of interventions included in the 2012 PPP Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery. To identify potentially eligible systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision United States Satellite database of systematic reviews. Two authors identified eligible reviews and abstracted information about the characteristics and quality of the reviews independently using the Systematic Review Data Repository. We classified systematic reviews as "reliable" when they (1) defined criteria for the selection of studies, (2) conducted comprehensive literature searches for eligible studies, (3) assessed the methodological quality (risk of bias) of the included studies, (4) used appropriate methods for meta-analyses (which we assessed only when meta-analyses were reported), (5) presented conclusions that were supported by the evidence provided in the review. We identified 124 systematic reviews related to refractive error; 39 met our eligibility criteria, of which we classified 11 to be reliable. Systematic reviews classified as unreliable did not define the criteria for selecting studies (5; 13%), did not assess methodological rigor (10; 26%), did not conduct comprehensive searches (17; 44%), or used inappropriate quantitative methods (3; 8%). The 11 reliable reviews were published between 2002 and 2016. They included 0 to 23 studies (median = 9) and analyzed 0 to 4696 participants (median = 666). Seven reliable reviews (64%) assessed surgical interventions. Most systematic reviews of interventions for

  7. "Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews in radiation oncology: A systematic review".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Haroon; Muhammed, Taaha; Yu, Jennifer; Taguchi, Kelsi; Samargandi, Osama A; Howard, A Fuchsia; Lo, Andrea C; Olson, Robert; Goddard, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology. A systematic literature search was conducted for all eligible systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology from 1966 to 2015. Methodological characteristics were abstracted from all works that satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality was assessed using the critical appraisal tool, AMSTAR. Regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with a higher score of quality. Following exclusion based on a priori criteria, 410 studies (157 systematic reviews and 253 meta-analyses) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were found to be of fair to good quality while systematic reviews were found to be of less than fair quality. Factors associated with higher scores of quality in the multivariable analysis were including primary studies consisting of randomized control trials, performing a meta-analysis, and applying a recommended guideline related to establishing a systematic review protocol and/or reporting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-03

    Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.

  9. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthopaedics sports medicine literature relied on evidence levels 4 and 5 in 53% of studies over the 5-year study period. Overall, PRISMA and

  10. An overview of systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice. PMID:12492603

  12. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  13. The effective eradication and control strategies for tsetse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I conducted an extensive literature review on the effective tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication method strategies in Africa in 2010 as i embarked on my research that coincided with the formulation of the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Strategy for Kenya spearheaded by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis ...

  14. Screening for gastric cancer and surveillance of premalignant lesions: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Miguel; Carvalho, Rita; Cadime, Ana Teresa; Rocha Gonçalves, Francisco; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2013-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies are highly dependent on the models, settings, and variables used and should be based on systematic reviews. We systematically reviewed cost-effectiveness studies that address screening for gastric cancer and/or surveillance of precancerous conditions and lesions. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies was performed by conducting a sensitive search in seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL Plus), independently evaluated by two investigators. Articles were evaluated for type of study, perspective, model, intervention, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, clinical or cost variables, and quality, according to published guidelines. From 2395 abstracts, 23 articles were included: 19 concerning population screening and 4 on following up premalignant lesions. Studies on Helicobacter pylori screening concluded that serology was cost-effective, depending on cancer incidence and endoscopy cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 6264-25,881), and eradication after endoscopic resection was also cost-effective (dominant) based on one study. Studies on imaging screening concluded that endoscopy was more cost-effective than no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 3376-26,836). Articles on follow-up of premalignant lesions reported conflicting results (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 1868-72,519 for intestinal metaplasia; 18,600-39,800 for dysplasia). Quality assessment revealed a unanimous lack of a detailed systematic review and fulfillment of a median number of 23 items (20-26) of 35 possible ones. The available evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori serology or endoscopic population screening is cost-effective, while endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions presents conflicting results. Better implementation of published guidelines and accomplishment of systematic detailed reviews are needed

  15. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  16. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEl) Emergency Plan: A Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods A review of related and available literature was conducted on the subject matter using the Google search engine, Google Scholar, and PubMed using the key words polio; eradication; Nigeria; and Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Result Much progress has been made towards achieving the required coverage ...

  17. [Possible method of eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P

    2012-01-01

    Problem of poliomyelitis eradication is examined in the review. After the eradication of wild poliovirus, vaccine poliomyelitis virus continues to circulate in the human population. In rare cases it can cause the development of the disease. The authors describe disadvantages of the use of oral and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines and note that by using oral poliomyelitis vaccine and eradication only of wild poliovirus, eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection will not succeed. As one of the approaches to reach this goal the authors propose the use of various enterovirus interference. Use of live enterovirus vaccine is described and its advantages and disadvantages are examined.

  18. Polio Eradication Initiative (PEl) Emergency Plan: A Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    and surmount the intractable problem of sub- optimal vaccine coverage which has remained a critical bottleneck in the successful eradication of the polio virus in Nigeria. It becomes pertinent therefore, to appraise this latest effort to avoid a recurrence of failure in subsequent polio eradication programs. METHODS. A review ...

  19. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Delaney, Brendan; Forman, David; Moayyedi, Paul

    2016-04-19

    Peptic ulcer disease is the cause of dyspepsia in about 10% of people. Ninety-five percent of duodenal and 70% of gastric ulcers are associated with Helicobacter pylori. Eradication of H. pylori reduces the relapse rate of ulcers but the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. This is an update of Ford AC, Delaney B, Forman D, Moayyedi P. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003840. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003840.pub4. To assess the proportion of peptic ulcers healed and the proportion of participants who remained free from relapse with eradication therapy against placebo or other pharmacological therapies in H. pylori-positive people.To assess the proportion of participants that achieved complete relief of symptoms and improvement in quality of life scores.To compare the incidence of adverse effects/drop-outs (total number for each drug) associated with the different treatments.To assess the proportion of participants in whom successful eradication was achieved. In this update, we identified trials by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to March 2016) and Ovid EMBASE (1980 to March 2016). To identify further relevant trials, we handsearched reference lists from trials selected by electronic searching, and published abstracts from conference proceedings from the United European Gastroenterology Week (published in Gut) and Digestive Disease Week (published in Gastroenterology). The search was last updated in March 2016. We contacted members of Cochrane Upper GI and Pancreatic Diseases, and experts in the field and asked them to provide details of outstanding clinical trials and any relevant unpublished materials. We analysed randomised controlled trials of short- and long-term treatment of peptic ulcer disease in H. pylori-positive adults. Participants received at least one week of H. pylori

  20. A low proportion of systematic reviews in physical therapy are registered: a survey of 150 published systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Crystian B; Elkins, Mark R; Lemes, Ítalo Ribeiro; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo V; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli

    Systematic reviews provide the best evidence about the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Although systematic reviews are conducted with explicit and transparent methods, discrepancies might occur between the protocol and the publication. To estimate the proportion of systematic reviews of physical therapy interventions that are registered, the methodological quality of (un)registered systematic reviews and the prevalence of outcome reporting bias in registered systematic reviews. A random sample of 150 systematic reviews published in 2015 indexed on the PEDro database. We included systematic reviews written in English, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews tool was used. Relative risk was calculated to explore the association between meta-analysis results and the changes in the outcomes. Twenty-nine (19%) systematic reviews were registered. Funding and publication in a journal with an impact factor higher than 5.0 were associated with registration. Registered systematic reviews demonstrated significantly higher methodological quality (median=8) than unregistered systematic reviews (median=5). Nine (31%) registered systematic reviews demonstrated discrepancies between protocol and publication with no evidence that such discrepancies were applied to favor the statistical significance of the intervention (RR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.63-2.12). A low proportion of systematic reviews in the physical therapy field are registered. The registered systematic reviews showed high methodological quality without evidence of outcome reporting bias. Further strategies should be implemented to encourage registration. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Eradicating BVD, reviewing Irish programme data and model predictions to support prospective decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulke, H-H; Lange, M; Tratalos, J A; Clegg, T A; McGrath, G; O'Grady, L; O'Sullivan, P; Doherty, M L; Graham, D A; More, S J

    2018-02-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model). Both strategies are effective in reducing PI prevalence and herd incidence. During the first four years of the Irish national BVD eradication programme (2013-16), it has been mandatory for all newborn calves to be tested using tissue tag testing. During this period, PI incidence has substantially declined. In recent times, there has been interest among stakeholders in a change to an indirect testing strategy, with potential benefit to the overall programme, particularly with respect to cost to farmers. Advice was sought on the usefulness of implementing the necessary changes. Here we review available data from the national eradication programme and strategy performance predictions from an expert system model to quantify expected benefits of the strategy change from strategic, budgetary and implementation points of view. Key findings from our work include (i) drawbacks associated with changes to programme implementation, in particular the loss of epidemiological information to allow real-time monitoring of eradication progress or to reliably predict time to eradication, (ii) the fact that only 25% of the herds in the Irish cattle sector (14% beef, 78% dairy herds) would benefit financially from a change to serosurveillance, with half of these participants

  2. Non-technical constraints to eradication: the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Giuliana

    2006-02-25

    Although technical constraints to eradication of bovine tuberculosis are well-recognised, non-technical constraints can also delay progress towards eradication, leading to inefficiency and increased programme costs. This paper seeks to analyse the main non-technical constraints that can interfere with the successful implementation of tuberculosis eradication plans, based on experiences from an area of high tuberculosis prevalence in Regione Piemonte, Italy. The main social and economic constraints faced in the past 20 years are reviewed, including a social reluctance to recognise the importance of seeking eradication as the goal of disease control, effective communication of technical issues, the training and the organization of veterinary services, the relationship between the regional authority and farmers and their representatives, and data management and epidemiological reporting. The paper analyses and discusses the solutions that were applied in Regione Piemonte and the benefits that were obtained. Tuberculosis eradication plans are one of the most difficult tasks of the Veterinary Animal Health Services, and non-technical constraints must be considered when progress towards eradication is less than expected. Organizational and managerial resources can help to overcome social or economic obstacles, provided the veterinary profession is willing to address technical, but also non-technical, constraints to eradication.

  3. Interventions to Reduce Adult Nursing Turnover: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, Mary; Pelone, Ferruccio; Boiko, Olga; Beighton, Carole; Harris, Ruth; Gale, Julia; Gourlay, Stephen; Drennan, Vari

    2017-01-01

    Nurse turnover is an issue of concern in health care systems internationally. Understanding which interventions are effective to reduce turnover rates is important to managers and health care organisations. Despite a plethora of reviews of such interventions, strength of evidence is hard to determine. We aimed to review literature on interventions to reduce turnover in nurses working in the adult health care services in developed economies. We conducted an overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, CINAHL plus and SCOPUS and forward searching. We included reviews published between 1990 and January 2015 in English. We carried out parallel blinded selection, extraction of data and assessment of bias, using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. We carried out a narrative synthesis. Despite the large body of published reviews, only seven reviews met the inclusion criteria. These provide moderate quality review evidence, albeit from poorly controlled primary studies. They provide evidence of effect of a small number of interventions which decrease turnover or increase retention of nurses, these being preceptorship of new graduates and leadership for group cohesion. We highlight that a large body of reviews does not equate with a large body of high quality evidence. Agreement as to the measures and terminology to be used together with well-designed, funded primary research to provide robust evidence for nurse and human resource managers to base their nurse retention strategies on is urgently required.

  4. Poliovirus Studies during the Endgame of the Polio Eradication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Minetaro

    2017-01-24

    Since the beginning of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, poliomyelitis cases caused by wild poliovirus (PV) have been drastically reduced, with only 74 cases reported in 2 endemic countries in 2015. The current limited PV transmission suggests that we are in the endgame of the polio eradication program. However, specific challenges have emerged in the endgame, including tight budget, switching of the vaccines, and changes in biorisk management of PV. To overcome these challenges, several PV studies have been implemented in the eradication program. Some of the responses to the emerging challenges in the polio endgame might be valuable in other infectious diseases eradication programs. Here, I will review challenges that confront the polio eradication program and current research to address these challenges.

  5. How to write a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Quatman, Carmen E; Manring, M M; Siston, Robert A; Flanigan, David C

    2014-11-01

    The role of evidence-based medicine in sports medicine and orthopaedic surgery is rapidly growing. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are also proliferating in the medical literature. To provide the outline necessary for a practitioner to properly understand and/or conduct a systematic review for publication in a sports medicine journal. Review. The steps of a successful systematic review include the following: identification of an unanswered answerable question; explicit definitions of the investigation's participant(s), intervention(s), comparison(s), and outcome(s); utilization of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines and PROSPERO registration; thorough systematic data extraction; and appropriate grading of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. An outline to understand and conduct a systematic review is provided, and the difference between meta-analyses and systematic reviews is described. The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses critically appraise and formally synthesize the best existing evidence to provide a statement of conclusion that answers specific clinical questions. Readers and reviewers, however, must recognize that the quality and strength of recommendations in a review are only as strong as the quality of studies that it analyzes. Thus, great care must be used in the interpretation of bias and extrapolation of the review's findings to translation to clinical practice. Without advanced education on the topic, the reader may follow the steps discussed herein to perform a systematic review. © 2013 The Author(s).

  6. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C.; Skaltsounis, Alexios L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three Eng...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening and treatment methods: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mazdaki, Alireza; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Yousefzadeh, Negar

    2017-06-19

    Due to extensive literature in the field of lung cancer and their heterogeneous results, the aim of this study was to systematically review of systematic reviews studies which reviewed the cost-effectiveness of various lung cancer screening and treatment methods. In this systematic review of systematic reviews study, required data were collected searching the following key words which selected from Mesh: "lung cancer", "lung oncology", "lung Carcinoma", "lung neoplasm", "lung tumors", "cost- effectiveness", "systematic review" and "Meta-analysis". The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Two reviewers (RA and A-AS) evaluated the articles according to the checklist of "assessment of multiple systematic reviews" (AMSTAR) tool. Overall, information of 110 papers was discussed in eight systematic reviews. Authors focused on cost-effectiveness of lung cancer treatments in five systematic reviews. Targeted therapy options (bevacizumab, Erlotinib and Crizotinib) show an acceptable cost-effectiveness. Results of three studies failed to show cost-effectiveness of screening methods. None of the studies had used the meta-analysis method. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) tool and Drummond checklist were mostly used in assessing the quality of articles. Most perspective was related to the Payer (64 times) and the lowest was related to Social (11times). Most cases referred to Incremental analysis (82%) and also the lowest point of referral was related to Discounting (in 49% of the cases). The average quality score of included studies was calculated 9.2% from 11. Targeted therapy can be an option for the treatment of lung cancer. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) in lung cancer screening is recommended. The perspective of the community should be more taken into consideration in studies of cost-effectiveness. Paying more attention to the topic of

  8. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, John

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.

  9. What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.

  10. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back

  11. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small

  12. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2013-01-19

    Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small number and poor methodological

  13. Targeting HIV latency: pharmacologic strategies toward eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells remains a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication, even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can successfully reduce plasma HIV-1 levels to below the detection limit of clinical assays and reverse disease progression. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir. Multiple mechanisms are believed to be involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency, mostly through suppression of transcription. These include cytoplasmic sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Therefore, strategies targeting these mechanisms have been explored for reactivation of the latent reservoir. In this review, we discuss current pharmacological approaches toward eradication, focusing on small molecule latency-reversing agents, their mechanisms, advantages and limitations. PMID:23270785

  14. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-01

    Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.

  15. Stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews: a protocol for a systematic review of methods, outcomes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Struthers, Caroline; Synnot, Anneliese; Nunn, Jack; Hill, Sophie; Goodare, Heather; Watts, Chris; Morley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are expected to actively involve stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) in their research. Although researchers increasingly recognise that this is good practice, there is limited practical guidance about how to involve stakeholders. Systematic reviews are a research method in which international literature is brought together, using carefully designed and rigorous methods to answer a specified question about healthcare. We want to investigate how researchers have involved stakeholders in systematic reviews, and how involvement has potentially affected the quality and impact of reviews. We plan to bring this information together by searching and reviewing the literature for reports of stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews. This paper describes in detail the methods that we plan to use to do this. After carrying out comprehensive searches for literature, we will: 1. Provide an overview of identified reports, describing key information such as types of stakeholders involved, and how. 2. Pick out reports of involvement which include detailed descriptions of how researchers involved people in a systematic review and summarise the methods they used. We will consider who was involved, how people were recruited, and how the involvement was organised and managed. 3. Bring together any reports which have explored the effect, or impact, of involving stakeholders in a systematic review. We will assess the quality of these reports, and summarise their findings. Once completed, our review will be used to produce training resources aimed at helping researchers to improve ways of involving stakeholders in systematic reviews. Background There is an expectation for stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) to be involved in research. Researchers are increasingly recognising that it is good practice to involve stakeholders in systematic reviews. There is currently a lack of evidence

  16. Clinical Application of Antimicrobial Bone Graft Substitute in Osteomyelitis Treatment: A Systematic Review of Different Bone Graft Substitutes Available in Clinical Treatment of Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. G. van Vugt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is a common occurrence in orthopaedic surgery, which is caused by different bacteria. Treatment of osteomyelitis patients aims to eradicate infection by debridement surgery and local and systemic antibiotic therapy. Local treatment increases success rates and can be performed with different antimicrobial bone graft substitutes. This review is performed to assess the level of evidence of synthetic bone graft substitutes in osteomyelitis treatment. According to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews, different types of clinical studies concerning treatment of osteomyelitis with bone graft substitutes are included. These studies are assessed on their methodological quality as level of evidence and bias and their clinical outcomes as eradication of infection. In the fifteen included studies, the levels of evidence were weak and in ten out of the fifteen studies there was a moderate to high risk of bias. However, first results of the eradication of infection in these studies showed promising results with their relatively high success rates and low complication rates. Due to the low levels of evidence and high risks of bias of the included studies, these results are inconclusive and no conclusions regarding the performed clinical studies of osteomyelitis treatment with antimicrobial bone graft substitutes can be drawn.

  17. Usefulness of systematic review search strategies in finding child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that

  18. Factors contributing to chronic ankle instability: a protocol for a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cassandra; Schabrun, Siobhan; Romero, Rick; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Marshall, Paul

    2016-06-07

    Ankle sprains are a significant clinical problem. Researchers have identified a multitude of factors contributing to the presence of recurrent ankle sprains including deficits in balance, postural control, kinematics, muscle activity, strength, range of motion, ligament laxity and bone/joint characteristics. Unfortunately, the literature examining the presence of these factors in chronic ankle instability (CAI) is conflicting. As a result, researchers have attempted to integrate this evidence using systematic reviews to reach conclusions; however, readers are now faced with an increasing number of systematic review findings that are also conflicting. The overall aim of this review is to critically appraise the methodological quality of previous systematic reviews and pool this evidence to identify contributing factors to CAI. A systematic review will be conducted on systematic reviews that investigate the presence of various deficits identified in CAI. Databases will be searched using pre-determined search terms. Reviews will then be assessed for inclusion based on the set eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers will assess the articles for inclusion before evaluating the methodological quality and presence of bias of the included studies; any disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers to reach consensus or by a third reviewer. Data concerning the specific research question, search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, population, method and outcomes will be extracted. Findings will be analysed with respect to the methodological quality of the included reviews. It is expected that this review will clarify the cause of contradicting findings in the literature and facilitate future research directions. PROSPERO CRD42016032592 .

  19. Health literacy in type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Magon, Arianna; Baroni, Irene; Dellafiore, Federica; Arrigoni, Cristina; Pittella, Francesco; Ausili, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Aim To summarize, critically review, and interpret the evidence related to the systematic reviews on health literacy (HL) amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The methodology for this study consisted of a systematic review of systematic reviews, using the PRISMA statement and flowchart to select studies, and searching on PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Cochrane. The search covered the period between January 2006 and June 2016. Results From the 115 identified record by the queries, only six systematic reviews were included, following a quality evaluation using AMSTAR. The included systematic reviews content was analyzed by the independent work of two authors, using a narrative synthesis approach. The findings of this study (i.e., main themes) are areas of consensus and gaps in knowledge. Areas of consensus are HL definition, HL measurement tools, and the relationship between T2DM patient knowledge (or literacy) and his/her HL. The gaps in knowledge were the assessment of the relations between HL and health outcomes and self-efficacy, the gender differences, the effectiveness of interventions to improve HL, the cost-effectiveness study of interventions to improve HL, and the understanding of the influence of organizational environment on HL. Conclusion This review provides a current state of knowledge to address clinical practice and research proposals. HL could be useful to personalize patients' follow-up and it should be routinely assessed in its three dimensions (i.e. functional, interactive and critical) to enhance patients' ability to cope with clinical recommendations. Future research should be mainly aimed to test the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions to improve HL amongst T2DM patients.

  20. Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

  1. Optimizing literature search in systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When conducting systematic reviews, it is essential to perform a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies relevant to the specific research question. The Cochrane Collaborations Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) guidelines...... of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Data sources were systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group, including at least five RCTs, reporting a search history, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and adding reference- and hand-searching. Additional databases were deemed eligible...... if they indexed RCTs, were in English and used in more than three of the systematic reviews. Relative recall was calculated as the number of studies identified by the literature search divided by the number of eligible studies i.e. included studies in the individual systematic reviews. Finally, cumulative median...

  2. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  3. A systematic review of systematic reviews on interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Margarita; While, Alison; Neenan, Kathleen; Smith, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. Informal caregivers provide millions of care hours each week contributing to significant healthcare savings. Despite much research evaluating a range of interventions for caregivers, their impact remains unclear. A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PsycINFO, Social Science Index (January 1990-May 2014) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, June 2014), were searched using Medical Subject Heading and index term combinations of the keywords caregiver, systematic review, intervention and named chronic conditions. Papers were included if they reported a systematic review of interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions. The methodological quality of the included reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using R-AMSTAR. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data extraction form. Narrative synthesis of review findings was used to present the results. Eight systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that education and support programme interventions improved caregiver quality of life. Information-giving interventions improved caregiver knowledge for stroke caregivers. Education, support and information-giving interventions warrant further investigation across caregiver groups. A large-scale funded programme for caregiver research is required to ensure that studies are of high quality to inform service development across settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Integration of existing systematic reviews into new reviews: identification of guidance needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937

  5. Systematic review of reviews of risk factors for intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were

  6. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-10-01

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently

  7. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment. In each case, one study would rarely yield sufficient evidence on which to reliably base a healthcare decision. An unbiased and transparent summary of all existing studies on a given question (i.e. a systematic review) tells a better story than any one of the included studies taken separately. A systematic review enables producers and users of research to gauge what a new study has contributed to knowledge by setting the study's findings in the context of all previous studies investigating the same question. It is therefore inappropriate to initiate a new study without first conducting a systematic review to find out what can be learnt from existing studies. There is nothing new in taking account of earlier studies in either the design or interpretation of new studies. For example, in the 18th century James Lind conducted a clinical trial followed by a systematic review of contemporary treatments for scurvy; which showed fruits to be an effective treatment for the disease. However, surveys of the peer-reviewed literature continue to provide empirical evidence that systematic reviews are seldom used in the design and interpretation of the findings of new studies. Such indifference to systematic reviews as a research function is unethical, unscientific, and uneconomical. Without systematic reviews, limited resources are very likely to be squandered on ill-conceived research and policies. In order to

  8. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C; Skaltsounis, Alexios L

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms "(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease)." The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  9. Natural antimicrobials and oral microorganisms: A systematic review on herbal interventions for the eradication of multispecies oral biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini eKarygianni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms (plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease. The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Initially, 1,848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  10. Assessing harmful effects in systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolacott Nerys F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well established. Methods to systematically review harmful effects are less well developed and there are few sources of guidance for researchers. We present our own recent experience of conducting systematic reviews of harmful effects and make suggestions for future practice and further research. Methods We described and compared the methods used in three systematic reviews. Our evaluation focused on the review question, study designs and quality assessment. Results One review question focused on providing information on specific harmful effects to furnish an economic model, the other two addressed much broader questions. All three reviews included randomised and observational data, although each defined the inclusion criteria differently. Standard methods were used to assess study quality. Various practical problems were encountered in applying the study design inclusion criteria and assessing quality, mainly because of poor study design, inadequate reporting and the limitations of existing tools. All three reviews generated a large volume of work that did not yield much useful information for health care decision makers. The key areas for improvement we identified were focusing the review question and developing methods for quality assessment of studies of harmful effects. Conclusions Systematic reviews of harmful effects are more likely to yield information pertinent to clinical decision-making if they address a focused question. This will enable clear decisions to be made about the type of research to include in the review. The methodology for assessing the quality of harmful effects data in systematic reviews requires further development.

  11. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2014-02-01

    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  12. Recommendations for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Trevor A.; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D. F.

    2017-01-01

    This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items

  13. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care

  14. Twelve recommendations for integrating existing systematic reviews into new reviews: EPC guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Chou, Roger; Berkman, Nancy D; Newberry, Sydne J; Fu, Rongwei; Hartling, Lisa; Dryden, Donna; Butler, Mary; Foisy, Michelle; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Relevo, Rose; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    As time and cost constraints in the conduct of systematic reviews increase, the need to consider the use of existing systematic reviews also increases. We developed guidance on the integration of systematic reviews into new reviews. A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers developed consensus-based recommendations. Discussions were informed by a literature scan and by interviews with organizations that conduct systematic reviews. Twelve recommendations were developed addressing selecting reviews, assessing risk of bias, qualitative and quantitative synthesis, and summarizing and assessing body of evidence. We provide preliminary guidance for an efficient and unbiased approach to integrating existing systematic reviews with primary studies in a new review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne; Lubell, Yoel; Hanson, Kara

    2008-12-11

    Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices). More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities), the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between malaria control and economic

  16. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices. More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities, the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between

  17. Redefining the Viral Reservoirs That Prevent HIV-1 Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Evelyn; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review proposes definitions for key terms in the field of HIV-1 latency and eradication. In the context of eradication, a reservoir is a cell type that allows persistence of replication-competent HIV-1 on a time scale of years in patients on optimal antiretroviral therapy. Reservoirs act as a barrier to eradication in the patient population in whom cure attempts will likely be made. Halting viral replication is essential to eradication, and definitions and criteria for assessing whether this goal has been achieved are proposed. The cell types that may serve as reservoirs for HIV-1 are discussed. Currently, only latently infected resting CD4+ T cells fit the proposed definition of a reservoir, and more evidence is necessary to demonstrate that other cell types including hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages fit this definition. Further research is urgently required on potential reservoirs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the central nervous system. PMID:22999944

  18. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  19. Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A

    2015-12-01

    Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Roles for librarians in systematic reviews: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Angela J.; Eldredge, Jonathan D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective What roles do librarians and information professionals play in conducting systematic reviews? Librarians are increasingly called upon to be involved in systematic reviews, but no study has considered all the roles librarians can perform. This inventory of existing and emerging roles aids in defining librarians’ systematic reviews services. Methods For this scoping review, the authors conducted controlled vocabulary and text-word searches in the PubMed; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; and CINAHL databases. We separately searched for articles published in the Journal of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, the Journal of the Canadian Heath Libraries Association, and Hypothesis. We also text-word searched Medical Library Association annual meeting poster and paper abstracts. Results We identified 18 different roles filled by librarians and other information professionals in conducting systematic reviews from 310 different articles, book chapters, and presented papers and posters. Some roles were well known such as searching, source selection, and teaching. Other less documented roles included planning, question formulation, and peer review. We summarize these different roles and provide an accompanying bibliography of references for in-depth descriptions of these roles. Conclusion Librarians play central roles in systematic review teams, including roles that go beyond searching. This scoping review should encourage librarians who are fulfilling roles that are not captured here to document their roles in journal articles and poster and paper presentations. PMID:29339933

  1. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    O?Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Background The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic...

  2. A systematic review of the quality of conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stephen Cullis

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate quality of conduct and reporting of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery. We also aimed to identify characteristics predictive of review quality.Systematic reviews summarise evidence by combining sources, but are potentially prone to bias. To counter this, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA was published to aid in reporting. Similarly, the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR measurement tool was designed to appraise methodology. The paediatric surgical literature has seen an increasing number of reviews over the past decade, but quality has not been evaluated.Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review with a priori design to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions in paediatric surgery. From 01/2010 to 06/2016, we searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Web of Science, Google Scholar, reference lists and journals. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. We assessed conduct and reporting using AMSTAR and PRISMA. Scores were calculated as the sum of reported items. We also extracted author, journal and article characteristics, and used them in exploratory analysis to determine which variables predict quality.112 articles fulfilled eligibility criteria (53 systematic reviews; 59 meta-analyses. Overall, 68% AMSTAR and 56.8% PRISMA items were reported adequately. Poorest scores were identified with regards a priori design, inclusion of structured summaries, including the grey literature, citing excluded articles and evaluating bias. 13 reviews were pre-registered and 6 in PRISMA-endorsing journals. The following predicted quality in univariate analysis:, word count, Cochrane review, journal h-index, impact factor, journal endorses PRISMA, PRISMA adherence suggested in author guidance, article mentions PRISMA

  3. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  4. Methodological quality of systematic reviews addressing femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Marcin; Adamich, John; Simunovic, Nicole; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2015-09-01

    As the body of literature on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to grow, clinicians turn to systematic reviews to remain current with the best available evidence. The quality of systematic reviews in the FAI literature is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the quality of the reporting of systematic reviews addressing FAI over the last 11 years (2003-2014) and to identify the specific methodological shortcomings and strengths. A search of the electronic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed, was performed to identify relevant systematic reviews. Methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR) scoring tool. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was used to determine agreement between reviewers on R-AMSTAR quality scores. A total of 22 systematic reviews were assessed for methodological quality. The mean consensus R-AMSTAR score across all studies was 26.7 out of 40.0, indicating fair methodological quality. An ICC of 0.931, 95 % CI 0.843-0.971 indicated excellent agreement between reviewers during the scoring process. The systematic reviews addressing FAI are generally of fair methodological quality. Use of tools such as the R-AMSTAR score or PRISMA guidelines while designing future systematic reviews can assist in eliminating methodological shortcomings identified in this review. These shortcomings need to be kept in mind by clinicians when applying the current literature to their patient populations and making treatment decisions. Systematic reviews of highest methodological quality should be used by clinicians when possible to answer clinical questions.

  5. Child maltreatment prevention: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Butchart, Alexander

    2009-05-01

    To synthesize recent evidence from systematic and comprehensive reviews on the effectiveness of universal and selective child maltreatment prevention interventions, evaluate the methodological quality of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they are based on, and map the geographical distribution of the evidence. A systematic review of reviews was conducted. The quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated with a tool for the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR), and the quality of the outcome evaluations was assessed using indicators of internal validity and of the construct validity of outcome measures. The review focused on seven main types of interventions: home visiting, parent education, child sex abuse prevention, abusive head trauma prevention, multi-component interventions, media-based interventions, and support and mutual aid groups. Four of the seven - home-visiting, parent education, abusive head trauma prevention and multi-component interventions - show promise in preventing actual child maltreatment. Three of them - home visiting, parent education and child sexual abuse prevention - appear effective in reducing risk factors for child maltreatment, although these conclusions are tentative due to the methodological shortcomings of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they draw on. An analysis of the geographical distribution of the evidence shows that outcome evaluations of child maltreatment prevention interventions are exceedingly rare in low- and middle-income countries and make up only 0.6% of the total evidence base. Evidence for the effectiveness of four of the seven main types of interventions for preventing child maltreatment is promising, although it is weakened by methodological problems and paucity of outcome evaluations from low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  7. Techniques for characterization and eradication of potato cyst nematode: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairwa, Aarti; Venkatasalam, E P; Sudha, R; Umamaheswari, R; Singh, B P

    2017-09-01

    Correct identification of species and pathotypes is must for eradication of potato cyst nematodes (PCN). The identification of PCN species after completing the life cycle is very difficult because it is based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics. Genetically different populations of PCN are morphologically same and differentiated based on the host differential study. Later on these traditional techniques have been replaced by biochemical techniques viz, one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, capillary gel electrophoresis, isozymes, dot blot hybridization and isoelectric focusing etc. to distinguish both the species. One and two dimensional gel electrophoresis has used to examine inter- and intra-specific differences in proteins of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida . Now application of PCR and DNA based characterization techniques like RAPD, AFLP and RFLP are the important tools for differentiating inter- and intra specific variation in PCN and has given opportunities to accurate identification of PCN. For managing the PCN, till now we are following integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, however these strategies are not effective to eradicate the PCN. Therefore to eradicate the PCN we need noval management practices like RNAi (RNA interference) or Gene silencing.

  8. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra D Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  9. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  10. A Critical Review of Search Strategies Used in Recent Systematic Reviews Published in Selected Prosthodontic and Implant-Related Journals: Are Systematic Reviews Actually Systematic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle

    The aim of this study was to outline how search strategies can be systematic, to examine how the searches in recent systematic reviews in prosthodontic and implant-related journals were structured, and to determine whether the search strategies used in those articles were systematic. A total of 103 articles published as systematic reviews and indexed in Medline between January 2013 and May 2016 were identified from eight prosthodontic and implant journals and reviewed. The search strategies were considered systematic when they met the following criteria: (1) more than one electronic database was searched, (2) more than one searcher was clearly involved, (3) both text words and indexing terms were clearly included in the search strategy, (4) a hand search of selected journals or reference lists was undertaken, (5) gray research was specifically sought, and (6) the articles were published in English and at least one other language. The data were tallied and qualitatively assessed. The majority of articles reported on implants (54%), followed by tooth-supported fixed prosthodontics (13%). A total of 23 different electronic resources were consulted, including Medline (by 100% of articles), the Cochrane Library (52%), and Embase (37%). The majority consulted more than one electronic resource (71%), clearly included more than one searcher (73%), and employed a hand search of either selected journals or reference lists (86%). Less than half used both text words and indexing terms to identify articles (42%), while 15% actively sought gray research. Articles published in languages other than English were considered in 63 reviews, but only 14 had no language restrictions. Of the 103 articles, 5 completed search strategies that met all 6 criteria, and a further 12 met 5 criteria. Two articles did not fulfill any of the criteria. More than 95% of recent prosthodontic and implant review articles published in the selected journals failed to use search strategies that were

  11. Comparison of vonoprazan and proton pump inhibitors for eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shinozaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative eradication therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection are needed because of an increasing failure rate over the past decade. The aim of this study was to determine if vonoprazan, a new potassium-competitive acid blocker, showed superiority to existing proton pump inhibitors for primary eradication of H. pylori in routine clinical practice. Data for 573 patients who underwent primary H. pylori eradication therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Regimens included clarithromycin 200 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and an acid-suppressing drug [lansoprazole 30 mg (LAC, rabeprazole 10 mg (RAC, esomeprazole 20 mg (EAC, or vonoprazan 20 mg (VAC] twice daily for 1 week. Eradication was successful in 73% (419/573 of patients using intention-to-treat (ITT analysis and 76% (419/549 of patients in per-protocol (PP analysis. The VAC group had a significantly superior eradication rate compared with the LAC and RAC groups in ITT (VAC 83%, LAC 66% and RAC 67%, p  80% eradication rate regardless of the degree of atrophy.

  12. Using systematic review in occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Piacentino, John; MacMahon, Kathleen; Schulte, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of scientific evidence is critical in developing recommendations to reduce risk. Healthcare was the first scientific field to employ a systematic review approach for synthesizing research findings to support evidence-based decision-making and it is still the largest producer and consumer of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews in the field of occupational safety and health are being conducted, but more widespread use and adoption would strengthen assessments. In 2016, NIOSH asked RAND to develop a framework for applying the traditional systematic review elements to the field of occupational safety and health. This paper describes how essential systematic review elements can be adapted for use in occupational systematic reviews to enhance their scientific quality, objectivity, transparency, reliability, utility, and acceptability. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Considering resistance in systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Paul, Mical; Goldberg, Elad; Herxheimer, Andrew; Garner, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Microorganisms resistant to antibiotic drugs are a threat to the health and chances of survival of patients. Systematic reviews on antibiotic drugs that ignore the topic of resistance present readers with a skewed view, emphasizing short-term efficacy or effectiveness while ignoring long-term consequences. To examine whether systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment consider resistance; if not, to find out whether data on resistance were reported in the original trials; and based on that, to offer a framework for taking resistance into account in systematic reviews. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (the Cochrane Library, 2001, issue 2); and MEDLINE, 1996-2000. (i) Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of antimicrobial therapy, published during 1996-2000. (ii) Randomized, controlled trials abstracted in systematic reviews that addressed a topic highly relevant to antibiotic resistance. We examined each systematic review, and each article, to see whether the implications of resistance were discussed; and whether data on resistance were collected. Out of 111 systematic reviews, only 44 (40%) discussed resistance. Ten reviews (9%) planned or performed collection of data on the response of patients with susceptible or resistant isolates. In 22 systematic reviews (20%), collection of data on induction of resistance was planned or performed. The topic of 41 reviews was judged highly relevant to resistance, and these reviews extracted data from 337 articles, out of which we retrieved 279 articles (83%). In 201 (72%) articles, resistance was discussed or data pertaining to it were collected. Ninety-seven articles (35%) gave actual data on resistance of pathogens to the study drugs, 71 articles (25%) data on efficacy of antibiotic drugs in patients with susceptible and resistant pathogens, and 55 articles (20%) provided data on infection or colonization with resistant strains during treatment. Most systematic reviews on antibiotic treatment ignored the issue of

  14. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; de Vries, Rob B M; Stephens, Martin L; Beck, Nancy B; Dirven, Hubert A A M; Fowle, John R; Goodman, Julie E; Hartung, Thomas; Kimber, Ian; Lalu, Manoj M; Thayer, Kristina; Whaley, Paul; Wikoff, Daniele; Tsaioun, Katya

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews, pioneered in the clinical field, provide a transparent, methodologically rigorous and reproducible means of summarizing the available evidence on a precisely framed research question. Having matured to a well-established approach in many research fields, systematic reviews are receiving increasing attention as a potential tool for answering toxicological questions. In the larger framework of evidence-based toxicology, the advantages and obstacles of, as well as the approaches for, adapting and adopting systematic reviews to toxicology are still being explored. To provide the toxicology community with a starting point for conducting or understanding systematic reviews, we herein summarized available guidance documents from various fields of application. We have elaborated on the systematic review process by breaking it down into ten steps, starting with planning the project, framing the question, and writing and publishing the protocol, and concluding with interpretation and reporting. In addition, we have identified the specific methodological challenges of toxicological questions and have summarized how these can be addressed. Ultimately, this primer is intended to stimulate scientific discussions of the identified issues to fuel the development of toxicology-specific methodology and to encourage the application of systematic review methodology to toxicological issues.

  15. Methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Cornelius; Wichmann, Ole; Harder, Thomas

    2014-03-26

    There is a growing body of evidence on the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination in various target groups. Systematic reviews are of particular importance for policy decisions. However, their methodological quality can vary considerably. To investigate the methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination (efficacy, effectiveness, safety) and to identify influencing factors. A systematic literature search on systematic reviews on influenza vaccination was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and three additional databases (1990-2013). Review characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of the reviews was evaluated using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and multivariable linear regression analysis were used to assess the influence of review characteristics on AMSTAR-score. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high (median AMSTAR-score: 8), but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). Detailed analysis showed that this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05). In the adjusted analysis, no other factor, including industry sponsorship or journal impact factor had an influence on AMSTAR score. Systematic reviews on influenza vaccination showed large differences regarding their methodological quality. Reviews conducted by the Cochrane collaboration were of higher quality than others. When using systematic reviews to guide the development of vaccination recommendations, the methodological quality of a review in addition to its content should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CHINESE HERBAL DECOCTION AS A COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY FOR ATROPHIC GASTRITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Xin-Ying; Yang, Bo; Sui, Shu-Jing; Chen, Min; Pan, Wei-Hua; Liao, Wan-Qing; Zhong, Ming; Wang, Qing-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) has been extensively used in the treatment of atrophic gastritis (AG) in China and other Far Eastern countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy and safety of CHD in AG. Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials (central), VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Sinomed, Wanfang data were searched (up to December 2015). Randomized controlled trials recruiting patients with AG comparing CHD (alone or with western medicine (WM)) with WM were eligible. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain relative risk (RR), with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Forty-two articles including 3,874 patients were identified. CHD, used alone or with WM, had beneficial effect over WM in the improvement of clinical manifestations (RR=1.28; 95% CI 1.22-1.34) and pathological change (RR=1.42; 95% CI 1.30-1.54) for AG patients. However, the H. pylori eradication effect of CHD was not supported by the existing clinical evidence, because of the significant study heterogeneity (I 2 >50%) and inconsistency between the primary results and sensitivity analysis. CHD, if prescribed as a complementary therapy to WM, may improve the clinical manifestations and pathological change for AG patients. But its monotherapy for H. pylori eradication is not supported by enough clinical evidence.

  17. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  18. How can we improve the interpretation of systematic reviews?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study conducted by Lai and colleagues, published this week in BMC Medicine, suggests that more guidance might be required for interpreting systematic review (SR results. In the study by Lai and colleagues, positive (or favorable results were influential in changing participants' prior beliefs about the interventions presented in the systematic review. Other studies have examined the relationship between favorable systematic review results and the publication of systematic reviews. An international registry may decrease the number of unpublished systematic reviews and will hopefully decrease redundancy, increase transparency, and increase collaboration within the SR community. In addition, using guidance from the Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA: http://www.prisma-statement.org/ Statement and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE: http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/ approach can also be used to improve the interpretation of systematic reviews. In this commentary, we highlight important methodological issues related to the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and also present our own guidance on interpreting systematic reviews. Please see Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/30/.

  19. Systematic reviews identify important methodological flaws in stroke rehabilitation therapy primary studies: review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Pasqualina; Oremus, Mark; Walker, Kathryn; Wishart, Laurie R; Siegel, Karen Lohmann; Raina, Parminder

    2012-04-01

    A "review of reviews" was undertaken to assess methodological issues in studies evaluating nondrug rehabilitation interventions in stroke patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 2000 to January 2008 within the stroke rehabilitation setting. Electronic searches were supplemented by reviews of reference lists and citations identified by experts. Eligible studies were systematic reviews; excluded citations were narrative reviews or reviews of reviews. Review characteristics and criteria for assessing methodological quality of primary studies within them were extracted. The search yielded 949 English-language citations. We included a final set of 38 systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews, which have a standardized methodology, were generally of higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Most systematic reviews used standardized quality assessment criteria for primary studies, but not all were comprehensive. Reviews showed that primary studies had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding. Baseline comparability, adverse events, and co-intervention or contamination were not consistently assessed. Blinding of patients and providers was often not feasible and was not evaluated as a source of bias. The eligible systematic reviews identified important methodological flaws in the evaluated primary studies, suggesting the need for improvement of research methods and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...

  1. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 2400.20... SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.20 Systematic review for declassification. (a) Permanent records. Systematic review is applicable only to those classified records, and presidential papers...

  2. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...

  3. Methodology of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Espinós, E; Hernández, V; Domínguez-Escrig, J L; Fernández-Pello, S; Hevia, V; Mayor, J; Padilla-Fernández, B; Ribal, M J

    2018-05-03

    The objective of evidence-based medicine is to employ the best scientific information available to apply to clinical practice. Understanding and interpreting the scientific evidence involves understanding the available levels of evidence, where systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical trials are at the top of the levels-of-evidence pyramid. The review process should be well developed and planned to reduce biases and eliminate irrelevant and low-quality studies. The steps for implementing a systematic review include (i) correctly formulating the clinical question to answer (PICO), (ii) developing a protocol (inclusion and exclusion criteria), (iii) performing a detailed and broad literature search and (iv) screening the abstracts of the studies identified in the search and subsequently of the selected complete texts (PRISMA). Once the studies have been selected, we need to (v) extract the necessary data into a form designed in the protocol to summarise the included studies, (vi) assess the biases of each study, identifying the quality of the available evidence, and (vii) develop tables and text that synthesise the evidence. A systematic review involves a critical and reproducible summary of the results of the available publications on a particular topic or clinical question. To improve scientific writing, the methodology is shown in a structured manner to implement a systematic review. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G L Lee

    Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  5. Eradication of dracunculiasis from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Azam, M; Ruiz-Tiben, E; Kappus, K D

    1995-09-02

    In 1986 the World Health Organization targeted dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease), which seriously impairs socioeconomic development in 16 African countries, India, Pakistan, and Yemen, to be eradicated globally. The target date for eradication by the end of 1995 was established in 1991. Pakistan eradicated dracunculiasis from the country in October, 1993, after a national campaign which began in 1987 with a nationwide village-by-village search for cases. The infection, which is transmitted by drinking water from ponds containing infected water fleas, was eradicated by using health education, cloth filters, and the cyclopsicide, temephos; and in the later stages, by case containment. Methods pioneered in Pakistan's National Guinea Worm Eradication Program are now being applied in remaining endemic countries.

  6. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E

    2017-07-01

    The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  7. Polio Eradication Initiative: Contribution to improved communicable diseases surveillance in WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwengee, William; Okeibunor, Joseph; Poy, Alain; Shaba, Keith; Mbulu Kinuani, Leon; Minkoulou, Etienne; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A Systematic Summary of Systematic Reviews on the Topic of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael J.; Browning, William M.; Urband, Christopher E.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Bisson, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been a substantial increase in the amount of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose: To quantify the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the ACL in the past decade and to provide an overall summary of this literature. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of all ACL-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2004 and September 2014 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database. Narrative reviews and non-English articles were excluded. Results: A total of 1031 articles were found, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were summarized and divided into 17 topics: anatomy, epidemiology, prevention, associated injuries, diagnosis, operative versus nonoperative management, graft choice, surgical technique, fixation methods, computer-assisted surgery, platelet-rich plasma, rehabilitation, return to play, outcomes assessment, arthritis, complications, and miscellaneous. Conclusion: A summary of systematic reviews on the ACL can supply the surgeon with a single source for the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature. PMID:27047983

  9. Reporting and methodologic quality of Cochrane Neonatal review group systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Faleh Khalid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG has achieved a lot with limited resources in producing high quality systematic reviews to assist clinicians in evidence-based decision-making. A formal assessment of published CNRG systematic reviews has not been undertaken; we sought to provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of systematic reviews (both methodologic and reporting quality published in CNRG. Methods We selected a random sample of published CNRG systematic reviews. Items of the QUOROM statement were utilized to assess quality of reporting, while items and total scores of the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ were used to assess methodologic quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality. A Student t-test was used to compare quality scores pre- and post-publication of the QUOROM statement. Results Sixty-one systematic reviews were assessed. Overall, the included reviews had good quality with minor flaws based on OQAQ total scores (mean, 4.5 [0.9]; 95% CI, 4.27–4.77. However, room for improvement was noted in some areas, such as the title, abstract reporting, a priori plan for heterogeneity assessment and how to handle heterogeneity in case it exists, and assessment of publication bias. In addition, reporting of agreement among reviewers, documentation of trials flow, and discussion of possible biases were addressed in the review process. Reviews published post the QUOROM statement had a significantly higher quality scores. Conclusion The systematic reviews published in the CNRG are generally of good quality with minor flaws. However, efforts should be made to improve the quality of reports. Readers must continue to assess the quality of published reports on an individual basis prior to implementing the recommendations.

  10. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological Feasibility of Measles Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial. PMID:21666201

  12. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ehealth interventions in somatic diseases: A systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Elbert (Niels); H. van Os-Medendorp (Harmieke); W. van Renselaar (Wilco); A.G. Ekeland (Anne G); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); H. Raat (Hein); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEHealth potentially enhances quality of care and may reduce health care costs. However, a review of systematic reviews published in 2010 concluded that high-quality evidence on the benefits of eHealth interventions was still lacking. Objective: We conducted a systematic review of

  13. Conducting systematic reviews of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Judith Streak; Jadotte, Yuri Tertilus; Xue, Yifan; Lockwood, Suzi; Riddle, Dru; Preda, Alin

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, a working group was established to review and enhance the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidance for conducting systematic review of evidence from economic evaluations addressing a question(s) about health intervention cost-effectiveness. The objective is to present the outcomes of the working group. The group conducted three activities to inform the new guidance: review of literature on the utility/futility of systematic reviews of economic evaluations and consideration of its implications for updating the existing methodology; assessment of the critical appraisal tool in the existing guidance against criteria that promotes validity in economic evaluation research and two other commonly used tools; and a workshop. The debate in the literature on the limitations/value of systematic review of economic evidence cautions that systematic reviews of economic evaluation evidence are unlikely to generate one size fits all answers to questions about the cost-effectiveness of interventions and their comparators. Informed by this finding, the working group adjusted the framing of the objectives definition in the existing JBI methodology. The shift is away from defining the objective as to determine one cost-effectiveness measure toward summarizing study estimates of cost-effectiveness and informed by consideration of the included study characteristics (patient, setting, intervention component, etc.), identifying conditions conducive to lowering costs and maximizing health benefits. The existing critical appraisal tool was included in the new guidance. The new guidance includes the recommendation that a tool designed specifically for the purpose of appraising model-based studies be used together with the generic appraisal tool for economic evaluations assessment to evaluate model-based evaluations. The guidance produced by the group offers reviewers guidance for each step of the systematic review process, which are the same steps followed in JBI reviews of other

  14. Endgame for polio eradication? Options for overcoming social and political factors in the progress to eradicating polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathiraju, Pavan V; Morssink, Christiaan B; Plumb, James

    2015-01-01

    In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with the goal of eradicating polio by the year 2000. After 25 years, several dynamics still challenge this large public health campaign with new cases of polio being reported annually. We examine the roots of this initiative to eradicate polio, its scope, the successes and setbacks during the last 25 years and reflect on the current state of affairs. We examine the social and political factors that are barriers to polio eradication. Options are discussed for solving the current impasse of polio eradication: using force, respecting individual freedoms and gaining support from those vulnerable to fundamentalist 'propaganda'. The travails of the GPEI indicate the need for expanding the Convention on the Rights of the Child to address situations of war and civic strife. Such a cultural and structural reference will provide the basis for global stakeholders to engage belligerent local actors whose local political conflicts are barriers to the eradication of polio. Disregard for these actors will result in stagnation of polio eradication policy, delaying eradication beyond 2018.

  15. Making evidence more wanted: a systematic review of facilitators to enhance the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John; Byrne, Charles; Clarke, Mike

    2012-12-01

    The increased uptake of evidence from systematic reviews is advocated because of their potential to improve the quality of decision making for patient care. Systematic reviews can do this by decreasing inappropriate clinical variation and quickly expediting the application of current, effective advances to everyday practice. However, research suggests that evidence from systematic reviews has not been widely adopted by health professionals. Little is known about the facilitators to uptake of research evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To review the facilitators to the uptake by decision makers, of evidence from systematic, meta-analyses and the databases containing them. We searched 19 databases covering the full range of publication years, utilised three search engines and also personally contacted investigators. Grey literature and knowledge translation research was particularly sought. Reference lists of primary studies and related reviews were also searched. Studies were included if they reported on the views and perceptions of decision makers on the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews, meta-analyses and the databases associated with them. One investigator screened titles to identify candidate articles, and then two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of retrieved articles to exclude studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Quality of the included studies was also assessed. Using a pre-established taxonomy, two reviewers described the methods of included studies and extracted data that were summarised in tables and then analysed. Differences were resolved by consensus. Of articles initially identified, we selected unique published studies describing at least one facilitator to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews. The 15 unique studies reported 10 surveys, three qualitative investigations and two mixed studies that addressed potential facilitators. Five studies were from Canada, four from the UK, three from

  16. Gray literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-08-01

    Systematic reviews aide the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Gray literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Gray literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Gray literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness, and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Gray literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including gray literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out gray literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including gray literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through gray literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within gray literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of gray literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Grey literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-12-21

    Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Global Polio Eradication - Way Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Bhatnagar, Pankaj; Sutter, Roland W; Roesel, Sigrun; Zaffran, Michel

    2018-02-01

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012. The year also marks the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) moving into the post-cessation of Sabin type 2, after the effort of globally synchronized withdrawal of Sabin type 2 poliovirus in April 2016. Sustained efforts will be needed to ensure polio eradication is accomplished, to overcome the access and security issues, and continue to improve the quality and reach of field operations. After that, surveillance (the "eyes and ears") will move further to the center stage. Sensitive surveillance will monitor the withdrawal of all Sabin polioviruses, and with facility containment, constitute the cornerstones for eventual global certification of wild poliovirus eradication. An emergency response capacity is essential to institute timely control measures should polio still re-emerge. Simultaneously, the public health community needs to determine whether and how to apply the polio-funded infrastructure to other priorities (after the GPEI funding has stopped). Eradication is the primary goal, but securing eradication will require continued efforts, dedicated resources, and a firm commitment by the global public health community.

  19. A mixed-methods approach to systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; White, Heath; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Salmond, Susan; Apostolo, Joao; Kirkpatrick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    There are an increasing number of published single-method systematic reviews that focus on different types of evidence related to a particular topic. As policy makers and practitioners seek clear directions for decision-making from systematic reviews, it is likely that it will be increasingly difficult for them to identify 'what to do' if they are required to find and understand a plethora of syntheses related to a particular topic.Mixed-methods systematic reviews are designed to address this issue and have the potential to produce systematic reviews of direct relevance to policy makers and practitioners.On the basis of the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute International Mixed Methods Reviews Methodology Group in 2012, the Institute adopted a segregated approach to mixed-methods synthesis as described by Sandelowski et al., which consists of separate syntheses of each component method of the review. Joanna Briggs Institute's mixed-methods synthesis of the findings of the separate syntheses uses a Bayesian approach to translate the findings of the initial quantitative synthesis into qualitative themes and pooling these with the findings of the initial qualitative synthesis.

  20. Endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review of safety and effectiveness compared to esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Darren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several new endoscopic treatments have been used to treat patients with Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia. This systematic review aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of these treatments compared with esophagectomy. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify studies of endoscopic treatments for Barrett's esophagus or early stage esophageal cancer. Information from the selected studies was extracted by two independent reviewers. Study quality was assessed and information was tabulated to identify trends or patterns. Results were pooled across studies for each outcome. Safety (occurrence of adverse events and effectiveness (complete eradication of dysplasia were compared across different treatments. Results The 101 studies that met the selection criteria included 8 endoscopic techniques and esophagectomy; only 12 were comparative studies. The quality of evidence was generally low. Methods and outcomes were inconsistently reported. Protocols, outcomes measured, follow-up times and numbers of treatment sessions varied, making it difficult to calculate pooled estimates. The surgical mortality rate was 1.2%, compared to 0.04% in 2831 patients treated endoscopically (1 death. Adverse events were more severe and frequent with esophagectomy, and included anastomotic leaks (9.4%, wound infections (4.1% and pulmonary complications (4.1%. Four patients (0.1% treated endoscopically experienced bleeding requiring transfusions. The stricture rate with esophagectomy (5.3% was lower than with porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (18.5%, but higher than aminolevulinic acid (ALA 60 mg/kg PDT (1.4%. Dysphagia and odynophagia varied in frequency across modalities, with the highest rates reported for multipolar electrocoagulation (MPEC. Photosensitivity, an adverse event that occurs only with photodynamic therapy, was experienced by 26.4% of patients who received porfimer sodium. Some

  1. Eligibility criteria in systematic reviews published in prominent medical journals: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall; Purssell, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Clear and logical eligibility criteria are fundamental to the design and conduct of a systematic review. This methodological review examined the quality of reporting and application of eligibility criteria in systematic reviews published in three leading medical journals. All systematic reviews in the BMJ, JAMA and The Lancet in the years 2013 and 2014 were extracted. These were assessed using a refined version of a checklist previously designed by the authors. A total of 113 papers were eligible, of which 65 were in BMJ, 17 in The Lancet and 31 in JAMA. Although a generally high level of reporting was found, eligibility criteria were often problematic. In 67% of papers, eligibility was specified after the search sources or terms. Unjustified time restrictions were used in 21% of reviews, and unpublished or unspecified data in 27%. Inconsistency between journals was apparent in the requirements for systematic reviews. The quality of reviews in these leading medical journals was high; however, there were issues that reduce the clarity and replicability of the review process. As well as providing a useful checklist, this methodological review informs the continued development of standards for systematic reviews. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Characteristics of systematic reviews about the impact of pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, C; Guérin, A; Bussières, J-F

    2014-11-01

    The pharmacists' role is varied and numerous articles evaluate the outcomes of pharmaceutical interventions. The main objectives of this study were to establish the characteristics of systematic reviews about pharmacists' interventions that were published in the last five years. A literature search was performed on Pubmed for French and English articles published between 01-01-2008 and 31-05-2013. Systematic reviews that presented the role, the interventions and the impact of pharmacists were selected by two research assistants. A total of 46 systematic reviews was identified, amongst which one third (n=15/46, 33 %) were meta-analyses. A quarter of systematic reviews did not evaluate the quality of included articles (n=13/46, 28 %). Twelve themes were identified. A median [min-max] of 16 [2-298] articles was included per systematic review. The most frequent pharmaceutical activities were patient counseling (n=41 systematic reviews), patient chart review (n=29), pharmacotherapy evaluation (n=27) and recommendations (n=26). The least frequent activities were teaching others than patients (n=12) and medical rounds participation (n=7). Many elements can influence the completion of pharmacy practice research projects; however, there exists no link between the presence of systematic reviews and the importance of pharmacists in a given healthcare program. This study presents the characteristics of 46 systematic reviews about pharmacists interventions published since 2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley

  4. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...

  5. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  6. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalken, Naomi; Rietbergen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS), and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012) and Dieckmann et al. (2009). Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016. Data were extracted on study characteristics and items of the method section of MARS. A cross-classified multilevel model was analyzed, to test whether publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) were associated with the reporting quality scores of articles. Results: Compliance with MARS in the method section was generally inadequate in the random sample of 120 articles. Variation existed in the reporting of items. There were no significant effects of publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) on the reporting quality scores of articles. Conclusions: The reporting quality in the method section of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was still insufficient, therefore we recommend researchers to improve the reporting in their articles by using reporting standards like MARS.

  7. Lessons learned during the successful eradication of bovine tuberculosis from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S. J.; Radunz, B.; Glanville, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    There are very few international examples of the successful eradication of bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis) from a national cattle population. This paper presents a brief overview of the successful TB eradication programme in Australia from 1970, with primary emphasis on lessons of international relevance that were learned from the Australian experience. The national brucellosis and tuberculosis eradication campaign ran for 27 years from 1970 to 1997 and has been followed by ongoing abattoir surveillance. Rapid progress towards eradication was made in southern Australia, but proved much more challenging in extensive pastoral areas of northern Australia. Declaration of TB freedom was made on December 31, 1997. A range of factors were critical to this success, including a compelling rationale for eradication, an agreed final outcome, industry commitment and financial support, a business model for programme planning, implementation and review, consistent and transparent technical standards underpinned by a strict regulatory regime and applied research, the critical role of abattoir surveillance, effective elimination of residual infection and objective measures of programme progress. Although direct translation of some of these experiences may not be possible, many of the lessons learned from the Australian experience may be relevant to other countries. PMID:26338937

  8. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security Officer will prepare and keep current such guidelines as are required by Executive Order 12958 for the...

  9. Reflux esophagitis triggered after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a noteworthy demerit of eradication therapy among the Japanese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eIijima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in cases of H. pylori-positive gastritis markedly suppresses gastric inflammation, and inhibits gastric mucosal atrophy and its progression to intestinal metaplasia. In a long-term follow-up study (10-20 years, eradication treatment was found to reduce the risk of subsequent gastric cancer. However, the fact that eradication-induced reflux esophagitis could increase the long-term risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma should also be considered in the Japanese population. Appropriate treatment with proton pump inhibitors should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing eradication therapy in clinical practice.

  10. Fluoropyrimidine and platinum toxicity pharmacogenetics: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Bateman, Emma; Peters, Micah Dj; Bowen, Joanne M; Keefe, Dorothy M; Stephenson, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Fluoropyrimidine (FU) and platinum-based chemotherapies are greatly complicated by their associated toxicities. This umbrella systematic review synthesized all systematic reviews that investigated associations between germline variations and toxicity, with the aim of informing personalized medicine. Systematic reviews are important in pharmacogenetics where false positives are common. Four systematic reviews were identified for FU-induced toxicity and three for platinum. Polymorphisms of DPYD and TYMS, but not MTHFR, were statistically significantly associated with FU-induced toxicity (although only DPYD had clinical significance). For platinum, GSTP1 was found to not be associated with toxicity. This umbrella systematic review has synthesized the best available evidence on the pharmacogenetics of FU and platinum toxicity. It provides a useful reference for clinicians and identifies important research gaps.

  11. Tsetse eradication: Zanzibar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) continue to make livestock production difficult or impossible throughout a very large part of Africa. One of the most promising techniques for eradicating tsetse from certain locations is the environmentally safe Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). In collaboration with the Tanzanian authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate tsetse from Zanzibar using the SIT. (IAEA)

  12. Systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of location and citation counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Douglas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews summarize all pertinent evidence on a defined health question. They help clinical scientists to direct their research and clinicians to keep updated. Our objective was to determine the extent to which systematic reviews are clustered in a large collection of clinical journals and whether review type (narrative or systematic affects citation counts. Methods We used hand searches of 170 clinical journals in the fields of general internal medicine, primary medical care, nursing, and mental health to identify review articles (year 2000. We defined 'review' as any full text article that was bannered as a review, overview, or meta-analysis in the title or in a section heading, or that indicated in the text that the intention of the authors was to review or summarize the literature on a particular topic. We obtained citation counts for review articles in the five journals that published the most systematic reviews. Results 11% of the journals concentrated 80% of all systematic reviews. Impact factors were weakly correlated with the publication of systematic reviews (R2 = 0.075, P = 0.0035. There were more citations for systematic reviews (median 26.5, IQR 12 – 56.5 than for narrative reviews (8, 20, P Conclusions A few clinical journals published most systematic reviews. Authors cited systematic reviews more often than narrative reviews, an indirect endorsement of the 'hierarchy of evidence'.

  13. Roles for librarians in systematic reviews: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J. Spencer

    2018-01-01

    Results: We identified 18 different roles filled by librarians and other information professionals in conducting systematic reviews from 310 different articles, book chapters, and presented papers and posters. Some roles were well known such as searching, source selection, and teaching. Other less documented roles included planning, question formulation, and peer review. We summarize these different roles and provide an accompanying bibliography of references for in-depth descriptions of these roles. Conclusion: Librarians play central roles in systematic review teams, including roles that go beyond searching. This scoping review should encourage librarians who are fulfilling roles that are not captured here to document their roles in journal articles and poster and paper presentations.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  14. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with the Progression of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Pei Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori on the progression of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with peptic ulcer. Methods. Participants with the diagnosis of AD and peptic ulcer were recruited between 2001 and 2008. We examined the association between eradication of H. pylori and the progression of AD using the multiple regression models. Medication shift from Donepezil, Rivastgmine, and Galantamine to Mematine is defined as progression of dementia according to the insurance of National Health Insurance (NHI under expert review. Results. Among the 30142 AD patients with peptic ulcers, the ratio of medication shift in AD patients with peptic ulcers is 79.95%. There were significant lower incidence comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and hyperlipidemia in patients with H. pylori eradication as compared with no H. pylori eradication. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased risk of AD progression (odds ratio [OR] 0.35 [0.23–0.52] as compared with no H. pylori eradication, which was not modified by comorbidities. Conclusions. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased progression of dementia as compared to no eradication of H. pylori in AD patients with peptic ulcers.

  15. Maximizing the Impact of Systematic Reviews in Health Care Decision Making: A Systematic Scoping Review of Knowledge-Translation Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul M; Thompson, Carl A; Hanbury, Andria; Farley, Katherine; Light, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Context: Barriers to the use of systematic reviews by policymakers may be overcome by resources that adapt and present the findings in formats more directly tailored to their needs. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify such knowledge-translation resources and evaluations of them. Methods: Resources were eligible for inclusion in this study if they were based exclusively or primarily on systematic reviews and were aimed at health care policymakers at the national or local level. Resources were identified by screening the websites of health technology assessment agencies and systematic review producers, supplemented by an email survey. Electronic databases and proceedings of the Cochrane Colloquium and HTA International were searched as well for published and unpublished evaluations of knowledge-translation resources. Resources were classified as summaries, overviews, or policy briefs using a previously published classification. Findings: Twenty knowledge-translation resources were identified, of which eleven were classified as summaries, six as overviews, and three as policy briefs. Resources added value to systematic reviews by, for example, evaluating their methodological quality or assessing the reliability of their conclusions or their generalizability to particular settings. The literature search found four published evaluation studies of knowledge-translation resources, and the screening of abstracts and contact with authors found three more unpublished studies. The majority of studies reported on the perceived usefulness of the service, although there were some examples of review-based resources being used to assist actual decision making. Conclusions: Systematic review producers provide a variety of resources to help policymakers, of which focused summaries are the most common. More evaluations of these resources are required to ensure users’ needs are being met, to demonstrate their impact, and to justify their funding. PMID:21418315

  16. Living systematic reviews: 2. Combining human and machine effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain; Wallace, Byron; McDonald, Steven; Mavergames, Chris; Glasziou, Paul; Shemilt, Ian; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Elliott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    New approaches to evidence synthesis, which use human effort and machine automation in mutually reinforcing ways, can enhance the feasibility and sustainability of living systematic reviews. Human effort is a scarce and valuable resource, required when automation is impossible or undesirable, and includes contributions from online communities ("crowds") as well as more conventional contributions from review authors and information specialists. Automation can assist with some systematic review tasks, including searching, eligibility assessment, identification and retrieval of full-text reports, extraction of data, and risk of bias assessment. Workflows can be developed in which human effort and machine automation can each enable the other to operate in more effective and efficient ways, offering substantial enhancement to the productivity of systematic reviews. This paper describes and discusses the potential-and limitations-of new ways of undertaking specific tasks in living systematic reviews, identifying areas where these human/machine "technologies" are already in use, and where further research and development is needed. While the context is living systematic reviews, many of these enabling technologies apply equally to standard approaches to systematic reviewing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    OpenAIRE

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child ...

  18. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  19. Performing Systematic Literature Reviews with Novices: An Iterative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Mathieu; Robillard, Pierre-N.; Mirsalari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers performing systematic literature reviews require understanding of the review process and of the knowledge domain. This paper presents an iterative approach for conducting systematic literature reviews that addresses the problems faced by reviewers who are novices in one or both levels of understanding. This approach is derived from…

  20. The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saravana; Beaton, Kate; Hughes, Tricia

    2013-09-04

    The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent) although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an effective treatment option when compared to placebo and some active treatment options (such as relaxation), especially in the short term. There is conflicting and contradictory findings for the effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain when compared against other manual therapies (such as

  1. A bibliometric analysis of systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Silke; Jit, Mark; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G; Burchett, Helen E D

    2018-04-19

    SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016. Searches were conducted in seven scientific databases according to a standardized search protocol, initially in 2014 with the most recent update in January 2017. Abstracts and titles were screened according to specific inclusion criteria. All included publications were coded into relevant categories based on a standardized protocol and subsequently analysed to look at trends in time, topic, area of focus, population and geographic location. After screening for inclusion criteria, 1285 systematic reviews were included in the database. While in 2008 there were only 34 systematic reviews on a vaccine-related topic, this increased to 322 in 2016. The most frequent pathogens/diseases studied were influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcus. There were several areas of duplication and overlap. As more systematic reviews are published it becomes increasingly time-consuming for decision-makers to identify relevant information among the ever-increasing volume available. The risk of duplication also increases, particularly given the current lack of coordination of systematic reviews on vaccine-related questions, both in terms of their commissioning and their execution. The SYSVAC database offers an accessible catalogue of vaccine-relevant systematic reviews with, where possible access or a link to the full-text. SYSVAC provides a freely searchable platform to identify existing vaccine-policy-relevant systematic

  2. Consideration of health inequalities in systematic reviews: a mapping review of guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Michelle

    2016-11-28

    Given that we know that interventions shown to be effective in improving the health of a population may actually widen the health inequalities gap while others reduce it, it is imperative that all systematic reviewers consider how the findings of their reviews may impact (reduce or increase) on the health inequality gap. This study reviewed existing guidance on incorporating considerations of health inequalities in systematic reviews in order to examine the extent to which they can help reviewers to incorporate such issues. A mapping review was undertaken to identify guidance documents that purported to inform reviewers on whether and how to incorporate considerations of health inequalities. Searches were undertaken in Medline, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library Methodology Register. Review guidance manuals prepared by international organisations engaged in undertaking systematic reviews, and their associated websites were scanned. Studies were included if they provided an overview or discussed the development and testing of guidance for dealing with the incorporation of considerations of health inequalities in evidence synthesis. Results are summarised in narrative and tabular forms. Twenty guidance documents published between 2009 and 2016 were included. Guidance has been produced to inform considerations of health inequalities at different stages of the systematic review process. The Campbell and Cochrane Equity Group have been instrumental in developing and promoting such guidance. Definitions of health inequalities and guidance differed across the included studies. All but one guidance document were transparent in their method of production. Formal methods of evaluation were reported for six guidance documents. Most of the guidance was operationalised in the form of examples taken from published systematic reviews. The number of guidance items to operationalise ranges from 3 up to 26 with a considerable overlap noted. Adhering to the guidance will require more

  3. Making progress with the automation of systematic reviews: principles of the International Collaboration for the Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Elaine; Clark, Justin; Tsafnat, Guy; Adams, Clive; Diehl, Heinz; Lund, Hans; Ouzzani, Mourad; Thayer, Kristina; Thomas, James; Turner, Tari; Xia, Jun; Robinson, Karen; Glasziou, Paul

    2018-05-19

    Systematic reviews (SR) are vital to health care, but have become complicated and time-consuming, due to the rapid expansion of evidence to be synthesised. Fortunately, many tasks of systematic reviews have the potential to be automated or may be assisted by automation. Recent advances in natural language processing, text mining and machine learning have produced new algorithms that can accurately mimic human endeavour in systematic review activity, faster and more cheaply. Automation tools need to be able to work together, to exchange data and results. Therefore, we initiated the International Collaboration for the Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR), to successfully put all the parts of automation of systematic review production together. The first meeting was held in Vienna in October 2015. We established a set of principles to enable tools to be developed and integrated into toolkits.This paper sets out the principles devised at that meeting, which cover the need for improvement in efficiency of SR tasks, automation across the spectrum of SR tasks, continuous improvement, adherence to high quality standards, flexibility of use and combining components, the need for a collaboration and varied skills, the desire for open source, shared code and evaluation, and a requirement for replicability through rigorous and open evaluation.Automation has a great potential to improve the speed of systematic reviews. Considerable work is already being done on many of the steps involved in a review. The 'Vienna Principles' set out in this paper aim to guide a more coordinated effort which will allow the integration of work by separate teams and build on the experience, code and evaluations done by the many teams working across the globe.

  4. Systematic reviews: guidance relevant for studies of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Harrison, Jennifer K; Wilkinson, Tim; Dodds, Richard M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly common. This article aims to provide guidance for people conducting systematic reviews relevant to the healthcare of older people. An awareness of these issues will also help people reading systematic reviews to determine whether the results will influence their clinical practice. It is essential that systematic reviews are performed by a team which includes the required technical and clinical expertise. Those performing reviews for the first time should ensure they have appropriate training and support. They must be planned and performed in a transparent and methodologically robust way: guidelines are available. The protocol should be written-and if possible published-before starting the review. Geriatricians will be interested in a table of baseline characteristics, which will help to determine if the studied samples or populations are similar to their patients. Reviews of studies of older people should consider how they will manage issues such as different age cut-offs; non-specific presentations; multiple predictors and outcomes; potential biases and confounders. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may provide evidence to improve older people's care, or determine where new evidence is required. Newer methodologies, such as meta-analyses of individual level data, network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews, and realist synthesis, may improve the reliability and clinical utility of systematic reviews. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  5. Summarizing systematic reviews: methodological development, conduct and reporting of an umbrella review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromataris, Edoardo; Fernandez, Ritin; Godfrey, Christina M; Holly, Cheryl; Khalil, Hanan; Tungpunkom, Patraporn

    2015-09-01

    With the increase in the number of systematic reviews available, a logical next step to provide decision makers in healthcare with the evidence they require has been the conduct of reviews of existing systematic reviews. Syntheses of existing systematic reviews are referred to by many different names, one of which is an umbrella review. An umbrella review allows the findings of reviews relevant to a review question to be compared and contrasted. An umbrella review's most characteristic feature is that this type of evidence synthesis only considers for inclusion the highest level of evidence, namely other systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A methodology working group was formed by the Joanna Briggs Institute to develop methodological guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review, including diverse types of evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. The aim of this study is to describe the development and guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review. Discussion and testing of the elements of methods for the conduct of an umbrella review were held over a 6-month period by members of a methodology working group. The working group comprised six participants who corresponded via teleconference, e-mail and face-to-face meeting during this development period. In October 2013, the methodology was presented in a workshop at the Joanna Briggs Institute Convention. Workshop participants, review authors and methodologists provided further testing, critique and feedback on the proposed methodology. This study describes the methodology and methods developed for the conduct of an umbrella review that includes published systematic reviews and meta-analyses as the analytical unit of the review. Details are provided regarding the essential elements of an umbrella review, including presentation of the review question in a Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome format, nuances of the inclusion criteria and search strategy. A critical appraisal tool with 10 questions to

  6. The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saravana Kumar,1 Kate Beaton,1 Tricia Hughes2 1International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2Australian Association of Massage Therapists, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Introduction: The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. Methods: A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Results: Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an

  7. Empirical methods for systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic

  8. Interventions for postoperative pain in children: An overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Krste; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Batinic, Marijan; Cavar, Marija; Urlic, Marjan; Markovina, Nikolina; Puljak, Livia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of systematic reviews that summarizes the results about efficacy and safety from randomized controlled trials involving the various strategies used for postoperative pain management in children. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Database of Reviews of Effect, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO from the earliest date to January 24, 2016. This overview included 45 systematic reviews that evaluated interventions for postoperative pain in children. Out of 45 systematic reviews that investigated various interventions for postoperative pain in children, 19 systematic reviews (42%) presented conclusive evidence of efficacy. Positive conclusive evidence was reported in 18 systematic reviews (40%) for the efficacy of diclofenac, ketamine, caudal analgesia, dexmedetomidine, music therapy, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, paracetamol, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and transversus abdominis plane block. Only one systematic review reported conclusive evidence of equal efficacy that involved a comparison of dexmedetomidine vs morphine and fentanyl. Safety of interventions was reported as conclusive in 14 systematic reviews (31%), with positive conclusive evidence for dexmedetomidine, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, transversus abdominis plane block, and clonidine. Seven systematic reviews reported equal conclusive safety for epidural infusion, diclofenac intravenous vs ketamine added to opioid analgesia, bupivacaine, ketamine, paracetamol, and dexmedetomidine vs intravenous infusions of various opioid analgesics, oral suspension and suppository of diclofenac, only opioid, normal saline, no treatment, placebo, and midazolam. Negative conclusive statement for safety was reported in one systematic review for caudal analgesia vs noncaudal regional analgesia. More than half of systematic reviews included in this overview were rated as having medium methodological quality. Of 45 included

  9. Compliance of systematic reviews in veterinary journals with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) literature search reporting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Lorraine C

    2017-07-01

    Complete, accurate reporting of systematic reviews facilitates assessment of how well reviews have been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to examine compliance of systematic reviews in veterinary journals with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for literature search reporting and to examine the completeness, bias, and reproducibility of the searches in these reviews from what was reported. The second objective was to examine reporting of the credentials and contributions of those involved in the search process. A sample of systematic reviews or meta-analyses published in veterinary journals between 2011 and 2015 was obtained by searching PubMed. Reporting in the full text of each review was checked against certain PRISMA checklist items. Over one-third of reviews (37%) did not search the CAB Abstracts database, and 9% of reviews searched only 1 database. Over two-thirds of reviews (65%) did not report any search for grey literature or stated that they excluded grey literature. The majority of reviews (95%) did not report a reproducible search strategy. Most reviews had significant deficiencies in reporting the search process that raise questions about how these searches were conducted and ultimately cast serious doubts on the validity and reliability of reviews based on a potentially biased and incomplete body of literature. These deficiencies also highlight the need for veterinary journal editors and publishers to be more rigorous in requiring adherence to PRISMA guidelines and to encourage veterinary researchers to include librarians or information specialists on systematic review teams to improve the quality and reporting of searches.

  10. Leprosy: eradication or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, S

    1995-01-01

    The National Leprosy Eradication Program (NLEP), launched in 1986, has brought medicine for leprosy to more people than ever before, covering 200 of India's 455 districts. Since 1988, the number of leprosy patients discharged as cured each year has been greater than the number of newly detected, thus moving the country closer to its goal of eradicating leprosy from India. A substantial number of the 3 million people with leprosy in India are likely to come under the coverage of the NLEP. The author, however, argues that the fight against leprosy and the NLEP should be considered in their historical context. Leprosy is therefore used to illustrate how the perhaps interchangeable terms eradication and cure are charged with history and custom. Historically, the focus on eradicating leprosy has had terrible consequences for the patient. In England, perceptions about leprosy are relevant to the situation India, for colonial policy on leprosy was largely derivative. In the 1880s, especially, leprosy excited the public imagination. Asylums adopted segregation and confinement during this period for people with leprosy and the colonial government in India supported that approach from 1882. The author concludes that while the NLEP is laudable, the program must not focus upon eradicating leprosy. It should instead focus upon the leprosy patient, who has for so long been denied and discriminated against. The individual must be placed at the center of any program. Some steps in this direction have been taken.

  11. Methotrexate-induced toxicity pharmacogenetics: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Bateman, Emma; Stephenson, Matthew D; Bowen, Joanne M; Keefe, Dorothy M; Peters, Micah D J

    2016-07-01

    Methotrexate chemotherapy is associated with various toxicities which can result in the interruption or discontinuation of treatment and a subsequently raised risk of relapse. This umbrella systematic review was conducted to synthesize the results of all existing systematic reviews that investigate the pharmacogenetics of methotrexate-induced toxicity, with the aim of developing a comprehensive reference for personalized medicine. Databases searched were PubMed, Embase, JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, DARE, and ProQuest. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Three systematic reviews on methotrexate-induced toxicity were included in the review. Meta-analyses were reported across Asian, Caucasian, pediatric and adult patients for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. Toxicity outcomes included different forms of hematologic, ectodermal and hepatic toxicities. Results varied considerably depending on the patient groups and subgroups investigated in the different systematic reviews, as well as the genetic models utilized. However, significant associations were found between the MTHFR C677T allele and; hepatic toxicity, myelosuppression, oral mucositis, gastrointestinal toxicity, and skin toxicity. Additionally, limited evidence suggests that the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be associated with decreased risk of skin toxicity and leukopenia. This umbrella systematic review has synthesized the best available evidence on the pharmacogenetics of methotrexate toxicity. The next step in making personalized medicine for methotrexate therapy a clinical reality is research on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MTHFR genotype testing to enable the close monitoring of at-risk patients for the timely initiation of rescue therapies.

  12. Peer review of health research funding proposals: A systematic map and systematic review of innovations for effectiveness and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan; Frampton, Geoff K; Pickett, Karen; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2018-01-01

    To investigate methods and processes for timely, efficient and good quality peer review of research funding proposals in health. A two-stage evidence synthesis: (1) a systematic map to describe the key characteristics of the evidence base, followed by (2) a systematic review of the studies stakeholders prioritised as relevant from the map on the effectiveness and efficiency of peer review 'innovations'. Standard processes included literature searching, duplicate inclusion criteria screening, study keyword coding, data extraction, critical appraisal and study synthesis. A total of 83 studies from 15 countries were included in the systematic map. The evidence base is diverse, investigating many aspects of the systems for, and processes of, peer review. The systematic review included eight studies from Australia, Canada, and the USA, evaluating a broad range of peer review innovations. These studies showed that simplifying the process by shortening proposal forms, using smaller reviewer panels, or expediting processes can speed up the review process and reduce costs, but this might come at the expense of peer review quality, a key aspect that has not been assessed. Virtual peer review using videoconferencing or teleconferencing appears promising for reducing costs by avoiding the need for reviewers to travel, but again any consequences for quality have not been adequately assessed. There is increasing international research activity into the peer review of health research funding. The studies reviewed had methodological limitations and variable generalisability to research funders. Given these limitations it is not currently possible to recommend immediate implementation of these innovations. However, many appear promising based on existing evidence, and could be adapted as necessary by funders and evaluated. Where feasible, experimental evaluation, including randomised controlled trials, should be conducted, evaluating impact on effectiveness, efficiency and quality.

  13. Peer review of health research funding proposals: A systematic map and systematic review of innovations for effectiveness and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Geoff K.; Pickett, Karen; Wyatt, Jeremy C.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate methods and processes for timely, efficient and good quality peer review of research funding proposals in health. Methods A two-stage evidence synthesis: (1) a systematic map to describe the key characteristics of the evidence base, followed by (2) a systematic review of the studies stakeholders prioritised as relevant from the map on the effectiveness and efficiency of peer review ‘innovations’. Standard processes included literature searching, duplicate inclusion criteria screening, study keyword coding, data extraction, critical appraisal and study synthesis. Results A total of 83 studies from 15 countries were included in the systematic map. The evidence base is diverse, investigating many aspects of the systems for, and processes of, peer review. The systematic review included eight studies from Australia, Canada, and the USA, evaluating a broad range of peer review innovations. These studies showed that simplifying the process by shortening proposal forms, using smaller reviewer panels, or expediting processes can speed up the review process and reduce costs, but this might come at the expense of peer review quality, a key aspect that has not been assessed. Virtual peer review using videoconferencing or teleconferencing appears promising for reducing costs by avoiding the need for reviewers to travel, but again any consequences for quality have not been adequately assessed. Conclusions There is increasing international research activity into the peer review of health research funding. The studies reviewed had methodological limitations and variable generalisability to research funders. Given these limitations it is not currently possible to recommend immediate implementation of these innovations. However, many appear promising based on existing evidence, and could be adapted as necessary by funders and evaluated. Where feasible, experimental evaluation, including randomised controlled trials, should be conducted, evaluating impact

  14. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma: Updated Review of Clinical Outcomes and the Molecular Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Saito, Yoshimasa; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2009-06-01

    In most H. pylori-positive patients, gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas regress both endoscopically and histopathologically after H. pylori eradication, but no factors that can be predictive of the response to the eradication have been definitively identified, and there is little information on how to determine the optimal observation period before additional treatment can be started. Here, clinical studies dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphomas and H. pylori published during the last 5 years were systematically reviewed, and studies identifying the molecular approaches involved in the pathogenesis were summarized. Most of the clinical studies indicate a favorable effect of H. pylori eradication on the clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphomas. Some studies suggest the necessity of additional treatment in nonresponders to H. pylori eradication, while others suggest the adoption of a watch-and-wait strategy. The molecular characteristics of MALT lymphomas could play an important role in prognostic prediction and the selection of further therapeutic intervention after the eradication. This updated review of gastric MALT lymphomas illustrates the potential efficacy of H. pylori eradication in tumor remission, but further molecular characterization is necessary to establish the most suitable therapeutic strategy for patients who do not respond to eradication.

  15. Use of programme theory to understand the differential effects of interventions across socio-economic groups in systematic reviews-a systematic methodology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Michelle; Cunliffe, Alex; McMahon, Naoimh; Booth, Andrew; Carey, Gina Michelle; Paisley, Suzy; Dickson, Rumona; Gabbay, Mark

    2017-12-29

    Systematic review guidance recommends the use of programme theory to inform considerations of if and how healthcare interventions may work differently across socio-economic status (SES) groups. This study aimed to address the lack of detail on how reviewers operationalise this in practice. A methodological systematic review was undertaken to assess if, how and the extent to which systematic reviewers operationalise the guidance on the use of programme theory in considerations of socio-economic inequalities in health. Multiple databases were searched from January 2013 to May 2016. Studies were included if they were systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of an intervention and included data on SES. Two reviewers independently screened all studies, undertook quality assessment and extracted data. A narrative approach to synthesis was adopted. A total of 37 systematic reviews were included, 10 of which were explicit in the use of terminology for 'programme theory'. Twenty-nine studies used programme theory to inform both their a priori assumptions and explain their review findings. Of these, 22 incorporated considerations of both what and how interventions do/do not work in SES groups to both predict and explain their review findings. Thirteen studies acknowledged 24 unique theoretical references to support their assumptions of what or how interventions may have different effects in SES groups. Most reviewers used supplementary evidence to support their considerations of differential effectiveness. The majority of authors outlined a programme theory in the "Introduction" and "Discussion" sections of the review to inform their assumptions or provide explanations of what or how interventions may result in differential effects within or across SES groups. About a third of reviews used programme theory to inform the review analysis and/or synthesis. Few authors used programme theory to inform their inclusion criteria, data extraction or quality assessment. Twenty

  16. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Gautam; Sankara, Dieudonne P; Agua-Agum, Junerlyn; Maiga, Alhousseini

    2013-08-05

    Dracunculiasis, commonly known as guinea worm disease, is a nematode infection transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The disease prevails in the most deprived areas of the world. No vaccine or medicine is available against the disease: eradication is being achieved by implementing preventive measures. These include behavioural change in patients and communities--such as self-reporting suspected cases to health workers or volunteers, filtering drinking water and accessing water from improved sources and preventing infected individuals from wading or swimming in drinking-water sources--supplemented by active surveillance and case containment, vector control and provision of improved water sources. Efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis began in the early 1980s. By the end of 2012, the disease had reached its lowest levels ever. This paper reviews the progress made in eradicating dracunculiasis since the eradication campaign began, the factors influencing progress and the difficulties in controlling the pathogen that requires behavioural change, especially when the threat becomes rare. The challenges of intensifying surveillance are discussed, particularly in insecure areas containing the last foci of the disease. It also summarizes the broader benefits uniquely linked to interventions against dracunculiasis.

  17. A strategic approach to eradication of bovine TB from wildlife in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, S A; Hancox, N; Livingstone, P G

    2013-11-01

    A review and amendment of New Zealand's National Pest Management Strategy for bovine tuberculosis (TB) has led to adoption of new strategy objectives for localized eradication of disease from the principal wildlife maintenance host and infecting vector for farmed cattle and deer, the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula. Historic programmes have been based on management of disease within herds and control of wildlife directed towards reducing infected herd prevalence. From July 2011, the TB strategy has been redirected towards eradication of TB from possums and other wildlife over a total area of at least 2.5 million hectares over a 15-year period. The amended strategy is intended to provide large-scale proof of concept, using two extensive bush areas, that TB can be eradicated from wildlife in New Zealand in the longer term, leading to eventual savings in control programmes needed to protect cattle and deer herds from infection. Achievement of strategy objectives will be supported by major research together with technical and managerial improvements in wildlife TB control and surveillance, and these are reviewed. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Systematic review: Helicobacter pylori infection and impaired drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, E; Annibale, B; Delle Fave, G

    2009-02-15

    Impaired acid secretion may affect drug absorption and may be consequent to corporal Helicobacter pylori-gastritis, which may affect the absorption of orally administered drugs. To focus on the evidence of impaired drug absorption associated with H. pylori infection. Data sources were the systematic search of MEDLINE/EMBASE/SCOPUS databases (1980-April 2008) for English articles using the keywords: drug malabsorption/absorption, stomach, Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, gastric acid, gastric pH, hypochlorhydria, gastric hypoacidity. Study selection was made from 2099 retrieved articles, five studies were identified. Data were extracted from selected papers, investigated drugs, study type, main features of subjects, study design, intervention type and results were extracted. In all, five studies investigated impaired absorption of l-dopa, thyroxine and delavirdine in H. pylori infection. Eradication treatment led to 21-54% increase in l-dopa in Parkinson's disease. Thyroxine requirement was higher in hypochlorhydric goitre with H. pylori-gastritis and thyrotropin levels decreased by 94% after treatment. In H. pylori- and HIV-positive hypochlorhydric subjects, delavirdine absorption increased by 57% with orange juice administration and by 150% after eradication. A plausible mechanism of impaired drug absorption is decreased acid secretion in H. pylori-gastritis patients. Helicobacter pylori infection and hypochlorhydria should be considered in prescribing drugs the absorption of which is potentially affected by intragastric pH.

  19. Surgical interventions for gastric cancer: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiling; Tu, Jian; Huo, Zijun; Li, Yuhuang; Peng, Jintao; Qiu, Zhenwen; Luo, Dandong; Ke, Zunfu; Chen, Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate methodological quality and the extent of concordance among meta-analysis and/or systematic reviews on surgical interventions for gastric cancer (GC). A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and the DARE database was conducted to identify the reviews comparing different surgical interventions for GC prior to April 2014. After applying included criteria, available data were summarized and appraised by the Oxman and Guyatt scale. Fifty six reviews were included. Forty five reviews (80.4%) were well conducted, with scores of adapted Oxman and Guyatt scale ≥ 14. The reviews differed in criteria for avoiding bias and assessing the validity of the primary studies. Many primary studies displayed major methodological flaws, such as randomization, allocation concealment, and dropouts and withdrawals. According to the concordance assessment, laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) was superior to open gastrectomy, and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy was superior to open distal gastrectomy in short-term outcomes. However, the concordance regarding other surgical interventions, such as D1 vs. D2 lymphadenectomy, and robotic gastrectomy vs. LAG were absent. Systematic reviews on surgical interventions for GC displayed relatively high methodological quality. The improvement of methodological quality and reporting was necessary for primary studies. The superiority of laparoscopic over open surgery was demonstrated. But concordance on other surgical interventions was rare, which needed more well-designed RCTs and systematic reviews.

  20. A Web-based archive of systematic review data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ip Stanley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systematic reviews have become increasingly critical to informing healthcare policy; however, they remain a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The extraction of data from constituent studies comprises a significant portion of this effort, an activity which is often needlessly duplicated, such as when attempting to update a previously conducted review or in reviews of overlapping topics. In order to address these inefficiencies, and to improve the speed and quality of healthcare policy- and decision-making, we have initiated the development of the Systematic Review Data Repository, an open collaborative Web-based repository of systematic review data. As envisioned, this resource would serve as both a central archive and data extraction tool, shared among and freely accessible to organizations producing systematic reviews worldwide. A suite of easy-to-use software tools with a Web frontend would enable researchers to seamlessly search for and incorporate previously deposited data into their own reviews, as well as contribute their own. In developing this resource, we identified a number of technical and non-technical challenges, as well as devised a number of potential solutions, including proposals for systems and software tools to assure data quality, stratify and control user access effectively and flexibly accommodate all manner of study data, as well as means by which to govern and foster adoption of this new resource. Herein we provide an account of the rationale and development of the Systematic Review Data Repository thus far, as well as outline its future trajectory.

  1. The effect of English-language restriction on systematic review-based meta-analyses: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andra; Polisena, Julie; Husereau, Don; Moulton, Kristen; Clark, Michelle; Fiander, Michelle; Mierzwinski-Urban, Monika; Clifford, Tammy; Hutton, Brian; Rabb, Danielle

    2012-04-01

    The English language is generally perceived to be the universal language of science. However, the exclusive reliance on English-language studies may not represent all of the evidence. Excluding languages other than English (LOE) may introduce a language bias and lead to erroneous conclusions. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using bibliographic databases and grey literature sources. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they measured the effect of excluding randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in LOE from systematic review-based meta-analyses (SR/MA) for one or more outcomes. None of the included studies found major differences between summary treatment effects in English-language restricted meta-analyses and LOE-inclusive meta-analyses. Findings differed about the methodological and reporting quality of trials reported in LOE. The precision of pooled estimates improved with the inclusion of LOE trials. Overall, we found no evidence of a systematic bias from the use of language restrictions in systematic review-based meta-analyses in conventional medicine. Further research is needed to determine the impact of language restriction on systematic reviews in particular fields of medicine.

  2. Psychosocial Benefits of Cooking Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Nicole; Touchton-Leonard, Katherine; Ross, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking interventions are used in therapeutic and rehabilitative settings; however, little is known about the influence of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes. This systematic review examines the research evidence regarding the influence of cooking interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the…

  3. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world

    OpenAIRE

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries’ right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even...

  4. Mediating Policy-Relevant Evidence at Speed: Are Systematic Reviews of Systematic Reviews a Useful Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jenny; Sutcliffe, Katy; Kwan, Irene; Dickson, Kelly; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    When swift, accurate appraisal of evidence is required to inform policy concerning broad research questions, and budgetary constraints limit the employment of large research teams, researchers face a significant challenge which is sometimes met by reviewing existing systematic reviews. In this paper we highlight the challenges inherent in the…

  5. The effectiveness of e-Interventions on reducing social isolation in older persons: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Jennifer; Jarvis, Mary Ann; Ramlall, Suvira

    2017-12-01

    As the older adult population group has been increasing in size, there has been evidence of growing social isolation and loneliness in their lives. The increased use of information communication technology and Internet-supported interventions has stimulated an interest in the benefits of e-Interventions for older people and specifically in having a role in increasing social networks and decreasing loneliness. A systematic review of e-Interventions to reduce loneliness in older people was conducted with the aim to synthesize high quality evidence on the effectiveness of e-Interventions to decrease social isolation/loneliness for older people living in community/residential care. A systematic search of 12 databases for reviews published between 2000-2017 was conducted using search term synonyms for older people, social isolation and interventions. Three independent researchers screened articles and two reviewers extracted data. The Revised-Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews was used to assess the quality of reviews. The final search identified 12 reviews, which included 22 unique primary research studies evaluating e-Interventions for social isolation or loneliness. The reviews were of moderate quality and the primary studies showed a lack of rigor. Loneliness was most frequently measured using the University California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. Despite the limitations of the reviewed studies, there is inconsistent and weak evidence on using e-Interventions for loneliness in older people.

  6. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Lauren; Jaraisy, Ameen; Haj, Saeda; Muhsen, Khitam

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of depleted iron stores among persons infected with Helicobacter pylori compared to uninfected ones. We also assessed the impact of anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy on ferritin and hemoglobin levels compared to iron therapy alone. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and the Science Citation Index Expanded. Observational studies with methodological quality score of 13 (median score) and above, on a scale of 0-16, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for the meta-analyses. Pooled point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using the random effects model. Compared to uninfected persons, H. pylori-infected individuals showed increased likelihood of iron deficiency anemia (14 observational studies); pooled OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42); iron deficiency (pooled OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.15-1.54; 30 studies); and anemia (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.00-1.32; 23 studies). Meta-analyses of seven RCTs showed increased ferritin, standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.53 (95% 0.21-0.85), but not hemoglobin, SMD 0.36 (95% -0.07 to 0.78), Pv=.1, following anti-H. pylori eradication therapy plus iron therapy as compared with iron therapy alone. Significant heterogeneity was found among studies, as well as evidence of publication bias. Current evidence indicates increased likelihood of depleted iron stores in relation to H. pylori infection. H. pylori eradication therapy, added to iron therapy, might be beneficial in increasing ferritin and hemoglobin levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rational decision-making in mental health: the role of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbody, Simon M.; Petticrew, Mark

    1999-09-01

    BACKGROUND: "Systematic reviews" have come to be recognized as the most rigorous method of summarizing confusing and often contradictory primary research in a transparent and reproducible manner. Their greatest impact has been in the summarization of epidemiological literature - particularly that relating to clinical effectiveness. Systematic reviews also have a potential to inform rational decision-making in healthcare policy and to form a component of economic evaluation. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This article aims to introduce the rationale behind systematic reviews and, using examples from mental health, to introduce the strengths and limitations of systematic reviews, particularly in informing mental health policy and economic evaluation. METHODS: Examples are selected from recent controversies surrounding the introduction of new psychiatric drugs (anti-depressants and anti-schizophrenia drugs) and methods of delivering psychiatric care in the community (case management and assertive community treatment). The potential for systematic reviews to (i) produce best estimates of clinical efficacy and effectiveness, (ii) aid economic evaluation and policy decision-making and (iii) highlight gaps in the primary research knowledge base are discussed. Lastly examples are selected from outside mental health to show how systematic reviews have a potential to be explicitly used in economic and health policy evaluation. RESULTS: Systematic reviews produce the best estimates of clinical efficacy, which can form an important component of economic evaluation. Importantly, serious methodological flaws and areas of uncertainty in the primary research literature are identified within an explicit framework. Summary indices of clinical effectiveness can be produced, but it is difficult to produce such summary indices of cost effectiveness by pooling economic data from primary studies. Modelling is commonly used in economic and policy evaluation. Here, systematic reviews can provide the

  8. Methological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on acupuncture for stroke: A review of review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Lin; Mo, Chuan-Wei; Lu, Li-Ya; Gao, Ri-Yang; Xu, Qian; Wu, Min-Feng; Zhou, Qian-Yi; Hu, Yue; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Xian-Tao

    2017-11-01

    To assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding acupuncture intervention for stroke and the primary studies within them. Two researchers searched PubMed, Cumulative index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Ovid Medline, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and Traditional Chinese Medical Database to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about acupuncture for stroke published from the inception to December 2016. Review characteristics and the criteria for assessing the primary studies within reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the reviews was assessed using adapted Oxman and Guyatt Scale. The methodological quality of primary studies was also assessed. Thirty-two eligible reviews were identified, 15 in English and 17 in Chinese. The English reviews were scored higher than the Chinese reviews (P=0.025), especially in criteria for avoiding bias and the scope of search. All reviews used the quality criteria to evaluate the methodological quality of primary studies, but some criteria were not comprehensive. The primary studies, in particular the Chinese reviews, had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, dropouts and withdrawals, intent-to-treat analysis and adverse events. Important methodological flaws were found in Chinese systematic reviews and primary studies. It was necessary to improve the methodological quality and reporting quality of both the systematic reviews published in China and primary studies on acupuncture for stroke.

  9. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis: Why, when, and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this

  10. Tranexamic acid in epistaxis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhieh, Y; Fox, H

    2016-12-01

    The role of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis remains unclear. There is uncertainty about its safety and about the contraindications for its use. We performed a systematic review of the use of systemic and topical tranexamic acid in epistaxis and a comparative review of its use in other specialties. This review assesses and summarises the existing evidence for the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis. Systematic review. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for 'epistaxis' and equivalent MESH terms, combined with the Boolean operator 'OR' and 'tranexamic acid'. The Cochrane library and society guidelines were reviewed for evidence regarding the use of tranexamic acid in other specialties. All five relevant RCTs were included in the review and were evaluated according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Three RCTS pertained to spontaneous epistaxis; of these, one trial found no benefit of oral tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis, one trial found no significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid, but the largest of the trials showed significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis management. Two RCTs examined oral tranexamic acid for prophylaxis of recurrent epistaxes in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; both showed significant reduction in severity and frequency. Tranexamic acid, as a WHO 'essential medicine', is a powerful, readily available tool, the use of which in epistaxis has been limited by uncertainty over its efficacy and its safety profile. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence and extrapolates from the wealth of data for other specialties to address the clinical question - does TXA have a role in epistaxis management? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The program for eradication of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV are diseases that affect cattle population of all breeds, categories and age. Both diseases, especially infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, poses severe health threat and causes major economic losses and is considered one of the “most costly” disease in cattle industry. The causal agent of the disease is a virus and any detection of IBR/IPV specific antibodies in non-vaccinated cattle, either in blood or milk, indicates that animal is infected and represents the source of infection. Countries with developed and intensive cattle breeding have been developed and implemented their national eradication programs to control IBR/IPV in accordance with international regulations. In this article, we outlined the needs and program for the eradication of IBR/IPV in the Republic of Serbia. The eradication program for IBR/IPV is an extensive process that requires systematic strategy involving different phases and activities. The eradication process from the moment of implementation until obtaining IBR/IPV-free status can last over several years and requires joint work and considerable financial resources that will be compansated with the elimination of IBR/IPV from the herd. This article gives an overview of all stages and activities regarding eradication of the disease and certification and maintaining of IBR/IPV-free herd status.

  12. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child health. In this paper, we identify methodological challenges specific to the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric systematic reviews, and propose a process to address these challenges. One fundamental decision at the outset of a systematic review is whether to focus on a pediatric population only, or to include both adult and pediatric populations. Both from the policy and patient care point of view, the appropriateness of interventions and comparators administered to pre-defined pediatric age subgroup is critical. Decisions need to be based on the biological plausibility of differences in treatment effects across the developmental trajectory in children. Synthesis of evidence from different trials is often impaired by the use of outcomes and measurement instruments that differ between trials and are neither relevant nor validated in the pediatric population. Other issues specific to pediatric systematic reviews include lack of pediatric-sensitive search strategies and inconsistent choices of pediatric age subgroups in meta-analyses. In addition to these methodological issues generic to all pediatric systematic reviews, special considerations are required for reviews of health care interventions' safety and efficacy in neonatology, global health, comparative effectiveness interventions and individual participant data meta-analyses. To date, there is no standard approach available to overcome this problem. We propose to develop a consensus-based checklist of essential items which

  13. [Dental status and efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M

    2001-04-01

    Beside stomach Helicobacter pylori can colonize the oral cavity. One may think, therefore, that if H. pylori persists the eradication therapy in the oral cavity, it could infect the stomach again. Since in the oral cavity H. pylori occurs most frequently in a dental plaque gathering on teeth, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the natural teeth status is important for the efficacy of H. pylori eradication. The study was conducted on 45 peptic ulcer patients with natural teeth. They were eradicated with one of two regimens: 1/OAT-omeprazole (2 x 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg), tinidazole (2 x 500 mg) (14-day course), 2/OAC-omeprazole (2 x 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg), clarithromycin (2 x 250 mg) (7-day course). Dentistry examination was performed 4-6 weeks after the end of eradication therapy and consisted of determination of the number of teeth, caries index, dental treatment index, plaque index, and periodontal index. It was found that in successfully eradicated patients with OAT regimen, the number of teeth was higher and caries index lower than in those whose eradication therapy was unsuccessful; 24.8 +/- 5.2 vs 15.5 +/- 8.6 (p caries index were not associated with the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in OAC treated group. Irrespectively of the eradication regimen used, OAT or OAC, dental treatment index, plaque index, and periodontal index were not associated with the efficacy of H. pylori eradication. It is concluded that the natural teeth status may have influence on the outcome of H. pylori eradication. One should remember about this prescribing drugs for H. pylori eradication.

  14. Interventions to promote healthy eating choices when dining out: A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Bragge, Peter

    2018-05-01

    To synthesize review research pertaining to the effectiveness of interventions in dining-out settings to reduce food/calorie consumption. A rapid review methodology was employed to focus on synthesized research. A comprehensive search for peer-reviewed systematic reviews from 2010 to 2015 yielded 1,847 citations. Following screening, ten systematic reviews were included. The 10 included systematic reviews identified 183 primary studies evaluating evidence in three behavioural intervention areas: social models/norms, manipulation of size, and provision of health information. Three systematic reviews evaluating the use of social models/norms found this was an effective intervention for influencing food intake. Five systematic reviews that assessed manipulation of portion/dishware/cutlery size found a small-to-moderate effect on food consumption. Three systematic reviews looked at the provision of health information, which was not effective alone; however, in combination with contextual or interpretive material such as traffic lights or exercise equivalence, this was shown to reduce calorie consumption. One systematic review covered two topic areas. The results indicate that policies or interventions that aim to improve healthy choices or consumption when dining out would benefit from harnessing social norms and positive positioning of social identity. Furthermore, provision of health information should always be accompanied by an interpretative guide, such as traffic lights. Manipulation of plate/portion/cutlery size may be effective; however, the effect size is small and further research is required to investigate whether this effect is retained in overweight or obese populations. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Eating behaviours (food choices, consumption) have played a role in the obesity epidemic. Behavioural 'nudges' have tried to increase healthier eating choices. What does this study add? Social norms and modelling have a

  15. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.

  16. Search and selection methodology of systematic reviews in orthodontics (2000-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Major, Michael P; Major, Paul W

    2006-08-01

    More systematic reviews related to orthodontic topics are published each year, although little has been done to evaluate their search and selection methodologies. Systematic reviews related to orthodontics published between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, were searched for their use of multiple electronic databases and secondary searches. The search and selection methods of identified systematic reviews were evaluated against the Cochrane Handbook's guidelines. Sixteen orthodontic systematic reviews were identified in this period. The percentage of reviews documenting and using each criterion of article searching has changed over the last 5 years, with no recognizable directional trend. On average, most systematic reviews documented their electronic search terms (88%) and inclusion-exclusion criteria (100%), and used secondary searching (75%). Many still failed to search more than MEDLINE (56%), failed to document the database names and search dates (37%), failed to document the search strategy (62%), did not use several reviewers for selecting studies (75%), and did not include all languages (81%). The methodology of systematic reviews in orthodontics is still limited, with key methodological components frequently absent or not appropriately described.

  17. Length of Barrett's segment predicts failure of eradication in radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's esophagus: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tyler; Allamneni, Chaitanya; Cowley, Kevin; Eick, John; Gullick, Allison; Peter, Shajan

    2018-05-21

    We aim to investigate factors that may contribute to failure of eradication of dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus among patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation treatment. A retrospective review of patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for treatment of Barrett's Esophagus was performed. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical history, length of Barrett's Esophagus, number of radiofrequency ablation sessions, and histopathology. Subsets of patients achieving complete eradication were compared with those not achieving complete eradication. A total of 107 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's Esophagus, the majority white, overweight, and male. Before treatment, 63 patients had low-grade dysplasia, and 44 patients had high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. Complete eradication was achieved in a majority of patients (57% for metaplasia, and 76.6% for dysplasia). Failure of eradication occurred in 15.7% of patients. The median number of radiofrequency ablation treatments in patients achieving complete eradication was 3 sessions, compared to 4 sessions for failure of eradication (p = 0.06). Barrett's esophagus length of more than 5 cm was predictive of failure of eradication (p Radiofrequency ablation for dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus is a proven and effective treatment modality, associated with a high rate of complete eradication. Our rates of eradication from a center starting an ablation program are comparable to previously published studies. Length of Barrett's segment > 5 cm was found to be predictive of failure of eradication in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation.

  18. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  19. Time to consider sharing data extracted from trials included in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Wolfenden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the debate regarding shared clinical trial data has shifted from whether such data should be shared to how this is best achieved, the sharing of data collected as part of systematic reviews has received little attention. In this commentary, we discuss the potential benefits of coordinated efforts to share data collected as part of systematic reviews. Main body There are a number of potential benefits of systematic review data sharing. Shared information and data obtained as part of the systematic review process may reduce unnecessary duplication, reduce demand on trialist to service repeated requests from reviewers for data, and improve the quality and efficiency of future reviews. Sharing also facilitates research to improve clinical trial and systematic review methods and supports additional analyses to address secondary research questions. While concerns regarding appropriate use of data, costs, or the academic return for original review authors may impede more open access to information extracted as part of systematic reviews, many of these issues are being addressed, and infrastructure to enable greater access to such information is being developed. Conclusion Embracing systems to enable more open access to systematic review data has considerable potential to maximise the benefits of research investment in undertaking systematic reviews.

  20. Eradication versus control for poliomyelitis: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer

    2007-04-21

    Worldwide eradication of wild polioviruses is likely to yield substantial health and financial benefits, provided we finish the job. Challenges in the four endemic areas combined with continuing demands for financial resources for eradication have led some to question the goal of eradication and to suggest switching to a policy of control. We developed a dynamic model, based on modelling of the currently endemic areas in India, to show the importance of maintaining and increasing the immunisation intensity to complete eradication and to illustrate how policies based on perception about high short-term costs or cost-effectiveness ratios without consideration of long-term benefits could undermine any eradication effort. An extended model assesses the economic implications and disease burden of a change in policy from eradication to control. Our results suggest that the intensity of immunisation must be increased to achieve eradication, and that even small decreases in intensity could lead to large outbreaks. This finding implies the need to pay even higher short-run costs than are currently being spent, which will further exacerbate concerns about continued investment in interventions with high perceived cost-effectiveness ratios. We show that a wavering commitment leads to a failure to eradicate, greater cumulative costs, and a much larger number of cases. We further show that as long as it is technically achievable, eradication offers both lower cumulative costs and cases than control, even with the costs of achieving eradication exceeding several billion dollars more. A low-cost control policy that relies only on routine immunisation for 20 years with discounted costs of more than $3500 million could lead to roughly 200 000 expected paralytic poliomyelitis cases every year in low-income countries, whereas a low-case control policy that keeps the number of cases at about 1500 per year could cost around $10 000 million discounted over the 20 years. Focusing on the

  1. Office design and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ann; Potter, John; Paterson, Margaret; Harding, Thomas; Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Kirk, Ray; Reid, Kate; McChesney, Jane

    2017-12-15

    To carry out a systematic review of recent research into the effects of workplace design, comparing individual with shared workspaces, on the health of employees. The research question was "Does workplace design (specifically individual offices compared with shared workspaces) affect the health of workers?" A literature search limited to articles published between 2000 and 2017 was undertaken. A systematic review was carried out, and the findings of the reviewed studies grouped into themes according to the primary outcomes measured in the studies. The literature search identified 15 relevant studies addressing health effects of shared or open-plan offices compared with individual offices. Our systematic review found that, compared with individual offices, shared or open-plan office space is not beneficial to employees' health, with consistent findings of deleterious effects on staff health, wellbeing and productivity. Our findings are also consistent with those of earlier reviews. These findings have public health implications for the New Zealand workforce. Decisions about workplace design should include weighing the short-term financial benefits of open-plan or shared workspaces against the significant harms, including increased sickness absence, lower job satisfaction and productivity, and possible threats to recruitment and retention of staff.

  2. Simulation Modelling in Healthcare: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Literature Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.

  3. A Guide to the Systematic Literature Review Methodology in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Kembro, Joakim

    methodological developments in the application systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. It analyzes what approaches researchers in supply chain management have taken to follow the requirements of a systematic review, identifies issues in the approaches and provides authors, reviewers and editors...... with suggestions to better craft, disseminate, evaluate and select systematic literature reviews in supply chain management. This paper applies a systematic literature review approach to identify and analyze 31 articles published in core supply chain journals. It is the first research to map these developments......, since three seminal methodology papers on systematic reviews in management research have been published between 2003-2009. This research shows that there is still a need for more transparency in the approaches taken. Systematic literature reviews have a high potential to advance the field...

  4. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  5. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  6. The systematic review as a research process in music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Sena Moore, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Music therapists are challenged to present evidence on the efficacy of music therapy treatment and incorporate the best available research evidence to make informed healthcare and treatment decisions. Higher standards of evidence can come from a variety of sources including systematic reviews. To define and describe a range of research review methods using examples from music therapy and related literature, with emphasis on the systematic review. In addition, the authors provide a detailed overview of methodological processes for conducting and reporting systematic reviews in music therapy. The systematic review process is described in five steps. Step 1 identifies the research plan and operationalized research question(s). Step 2 illustrates the identification and organization of the existing literature related to the question(s). Step 3 details coding of data extracted from the literature. Step 4 explains the synthesis of coded findings and analysis to answer the research question(s). Step 5 describes the strength of evidence evaluation and results presentation for practice recommendations. Music therapists are encouraged to develop and conduct systematic reviews. This methodology contributes to review outcome credibility and can determine how information is interpreted and used by clinicians, clients or patients, and policy makers. A systematic review is a methodologically rigorous research method used to organize and evaluate extant literature related to a clinical problem. Systematic reviews can assist music therapists in managing the ever-increasing literature, making well-informed evidence based practice and research decisions, and translating existing music-based and nonmusic based literature to clinical practice and research development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A review of the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The literature searches that are used to identify studies for inclusion in a systematic review should be comprehensively reported. This ensures that the literature searches are transparent and reproducible, which is important for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a systematic review and re-running the literature searches when conducting an update review. Web searching using search engines and the websites of topically relevant organisations is sometimes used as a supplementary literature search method. Previous research has shown that the reporting of web searching in systematic reviews often lacks important details and is thus not transparent or reproducible. Useful details to report about web searching include the name of the search engine or website, the URL, the date searched, the search strategy, and the number of results. This study reviews the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews published in the 6-month period August 2016 to January 2017 (n = 423). Of these reviews, 61 reviews reported using web searching using a search engine or website as a literature search method. In the majority of reviews, the reporting of web searching was found to lack essential detail for ensuring transparency and reproducibility, such as the search terms. Recommendations are made on how to improve the reporting of web searching in Cochrane systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Quality of systematic reviews: an example of studies comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... were: the article should be a systematic review and/or ... 7. The scientific quality of the included studies should be assessed and ... steps to conduct a systematic review as follows: 1. .... All authors contributed to the writing of.

  9. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  10. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  11. The methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, C M; Listl, S; Giannakopoulos, N N

    2012-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies are important for improving estimates of the effects of treatment and for guiding future clinical studies on humans. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies in dentistry through using a validated checklist. A literature search was conducted independently and in duplicate in the PubMed and LILACS databases. References in selected systematic reviews were assessed to identify other studies not captured by the electronic searches. The methodological quality of studies was assessed independently and in duplicate by using the AMSTAR checklist; the quality was scored as low, moderate, or high. The reviewers were calibrated before the assessment and agreement between them was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Of 444 studies retrieved, 54 systematic reviews were selected after full-text assessment. Agreement between the reviewers was regarded as excellent. Only two studies were scored as high quality; 17 and 35 studies were scored as medium and low quality, respectively. There is room for improvement of the methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies in dentistry. Checklists, such as AMSTAR, can guide researchers in planning and executing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. For determining the need for additional investigations in animals and in order to provide good data for potential application in human, such reviews should be based on animal experiments performed according to sound methodological principles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic reviews: A guide for radiographers and other health care professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Sykes, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers guidance on performing systematic reviews to help up-skill radiographers and other health care professionals. It considers why systematic review is critically important to Radiography. Using a relevant example i.e. to investigate adverse effects related to MRI contrast agents it then examines the features of a systematic review and explains how diagnostic research evidence within a systematic review is evaluated. The paper then discusses the threats to validity of systematic reviews on a step by step basis. Five key steps are considered: Step 1: define the purpose of the review via a well-structured question. Step 2: determine the parameters (eligibility criteria) for a comprehensive systematic literature review that will address the research question. It is the wide range of material reviewed in this way that makes the work a systematic review, rather than an analysis of papers you happen to have. Step 3: Assess the quality of the literature you have found. Generally peer-reviewed papers published on a database such as Medline, which in the example given was established as an eligibility criterion, are considered to be high quality, but the actual impact factor/SCOPUS score of each journal is variable and should be considered. Step 4: Synthesise what the literature has revealed; appropriately extract data and summarise it; identifying any study differences. This requires the use of suitable methods for agreeing and summarising the results. This may involve a meta-analysis to collate the results from several studies. Step 5: interpret the findings to draw inferences from the resulting review and from the results of a meta-analysis if undertaken. This paper then provides a check list for guidance of those involved in writing systematic reviews and finally summarises the paper. A glossary of terms appears at the end of this paper.

  13. Systematic reviews: A guide for radiographers and other health care professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Gill, E-mail: gill.marshall@cumbria.ac.u [Chair in Medical Imaging Education, Research Development Lead, School of Medical Imaging Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences and Social Care, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Sykes, Anne E., E-mail: a.e.sykes@salford.ac.u [Directorate of Radiography School of Health, Sport and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Salford Frederick Road, M6 6PU (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    This paper offers guidance on performing systematic reviews to help up-skill radiographers and other health care professionals. It considers why systematic review is critically important to Radiography. Using a relevant example i.e. to investigate adverse effects related to MRI contrast agents it then examines the features of a systematic review and explains how diagnostic research evidence within a systematic review is evaluated. The paper then discusses the threats to validity of systematic reviews on a step by step basis. Five key steps are considered: Step 1: define the purpose of the review via a well-structured question. Step 2: determine the parameters (eligibility criteria) for a comprehensive systematic literature review that will address the research question. It is the wide range of material reviewed in this way that makes the work a systematic review, rather than an analysis of papers you happen to have. Step 3: Assess the quality of the literature you have found. Generally peer-reviewed papers published on a database such as Medline, which in the example given was established as an eligibility criterion, are considered to be high quality, but the actual impact factor/SCOPUS score of each journal is variable and should be considered. Step 4: Synthesise what the literature has revealed; appropriately extract data and summarise it; identifying any study differences. This requires the use of suitable methods for agreeing and summarising the results. This may involve a meta-analysis to collate the results from several studies. Step 5: interpret the findings to draw inferences from the resulting review and from the results of a meta-analysis if undertaken. This paper then provides a check list for guidance of those involved in writing systematic reviews and finally summarises the paper. A glossary of terms appears at the end of this paper.

  14. Updated method guidelines for cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews and metaanalyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Maxwell, Lara J; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit, international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. It is important that authors conducting CMSG reviews and the readers of our...... reviews be aware of and use updated, state-of-the-art systematic review methodology. One hundred sixty reviews have been published. Previous method guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions in the musculoskeletal field published in 2006 have been substantially updated to incorporate...... using network metaanalysis. Method guidelines specific to musculoskeletal disorders are provided by CMSG editors for various aspects of undertaking a systematic review. These method guidelines will help improve the quality of reporting and ensure high standards of conduct as well as consistency across...

  15. Evaluating clinical librarian services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettle, Alison; Maden-Jenkins, Michelle; Anderson, Lucy; McNally, Rosalind; Pratchett, Tracey; Tancock, Jenny; Thornton, Debra; Webb, Anne

    2011-03-01

      Previous systematic reviews have indicated limited evidence and poor quality evaluations of clinical librarian (CL) services. Rigorous evaluations should demonstrate the value of CL services, but guidance is needed before this can be achieved.   To undertake a systematic review which examines models of CL services, quality, methods and perspectives of clinical librarian service evaluations.   Systematic review methodology and synthesis of evidence, undertaken collaboratively by a group of 8 librarians to develop research and critical appraisal skills.   There are four clear models of clinical library service provision. Clinical librarians are effective in saving health professionals time, providing relevant, useful information and high quality services. Clinical librarians have a positive effect on clinical decision making by contributing to better informed decisions, diagnosis and choice of drug or therapy. The quality of CL studies is improving, but more work is needed on reducing bias and providing evidence of specific impacts on patient care. The Critical Incident Technique as part of a mixed method approach appears to offer a useful approach to demonstrating impact.   This systematic review provides practical guidance regarding the evaluation of CL services. It also provides updated evidence regarding the effectiveness and impact of CL services. The approach used was successful in developing research and critical appraisal skills in a group of librarians. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Systematic Review Methodology for the Fatigue in Emergency Medical Services Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Higgins, J Stephen; Weiss, Patricia M; Lang, Eddy; Martin-Gill, Christian

    2018-02-15

    Guidance for managing fatigue in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) setting is limited. The Fatigue in EMS Project sought to complete multiple systematic reviews guided by seven explicit research questions, assemble the best available evidence, and rate the quality of that evidence for purposes of producing an Evidence Based Guideline (EBG) for fatigue risk management in EMS operations. We completed seven systematic reviews that involved searches of six databases for literature relevant to seven research questions. These questions were developed a priori by an expert panel and framed in the Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) format and pre-registered with PROSPERO. Our target population was defined as persons 18 years of age and older classified as EMS personnel or similar shift worker groups. A panel of experts selected outcomes for each PICO question as prescribed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We pooled findings, stratified by study design (experimental vs. observational) and presented results of each systematic review in narrative and quantitative form. We used meta-analyses of select outcomes to generate pooled effects. We used the GRADE methodology and the GRADEpro software to designate a quality of evidence rating for each outcome. We present the results for each systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). More than 38,000 records were screened across seven systematic reviews. The median, minimum, and maximum inter-rater agreements (Kappa) between screeners for our seven systematic reviews were 0.66, 0.49, and 0.88, respectively. The median, minimum, and maximum number of records retained for the seven systematic reviews was 13, 1, and 100, respectively. We present key findings in GRADE Evidence Profile Tables in separate publications for each systematic review. We describe a protocol for

  17. Financial conflicts of interest and outcomes and quality of systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Lundh, Andreas; Rasmussen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Methodology). The objectives are as follows: The primary objectives are to investigate to what degree: - funding of systematic reviews by drug, device, and imaging companies and authors' other financial conflicts of interest are associated with effect size...... estimate; and - funding of systematic reviews by drug, device, and imaging companies and authors' other financial conflicts of interest are associated with conclusions that are favourable to the sponsor. The secondary objective is to investigate to what degree: - funding of systematic reviews by drug......, device, and imaging companies and authors' other financial conflicts of interest are associated with the methodological quality of systematic reviews as presented by the reviews....

  18. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, C.H.L.; Hu, S.; Haverman, T.M.; Stokman, M.; Napeñas, J.J.; Bos-den Braber, J.; Gerber, E.; Geuke, M.; Vardas, E.; Waltimo, T.; Jensen, S.B.; Saunders, D.P.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. Review method: A literature search was conducted in the

  19. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs; Stokman, Monique; Napeñas, Joel J; Braber, Jacolien Bos-den; Gerber, Erich; Geuke, Margot; Vardas, Emmanouil; Waltimo, Tuomas; Jensen, Siri Beier; Saunders, Deborah P

    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the

  20. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Suggested Guidelines for Conducting Music Therapy Literature Reviews & an Introduction to Systematic Reviews in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic...

  2. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ehealth interventions in somatic diseases: a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Niels J; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Ekeland, Anne G; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Raat, Hein; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-04-16

    eHealth potentially enhances quality of care and may reduce health care costs. However, a review of systematic reviews published in 2010 concluded that high-quality evidence on the benefits of eHealth interventions was still lacking. We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of eHealth interventions in patients with somatic diseases to analyze whether, and to what possible extent, the outcome of recent research supports or differs from previous conclusions. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus for systematic reviews and meta-analyses on eHealth interventions published between August 2009 and December 2012. Articles were screened for relevance based on preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Citations of residual articles were screened for additional literature. Included papers were critically appraised using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement before data were extracted. Based on conclusions drawn by the authors of the included articles, reviews and meta-analyses were divided into 1 of 3 groups: suitable, promising, or limited evidence on effectiveness/cost-effectiveness. Cases of uncertainty were resolved by consensus discussion. Effect sizes were extracted from papers that included a meta-analysis. To compare our results with previous findings, a trend analysis was performed. Our literature searches yielded 31 eligible reviews, of which 20 (65%) reported on costs. Seven papers (23%) concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective, 13 (42%) underlined that evidence is promising, and others found limited or inconsistent proof. Methodological quality of the included reviews and meta-analyses was generally considered high. Trend analysis showed a considerable accumulation of literature on eHealth. However, a similar percentage of papers concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective or

  3. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.

  4. What determines the effects and costs of breast cancer screening? A protocol of a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, O; Ekwunife, O I; Zielonke, N; Meheus, F; Severens, J L; Lhachimi, S K; Murillo, R

    2017-06-28

    Multiple reviews demonstrated high variability in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes among studies on breast cancer screening (BCS) programmes. No study to our knowledge has summarized the current evidence on determinants of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the most used BCS approaches or tried to explain differences in conclusions of systematic reviews on this topic. Based on published reviews, this systematic review aims to assess the degree of variability of determinants for (a) effectiveness and (b) cost-effectiveness of BCS programmes using mammography, clinical breast examination, breast self-examination, ultrasonography, or their combinations among the general population. We will perform a comprehensive systematic literature search in Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, and Medline (via Pubmed). The search will be supplemented with hand searching of references of the included reviews, with hand searching in the specialized journals, and by contacting prominent experts in the field. Additional search for grey literature will be conducted on the websites of international cancer associations and networks. Two trained research assistants will screen titles and abstracts of publications independently, with at least random 10% of all abstracts being also screened by the principal researcher. The full texts of the systematic reviews will then be screened independently by two authors, and disagreements will be solved by consensus. The included reviews will be grouped by publication year, outcomes, designs of original studies, and quality. Additionally, for reviews published since 2011, transparency in reporting will be assessed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for the review on determinants of effectiveness and a modified PRISMA checklist for the review on determinants for cost-effectiveness. The study will apply the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist to assess

  5. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ilizarov Methods in the Treatment of Infected Nonunion of Tibia and Femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yin

    Full Text Available Infected nonunion of tibia and femur are common in clinical practice, however, the treatment of these diseases has still been a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Ilizarov methods can eradicate infection, compensate bone defects and promote the bone union through progressive bone histogenesis. The objective of this systematic review was to review current available studies reporting on Ilizarov methods in the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia and femur, and to perform meta-analysis of bone and functional results and complications to evaluate the efficacy of Ilizarov methods.A comprehensive literature search was performed from the SCI, PubMed, Cochrane Library; and Embase between January 1995 and August 2015. Some major data were statistically analyzed using weighted means based on the sample size in each study by SPSS 13.0, including number of patients, mean age, mean previous surgical procedures, mean bone defects, mean length of follow-up, bone union, complications per patient, external fixation time, and external fixation index(EFI. Bone results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate, functional results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate and complications were analyzed by Stata 9.0.A total of 590 patients from 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The average of bone union rate was 97.26% in all included studies. The poor rate in bone results and functional results was 8% (95%CI, 0.04-0.12; I2 = 44.1%, P = 0.065 and 10% (95%CI, 0.05-0.14; I2 = 34.7%, P = 0.121 in patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods. The rate of refracture, malunion, infectious recurrence, knee stiffness, amputation, limb edema and peroneal nerve palsy was respectively 4%, 7%, 5%, 12%, 4%, 13% and 13%.Our systematic review showed that the patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods had a low rate of poor bone and functional results. Therefore, Ilizarov methods may be a good choice

  6. Pitfalls of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Imaging Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInnes, Matthew D. F.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews of imaging research represent a tool to better understand test accuracy or the efficacy of interventions. Like any type of research, appropriate methods must be applied to optimize quality. The purpose of this review is to outline common pitfalls in performing systematic reviews

  7. Schistosomiasis in Zambia: a systematic review of past and present experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinda, Chester; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2018-04-30

    The speedy rate of change in the environmental and socio-economics factors may increase the incidence, prevalence and risk of schistosomiasis infections in Zambia. However, available information does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the biogeography and distribution of the disease, ecology and population dynamics of intermediate host snails. The current study used an information-theoretical approach to understand the biogeography and prevalence schistosomiasis and identified knowledge gaps that would be useful to improve policy towards surveillance and eradication of intermediate hosts snails in Zambia. To summarise the existing knowledge and build on past and present experiences of schistosomiasis epidemiology for effective disease control in Zambia, a systematic search of literature for the period 2000-2017 was done on PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCOhost. Using the key words: 'Schistosomiasis', 'Biomphalaria', 'Bulinus', 'Schistosoma mansoni', 'Schistosoma haematobium', and 'Zambia', in combination with Booleans terms 'AND' and 'OR', published reports/papers were obtained and reviewed independently for inclusion. Thirteen papers published in English that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for the final review. The papers suggest that the risk of infection has increased over the years and this has been attributed to environmental, socio-economic and demographic factors. Furthermore, schistosomiasis is endemic in many parts of the country with infection due to Schistosoma haematobium being more prevalent than that due to S. mansoni. This review also found that S. haematobium was linked to genital lesions, thus increasing risks of contracting other diseases such as HIV and cervical cancer. For both S. haematobium and S. mansoni, environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors were influential in the transmission and prevalence of the disease and highlight the need for detailed knowledge on ecological modelling and mapping the

  8. Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Are Practice Guidelines Based on Systematic Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Eligible publications were systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision without language or date restrictions; the database was up to date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as reliable when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, methodologic quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for AMD to systematic reviews and citations of reliable systematic reviews to support each treatment recommendation. Of 1570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met inclusion criteria; most targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements, or photodynamic therapy. We classified 33 (70%) reviews as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often by Cochrane reviews and reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Anti-VEGF agents and photodynamic therapy were the only interventions identified as effective by reliable reviews. Of 35 treatment recommendations extracted from the PPPs, 15 could have been supported with reliable systematic reviews; however, only 1

  9. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  10. Echocardiography in chronic liver disease: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo

    2013-04-01

    Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.

  11. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  12. Conflicts of interest and spin in reviews of psychological therapies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Klaus; von der Osten-Sacken, Jan; Stoffers-Winterling, Jutta; Reiss, Neele; Barth, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore conflicts of interest (COI) and their reporting in systematic reviews of psychological therapies, and to evaluate spin in the conclusions of the reviews. Methods MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for systematic reviews published between 2010 and 2013 that assessed effects of psychological therapies for anxiety, depressive or personality disorders, and included at least one randomised controlled trial. Required COI disclosure by journal, disclosed COI by review authors, and the inclusion of own primary studies by review authors were extracted. Researcher allegiance, that is, that researchers concluded favourably about the interventions they have studied, as well as spin, that is, differences between results and conclusions of the reviews, were rated by 2 independent raters. Results 936 references were retrieved, 95 reviews fulfilled eligibility criteria. 59 compared psychological therapies with other forms of psychological therapies, and 36 psychological therapies with pharmacological interventions. Financial, non-financial, and personal COI were disclosed in 22, 4 and 1 review, respectively. 2 of 86 own primary studies of review authors included in 34 reviews were disclosed by review authors. In 15 of the reviews, authors showed an allegiance effect to the evaluated psychological therapy that was never disclosed. Spin in review conclusions was found in 27 of 95 reviews. Reviews with a conclusion in favour of psychological therapies (vs pharmacological interventions) were at high risk for a spin in conclusions (OR=8.31 (1.41 to 49.05)). Spin was related in trend to the inclusion of own primary studies in the systematic review (OR=2.08 (CI 0.83 to 5.18) p=0.11) and researcher allegiance (OR=2.63 (0.84 to 8.16) p=0.16). Conclusions Non-financial COI, especially the inclusion of own primary studies into reviews and researcher allegiance, are frequently seen in systematic reviews of psychological therapies and need more transparency and

  13. Harmonization Of Inter-Institutional Authority In Eradicate Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the agenda of corruption eradication have been undertaken by various institutions such as the judiciary the police the Corruption Eradication Commission and other bodies related to the corruption eradication. The type of research used in this study is normative-jurisdiction and empirical-jurisdiction. To obtain the necessary data in this study the researcher conducted library research as a reference in some libraries are quite representative. Results shows that the effectiveness of corruption eradication that conducted by regulatory authorities in order to combat corruption has not been implemented maximally because each institution as a subsystem has not carried out an interdependent relationship both vertical and horizontal nature. If we expect the eradication of corruption can be implemented optimally it is recommended that the coordination between law enforcement agencies in the integrated criminal justice system is necessary to build their common vision interpretation and perception in the implementation of the duties for the institution authorized to eradicate corruption.

  14. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  15. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  16. Living systematic review: 1. Introduction-the why, what, when, and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Julian H; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Simmonds, Mark; Akl, Elie A; McDonald, Steve; Salanti, Georgia; Meerpohl, Joerg; MacLehose, Harriet; Hilton, John; Tovey, David; Shemilt, Ian; Thomas, James

    2017-11-01

    Systematic reviews are difficult to keep up to date, but failure to do so leads to a decay in review currency, accuracy, and utility. We are developing a novel approach to systematic review updating termed "Living systematic review" (LSR): systematic reviews that are continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. LSRs may be particularly important in fields where research evidence is emerging rapidly, current evidence is uncertain, and new research may change policy or practice decisions. We hypothesize that a continual approach to updating will achieve greater currency and validity, and increase the benefits to end users, with feasible resource requirements over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eradication of Transboundary Animal Diseases: Can the Rinderpest Success Story be Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L

    2017-04-01

    A matrix system was developed to aid in the evaluation of the technical amenability to eradication, through mass vaccination, of transboundary animal diseases (TADs). The system involved evaluation of three basic criteria - disease management efficiency, surveillance and epidemiological factors - each in turn comprised of a number of elements (17 in all). On that basis, 25 TADs that have occurred or do occur in southern Africa and for which vaccines are available, in addition to rinderpest (incorporated as a yardstick because it has been eradicated worldwide), were ranked. Cluster analysis was also applied using the same criteria to the 26 diseases, creating division into three groups. One cluster contained only diseases transmitted by arthropods (e.g. African horse sickness and Rift Valley fever) and considered difficult to eradicate because technologies for managing parasitic arthropods on a large scale are unavailable, while a second cluster contained diseases that have been widely considered to be eradicable [rinderpest, canine rabies, the Eurasian serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (O, A, C & Asia 1) and peste des petits ruminants] as well classical swine fever, Newcastle disease and lumpy skin disease. The third cluster contained all the other TADs evaluated with the implication that these constitute TADs that would be more difficult to eradicate. However, it is acknowledged that the scores assigned in the course of this study may be biased. The point is that the system proposed offers an objective method for assessment of the technical eradicability of TADs; the rankings and groupings derived during this study are less important than the provision of a systematic approach for further development and evaluation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Recording and accounting for stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saan, M.; Boeije, H.; Sattoe, J.; Bal, M.; Missler, M.A.; van Wesel, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting

  19. Kefir and Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids.

  20. Moving toward the automation of the systematic review process: a summary of discussions at the second meeting of International Collaboration for the Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Annette M; Tsafnat, Guy; Gilbert, Stephen B; Thayer, Kristina A; Wolfe, Mary S

    2018-01-09

    The second meeting of the International Collaboration for Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR) was held 3-4 October 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ICASR is an interdisciplinary group whose aim is to maximize the use of technology for conducting rapid, accurate, and efficient systematic reviews of scientific evidence. Having automated tools for systematic review should enable more transparent and timely review, maximizing the potential for identifying and translating research findings to practical application. The meeting brought together multiple stakeholder groups including users of summarized research, methodologists who explore production processes and systematic review quality, and technologists such as software developers, statisticians, and vendors. This diversity of participants was intended to ensure effective communication with numerous stakeholders about progress toward automation of systematic reviews and stimulate discussion about potential solutions to identified challenges. The meeting highlighted challenges, both simple and complex, and raised awareness among participants about ongoing efforts by various stakeholders. An outcome of this forum was to identify several short-term projects that participants felt would advance the automation of tasks in the systematic review workflow including (1) fostering better understanding about available tools, (2) developing validated datasets for testing new tools, (3) determining a standard method to facilitate interoperability of tools such as through an application programming interface or API, and (4) establishing criteria to evaluate the quality of tools' output. ICASR 2016 provided a beneficial forum to foster focused discussion about tool development and resources and reconfirm ICASR members' commitment toward systematic reviews' automation.

  1. The systematic review team: contributions of the health sciences librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L

    2011-01-01

    While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes.

  2. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and upd...

  3. Association of Childhood Obesity and the Immune System: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Roufarshbaf, Mohammad; Soheili, Sina; Payghambarzadeh, Farzaneh; Masjedi, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has become a serious health problem over the past decades. As the immune system is greatly affected by excess weight, in this review of reviews, we discuss the findings of review articles about the relationship between childhood/maternal obesity and children's immune system. We searched English-language articles in PubMed, Scopus, ISI Thomson Reuters, and Google Scholar databases. All relevant reviews, either systematic or narrative, were retrieved. Then their quality was assessed by using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews and International Narrative Systematic Assessment tools, respectively. In the final step, 26 reviews were included. Our review suggests that childhood obesity is associated with extensive changes in the serum levels of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and proteins, as well as the number of immune cells and their behavior. Therefore, it might cause or exacerbate diseases such as asthma, allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Moreover, childhood obesity may reduce the immune system responsiveness to vaccines and microorganisms. Furthermore, studies suggest that maternal obesity increases the risk of asthma in offspring. Future studies are needed to determine different associations of childhood obesity with allergy, atophic dermatitis, and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Pylera for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleem, Aamir

    2012-02-01

    An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.

  5. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney A. Townsend

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  6. Reporting Quality of Search Methods in Systematic Reviews of HIV Behavioral Interventions (2000–2010): Are the Searches Clearly Explained, Systematic and Reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary M.; DeLuca, Julia B.; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M.

    2018-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an essential tool for researchers, prevention providers and policy makers who want to remain current with the evidence in the field. Systematic review must adhere to strict standards, as the results can provide a more objective appraisal of evidence for making scientific decisions than traditional narrative reviews. An integral component of a systematic review is the development and execution of a comprehensive systematic search to collect available and relevant information. A number of reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure quality publications of systematic reviews. These guidelines provide the essential elements to include in the review process and report in the final publication for complete transparency. We identified the common elements of reporting guidelines and examined the reporting quality of search methods in HIV behavioral intervention literature. Consistent with the findings from previous evaluations of reporting search methods of systematic reviews in other fields, our review shows a lack of full and transparent reporting within systematic reviews even though a plethora of guidelines exist. This review underscores the need for promoting the completeness of and adherence to transparent systematic search reporting within systematic reviews. PMID:26052651

  7. Living systematic reviews: an emerging opportunity to narrow the evidence-practice gap.

    OpenAIRE

    Julian H Elliott; Tari Turner; Ornella Clavisi; James Thomas; Julian P T Higgins; Chris Mavergames; Russell L Gruen

    2014-01-01

    The current difficulties in keeping systematic reviews up to date leads to considerable inaccuracy, hampering the translation of knowledge into action. Incremental advances in conventional review updating are unlikely to lead to substantial improvements in review currency. A new approach is needed. We propose living systematic review as a contribution to evidence synthesis that combines currency with rigour to enhance the accuracy and utility of health evidence. Living systematic reviews are ...

  8. Side effects are incompletely reported among systematic reviews in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E; Schlub, Timothy; Bero, Lisa; Moher, David; Tovey, David; George, Jacob; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    Systematic reviews are an integral component of evidence-based health care. However, little is known on how well they report the potential harms of interventions. We assessed the reporting of harms in recently published systematic reviews of interventions relevant to clinical gastroenterology. We identified all systematic reviews of randomized trials of gastroenterology interventions published from 2008 to 2012 in highly cited gastroenterology and general medical journals. We adapted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for harms and assessed qualitative and quantitative parameters of harms reporting. Regression analyses determined predictors of more comprehensive harms reporting. In total, 78 systematic reviews were identified, with 72 published in gastroenterology journals and six in general medical journals. Overall, one in three systematic reviews (26/78, 33%) did not refer to harms of the intervention anywhere in the article. Less than half of the studies included adverse events as an outcome measure, and data on absolute rates of adverse events were only provided in 28%. Most (65%) did not include any figures or tables on adverse event; however, all included these on efficacy outcomes (mean, 3 and range, 1-7). Regression analyses indicated that the use of reporting guidelines was significantly associated with better harms reporting (P = 0.04). The reporting of harms in gastroenterology systematic reviews is largely inadequate and highly asymmetrical compared with the reporting of benefits. We suggest that review authors routinely assess both efficacy and harms outcomes of an intervention and that reporting guidelines specifically targeting harms reporting be developed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  10. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-10-24

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries' right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even in the absence of climate policies and with current technologies. On the other hand, bringing everybody to a still modest expenditure level of at least $2.97 PPP would have long-term consequences on achieving emission targets. Compared to the reference mitigation pathway, eradicating extreme poverty increases the effort by 2.8% whereas bringing everybody to at least $2.97 PPP would increase the required mitigation rate by 27%. Given that the top 10% global income earners are responsible for 36% of the current carbon footprint of households; the discourse should address income distribution and the carbon intensity of lifestyles.

  11. Haematological factors in the management of adult epistaxis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A; Biffen, A; Pilkington, N; Arrick, L; Williams, R J; Smith, M E; Smith, M; Birchall, J

    2017-12-01

    The management of epistaxis requires an understanding of haematological factors that may complicate its treatment. This systematic review includes six distinct reviews examining the evidence supporting epistaxis-specific management strategies relating to warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants, heparin, antiplatelet agents, tranexamic acid and transfusion. A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised methodology and search strategy. Limited numbers of articles were identified in each systematic review, with level 1 evidence only regarding the use of tranexamic acid. No studies met the inclusion criteria within the heparin, direct oral anticoagulants or transfusion systematic reviews. Many studies were limited by small sample sizes and significant risk of bias. The management of major bleeding and transfusion practice is well documented in national guidance from multiple sources. The guidelines include advice on anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and tranexamic acid. In the absence of more specific evidence, these guidelines should be applied in the management of epistaxis.

  12. The evidence base for psychological interventions for rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Louise; Barley, Elizabeth; Galloway, James; Georgopoulou, Sofia; Sturt, Jackie

    2018-06-01

    Psychological interventions are an important but often overlooked adjunctive treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Findings from systematic reviews of psychological interventions for this patient group are conflicting. A systematic review of reviews can explain inconsistencies between studies and provide a clearer understanding of the effects of interventions. To: 1) determine the effectiveness of psychological interventions in improving biopsychosocial outcomes for adults with rheumatoid arthritis, 2) determine the relationship between the intensity of the psychological interventions (number of sessions, duration of sessions, duration of intervention) on outcomes, and 3) assess the impact of comparator group (usual care, education only) on outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of reviews using the following inclusion criteria: 1) randomised controlled trials of psychological interventions (including cognitive behavioural therapy, supportive counselling, psychotherapy, self-regulatory techniques, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and disclosure therapy) provided as an adjunct to medication, 2) included rheumatoid arthritis patients aged ≥ 18 years, 3) reported findings for at least 1 of the primary outcomes: pain, fatigue, psychological status, functional disability and disease activity and 4) were published in English between January 2000 and March 2015 (updated January 2018). We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. Reference lists were searched for additional reviews. Study selection and 50% of the quality assessments were performed by two independent reviewers. Methodological quality was measured using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews checklist. Data extraction was conducted by one reviewer using a predesigned data extraction form. Eight systematic reviews met inclusion criteria (one review was excluded due to

  13. Alignment of systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness with global burden-of-disease data: a bibliographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Hall, Alix; Williams, Christopher M; Skelton, Eliza; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Dellavalle, Robert P; Hilton, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-07-01

    Systematic reviews of high-quality evidence are used to inform policy and practice. To improve community health, the production of such reviews should align with burden of disease. This study aims to assess if the volume of research output from systematic reviews proportionally aligns with burden of disease assessed using percentages of mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). A cross-sectional audit of reviews published between January 2012 and August 2013 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) was undertaken. Percentages of mortality and DALYs were obtained from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Standardised residual differences (SRD) based on percentages of mortality and DALYs were calculated, where conditions with SRD of more than or less than three were considered overstudied or understudied, respectively. 1029 reviews from CDSR and 1928 reviews from DARE were examined. There was a significant correlation between percentage DALYs and systematic reviews published in CDSR and DARE databases (CDSR: r=0.68, p=0.001; DARE: r=0.60, psystematic reviews published in either database (CDSR: r=0.34, p=0.14; DARE: r=0.22, p=0.34). Relative to percentage of mortality, mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal conditions and other non-communicable diseases were overstudied. Maternal disorders were overstudied relative to percentages of mortality and DALYs in CDSR. The focus of systematic reviews is moderately correlated with DALYs. A number of conditions may be overstudied relative to percentage of mortality particularly in the context of health and medical reviews. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Complementary therapies for peripheral arterial disease: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-07-01

    While peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects a considerable proportion of patients in the primary care setting, there is a high level of use of complementary treatment options. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of any type of complementary therapy for peripheral arterial disease. A systematic review was performed. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, and the Cochrane Library until December 2004. Hand-searches of medical journals and bibliographies were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, data extraction, the assessment of methodologic quality and validation were performed independently by the two reviewers. Data from randomized controlled trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which based their findings on the results of randomized controlled trials were included. Seven systematic reviews and meta-analyses and three additional randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The evidence relates to acupuncture, biofeedback, chelation therapy, CO(2)-applications and the dietary supplements Allium sativum (garlic), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), omega-3 fatty acids, padma 28 and Vitamin E. Most studies included only patients with peripheral arterial disease in Fontaine stage II (intermittent claudication). The reviewed RCTs, systematic reviews and meta-analyses which based their findings on the results of RCTs suggest that G. biloba is effective compared with placebo for patients with intermittent claudication. Evidence also suggests that padma 28 is effective for intermittent claudication, although more data are required to confirm these findings. For all other complementary treatment options there is no evidence beyond reasonable doubt to suggest effectiveness for patients with peripheral arterial disease.

  16. Preventing gender-based violence victimization in adolescent girls in lower-income countries: Systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Krause, Kathleen H; Miedema, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review of reviews synthesizes evidence on the impact of interventions to prevent violence against adolescent girls and young women 10-24 years (VAWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Theories of women's empowerment and the social ecology of multifaceted violence frame the review. Child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC), child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and sexual violence were focal outcomes. Our review followed the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for the systematic review of reviews, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for a systematic review of recent intervention studies. Of 35 reviews identified between June 7 and July 20, 2016, 18 were non-duplicate systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality. Half of these 18 reviews focused on interventions to prevent IPV. Only four focused on adolescents, of which three focused on child marriage and one compared findings across early and late adolescence. None focused on interventions to prevent child abuse or sexual violence in adolescent/young women. From these 18 reviews and the supplemental systematic review of intervention studies, data were extracted on 34 experimental or quasi-experimental intervention studies describing 28 interventions. Almost all intervention studies measured impacts on one form of VAWG. Most studies assessed impacts on child marriage (n = 13), then IPV (n = 8), sexual violence (n = 4), child abuse (n = 3), and FGMC (n = 3). Interventions included 1-6 components, involving skills to enhance voice/agency (n = 17), social networks (n = 14), human resources like schooling (n = 10), economic incentives (n = 9), community engagement (n = 11) and community infrastructure development (n = 6). Bundled individual-level interventions and multilevel interventions had more favorable impacts on VAWG. Interventions involving community engagement, skill-building to

  17. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies....... This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should...... controlled trials or systematic reviews....

  18. Poliomyelitis eradication – the review of notifications from the years 2010-2016 sent to National IHR Focal Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewski, Franciszek; Janiec, Janusz; Henszel, Łukasz; Izdebski, Radosław; Polański, Piotr

    Polio eradication programme was launched after World Health Assembly in 1988. Despite considerable decrease in reported cases it still constitutes a significant public health threat. All WHO member state is bound to appoint National IHR Focal Point, which operates based on International Health Regulations (2005), which were enacted during the World Health Assembly in 2005. In Poland National IHR Focal Point (IHR NFP in Poland) operates since 2007, and is located in the Department of Epidemiology, in National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Its aim is to acquire, assess and to transfer information on events which may constitute an international threat for the public health. IHR NFP in Poland has an access to WHO’s Event Information Site (EIS) as well as Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) with reading-only credentials. Both platforms are of limited access (1). Among recipients of IHR NFP notifications and information are experts from many fields such as epidemiology, virology, bacteriology and others- related to specific type of notification, as well as specific and appointed members of state’s administration and authorities in the field of public health. In this paper a review of notifications on the subject of poliomyelitis, sent to IHR NFP in Poland in the years 2010-2016 is presented, as well as references to poliomyelitis epidemiological situation were made based on the date from Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

  19. The Use of Highly Sensitive Detection Methods for Eradication of Plasmodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2017-01-01

    The key to a successful malaria eradication program is highly efficient detection of Plasmodium infected people followed by appropriate treatment to avoid spreading of the parasite. We will discuss some of the demands that such a detection method needs to fulfill and review some of the advantages...... and disadvantages of currently available detection methods...

  20. A Youth Suicide Prevention Plan for Canada: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kathryn; Rhodes, Anne E; Duda, Stephanie; Cheung, Amy H; Manassis, Katharina; Links, Paul; Mushquash, Christopher; Braunberger, Peter; Newton, Amanda S; Kutcher, Stanley; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Santos, Robert G; Manion, Ian G; Mclennan, John D; Bagnell, Alexa; Lipman, Ellen; Rice, Maureen; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We conducted an expedited knowledge synthesis (EKS) to facilitate evidence-informed decision making concerning youth suicide prevention, specifically school-based strategies and nonschool-based interventions designed to prevent repeat attempts. Systematic review of review methods were applied. Inclusion criteria were as follows: systematic review or meta-analysis; prevention in youth 0 to 24 years; peer-reviewed English literature. Review quality was determined with AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews). Nominal group methods quantified consensus on recommendations derived from the findings. No included review addressing school-based prevention (n = 7) reported decreased suicide death rates based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled cohort studies (CCSs), but reduced suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and proxy measures of suicide risk were reported (based on RCTs and CCSs). Included reviews addressing prevention of repeat suicide attempts (n = 14) found the following: emergency department transition programs may reduce suicide deaths, hospitalizations, and treatment nonadherence (based on RCTs and CCSs); training primary care providers in depression treatment may reduce repeated attempts (based on one RCT); antidepressants may increase short-term suicide risk in some patients (based on RCTs and meta-analyses); this increase is offset by overall population-based reductions in suicide associated with antidepressant treatment of youth depression (based on observational studies); and prevention with psychosocial interventions requires further evaluation. No review addressed sex or gender differences systematically, Aboriginal youth as a special population, harm, or cost-effectiveness. Consensus on 6 recommendations ranged from 73% to 100%. Our EKS facilitates decision maker access to what is known about effective youth suicide prevention interventions. A national research-to-practice network that links researchers and decision

  1. Factors that influence the implementation of e-health: a systematic review of systematic reviews (an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Ross

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant potential for e-health to deliver cost-effective, quality health care, and spending on e-health systems by governments and healthcare systems is increasing worldwide. However, there remains a tension between the use of e-health in this way and implementation. Furthermore, the large body of reviews in the e-health implementation field, often based on one particular technology, setting or health condition make it difficult to access a comprehensive and comprehensible summary of available evidence to help plan and undertake implementation. This review provides an update and re-analysis of a systematic review of the e-health implementation literature culminating in a set of accessible and usable recommendations for anyone involved or interested in the implementation of e-health. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published between 2009 and 2014. Studies were included if they were systematic reviews of the implementation of e-health. Data from included studies were synthesised using the principles of meta-ethnography, and categorisation of the data was informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results Forty-four reviews mainly from North America and Europe were included. A range of e-health technologies including electronic medical records and clinical decision support systems were represented. Healthcare settings included primary care, secondary care and home care. Factors important for implementation were identified at the levels of the following: the individual e-health technology, the outer setting, the inner setting and the individual health professionals as well as the process of implementation. Conclusion This systematic review of reviews provides a synthesis of the literature that both acknowledges the multi-level complexity of e-health implementation and provides an accessible and useful guide for those

  2. Book review: Doing a Systematic Review: A Student's Guide, edited by Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry & Rumona Dickson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Writing a systematic review is one of the most challenging aspects of the academic process. With Doing a Systematic Review: A Student’s Guide, Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry and Rumona Dickson aim to offer a detailed and effective guide to writing a successful systematic review. This takes the book

  3. Health economics of rubella: a systematic review to assess the value of rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Morgan, Ian; Levin, Ann

    2013-04-29

    Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However, in order for research to support the

  4. Is compensation "bad for health"? A systematic meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-01-01

    There is a common perception that injury compensation has a negative impact on health status, and systematic reviews supporting this thesis have been used to influence policy and practice decisions. This study evaluates the quality of the empirical evidence of a negative correlation between injury compensation and health outcomes, based on systematic reviews involving both verifiable and non-verifiable injuries. Systematic meta-review (a "review of reviews"). PubMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, EconLit, Lexis, ABI/INFORM, The Cochrane Library, and the AHRQ EPC were searched from the date of their inception to August 2008, and hand searches were conducted. Selection criteria were established a priori. Included systematic reviews examined the impact of compensation on health, involved adults, were published in English and used a range of outcome measures. Two investigators independently applied standard instruments to evaluate the methodological quality of the included reviews. Data on compensation scheme design (i.e., the intervention) and outcome measures were also extracted. Eleven systematic reviews involving verifiable and non-verifiable injuries met the inclusion criteria. Nine reviews reported an association between compensation and poor health outcomes. All of them were affected by the generally low quality of the primary (observational) research in this field, the heterogeneous nature of compensation laws (schemes) and legal processes for seeking compensation, and the difficulties in measuring compensation in relation to health. Notwithstanding the limitations of the research in this field, one higher quality review examining a single compensation process and relying on primary studies using health outcome (rather than proxy) measures found strong evidence of no association between litigation and poor health following whiplash, challenging the general belief that legal processes have a negative impact on health status. Moves to alter scheme design and

  5. Antenatal HIV Testing in Sub-Saharan Africa During the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals: A Systematic Review Using the PEN-3 Cultural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Nwaozuru, Ucheoma; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2018-01-01

    This study systematically explored the barriers and facilitators to routine antenatal HIV testing from the perspective of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa during the implementation period of the Millennium Development Goals. Articles published between 2000 and 2015 were selected after reviewing the title, abstract, and references. Twenty-seven studies published in 11 African countries were eligible for the current study and reviewed. The most common barriers identified include communication with male partners, patient convenience and accessibility, health system and health-care provider issues, fear of disclosure, HIV-related stigma, the burden of other responsibilities at home, and the perception of antenatal care as a "woman's job." Routine testing among pregnant women is crucial for the eradication of infant and child HIV infections. Further understanding the interplay of social and cultural factors, particularly the role of women in intimate relationships and the influence of men on antenatal care seeking behaviors, is necessary to continue the work of the Millennium Development Goals.

  6. Susceptibility to fraud in systematic reviews: lessons from the Reuben case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marret, Emmanuel; Elia, Nadia; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dr. Scott Reuben allegedly fabricated data. The authors of the current article examined the impact of Reuben reports on conclusions of systematic reviews. METHODS: The authors searched in ISI Web of Knowledge systematic reviews citing Reuben reports. Systematic reviews were grouped...... of patients from Reuben reports was less than 30% of all patients included in the analysis. Of 8 qualitative category III reviews, all authors agreed that one would certainly have reached different conclusions without Reuben reports. For another 4, the authors' judgment was not unanimous. CONCLUSIONS...... into one of three categories: I, only cited but did not include Reuben reports; II, retrieved and considered, but eventually excluded Reuben reports; III, included Reuben reports. For quantitative systematic reviews (i.e., meta-analyses), a relevant difference was defined as a significant result becoming...

  7. Wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation, and implications for polio eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, P L

    2017-02-01

    Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important. In this paper circulation of both wild virus and VDPVs is reviewed and implications for the polio eradication endgame are discussed. Between April and May 2016 OPV2 cessation has been implemented globally, in a coordinated switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV. In order to decrease the risk for cVDPV2 re-emergence inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has been introduced in the routine vaccine schedule of all countries. The likelihood of re-emergence of cVDPVs should markedly decrease with time after OPV cessation, but silent circulation of polioviruses cannot be ruled out even a long time after cessation. For this reason, immunity levels against polioviruses should be kept as high as possible in the population by the use of IPV, and both clinical and environmental surveillance should be maintained at a high level.

  8. Sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis : quality of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cindy M. A.; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Roeder, Esther; van Wijk, Roy G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    Systematic reviews have gained popularity as a way to combine the increasing amount of research information. This study assessed the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for allergic rhinitis in children, published since 2000. Eligible reviews were

  9. [Medical indications for acupuncture: Systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme

    2016-09-16

    Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Association of Cardiovascular Disorders and Falls : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data

  11. Advancing Systematic Review Workshop (December 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted an event to examine the systematic review process for development and applications of methods for different types of evidence (epidemiology, animal toxicology, and mechanistic). The presentations are also available.

  12. Systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits. Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making......Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two...

  13. The economics of malaria control and elimination: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Avanceña, Anton L V; Hatefi, Arian

    2016-12-12

    Declining donor funding and competing health priorities threaten the sustainability of malaria programmes. Elucidating the cost and benefits of continued investments in malaria could encourage sustained political and financial commitments. The evidence, although available, remains disparate. This paper reviews the existing literature on the economic and financial cost and return of malaria control, elimination and eradication. A review of articles that were published on or before September 2014 on the cost and benefits of malaria control and elimination was performed. Studies were classified based on their scope and were analysed according to two major categories: cost of malaria control and elimination to a health system, and cost-benefit studies. Only studies involving more than two control or elimination interventions were included. Outcomes of interest were total programmatic cost, cost per capita, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). All costs were converted to 2013 US$ for standardization. Of the 6425 articles identified, 54 studies were included in this review. Twenty-two were focused on elimination or eradication while 32 focused on intensive control. Forty-eight per cent of studies included in this review were published on or after 2000. Overall, the annual per capita cost of malaria control to a health system ranged from $0.11 to $39.06 (median: $2.21) while that for malaria elimination ranged from $0.18 to $27 (median: $3.00). BCRs of investing in malaria control and elimination ranged from 2.4 to over 145. Overall, investments needed for malaria control and elimination varied greatly amongst the various countries and contexts. In most cases, the cost of elimination was greater than the cost of control. At the same time, the benefits of investing in malaria greatly outweighed the costs. While the cost of elimination in most cases was greater than the cost of control, the benefits greatly outweighed the cost. Information from this review provides guidance to

  14. Aetiology of auditory dysfunction in amusia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Daniel Aj

    2013-04-24

    Amusia, a music-specific agnosia, is a disorder of pitch interval analysis and pitch direction change recognition which results in a deficit in musical ability. The full range of aetiological factors which cause this condition is unknown, as is each cause's frequency. The objective of this study was to identify all causes of amusia, and to measure each of their frequencies. systematic review was conducted by search of multiple databases for articles related to the aetiology of amusic auditory dysfunction. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed, utilizing the PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flowchart methodology. Retrospective medical database review. evidence yielded from the systematic review process. The initial search protocol identified 5723 articles. Application of a classification review filter and exclusion of irrelevant or duplicates led to the initial identification of 56 relevant studies which detailed 301 patients. However, these studies were of poor quality. Because of this, synthesis and statistical analysis were not appropriate. Although initially a large number of relevant studies were identified, and might point in future to potential diagnostic categories, it was not appropriate to synthesise and analyse them due to poor quality, considerable heterogeneity and small numbers. This suggests that large, high quality studies focussed directly on understanding the aetiology of amusia are required.

  15. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Application of systematic review methodology to the field of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Lau, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach to synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas, and formulate scientific consensus statements. The use of systematic reviews for nutrition-related topics is more recent. Systematic reviews provide independently conducted comprehensive and objective assessments of available information addressing precise questions. This approach to summarizing available data is a useful tool for identifying the state of science including knowledge gaps and associated research needs, supporting development of science-based recommendations and guidelines, and serving as the foundation for updates as new data emerge. Our objective is to describe the steps for performing systematic reviews and highlight areas unique to the discipline of nutrition that are important to consider in data assessment. The steps involved in generating systematic reviews include identifying staffing and planning for outside expert input, forming a research team, developing an analytic framework, developing and refining research questions, defining eligibility criteria, identifying search terms, screening abstracts according to eligibility criteria, retrieving articles for evaluation, constructing evidence and summary tables, assessing methodological quality and applicability, and synthesizing results including performing meta-analysis, if appropriate. Unique and at times challenging, nutrition-related considerations include baseline nutrient exposure, nutrient status, bioequivalence of bioactive compounds, bioavailability, multiple and interrelated biological functions, undefined nature of some interventions, and uncertainties in intake assessment. Systematic reviews are a valuable and independent component of decision-making processes by groups responsible for developing science-based recommendations

  17. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  18. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C

    2016-03-01

    The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmes against long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Kean, John M.; Stringer, Lloyd D.; Cáceres-Barrios, Carlos; Hendrichs, Jorge; Reyes-Flores, Jesus; Dominiak, Bernard C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  20. Hospitality and Tourism Online Review Research: A Systematic Analysis and Heuristic-Systematic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hlee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With tremendous growth and potential of online consumer reviews, online reviews of hospitality and tourism are now playing a significant role in consumer attitude and buying behaviors. This study reviewed and analyzed hospitality and tourism related articles published in academic journals. The systematic approach was used to analyze 55 research articles between January 2008 and December 2017. This study presented a brief synthesis of research by investigating content-related characteristics of hospitality and tourism online reviews (HTORs in different market segments. Two research questions were addressed. Building upon our literature analysis, we used the heuristic-systematic model (HSM to summarize and classify the characteristics affecting consumer perception in previous HTOR studies. We believe that the framework helps researchers to identify the research topic in extended HTORs literature and to point out possible direction for future studies.

  1. Living systematic reviews: an emerging opportunity to narrow the evidence-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Julian H; Turner, Tari; Clavisi, Ornella; Thomas, James; Higgins, Julian P T; Mavergames, Chris; Gruen, Russell L

    2014-02-01

    The current difficulties in keeping systematic reviews up to date leads to considerable inaccuracy, hampering the translation of knowledge into action. Incremental advances in conventional review updating are unlikely to lead to substantial improvements in review currency. A new approach is needed. We propose living systematic review as a contribution to evidence synthesis that combines currency with rigour to enhance the accuracy and utility of health evidence. Living systematic reviews are high quality, up-to-date online summaries of health research, updated as new research becomes available, and enabled by improved production efficiency and adherence to the norms of scholarly communication. Together with innovations in primary research reporting and the creation and use of evidence in health systems, living systematic review contributes to an emerging evidence ecosystem.

  2. A systematic map of systematic reviews in pediatric dentistry--what do we really know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingegerd A Mejàre

    Full Text Available To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry.A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps.Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low.There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.

  3. The final stages of the global eradication of poliomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Grassly, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by t...

  4. Eradication of common mynas Acridotheres tristis from Denis Island, Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feare, Chris J; van der Woude, Jildou; Greenwell, Phill; Edwards, Hannah A; Taylor, Jenni A; Larose, Christine S; Ahlen, Per-Arne; West, Jack; Chadwick, Will; Pandey, Smita; Raines, Katherine; Garcia, Fernando; Komdeur, Jan; de Groene, Arjan

    2017-02-01

    In Seychelles, the common myna has been shown to have a negative impact on endangered endemic birds on Denis Island, interfering with breeding attempts and attacking adult endemic birds at their nests. This stimulated an attempt to eradicate the island's mynas. The eradication was undertaken in three phases, overall killing 1186 mynas and lasting 5 years. Decoy trapping was the most effective method for catching mynas, but the last birds were shot. Decoy trapping was compromised by catches of non-target species. Data collection from killed birds indicated that trapping did not favour either sex, and that most breeding occurred during the wetter season, November to March. Eradication of mynas from small tropical islands is feasible. The Denis Island eradication was prolonged by difficulties in management and staffing. Using volunteers, the cost of the eradication was similar to that of eradicating rodents from the island. In future eradication attempts in Seychelles, possible food stress during the drier season (May to September) might facilitate trapping at this time. Habitat management, especially the removal of short mown grass, could enhance eradication progress. Continued monitoring is needed to confirm eradication and detect any immigration, and also to record responses in the endemic birds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Attention should be given to multiplicity issues in systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, R.; Bunce, C.; Clarke, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples...

  6. Coordination as a best practice from the polio eradication initiative: Experiences from five member states in the African region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeibunor, Joseph; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    As part of the efforts to eradicate polioviruses in the African Region, structures were put in place to ensure coordinated mobilization and deployment of resources within the framework of the global polio eradication initiative (PEI). The successes of these structures made them not only attractive to other public health interventions, but also caused them to be deployed to the response efforts of other diseases interventions, without any systematic documentation. This article documents the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in the African Region of World Health Organization METHODS: We reviewed the contributions of PEI coordination units to other public health interventions in five countries in the African Region. The analysis identified significant involvement of PEI coordination structures in the implementation of routine immunization programs in all the countries analyzed. Similarly, maternal and child health programs were planned, implemented, monitored and evaluation the Inter-Agency Coordination Committees of the PEI programs in the different countries. The hubs system used in PEI in Chad facilitated the efficient coordination of resources for immunization and other public health interventions in Chad. Similarly, in the Democratic Republic of Congo PEI led coordination activities benefited other public health programs like disease control and the national nutrition program, the national malaria control program, and the tuberculosis control program. In Nigeria, the polio Expert Review Committee effectively deployed the Emergency Operation Center for the implementation of prioritized strategies and activities of the National Polio Eradication Emergency Plan, and it was utilized in the response to Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in the country. The PEI-led coordination systems are thus recognized as having made significant contribution to the coordination and delivery of other public health interventions in the African

  7. Polio eradication initiative in India: deconstructing the GPEI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamala, C; Mittal, Onkar; Dasgupta, Rajib; Priya, Ritu

    2005-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) promised eradication of polio by the year 2000 and certification of eradication by 2005. The first deadline is already a matter of history. With the reporting of polio cases in 2004, the new deadline for polio eradication by 2004 is postponed further. This article seeks to argue that the scientific and technical bodies spear-heading the GPEI, including the WHO, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, have formulated a conceptually flawed strategy and that it is not weak political will that is the central obstacle in this final push for global eradication. The validity of the claims of "near success" by the proponents of the GPEI is also examined in detail. By taking India as a case study, the authors examine the achievements of the GPEI in nine years of intense effort since 1995. They conclude that the GPEI is yet another exercise in mismanaging the health priorities and programs in developing countries in the era of globalization.

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Anan; Hungin, A Pali S; Wooff, David; Childs, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and its association with the disease. Design Systematic review of studies reporting the prevalence of H pylori in patients with and without gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Data sources Four electronic databases, searched to November 2001, experts, pharmaceutical companies, and journals. Main outcome measure Odds ratio for prevalence of H pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Results 20 studies were included. The pooled estimate of the odds ratio for prevalence of H pylori was 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.78), indicating a lower prevalence in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between studies. Location seemed to be an important factor, with a much lower prevalence of H pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in studies from the Far East, despite a higher overall prevalence of infection than western Europe and North America. Year of study was not a source of heterogeneity. Conclusion The prevalence of H pylori infection was significantly lower in patients with than without gastro-oesophageal reflux, with geographical location being a strong contributor to the heterogeneity between studies. Patients from the Far East with reflux disease had a lower prevalence of H pylori infection than patients from western Europe and North America, despite a higher prevalence in the general population. What is already known on this topicThe relation between H pylori infection and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is controversialStudies on the prevalence of H pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease have given conflicting resultsRecent guidelines recommend eradication of H pylori in patients requiring long term proton pump inhibitors, essentially for reflux diseaseWhat this study addsDespite heterogeneity between studies, the prevalence of H pylori was

  9. Factor Analysis in Assessing the Research Methodology Quality of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many high quality systematic reviews available from medical journals, data bases and other electronic sources differ in quality and provide different answers to the same question. The literature recommended the use of a checklist type approach, which exceeds many of the problems associated with measurements. Aim: This study proposes to identify in a checklist type approach the most commonly used factors (from a methodological point of view in assessing the quality of systematic reviews, and then mirror the actual stage of medical writing. We want to analyze the factors’ occurrence and / or their development in the text and in the abstract of systematic reviews published in 2011. Methods: The present study randomly selected only free full text systematic reviews published in 2011, systematic reviews found in Pubmed and in Cochrane Database. The most commonly used factors were identified in PRISMA statement and quality measurement tools. Results: The evaluated systematic reviews mentioned or developed several of the factors studied. Only 78% of the papers surveyed have used the correct IMRAD format and 59% of them have mentioned the sample size used. The correspondence between the content of the paper and its abstract is summarized in the proportion of 54.63% and 51.85% for the two sets of factors, and it can lead to scarce appreciation of the article provided that only abstracts are read. Conclusions: Researchers do not properly take into consideration scientific articles and assessment tools used for quality evaluation. They should place more value over methodological factors which help assess systematic review quality, while journals form the only party who can enforce quality standards in medical writing.

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery: A complex systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Margareta; Klinge, Anna; Klinge, Björn; Tranæus, Sofia; Lund, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    Objective In orthognathic surgery, antibiotics are prescribed to reduce the risk of postoperative infection. However, there is lack of consensus over the appropriate drug, the dose and duration of administration. The aim of this complex systematic review was to assess the effect of antibiotics on postoperative infections in orthognathic surgery. Methods Both systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed. Medline (OVID), The Cochrane Library (Wiley) and EMBASE (embase.com), PubMed (non-indexed articles) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) publications were searched. The primary studies were assessed using GRADE and the systematic reviews by AMSTAR. Results Screening of abstracts yielded 6 systematic reviews and 36 primary studies warranting full text scrutiny. In total,14 primary studies were assessed for risk of bias. Assessment of the included systematic reviews identified two studies with a moderate risk of bias, due to inclusion in the meta-analyses of primary studies with a high risk of bias. Quality assessment of the primary studies disclosed one with a moderate risk of bias and one with a low risk. The former compared a single dose of antibiotic with 24 hour prophylaxis using the same antibiotic; the latter compared oral and intravenous administration of antibiotics. Given the limited number of acceptable studies, no statistical analysis was undertaken, as it was unlikely to contribute any relevant information. Conclusion With respect to antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery, most of the studies to date have been poorly conducted and reported. Thus scientific uncertainty remains as to the preferred antibiotic and the optimal duration of administration. PMID:29385159

  11. Living systematic reviews: an emerging opportunity to narrow the evidence-practice gap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian H Elliott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The current difficulties in keeping systematic reviews up to date leads to considerable inaccuracy, hampering the translation of knowledge into action. Incremental advances in conventional review updating are unlikely to lead to substantial improvements in review currency. A new approach is needed. We propose living systematic review as a contribution to evidence synthesis that combines currency with rigour to enhance the accuracy and utility of health evidence. Living systematic reviews are high quality, up-to-date online summaries of health research, updated as new research becomes available, and enabled by improved production efficiency and adherence to the norms of scholarly communication. Together with innovations in primary research reporting and the creation and use of evidence in health systems, living systematic review contributes to an emerging evidence ecosystem.

  12. Systematic overview finds variation in approaches to investigating and reporting on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Ochodo, Eleanor A.; de Groot, Joris A. H.; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2014-01-01

    To examine how authors explore and report on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. A cohort of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests was systematically identified. Data were extracted on whether an exploration of the sources of heterogeneity was undertaken,

  13. State Administrative Legal Review on the Bill of Retraction Law of Corrupted Assets in Eradication Effort of Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puji Simatupang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.

  14. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende

    Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.

  15. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW SEBAGAI METODE PENELITIAN UNTUK MENSINTESIS HASIL-HASIL PENELITIAN (SEBUAH PENGANTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Siswanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual research is not enough to provide inputs for policy improvement. In order that research results can be used for policy inputs, a synthesis from a number research results and packaging them into actionable messages are important methodologies that have to be mastered by researchers. By conducting synthesis of research results with the use of systematic review and packaging it in the form of actionable messages (policy brief and policy paper, a more comprehensive and balanced fact can be presented for policy makers. Systematic review comprises quantitative technique (meta-analysis and qualitative technique (meta-synthesis. However, systematic review should be distinguished with a review that is not systematic (traditional review. Both quantitative and qualitative review possess a systematic and sequential step as that of general research methodology. Quantitative approach is identified as meta-analysis, whereas qualitative approach is identified as meta-synthesis. Within meta-synthesis, there are at least two approaches, i.e. meta-ethnography and meta-aggregation. Within the perspective of research translation, meta-aggregation is an important method in comprehending a number of qualitative research results, for providing more comprehensive and balanced facts to policy makers. Key words: systematic review, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, meta-ethnography, meta-aggregation

  16. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-04-01

    Compliance with conventional weight-management programs is notoriously poor, and a plethora of over-the-counter slimming aids are sold with claims of effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses on the effectiveness of dietary supplements in reducing body weight. The study was a systematic review. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library until March 2003. Hand searches of medical journals, the authors' own files, and bibliographies of identified articles were conducted. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodologic quality were performed independently by the 2 reviewers. To be included, trials were required to be randomized and double-blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of dietary supplements were included if they were based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. Five systematic reviews and meta-analyses and 25 additional trials were included and reviewed. Data on the following dietary supplements were identified: chitosan, chromium picolinate, Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, glucomannan, guar gum, hydroxy-methylbutyrate, plantago psyllium, pyruvate, yerba maté, and yohimbe. The reviewed studies provide some encouraging data but no evidence beyond a reasonable doubt that any specific dietary supplement is effective for reducing body weight. The only exceptions are E. sinica- and ephedrine-containing supplements, which have been associated with an increased risk of adverse events. The evidence for most dietary supplements as aids in reducing body weight is not convincing. None of the reviewed dietary supplements can be recommended for over-the-counter use.

  17. Intervention quality is not routinely assessed in Cochrane systematic reviews of radiation therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Mohamad R; James, Melissa L; Hickey, Brigid E

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to maximise the benefits from clinical trials involving technological interventions such as radiation therapy. High compliance to the quality assurance protocols is crucial. We assessed whether the quality of radiation therapy intervention was evaluated in Cochrane systematic reviews. We searched 416 published Cochrane systematic reviews and identified 67 Cochrane systematic reviews that investigated radiation therapy or radiotherapy as an intervention. For each systematic review, either quality assurance or quality control for the intervention was identified by a description of such processes in the published systematic reviews. Of the 67 Cochrane systematic reviews studied, only two mentioned quality assurance or quality control. Our findings revealed that 65 of 67 (97%) Cochrane systematic reviews of radiation therapy interventions failed to consider the quality of the intervention. We suggest that advice about the evaluation of intervention quality be added to author support materials. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. Pharmacologic treatment in pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korterink, Judith J.; Rutten, Juliette M. T. M.; Venmans, Leonie; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review literature assessing efficacy and safety of pharmacologic treatments in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). MEDLINE and Cochrane Database were searched for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials investigating

  19. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  20. Publication bias in dermatology systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakpo, Paul; Vassar, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in dermatology provide high-level evidence for clinicians and policy makers that influence clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. One methodological problem with systematic reviews is the under representation of unpublished studies. This problem is due in part to publication bias. Omission of statistically non-significant data from meta-analyses may result in overestimation of treatment effect sizes which may lead to clinical consequences. Our goal was to assess whether systematic reviewers in dermatology evaluate and report publication bias. Further, we wanted to conduct our own evaluation of publication bias on meta-analyses that failed to do so. Our study considered systematic reviews and meta-analyses from ten dermatology journals from 2006 to 2016. A PubMed search was conducted, and all full-text articles that met our inclusion criteria were retrieved and coded by the primary author. 293 articles were included in our analysis. Additionally, we formally evaluated publication bias in meta-analyses that failed to do so using trim and fill and cumulative meta-analysis by precision methods. Publication bias was mentioned in 107 articles (36.5%) and was formally evaluated in 64 articles (21.8%). Visual inspection of a funnel plot was the most common method of evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was present in 45 articles (15.3%), not present in 57 articles (19.5%) and not determined in 191 articles (65.2%). Using the trim and fill method, 7 meta-analyses (33.33%) showed evidence of publication bias. Although the trim and fill method only found evidence of publication bias in 7 meta-analyses, the cumulative meta-analysis by precision method found evidence of publication bias in 15 meta-analyses (71.4%). Many of the reviews in our study did not mention or evaluate publication bias. Further, of the 42 articles that stated following PRISMA reporting guidelines, 19 (45.2%) evaluated for publication bias. In

  1. Speech and orthodontic appliances: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyu; Wan, Jia; You, Lun

    2018-01-23

    Various types of orthodontic appliances can lead to speech difficulties. However, speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances have not been sufficiently investigated by an evidence-based method. The aim of this study is to outline the scientific evidence and mechanism of the speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies focusing on the effect of orthodontic appliances on speech were included. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, complemented by a manual search. The types of orthodontic appliances, the affected sounds, and duration period of the speech disturbances were extracted. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the quality of non-randomized studies, and the bias of RCT was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No meta-analyses could be performed due to the heterogeneity in the study designs and treatment modalities. Among 448 screened articles, 13 studies were included (n = 297 patients). Different types of orthodontic appliances such as fixed appliances, orthodontic retainers and palatal expanders could influence the clarity of speech. The /i/, /a/, and /e/ vowels as well as /s/, /z/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /r/, and /ʃ/ consonants could be distorted by appliances. Although most speech impairments could return to normal within weeks, speech distortion of the /s/ sound might last for more than 3 months. The low evidence level grading and heterogeneity were the two main limitations in this systematic review. Lingual fixed appliances, palatal expanders, and Hawley retainers have an evident influence on speech production. The /i/, /s/, /t/, and /d/ sounds are the primarily affected ones. The results of this systematic review should be interpreted with caution and more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are

  2. Practice-level quality improvement interventions in primary care: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Ryan; Stokes, Tim; Marshall, Tom

    2015-11-01

    To present an overview of effective interventions for quality improvement in primary care at the practice level utilising existing systematic reviews. Quality improvement in primary care involves a range of approaches from the system-level to patient-level improvement. One key setting in which quality improvement needs to occur is at the level of the basic unit of primary care--the individual general practice. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners to have access to an overview of the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions available in this setting. A tertiary evidence synthesis was conducted (a review of systematic reviews). A systematic approach was used to identify and summarise published literature relevant to understanding primary-care quality improvement at the practice level. Quality assessment was via the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool for systematic reviews, with data extraction identifying evidence of effect for the examined interventions. Included reviews had to be relevant to quality improvement at the practice level and relevant to the UK primary-care context. Reviews were excluded if describing system-level interventions. A range of measures across care structure, process and outcomes were defined and interpreted across the quality improvement interventions. Audit and feedback, computerised advice, point-of-care reminders, practice facilitation, educational outreach and processes for patient review and follow-up all demonstrated evidence of a quality improvement effect. Evidence of an improvement effect was higher where baseline performance was low and was particularly demonstrated across process measures and measures related to prescribing. Evidence was not sufficient to suggest that multifaceted approaches were more effective than single interventions. Evidence exists for a range of quality improvement interventions at the primary-care practice level. More research is required to determine the use and impact of quality

  3. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2011-August 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio, which led to the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In 2012, however, the transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) continued uninterrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, leading the World Health Assembly to declare completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2011-August 2012, as of September 9, 2012. During 2011, 80 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 25 WPV cases in 2010; 17 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 34 WPV cases for the same period in 2011. In Pakistan, 198 WPV cases were confirmed in 2011, compared with 144 WPV cases in 2010; 30 WPV cases were confirmed during January-August 2012, compared with 88 WPV cases during the same period in 2011. During January 2011-August 2012, no WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, and four confirmed WPV3 cases and one case with coinfection of WPV3 and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported in Pakistan. Violence targeting vaccinators has occurred previously in Afghanistan and recently in Pakistan. To progress further toward interruption of WPV transmission within their countries and across their shared border, the governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan might consider reviewing the implementation of their national emergency action plans and determine how to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within conflict-affected areas of both countries.

  4. WHO Polio Eradication Program: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 WHO re-evaluated its main goals of the polio eradication program. A modernization program was accepted with regard to the National vaccination calendars worldwide which includes a step-by-step refusal from the living polio vaccine (OPV and a total transition to the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV starting in 2019. Because of the total eradication of the polio type 2 virus, as an intermediate step the 3-valence OPV was substituted with the 2-valence OPV, which does not contain the type 2 polio virus, in April 2016. The aim of the article is to present the history of polio prevention and to state the reasons for the adoption of 3rd edition of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The new approaches were defined for eradication of wild polio virus type 1 and vaccine related strains. A new strategy for global switch to inactivated polio vaccine by 2019 was suggested.

  5. Management of anaphylaxis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.

    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted

  6. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Bouzid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  7. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Hooper, Lee; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  8. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Gina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews

  9. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis : A systematic overview of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter W; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Lin, Sandra Y; Maggina, Vivian; Oude Elberink, J Hanneke N G; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the

  10. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict.

  11. Descriptors Used to Define Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, T.P.; Saragiotto, B.T.; Hespanhol, L.C.; Yeung, S.S.; Lopes, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the used to define running-related musculoskeletal injury and to analyze the implications of different definitions on the results of studies. BACKGROUND: Studies have developed their own definitions of running-related

  12. Statistical Multiplicity in Systematic Reviews of Anaesthesia Interventions: A Quantification and Comparison between Cochrane and Non-Cochrane Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Vejlby, Alexandra Hedvig Damgaard; Hansen, Sara Bohnstedt

    2011-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analyses often contain many statistical tests. This multiplicity may increase the risk of type I error. Few attempts have been made to address the problem of statistical multiplicity in systematic reviews. Before the implications are properly considered, the size...... of systematic reviews and aimed to assess whether this quantity is different in Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews....... of the issue deserves clarification. Because of the emphasis on bias evaluation and because of the editorial processes involved, Cochrane reviews may contain more multiplicity than their non-Cochrane counterparts. This study measured the quantity of statistical multiplicity present in a population...

  13. Aromatherapy for health care: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Jiae; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-03-01

    Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oil from herbs, flowers, and other plants. The aim of this overview was to provide an overview of systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy. We searched 12 electronic databases and our departmental files without restrictions of time or language. The methodological quality of all systematic reviews was evaluated independently by two authors. Of 201 potentially relevant publications, 10 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the systematic reviews were of poor methodological quality. The clinical subject areas were hypertension, depression, anxiety, pain relief, and dementia. For none of the conditions was the evidence convincing. Several SRs of aromatherapy have recently been published. Due to a number of caveats, the evidence is not sufficiently convincing that aromatherapy is an effective therapy for any condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Brucellosis Eradication Program in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    area he represents. There are three major lawsuits that had impact on the Texas Brucel - losis Program b6cause of questionable constitutional authority...I.- 20 3. Surveillance Prugram The surveillance program element has been a part of the brucel - losis eradication program since it originated in 1959...infected herds selected to participate in the survey. The survey questions were designed to determine if the brucel - losis eradication prugram

  15. Self-injury and externalizing pathology: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Background During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. Methods A systematic l...

  16. Methodologic quality of meta-analyses and systematic reviews on the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease outcomes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Garcia, Marissa; Bihuniak, Jessica D; Kenny, Anne; Kerstetter, Jane

    2016-03-01

    Several systematic reviews/meta-analyses published within the past 10 y have examined the associations of Mediterranean-style diets (MedSDs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, these reviews have not been evaluated for satisfying contemporary methodologic quality standards. This study evaluated the quality of recent systematic reviews/meta-analyses on MedSD and CVD risk outcomes by using an established methodologic quality scale. The relation between review quality and impact per publication value of the journal in which the article had been published was also evaluated. To assess compliance with current standards, we applied a modified version of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTARMedSD) quality scale to systematic reviews/meta-analyses retrieved from electronic databases that had met our selection criteria: 1) used systematic or meta-analytic procedures to review the literature, 2) examined MedSD trials, and 3) had MedSD interventions independently or combined with other interventions. Reviews completely satisfied from 8% to 75% of the AMSTARMedSD items (mean ± SD: 31.2% ± 19.4%), with those published in higher-impact journals having greater quality scores. At a minimum, 60% of the 24 reviews did not disclose full search details or apply appropriate statistical methods to combine study findings. Only 5 of the reviews included participant or study characteristics in their analyses, and none evaluated MedSD diet characteristics. These data suggest that current meta-analyses/systematic reviews evaluating the effect of MedSD on CVD risk do not fully comply with contemporary methodologic quality standards. As a result, there are more research questions to answer to enhance our understanding of how MedSD affects CVD risk or how these effects may be modified by the participant or MedSD characteristics. To clarify the associations between MedSD and CVD risk, future meta-analyses and systematic reviews should not only follow methodologic

  17. Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute's hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers labeled as systematic reviews need to be considered in terms

  18. Determinants of patient satisfaction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Savino, Matteo Mario; Amenta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    A large number of studies have addressed the detection of patient satisfaction determinants, and the results are still inconclusive. Furthermore, it is known that contradicting evidence exists across patient satisfaction studies. This article is the second part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction for further operationalisation procedures. The aim of this work was to systematically identify and review evidence regarding determinants of patient satisfaction between 1980 and 2014, and to seek the reasons for contradicting results in relationships between determinants and patient satisfaction in the literature to design a further robust measurement system for patient satisfaction. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus in October 2014. Studies published in full in peer reviewed journals between January 1980 and August 2014 and in the English language were included. We included 109 articles for the synthesis. We found several number of determinants of patient satisfaction investigated in a wide diversity of studies. However, study results were varied due to no globally accepted formulation of patient satisfaction and measurement system. Health care service quality indicators were the most influential determinants of patient satisfaction across the studies. Among them, health providers' interpersonal care quality was the essential determinant of patient satisfaction. Sociodemographic characteristics were the most varied in the review. The strength and directions of associations with patient satisfaction were found inconsistent. Therefore, person-related characteristics should be considered to be the potential determinants and confounders simultaneously. The selected studies were not able to show all potential characteristics which may have had

  19. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  20. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  1. Quality of reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes: a systematic review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; Mink, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical and public health decisions are informed by reviews, which makes the quality of reviews an important scientific concern. Objective: We systematically assessed the quality of published reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and health, which is a controversial topic that is important to public health. Design: We performed a search of PubMed and Cochrane databases and a hand search of reference lists. Studies that were selected were published reviews and meta-analyses (June 2001 to June 2011) of epidemiologic studies of the relation between SSBs and obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease. A standardized data-abstraction form was used. Review quality was assessed by using the validated instrument AMSTAR (assessment of multiple systematic reviews), which is a one-page tool with 11 questions. Results: Seventeen reviews met our inclusion and exclusion criteria: obesity or weight (16 reviews), diabetes (3 reviews), metabolic syndrome (3 reviews), and coronary heart disease (2 reviews). Authors frequently used a strictly narrative review (7 of 17 reviews). Only 6 of 17 reviews reported quantitative data in a table format. Overall, reviews of SSBs and health outcomes received moderately low–quality scores by the AMSTAR [mean: 4.4 points; median: 4 points; range: 1–8.5 points (out of a possible score of 11 points)]. AMSTAR scores were not related to the conclusions of authors (8 reviews reported an association with a mean AMSTAR score of 4.1 points; 9 reviews with equivocal conclusions scored 4.7 points; P value = 0.84). Less than one-third of published reviews reported a comprehensive literature search, listed included and excluded studies, or used duplicate study selection and data abstraction. Conclusion: The comprehensive reporting of epidemiologic evidence and use of systematic methodologies to interpret evidence were underused in published reviews on SSBs and health. PMID:21918218

  2. Diabetes-related information-seeking behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Silke; Schiereck, Tim; Grobosch, Sandra; Paduch, Andrea; Droste, Sigrid; Halbach, Sarah; Icks, Andrea

    2017-10-24

    Information-seeking behaviour is necessary to improve knowledge on diabetes therapy and complications. Combined with other self-management skills and autonomous handling of the disease, it is essential for achieving treatment targets. However, a systematic review addressing this topic is lacking. The aims of this systematic review were to identify and analyse existing knowledge of information-seeking behaviour: (1) types information-seeking behaviour, (2) information sources, (3) the content of searched information, and (4) associated variables that may affect information-seeking behaviour. The systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) requirements. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CCMed, ERIC, Journals@OVID, Deutsches Ärzteblatt and Karlsruher virtueller Katalog (KvK) databases were searched. Publications dealing with information-seeking behaviour of people with diabetes mellitus published up to June 2015 were included. A forward citation tracking was performed in September 2016 and June 2017. Additionally, an update of the two main databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL) was conducted, considering studies published up to July 2017. Studies published in languages other than English or German were excluded, as well as letters, short reports, editorials, comments and discussion papers. A study selection and the critical appraisal of the selected studies were performed independently by two reviewers. A third reviewer was consulted if any disagreement was found. Data extraction and content analysis were performed using selected dimensions of Wilson's 'model of information behaviour'. Twenty-six studies were included. Five 'types of information-seeking behaviour' were identified, e.g. passive and active search. The 'Internet' and 'healthcare professionals' were the most frequently reported sources. 'Diet', 'complications', 'exercise' and 'medications and

  3. Customer Journeys: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Kvale, Knut

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – Customer journeys has become an increasingly important topic in service management and design. The study reviews customer journey terminology and approaches within the research literature prior to 2013, mainly from the fields of design, management, and marketing. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted as a systematic literature review. Searches in Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, ACM Digital Library, and ScienceDirect identified 45 papers for analysis. The pa...

  4. Recording and accounting for stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saan, Marieke C; Boeije, Hennie R; Sattoe, Jane N T; Bal, Marjolijn I; Missler, Marjolein; van Wesel, Floryt

    2015-06-01

    The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting for Stakeholder Involvement (TRASI). We demonstrate the TRASI in two worked examples. In one project, the reviewers collaborated with the end-user and an expert during the literature search. In the other project, experts were consulted to generate keywords before searching the literature. In the first project, disagreements about keywords to identify studies for the research topic were solved by informal discussion. In the second project, difficulties arose in reaching agreement between experts and reviewers about the core construct and the meaningful keywords associated with it. The TRASI aids researchers to systematically and transparently account for the decisions taken. The TRASI supports information specialists and librarians to shape the search strategy to match the objectives of the review. We propose the TRASI as a first step in resolving the challenges of detecting and reconstructing stakeholder influences. Potential new applications of the TRASI are discussed. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  5. Systematic reviews of herbal medicines--an annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials on herbal medicines. METHODS: Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of

  6. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Harjeet K; Sircar, Keya; Kaur, Gurbani; Marwah, Muneet

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review on the role of myofibroblasts in progression of oral cancer. The myofibroblast is essential for the integrity of the mammalian body by virtue of its role in wound healing, but it also plays a negative role due to their role in promoting tumor development. Systematic review. Bibliographic searches were conducted in several electronic databases using all publications in PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, CancerLit, Google scholar, and Cochrane CCTR between 1990 and June 2015. The search of all publications from various electronic databases revealed 1,371 citations. The total number of studies considered for systematic review was 43. The total number of patients included in the studies was 990. Myofibroblasts are a significant component in stroma of oral cancer cases, though not identified in all cases. This systematic review shows that clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemistry tests have correlated the presence of high myofibroblast count in oral cancer cell stroma. Myofibroblasts play a significant role in oral cancer invasion and progression. Various studies have demonstrated their association with oral cancer. This review tends to highlight their role in the pathogenesis of oral cancer over the decade. Sekhon HK, Sircar K, Kaur G, Marwah M. Evaluation of Role of Myofibroblasts in Oral Cancer: A Systematic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):233-239.

  7. Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandy; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Stansfield, Claire; Stewart, Ruth

    2015-04-26

    Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews. A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally. International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for

  8. Research on Teaching Practicum--A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tony; Çakmak, Melek; Gündüz, Müge; Busher, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review research which focuses on research studies into the school practicum. In order to identify the main issues and also to provide a contemporary picture of practicum, 114 studies published on the topic are reviewed and analysed in terms of: (i) aims, (ii) main participants, (iii)…

  9. A systematic review of peri-operative melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L P H; Werner, M U; Rosenberg, J

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials of peri-operative melatonin. We included 24 studies of 1794 participants that reported eight peri-operative outcomes: anxiety; analgesia; sleep quality; oxidative stress; emergence behaviour; anaesthetic requirements; steal induction......%, respectively. Qualitative reviews suggested the melatonin improved sleep quality and emergence behaviour, and might be capable of reducing oxidative stress and anaesthetic requirements....

  10. Epidemiology of bruxism in adults: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Winocur, E.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Paesani, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To perform a systematic review of the literature dealing with the prevalence of bruxism in adult populations. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed to identify all peer-reviewed English-language papers dealing with the prevalence assessment of either awake or

  11. Broadening Public Participation in Systematic Reviews: A Case Example Involving Young People in Two Configurative Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…

  12. Inuit Elderly: A Systematic Review of Peer Reviewed Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  13. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the dat....../treatment protocols. The use of chlorhexidine, fluoride mouth rinses as well as composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC), and amalgam restorations over conventional GIC in post head and neck radiation patients who are compliant fluoride users is recommended....

  14. Systematic reviews in pain research: methodology refined

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...

  15. The use of systematic reviews in clinical trials and narrative reviews in dermatology: is the best evidence being used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Taboada, A; Aranegui, B; García-Doval, I; Dávila-Seijo, P; González-Castro, U

    2014-04-01

    Systematic reviews -the most comprehensive type of literature review-should be taken into account before a clinical trial or a narrative review on a topic is undertaken. The objective of this study was to describe the use of systematic reviews in clinical trials and narrative reviews in dermatology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We selected randomized clinical trials and narrative reviews from the dermatological clinical research journals identified as most important (according to impact factor) and from Actas Dermosifiliográficas, and studied the bibliographies to ascertain whether the authors made reference to existing systematic reviews and Cochrane reviews. Of the 72 clinical trials for which a systematic review was available, 24 (33.3%) cited at least 1 review; reference was made to relevant Cochrane reviews in 15.6% of cases and to non-Cochrane reviews in 32%. In the case of the 24 narrative reviews for which a review was available, 10 (41.7%) cited at least 1 review; Cochrane reviews were cited in 20% and non-Cochrane reviews in 35.3%.In the case of Actas Dermosifiliográficas, very few clinical trials were found and the findings for narrative review articles were similar to those observed for the other journals. Systematic reviews are not often taken into account by the authors of clinical trials and narrative reviews and this may lead to redundant studies and publications. Authors appear to use Cochrane reviews even less than non-Cochrane reviews and are therefore ignoring one of the main sources of available evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. Healthcare costs of asthma comorbidities: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkh, Karim El; Nwaru, Bright I; Griffiths, Chris; Patel, Anita; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-05-30

    Asthma is associated with many comorbid conditions that have the potential to impact on its management, control and outcomes. These comorbid conditions have the potential to impact on healthcare expenditure. We plan to undertake a systematic review to synthesise the evidence on the healthcare costs associated with asthma comorbidity. We will systematically search the following electronic databases between January 2000 and January 2017: National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database, Google Scholar, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Global Health, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. We will search the references in the identified studies for additional potential papers. Additional literature will be identified by contacting experts in the field and through searching of registers of ongoing studies. The review will include cost-effectiveness and economic modelling/evaluation studies and analytical observational epidemiology studies that have investigated the healthcare costs of asthma comorbidity. Two reviewers will independently screen studies and extract relevant data from included studies. Methodological quality of epidemiological studies will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool, while that of economic evaluation studies will be assessed using the Drummond checklist. This protocol has been published in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (No. CRD42016051005). As there are no primary data collected, formal NHS ethical review is not necessary. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. CRD42016051005. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  17. Systematic review and a meta-analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We systematically reviewed the available literature and meta-analyzed the data which was specialized in Down syndrome (DS) diagnosis with proteomic techniques. Pubmed, EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect searches for relevant articles published from inception until July 2010 were obtained and ten articles were selected.

  18. A review of sheep pox and goat pox: perspective of their control and eradication in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Mirzaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep pox and goat pox (SGP of small ruminants are most severing pox diseases of domestic animals, and they have a very important role in agricultural economy. Thereby, SGP are included in the notifiable diseases of Office International des Epizooties (OIE. Time and place distributions of these diseases are relatively stable worldwide. Transportation of infected animals could spread these viruses to the new areas. In most countries in which capripox are enzootic, vaccination and bio-security are the only two main control measures. SGP control programs have been commenced about 50 years ago in Iran, and there is a good situation for eradication of it. In this review, readers can find latest information in some essential aspects of etiology, distribution, transmission, and control of the diseases. Besides, current situation of the disease in Iran has been described, which perhaps are similar to the other endemic areas in the world.

  19. Study-design selection criteria in systematic reviews of effectiveness of health systems interventions and reforms: A meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-03-01

    At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Bulló; Patricia López-Uriarte; Patricia Casas-Agustench; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó

    2009-01-01

    Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review In recent years, nuts have received special attention because of their potential role in preventing cardiovascular disease. Because nuts are very rich in total fat that can potentially be oxidized and their skins contain several antioxidants, studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress. This review evaluates the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals or humans to analyze the effect of...

  1. Healthcare Applications of Smart Watches. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Chien; Fu, Chia-Ming; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Turner, Anne M

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize research studies involving the use of smart watch devices for healthcare. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was chosen as the systematic review methodology. We searched PubMed, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ACM, and IEEE Xplore. In order to include ongoing clinical trials, we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov. Two investigators evaluated the retrieved articles for inclusion. Discrepancies between investigators regarding article inclusion and extracted data were resolved through team discussion. 356 articles were screened and 24 were selected for review. The most common publication venue was in conference proceedings (13, 54%). The majority of studies were published or presented in 2015 (19, 79%). We identified two registered clinical trials underway. A large proportion of the identified studies focused on applications involving health monitoring for the elderly (6, 25%). Five studies focused on patients with Parkinson's disease and one on cardiac arrest. There were no studies which reported use of usability testing before implementation. Most of the reviewed studies focused on the chronically ill elderly. There was a lack of detailed description of user-centered design or usability testing before implementation. Based on our review, the most commonly used platform in healthcare research was that of the Android Wear. The clinical application of smart watches as assistive devices deserves further attention. Smart watches are unobtrusive and easy to wear. While smart watch technology supplied with biosensors has potential to be useful in a variety of healthcare applications, rigorous research with their use in clinical settings is needed.

  2. Information retrieval for the Cochrane systematic reviews: the case of breast cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Cognetti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systematic reviews are fundamental sources of knowledge on the state-of-the-art interventions for various clinical problems. One of the essential components in carrying out a systematic review is that of developing a comprehensive literature search. Materials and methods. Three Cochrane systematic reviews published in 2012 were retrieved using the MeSH descriptor breast neoplasms/surgery, and analyzed with respect to the information sources used and the search strategies adopted. In March 2014, an update of one of the reviews retrieved was also considered in the study. Results. The number of databases queried for each review ranged between three and seven. All the reviews reported the search strategies adopted, however some only partially. All the reviews explicitly claimed that the searches applied no language restriction although sources such as the free database Lilacs (in Spanish and Portuguese was not consulted. Conclusion. To improve the quality it is necessary to apply standards in carrying out systematic reviews (as laid down in the MECIR project. To meet these standards concerning literature searching, professional information retrieval specialist staff should be involved. The peer review committee in charge of evaluating the publication of a systematic review should also include specialists in information retrieval for assessing the quality of the literature search.

  3. Information retrieval for the Cochrane systematic reviews: the case of breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognetti, Gaetana; Grossi, Laura; Lucon, Antonio; Solimini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are fundamental sources of knowledge on the state-of-the-art interventions for various clinical problems. One of the essential components in carrying out a systematic review is that of developing a comprehensive literature search. Three Cochrane systematic reviews published in 2012 were retrieved using the MeSH descriptor breast neoplasms/surgery, and analyzed with respect to the information sources used and the search strategies adopted. In March 2014, an update of one of the reviews retrieved was also considered in the study. The number of databases queried for each review ranged between three and seven. All the reviews reported the search strategies adopted, however some only partially. All the reviews explicitly claimed that the searches applied no language restriction although sources such as the free database Lilacs (in Spanish and Portuguese) was not consulted. To improve the quality it is necessary to apply standards in carrying out systematic reviews (as laid down in the MECIR project). To meet these standards concerning literature searching, professional information retrieval specialist staff should be involved. The peer review committee in charge of evaluating the publication of a systematic review should also include specialists in information retrieval for assessing the quality of the literature search.

  4. [The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Fujioka, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major pathogen of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are recognized as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. Many studies reported that H. pylori eradication had the preventive effect of gastric cancer. Moreover many studies mentioned the improvement of gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia. Two meta-analysis indicated the improvement of atrophic gastritis but not of intestinal metaplasia. In our study, intestinal metaplasia improved at lesser curvature of the corpus six years after eradication. H. pylori eradication has benefit for gastric cancer prevention provably due to improvement of the precancerous lesion such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Especially, H. pylori eradication before the appearance of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia has been considered to be effective in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, improvement or elimination of chronic gastritis with H. pylori eradication might have possibility of gastric cancer inhibition.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis: tools for the information age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The amount of available biomedical information is vast and growing. Natural limitations of the way clinicians and researchers approach this treasure trove of information comprise difficulties locating the information, and once located, cognitive biases may lead to inappropriate use of the information. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent important tools in the information age to improve knowledge and action. Systematic reviews represent a census approach to identifying literature to avoid non-response bias. They are a necessary prelude to producing combined quantitative summaries of associations or treatment effects. Meta-analysis comprises the arithmetical techniques for producing combined summaries from individual study reports. Careful, thoughtful and rigorous use of these tools is likely to enhance knowledge and action. Use of standard guidelines, such as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, or embedding these activities within collaborative groups such as the Cochrane Collaboration, are likely to lead to more useful systematic review and meta-analysis reporting. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Can systematic reviews inform GMO risk assessment and risk management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKohl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a gold standard for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper we 1 consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO and 2 critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  7. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  8. Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retondario, Anabelle; Fernandes, Ricardo; Rockenbach, Gabriele; Alves, Mariane de Almeida; Bricarello, Liliana Paula; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome is a multi-causal disease. Its treatment includes lifestyle changes with a focus on weight loss. This systematic review assessed the association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected mainly from four databases: PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane), Scopus and Web of Knowledge. Keywords related to metabolic syndrome, selenium, as well as metabolic syndrome features were searched. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. A systematic review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (n. 42016046321). Two reviewers independently screened 2957 abstracts. Six studies were included to perform data extraction with standardized spreadsheets. The risk of bias was assessed by using specific tools according to the design of the relevant studies. An assessment was carried out based on the appropriateness of the study reports accordingly to STROBE and the CONSORT-based checklist for each study design. Three studies found no association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome; two of them found an inverse association; and one study found a direct association between Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome. One study also showed an inverse association between Selenium intake and the prevalence of high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia in women. Overall, based on the argumentation and results of this study, it is possible to conclude that Selenium intake and metabolic syndrome are not clearly associated in adults and elderly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Bibliometrics of systematic reviews: analysis of citation rates and journal impact factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are important for informing clinical practice and health policy. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliometrics of systematic reviews and to determine the amount of variance in citations predicted by the journal impact factor (JIF) alone and combined with several other characteristics. Methods We conducted a bibliometric analysis of 1,261 systematic reviews published in 2008 and the citations to them in the Scopus database from 2008 to June 2012. Potential predictors of the citation impact of the reviews were examined using descriptive, univariate and multiple regression analysis. Results The mean number of citations per review over four years was 26.5 (SD ±29.9) or 6.6 citations per review per year. The mean JIF of the journals in which the reviews were published was 4.3 (SD ±4.2). We found that 17% of the reviews accounted for 50% of the total citations and 1.6% of the reviews were not cited. The number of authors was correlated with the number of citations (r = 0.215, P reviews published in the top quartile of JIFs (≥ 5.16) received citations in the bottom quartile (eight or fewer), whereas 9% of reviews published in the lowest JIF quartile (≤ 2.06) received citations in the top quartile (34 or more). Six percent of reviews in journals with no JIF were also in the first quartile of citations. Conclusions The JIF predicted over half of the variation in citations to the systematic reviews. However, the distribution of citations was markedly skewed. Some reviews in journals with low JIFs were well-cited and others in higher JIF journals received relatively few citations; hence the JIF did not accurately represent the number of citations to individual systematic reviews. PMID:24028376

  10. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.

  11. Complex systematic review - Perioperative antibiotics in conjunction with dental implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bodil; Hultin, Margareta; Tranaeus, Sofia; Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Klinge, Björn

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to revisit the available scientific literature regarding perioperative antibiotics in conjunction with implant placement by combining the recommended methods for systematic reviews and complex systematic reviews. A search of Medline (OVID), The Cochrane Library (Wiley), EMBASE, PubMed and Health technology assessment (HTA) organizations was performed, in addition to a complementary hand-search. Selected systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed using GRADE and AMSTAR, respectively. A meta-analysis was performed. The literature search identified 846 papers of which 10 primary studies and seven systematic reviews were included. Quality assessment of the systematic reviews revealed two studies of moderate risk of bias and five with high risk of bias. The two systematic reviews of moderate risk of bias stated divergent numbers needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient from implant failure. Four of the primary studies comparing antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo were estimated to be of low, or moderate, risk of bias and subjected to meta-analysis. The NNT was 50 (pooled RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18, 0.84; P = 0.02). None of these four studies individually show a statistical significant benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, narrative analysis of the studies eligible for meta-analysis reveals clinical heterogeneity regarding intervention and smoking. Antibiotic prophylaxis in conjunction with implant placement reduced the risk for implant loss by 2%. However, the sub-analysis of the primary studies suggests that there is no benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in uncomplicated implant surgery in healthy patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. National, Regional and Global Certification Bodies for Polio Eradication: A Framework for Verifying Measles Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblina Datta, S; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Reef, Susan; William Schluter, W; Adams, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The Global Certification Commission (GCC), Regional Certification Commissions (RCCs), and National Certification Committees (NCCs) provide a framework of independent bodies to assist the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in certifying and maintaining polio eradication in a standardized, ongoing, and credible manner. Their members meet regularly to comprehensively review population immunity, surveillance, laboratory, and other data to assess polio status in the country (NCC), World Health Organization (WHO) region (RCC), or globally (GCC). These highly visible bodies provide a framework to be replicated to independently verify measles and rubella elimination in the regions and globally. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Inadvertent P-hacking among trials and systematic reviews of the effect of progestogens in pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Hibberd, R; Asemota, N; Thornton, J G

    2017-06-01

    Progestogens have been evaluated in numerous trials and meta-analyses, many of which concluded they were effective. However, two large trials PROMISE and OPPTIMUM have recently concluded that progesterone was ineffective. This raises the possibility that earlier studies and reviews had been biased by either selective publication or selective choice of outcomes, so called "P-hacking". To compare the findings all progestogen trials and systematic reviews with those of trials with pre-registered primary outcomes which avoided selective outcome reporting. Search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library and trial registries. Registration PROSPERO CRD42016035303. Systematic reviews of randomised trials comparing progestogen with placebo in pregnancy and the individual trials included in those reviews. The subset of trials reporting a pre-registered primary outcome were compared with the totality of trials and reviews. For reviews all outcomes were included. For individual trials all outcomes reported in the systematic reviews were included. For the comparison group we recorded the registered primary outcome from trials that were either registered before they started, or registered during the recruitment phase and also double blind. Nineteen of twenty-nine meta-analyses concluded that progestogens were effective. Twenty-two trials reported their pre-registered primary outcomes. There was no effect of progesterone on primary registered dichotomous outcome RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.94-1.07). Only one of the 22 showed a nominally statistically significant benefit. When evaluated in registered double-blind trials with analysis restricted to predefined primary outcomes, progestational agents in pregnancy are ineffective. Progestogens to prevent pregnancy loss, an example of P-hacking. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Non-Surgical Interventions for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers

  15. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  16. The final stages of the global eradication of poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassly, Nicholas C

    2013-08-05

    The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by the recognition that vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must eventually cease because of the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. I describe the major challenges to wild poliovirus eradication, focusing on the poor immunogenicity of OPV in lower-income countries, the inherent limitations to the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, the international spread of poliovirus and resulting outbreaks, and the potential significance of waning intestinal immunity induced by OPV. I then focus on the challenges to eradicating all polioviruses, the problem of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus re-emergence after the cessation of oral vaccination. I document the role of research in the GPEI's response to these challenges and ultimately the feasibility of achieving a world without poliomyelitis.

  17. Physical activity in advanced cancer patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sonya S; Tan, Maria; Faily, Joan; Watanabe, Sharon M; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-03-11

    Progressive, incurable cancer is associated with increased fatigue, increased muscle weakness, and reduced physical functioning, all of which negatively impact quality of life. Physical activity has demonstrated benefits on cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients; however, its impact on these outcomes in end-stage cancer has not been established. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the potential benefits, harms, and effects of physical activity interventions on quality of life outcomes in advanced cancer patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on physical activity in advanced cancer patients will be undertaken. Empirical quantitative studies will be considered for inclusion if they present interventional or observational data on physical activity in advanced cancer patients. Searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases: CINAHL; CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); EMBASE; MEDLINE; PEDro: the Physiotherapy Evidence Database; PQDT; PsycInfo; PubMed; REHABDATA; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; and Web of Science, to identify relevant studies of interest. Additional strategies to identify relevant studies will include citation searches and evaluation of reference lists of included articles. Titles, abstracts, and keywords of identified studies from the search strategies will be screened for inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers will conduct quality appraisal using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP) and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A descriptive summary of included studies will describe the study designs, participant and activity characteristics, and objective and patient-reported outcomes. This systematic review will summarize the current

  18. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  19. Randomised controlled trials of veterinary homeopathy: characterising the peer-reviewed research literature for systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review of the research evidence in veterinary homeopathy has never previously been carried out. This paper presents the search methods, together with categorised lists of retrieved records, that enable us to identify the literature that is acceptable for future systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in veterinary homeopathy. All randomised and controlled trials of homeopathic intervention (prophylaxis and/or treatment of disease, in any species except man) were appraised according to pre-specified criteria. The following databases were systematically searched from their inception up to and including March 2011: AMED; Carstens-Stiftung Homeopathic Veterinary Clinical Research (HomVetCR) database; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Embase; Hom-Inform; LILACS; PubMed; Science Citation Index; Scopus. One hundred and fifty records were retrieved; 38 satisfied the acceptance criteria (substantive report of a clinical treatment or prophylaxis trial in veterinary homeopathic medicine randomised and controlled and published in a peer-reviewed journal), and were thus eligible for future planned systematic review. Approximately half of the rejected records were theses. Seven species and 27 different species-specific medical conditions were represented in the 38 papers. Similar numbers of papers reported trials of treatment and prophylaxis (n=21 and n=17 respectively) and were controlled against placebo or other than placebo (n=18, n=20 respectively). Most research focused on non-individualised homeopathy (n=35 papers) compared with individualised homeopathy (n=3). The results provide a complete and clarified view of the RCT literature in veterinary homeopathy. We will systematically review the 38 substantive peer-reviewed journal articles under the main headings: treatment trials; prophylaxis trials. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective systematic review registration: perspective from the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wees, Philip; Qaseem, Amir; Kaila, Minna; Ollenschlaeger, Guenter; Rosenfeld, Richard

    2012-02-09

    Clinical practice and public health guidelines are important tools for translating research findings into practice with the aim of assisting health practitioners as well as patients and consumers in health behavior and healthcare decision-making. Numerous programs for guideline development exist around the world, with growing international collaboration to improve their quality. One of the key features in developing trustworthy guidelines is that recommendations should be based on high-quality systematic reviews of the best available evidence. The review process used by guideline developers to identify and grade relevant evidence for developing recommendations should be systematic, transparent and unbiased. In this paper, we provide an overview of current international developments in the field of practice guidelines and methods to develop guidelines, with a specific focus on the role of systematic reviews. The Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) aims to stimulate collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to optimize the use of available evidence in guideline development and to increase efficiency in the guideline development process. Considering the significant benefit of systematic reviews for the guideline community, the G-I-N Board of Trustees supports the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) initiative. G-I-N also recently launched a Data Extraction Resource (GINDER) to present and share data extracted from individual studies in a standardized template. PROSPERO and GINDER are complementary tools to enhance collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to allow for alignment of activities and a reduction in duplication of effort.

  1. The quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, C B; Prinsen, C A C; Ricci Garotti, M G; Suman, A; de Vet, H C W; Mokkink, L B

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments are important tools for the selection of instruments for research and clinical practice. Our aim was to assess the quality of systematic reviews of health-related outcome measurement instruments and to determine whether the quality has improved since our previous study in 2007. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE between July 1, 2013, and June 19, 2014. The quality of the reviews was rated using a study-specific checklist. A total of 102 reviews were included. In many reviews the search strategy was considered not comprehensive; in only 59 % of the reviews a search was performed in EMBASE and in about half of the reviews there was doubt about the comprehensiveness of the search terms used for type of measurement instruments and measurement properties. In 41 % of the reviews, compared to 30 % in our previous study, the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. In 58 %, compared to 55 %, the quality of the included instruments was assessed. In 42 %, compared to 7 %, a data synthesis was performed in which the results from multiple studies on the same instrument were somehow combined. Despite a clear improvement in the quality of systematic reviews of outcome measurement instruments in comparison with our previous study in 2007, there is still room for improvement with regard to the search strategy, and especially the quality assessment of the included studies and the included instruments, and the data synthesis.

  2. Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.

  3. A systematic review of online learning programs for nurse preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi Vivien; Chan, Yah Shih; Tan, Kimberlyn Hui Shing; Wang, Wenru

    2018-01-01

    Nurse preceptors guide students to integrate theory into practice, teach clinical skills, assess clinical competency, and enhance problem solving skills. Managing the dual roles of a registered nurse and preceptor poses tremendous challenges to many preceptors. Online learning is recognized as an effective learning approach for enhancing nursing knowledge and skills. The systematic review aims to review and synthesise the online learning programs for preceptors. A systematic review was designed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Programs. Articles published between January 2000 and June 2016 were sought from six electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline OVID, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. All papers were reviewed and quality assessment was performed. Nine studies were finally selected. Data were extracted, organized and analysed using a narrative synthesis. The review identified five overarching themes: development of the online learning programs for nurse preceptors, major contents of the programs, uniqueness of each program, modes of delivery, and outcomes of the programs. The systematic review provides insightful information on educational programs for preceptors. At this information age, online learning offers accessibility, convenience, flexibility, which could of great advantage for the working adults. In addition, the online platform provides an alternative for preceptors who face challenges of workload, time, and support system. Therefore, it is paramount that continuing education courses need to be integrated with technology, increase the flexibility and responsiveness of the nursing workforce, and offer alternative means to take up courses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. e-Learning in Surgical Education: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Nithish; Brunckhorst, Oliver; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    e-Learning involves the delivery of educational content through web-based methods. Owing to work-hour restrictions and changing practice patterns in surgery, e-learning can offer an effective alternative to traditional teaching. Our aims were to (1) identify current modalities of e-learning, (2) assess the efficacy of e-learning as an intervention in surgical education through a systematic review of the literature, and (3) discuss the relevance of e-learning as an educational tool in surgical education. This is the first such systematic review in this field. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for relevant articles published until July 2014, using a predefined search strategy. The database search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 38 articles were found which met the inclusion criteria. In these studies, e-learning was used as an intervention in 3 different ways: (1) to teach cases through virtual patients (18/38); (2) to teach theoretical knowledge through online tutorials, or other means (18/38); and (3) to teach surgical skills (2/38). Nearly all of the studies reviewed report significant knowledge gain from e-learning; however, 2 in 3 studies did not use a control group. e-Learning has emerged as an effective mode of teaching with particular relevance for surgical education today. Published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this method; however, future work must involve well-designed randomized controlled trials comparing e-learning against standard teaching. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Hale, Andrew T; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Zuckerman, Scott L; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Over the last 2 decades, sport-related concussion (SRC) has garnered significant attention. Even with increased awareness and athlete education, sideline recognition and real-time diagnosis remain crucial. The need for an objective and standardized assessment of concussion led to the eventual development of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) during the Second International Conference on Concussion in Sport in 2004, which is now in its third iteration (SCAT3). In an effort to update our understanding of the most well-known sideline concussion assessment, the authors conducted a systematic review of the SCAT and the evidence supporting its use to date. METHODS English-language titles and abstracts published between 1995 and October 2015 were searched systematically across 4 electronic databases and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines adapted for the review of a heterogeneous collection of study designs. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they reported quantitative data on any iteration of the SCAT, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), or modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS) data at baseline or following concussion in an exclusively athlete population with any portion older than 13 years of age. Studies that included nonathletes, only children less than 13 years old, exclusively BESS data, exclusively symptom scale data, or a non-SCAT-related assessment were excluded. RESULTS The database search process yielded 549 abstracts, and 105 full-text articles were reviewed with 36 meeting criteria for inclusion. Nineteen studies were associated with the SAC, 1 was associated with the mBESS exclusively, and 16 studies were associated with a full iteration of the SCAT. The majority of these studies (56%) were prospective cohort studies. Male football players were the most common athletes studied. An analysis of the studies focused on

  7. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  8. SWIFT-Review: a text-mining workbench for systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brian E; Phillips, Jason; Miller, Kyle; Tandon, Arpit; Mav, Deepak; Shah, Mihir R; Holmgren, Stephanie; Pelch, Katherine E; Walker, Vickie; Rooney, Andrew A; Macleod, Malcolm; Shah, Ruchir R; Thayer, Kristina

    2016-05-23

    There is growing interest in using machine learning approaches to priority rank studies and reduce human burden in screening literature when conducting systematic reviews. In addition, identifying addressable questions during the problem formulation phase of systematic review can be challenging, especially for topics having a large literature base. Here, we assess the performance of the SWIFT-Review priority ranking algorithm for identifying studies relevant to a given research question. We also explore the use of SWIFT-Review during problem formulation to identify, categorize, and visualize research areas that are data rich/data poor within a large literature corpus. Twenty case studies, including 15 public data sets, representing a range of complexity and size, were used to assess the priority ranking performance of SWIFT-Review. For each study, seed sets of manually annotated included and excluded titles and abstracts were used for machine training. The remaining references were then ranked for relevance using an algorithm that considers term frequency and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modeling. This ranking was evaluated with respect to (1) the number of studies screened in order to identify 95 % of known relevant studies and (2) the "Work Saved over Sampling" (WSS) performance metric. To assess SWIFT-Review for use in problem formulation, PubMed literature search results for 171 chemicals implicated as EDCs were uploaded into SWIFT-Review (264,588 studies) and categorized based on evidence stream and health outcome. Patterns of search results were surveyed and visualized using a variety of interactive graphics. Compared with the reported performance of other tools using the same datasets, the SWIFT-Review ranking procedure obtained the highest scores on 11 out of 15 of the public datasets. Overall, these results suggest that using machine learning to triage documents for screening has the potential to save, on average, more than 50 % of the screening

  9. Coverage of, and compliance with, mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Bontha V; Babu, Gopalan R

    2014-09-01

    India's mass drug administration (MDA) programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (PELF) covers all 250 endemic districts, but compliance with treatment is not adequate for the programme to succeed in eradicating this neglected tropical disease. The objective of our study was to systematically review published studies on the coverage of and compliance with MDA under the PELF in India. We searched several databases-PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, CINAHL/EBSCO, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science) and OVID-and by applying selection criteria identified a total of 36 papers to include in the review. Overall MDA coverage rates varied between 48.8% and 98.8%, while compliance rates ranged from 20.8% to 93.7%. The coverage-compliance gap is large in many MDA programmes. The effective level of compliance, ≥65%, was reported in only 10 of a total of 31 MDAs (5 of 20 MDAs in rural areas and 2 of 12 MDAs in urban areas). The review has identified a gap between coverage and compliance, and potentially correctable causes of this gap. These causes need to be addressed if the Indian programme is to advance towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Trial Sequential Analysis in systematic reviews with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size...... from traditional meta-analyses using unadjusted naïve 95% confidence intervals and 5% thresholds for statistical significance. Spurious conclusions in systematic reviews with traditional meta-analyses can be reduced using Trial Sequential Analysis. Several empirical studies have demonstrated...

  11. Pharmacological interventions to treat phlebitis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a systematic review for evaluating effective pharmacological actions for the treatment of phlebitis stemming from infusion therapy. The studies reviewed were categorized according to the type of therapeutic approach proposed by the author and by the level of evidence presented. The review found that topical nitroglycerin and notoginseny were more effective in the reduction of the inflammatory process when compared with other proposed alternatives. Nevertheless, the development of research related to possible alternatives for the treatment of phlebitis is important.

  12. Uterine transplantation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Ejzenberg

    Full Text Available Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women.

  13. Six challenges in the eradication of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Klepac

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradication and elimination are increasingly a part of the global health agenda. Once control measures have driven infection to low levels, the ecology of disease may change posing challenges for eradication efforts. These challenges vary from identifying pockets of susceptibles, improving monitoring during and after the endgame, to quantifying the economics of disease eradication versus sustained control, all of which are shaped and influenced by processes of loss of immunity, susceptible build-up, emergence of resistance, population heterogeneities and non-compliance with control measures. Here we discuss how modelling can be used to address these challenges.

  14. National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Sushant

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the history of the growth and development of our National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP. The aims, strategy, means of eradication, the organizational structure have been discussed. Since the beginning of this programme, the prevalence rate and disability rate have shown a sharp decline. The number of cases detected and under treatment have also increased. The achievement made has been possible due to an excellent organization of leprosy relief work under NLEP with the active cooperation of the non- governmental organizations. Now that leprosy is on the decline, the need of education and rehabilitation of patients assumes a greater importance.

  15. Systematic Reviews of Research in Education: Aims, Myths and Multiple Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, David; Thomas, James

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews are still a controversial topic in some quarters, with the arguments for and against their use being well-rehearsed. In an attempt to advance a more nuanced approach to thinking about systematic reviewing, this paper illustrates the wide range of theoretical perspectives, methodologies and purposes that underpin the vast range…

  16. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  17. Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Urological Literature from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbyons, Katherine; Han, Julia; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Systematic reviews synthesize the current best evidence to address a clinical question. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based clinical practice, systematic reviews are being increasingly sought after and published. We previously reported limitations in the methodological quality of 57 individual systematic reviews published from 1998 to 2008. We provide an update to our previous study, adding systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012. We systematically searched PubMed® and hand searched the table of contents of 4 major urological journals to identify systematic reviews related to questions of prevention and therapy. Two independent reviewers with prior formal evidence-based medicine training assessed the methodological quality using the validated 11-point AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) instrument. We performed predefined statistical hypothesis testing for differences by publication period (1998 to 2008 vs 2009 to 2012) and journal of publication. We performed statistical testing using SPSS®, version 23.0 with a 2-sided α of 0.05 using the Student t-test, ANOVA and the chi-square test. A total of 113 systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012 met study inclusion criteria. The most common topics were oncology (44 reviews or 38.9%), voiding dysfunction (26 or 23.0%) and stones/endourology (13 or 11.5%). The largest contributor was European Urology (46 reviews or 40.7%), followed by BJU International (31 or 27.4%) and The Journal of Urology® (22 or 19.5%). The mean ± SD AMSTAR score for the 2009 to 2012 period was 5.3 ± 2.3 compared to 4.8 ± 2.0 for 1998 to 2008 with a mean difference of 0.5 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.2, p = 0.133). While the number of systematic reviews published in the urological literature has increased substantially, the methodological quality of these studies remains suboptimal. Systematic review authors and editors should make every effort to adhere to well established methodological standards to enhance

  18. Building Research Capacity for Systematic Reviews | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... is addressing this gap, summarizing the best available primary research on digital ... Systematic reviews are used to appraise relevant research and synthesize ... The health sciences field uses them widely to inform studies and evaluate ...

  19. Infusion phlebitis assessment measures: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Method We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospecti...

  20. Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Stakeholder Engagement Project identified systematic review priority areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna Mae; Clark, Justin; Dooley, Liz; Jones, Ann; Jones, Mark; Del Mar, Chris

    2018-05-22

    Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for treatment and prevention of ARIs. We report the results of a prioritisation project, aiming to identify highest priority systematic review topics. The project consisted of 2 Phases. Phase 1 analysed the gap between existing RCTs and Cochrane Systematic Reviews (reported previously). Phase 2 (reported here) consisted of a two-round survey. In round 1, respondents prioritised 68 topics and suggested up to 10 additional topics; in Round 2, respondents prioritised top 25 topics from Round 1. Respondents included clinicians, researchers, systematic reviewers, allied health, patients, and carers, from 33 different countries. In Round 1, 154 respondents identified 20 priority topics, most commonly selecting topics in non-specific ARIs, influenza, and common cold. 50 respondents also collectively suggested 134 additional topics. In Round 2, 78 respondents prioritised top 25 topics, most commonly in the areas of non-specific ARIs, pneumonia and influenza. We generated a list of priority systematic review topics, to guide the Cochrane ARI Group's systematic review work for the next 24 months. Stakeholder involvement enhanced the transparency of the process, and will increase the usability and relevance of the Group's work to stakeholders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and quality of systematic reviews of acupuncture, herbal medicines, and homeopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Melchart, D.; Willich, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the approaches and characteristics of systematic reviews on three major complementary therapies and to assess their methodological quality. Methods: Systematic reviews of clinical trials of acupuncture, herbal medicines, and homeopathy were identified from a database

  2. Collaboration challenges in systematic reviews: a survey of health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joey; McCrillis, Aileen; Williams, Jeff D

    2017-10-01

    While many librarians have been asked to participate in systematic reviews with researchers, often these researchers are not familiar with the systematic review process or the appropriate role for librarians. The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges and barriers that librarians face when collaborating on systematic reviews. To take a wider view of the whole process of collaborating on systematic reviews, the authors deliberately focused on interpersonal and methodological issues other than searching itself. To characterize the biggest challenges that librarians face while collaborating on systematic review projects, we used a web-based survey. The thirteen-item survey included seventeen challenges grouped into two categories: methodological and interpersonal. Participants were required to indicate the frequency and difficulty of the challenges listed. Open-ended questions allowed survey participants to describe challenges not listed in the survey and to describe strategies used to overcome challenges. Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges.

  3. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Functional Dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Min Soo; Jo, Hyun Jin; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Sang Hyub; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on functional dyspepsia (FD), and the relationship between the changes of histological gastritis and FD symptom responses. Methods A total of 213 FD patients diagnosed by Rome III criteria were consecutively enrolled. H. pylori tests and gastritis grade by the Sydney system were performed before and 1 year after the proton pump based-eradication therapy for 7 days. Serum levels of pepsinogen, and genetic polymorphisms IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were investigated. Results Total of 91 patients completed the 1 year follow-up. When the response rate of dyspepsia was compared at 1 year between the non-eradicated group (n = 24) and eradicated group (n = 67), each group showed complete response of 62.5% and 62.7%; satisfactory response (≥ 50%) of 0.0% and 19.4%; partial response (gastritis at 1 year, suggesting that inflammation mediates FD. PMID:23667755

  4. Chiropractic: Is it Efficient in Treatment of Diseases? Review of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salehi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chiropractic is a complementary medicine that has been growing increasingly in different countries over recent decades. It addresses the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the neuromusculoskeletal system disorders and their effects on the whole body health. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of chiropractic in the treatment of different diseases. To gather data, scientific electronic databases, such as Cochrane, Medline, Google Scholar, and Scirus were searched and all systematic reviews in the field of chiropractic were obtained. Reviews were included if they were specifically concerned with the effectiveness of chiropractic treatment, included evidence from at least one clinical trial, included randomized studies and focused on a specific disease. The research data including the article’s first author’s name, type of disease, intervention type, number and types of research used, meta-analysis, number of participants, and overall results of the study, were extracted, studied and analyzed. Totally, 23 chiropractic systematic reviews were found, and 11 articles met the defined criteria. The results showed the influence of chiropractic on improvement of neck pain, shoulder and neck trigger points, and sport injuries. In the cases of asthma, infant colic, autism spectrum disorder, gastrointestinal problems, fibromyalgia, back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome, there was no conclusive scientific evidence. There is heterogeneity in some of the studies and also limited number of clinical trials in the assessed systematic reviews. Thus, conducting comprehensive studies based on more reliable study designs are highly recommended.

  5. Effectiveness of antibiotics given before admission in reducing mortality from meningococcal disease: systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahné, Susan J M; Charlett, André; Purcell, Bernadette; Samuelsson, Susanne; Camaroni, Ivonne; Ehrhard, Ingrid; Heuberger, Sigrid; Santamaria, Maria; Stuart, James M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for effectiveness of treatment with antibiotics before admission in reducing case fatality from meningococcal disease. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane register of trials and systematic reviews, database of abstracts of reviews of effectiveness,

  6. Making the Most of What We Already Know: A Three-Stage Approach to Systematic Reviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo Da Silva, Natalie; Zaranyika, Hazel; Langer, Laurenz; Randall, Nicola; Muchiri, Evans; Stewart, Ruth

    2016-09-06

    Conducting a systematic review in social policy is a resource-intensive process in terms of time and funds. It is thus important to understand the scope of the evidence base of a topic area prior to conducting a synthesis of primary research in order to maximize these resources. One approach to conserving resources is to map out the available evidence prior to undertaking a traditional synthesis. A few examples of this approach exist in the form of gap maps, overviews of reviews, and systematic maps supported by social policy and systematic review agencies alike. Despite this growing call for alternative approaches to systematic reviews, it is still common for systematic review teams to embark on a traditional in-depth review only. This article describes a three-stage approach to systematic reviewing that was applied to a systematic review focusing in interventions for smallholder farmers in Africa. We argue that this approach proved useful in helping us to understand the evidence base. By applying preliminary steps as part of a three-stage approach, we were able to maximize the resources needed to conduct a traditional systematic review on a more focused research question. This enabled us to identify and fill real knowledge gaps, build on work that had already been done, and avoid wasting resources on areas of work that would have no useful outcome. It also facilitated meaningful engagement between the review team and our key policy stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Prospective systematic review registration: perspective from the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Wees Philip

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical practice and public health guidelines are important tools for translating research findings into practice with the aim of assisting health practitioners as well as patients and consumers in health behavior and healthcare decision-making. Numerous programs for guideline development exist around the world, with growing international collaboration to improve their quality. One of the key features in developing trustworthy guidelines is that recommendations should be based on high-quality systematic reviews of the best available evidence. The review process used by guideline developers to identify and grade relevant evidence for developing recommendations should be systematic, transparent and unbiased. In this paper, we provide an overview of current international developments in the field of practice guidelines and methods to develop guidelines, with a specific focus on the role of systematic reviews. The Guidelines International Network (G-I-N aims to stimulate collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to optimize the use of available evidence in guideline development and to increase efficiency in the guideline development process. Considering the significant benefit of systematic reviews for the guideline community, the G-I-N Board of Trustees supports the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO initiative. G-I-N also recently launched a Data Extraction Resource (GINDER to present and share data extracted from individual studies in a standardized template. PROSPERO and GINDER are complementary tools to enhance collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to allow for alignment of activities and a reduction in duplication of effort.

  8. Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John

    2015-01-01

    statistically significant meta-analyses of anesthesiologic interventions, we used TSA to estimate power and imprecision in the context of sparse data and repeated updates. METHODS: We conducted a search to identify all systematic reviews with meta-analyses that investigated an intervention that may......: From 11,870 titles, we found 682 systematic reviews that investigated anesthesiologic interventions. In the 50 sampled meta-analyses, the median number of trials included was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5-14), the median number of participants was 964 (IQR, 523-1736), and the median number...

  9. Testing the effectiveness of simplified search strategies for updating systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Maureen; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Kenny, Meghan; Raina, Parminder; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study was to test the overall effectiveness of a simplified search strategy (SSS) for updating systematic reviews. We identified nine systematic reviews undertaken by our research group for which both comprehensive and SSS updates were performed. Three relevant performance measures were estimated, that is, sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read (NNR). The update reference searches for all nine included systematic reviews identified a total of 55,099 citations that were screened resulting in final inclusion of 163 randomized controlled trials. As compared with reference search, the SSS resulted in 8,239 hits and had a median sensitivity of 83.3%, while precision and NNR were 4.5 times better. During analysis, we found that the SSS performed better for clinically focused topics, with a median sensitivity of 100% and precision and NNR 6 times better than for the reference searches. For broader topics, the sensitivity of the SSS was 80% while precision and NNR were 5.4 times better compared with reference search. SSS performed well for clinically focused topics and, with a median sensitivity of 100%, could be a viable alternative to a conventional comprehensive search strategy for updating this type of systematic reviews particularly considering the budget constraints and the volume of new literature being published. For broader topics, 80% sensitivity is likely to be considered too low for a systematic review update in most cases, although it might be acceptable if updating a scoping or rapid review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lobar lung transplantation from deceased donors: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M; Chahla, Mayy; Bolukbas, Servet; Blevins, Amy; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Stanzi, Alessia; Inci, Ilhan; Marasco, Silvana; Shigemura, Norihisa; Aigner, Clemens; Deuse, Tobias

    2017-02-24

    To systematically review reports on deceased-donor-lobar lung transplantation (ddLLTx) and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient predicted-total lung-capacity (pTLC) ratio. We set out to systematically review reports on ddLLTx and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient pTLC ratio and to summarize reported one-year survival data of ddLLTx and conventional-LTx. We searched in PubMed, CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews via Wiley (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects via Wiley (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley (CENTRAL), Scopus (which includes EMBASE abstracts), and Web of Science for original reports on ddLLTx. Nine observational cohort studies reporting on 301 ddLLTx met our inclusion criteria for systematic review of size matching, and eight for describing one-year-survival. The ddLLTx-group was often characterized by high acuity; however there was heterogeneity in transplant indications and pre-operative characteristics between studies. Data to calculate the pTLC ratio was available for 242 ddLLTx (80%). The mean pTLCratio before lobar resection was 1.25 ± 0.3 and the transplanted pTLCratio after lobar resection was 0.76 ± 0.2. One-year survival in the ddLLTx-group ranged from 50%-100%, compared to 72%-88% in the conventional-LTx group. In the largest study ddLLTx ( n = 138) was associated with a lower one-year-survival compared to conventional-LTx ( n = 539) (65.1% vs 84.1%, P < 0.001). Further investigations of optimal donor-to-recipient size matching parameters for ddLLTx could improve outcomes of this important surgical option.

  11. Assessing Technical Competence in Surgical Trainees: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Peter; Louridas, Marisa; Harris, Kenneth A; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2015-06-01

    To systematically examine the literature describing the methods by which technical competence is assessed in surgical trainees. The last decade has witnessed an evolution away from time-based surgical education. In response, governing bodies worldwide have implemented competency-based education paradigms. The definition of competence, however, remains elusive, and the impact of these education initiatives in terms of assessment methods remains unclear. A systematic review examining the methods by which technical competence is assessed was conducted by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Abstracts of retrieved studies were reviewed and those meeting inclusion criteria were selected for full review. Data were retrieved in a systematic manner, the validity and reliability of the assessment methods was evaluated, and quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation classification. Of the 6814 studies identified, 85 studies involving 2369 surgical residents were included in this review. The methods used to assess technical competence were categorized into 5 groups; Likert scales (37), benchmarks (31), binary outcomes (11), novel tools (4), and surrogate outcomes (2). Their validity and reliability were mostly previously established. The overall Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation for randomized controlled trials was high and low for the observational studies. The definition of technical competence continues to be debated within the medical literature. The methods used to evaluate technical competence predominantly include instruments that were originally created to assess technical skill. Very few studies identify standard setting approaches that differentiate competent versus noncompetent performers; subsequently, this has been identified as an area with great research potential.

  12. A Review of Systematic Reviews on Pain Interventions in Hospitalized Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Yamada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospitalized infants undergo multiple, repeated painful procedures. Despite continued efforts to prevent procedural pain and improve pain management, clinical guidelines and standards frequently do not reflect the highest quality evidence from systematic reviews.

  13. Domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia; systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Mengistie, Bezatu

    2015-08-29

    Violence against women is now widely recognized as a serious human right abuse, and an important public health problem with substantial consequences physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health. Data on systematic review of domestic violence are needed to support policy and program recommendations. Therefore, the overall purpose of this systematic review was to assess magnitude of domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia. Studies systematically reviewed in Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from 2000 to 2014. Systematic review was employed on published research works from databases such as Pubmed, popline, Hinari, and Google using key words. We also consulted public health experts. Community based studies with a study population (15-49 years) were included for review. Thirteen peer reviewed papers and two consecutive Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (2005 and 2011) were included to the systematic review. Twenty seven available in open access journals were retrieved and assessed based on the criteria's such as community based study, cross sectional study design, clearly report prevalence and associated factors were included in the systematic review work. Finally, 15 papers were included in this review. Lifetime prevalence of domestic violence against women by husband or intimate partner among 10 studies ranged from 20 to 78 %. The lifetime domestic physical violence by husband or intimate partner against women ranged from 31 to 76.5 %. The life time domestic sexual violence against women by husband or intimate partner ranged from 19.2 to 59 %. The mean life time prevalence of domestic emotional violence was 51.7 %. Significant number of women experienced violence during their pregnancy period. Domestic violence against women significantly associated with alcohol consumption, chat chewing, family history of violence, occupation, religion, educational status, residence and decision making power. Domestic violence against

  14. Systematic reviews in the field of nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...

  15. Public perceptions of agrifood applications of Genetic modification – A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be

  16. Process variables in organizational stress management intervention evaluation research: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Schelvis, R.M.C.; Boot, C.R.L.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aimed to explore which process variables are used in stress management intervention (SMI) evaluation research. Methods A systematic review was conducted using seven electronic databases. Studies were included if they reported on an SMI aimed at primary or secondary

  17. Process variables in organizational stress management intervention evaluation research : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Schlevis, Roosmarijn Mc; Boot, Cécile Rl; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to explore which process variables are used in stress management intervention (SMI) evaluation research. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using seven electronic databases. Studies were included if they reported on an SMI aimed at primary or

  18. Mind-Body Medicine and Immune System Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wahbeh, Helané; Haywood, Ashley; Kaufman, Karen; Zwickey, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study is a systematic review of mind-body interventions that used immune outcomes in order to: 1) characterize mind-body medicine studies that assessed immune outcomes, 2) evaluate the quality of mind-body medicine studies measuring immune system effects, and 3) systematically evaluate the evidence for mind-body interventions effect on immune system outcomes using existing formal tools. 111 studies with 4,777 subjects were reviewed. The three largest intervention type categories were Rel...

  19. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND...

  20. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  1. Systematic review of laparoscopic vs open colonic surgery within an enhanced recovery programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, M. S.; Wind, J.; van der Zaag, J.; Ubbink, D. T.; Cense, H. A.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fast track surgery accelerates recovery, reduces morbidity and shortens hospital stay. It is unclear what the effects are of laparoscopic or open surgery within a fast track programme. The aim of this systematic review was to review the existing evidence. METHOD: A systematic review was

  2. The use of GRADE approach in systematic reviews of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dang; Tang, Kun; Wang, Qi; Estill, Janne; Yao, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Chen, Yaolong; Yang, Kehu

    2016-03-15

    The application of GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) in SR of animal studies can promote the translation from bench to bedside. We aim to explore the use of GRADE in systematic reviews of animal studies. We used a theoretical analysis method to explore the use of GRADE in SR of animal studies and applied in a SR of animal studies. Meanwhile, we presented and discussed our results in two international conferences. Five downgrade factors were considered as follows in systematic reviews of animal studies: 1) Risk of bias: the SYRCLE tool can be used for assessing the risk of bias of animal studies. 2) Indirectness: we can assess indirectness in systematic reviews of animal studies from the PICO. 3) Inconsistency: similarity of point estimates, extent of overlap of confidence intervals and statistical heterogeneity are also suitable to evaluate inconsistency of evidence from animal studies. 4) Imprecision: optimal information size (OIS) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are also suitable for systematic reviews of animal studies, like those of clinical trials. 5) Publication bias: we need to consider publication bias comprehensively through the qualitative and quantitative methods. The methods about the use of GRADE in systematic review of animal studies are explicit. However, the principle about GRADE in developing the policy based on the evidence from animal studies when there is an emergency of public health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Printing education and poverty eradication in Nigeria | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the key goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. In the Nigerian context, unemployment is a major cause of poverty which can be eradicated through empowerment and wealth creation. Printing technology, a technical based course offers benefits in this ...

  4. State of the evidence on acute asthma management in children: a critical appraisal of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Offringa, Martin

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate clinical, methodologic, and reporting aspects of systematic reviews on the management of acute asthma in children. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of systematic reviews on acute asthma management in children. We identified eligible reviews by searching

  5. Ultraweak photon emission as a non-invasive health assessment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ives, J.A.; Wijk, E.P.A. van; Bat, N.; Crawford, C.; Walter, A.; Jonas, W.B.; Wijk, R. van; Greef, J. van der

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant

  6. The evidence for nursing interventions in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistiaen, P.; Poot, E.; Hickox, S.; Wagner, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe how they conducted a search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in order to explore the evidence for nursing interventions. They identify the number of studies, the number of participants, and the conclusions of systematic reviews concerning nursing

  7. Association between gastroesophageal reflux and pathologic apneas in infants: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marije J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Langendam, Miranda W.; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2014-01-01

    In infants, apneas can be centrally mediated, obstructive or both and have been proposed to be gastroesophageal reflux (GER) induced. Evidence for this possible association has never been systematically reviewed. To perform a systematic review using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to determine

  8. Systematic review of the literature on simulation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based learning is an educational intervention which creates an environment that is conducive to experiential learning. Despite the prevalence of research on the influence of simulation on nursing education, there is a dearth of literature on the effectiveness of simulation-based learning. This systematic review examines literature on simulation outcomes in nursing education from the years 2000-2010. The electronic databases reviewed for the systematic review of the literature included: CINAHL Plus, Medline, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Education, Google Scholar, and Digital Dissertations and Theses through ProQuest. The MeSH search terms included "simulation outcomes measurement" and "nursing education". Seventeen studies were included in the review of the literature. The literature was categorized into three themes; internal outcomes, external outcomes, and clinical evaluation. The available literature on simulation and nursing education provides evidence that that simulation is useful in creating a learning environment which contributes to knowledge, skills, safety, and confidence. This systematic review of the literature revealed a gap in the literature pertaining to the transfer of these outcomes to the clinical setting, and lays a foundation for further research on outcomes specific to simulation and nursing education.

  9. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec

    2011-06-22

    The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials).

  10. Oral Chinese proprietary medicine for angina pectoris: an overview of systematic reviews/meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao; Yang, Guoyan; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Jianping; Chen, Keji

    2014-08-01

    Oral Chinese proprietary medicine (CPM) is commonly used to treat angina pectoris, and many relevant systematic reviews/meta-analyses are available. However, these reviews have not been systematically summarized and evaluated. We conducted an overview of these reviews, and explored their methodological and reporting quality to inform both practice and further research. We included systematic reviews/meta-analyses on oral CPM in treating angina until March 2013 by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases. We extracted data according to a pre-designed form, and assessed the methodological and reporting characteristics of the reviews in terms of AMSTAR and PRISMA respectively. Most of the data analyses were descriptive. 36 systematic reviews/meta-analyses involving over 82,105 participants with angina reviewing 13 kinds of oral CPM were included. The main outcomes assessed in the reviews were surrogate outcomes (34/36, 94.4%), adverse events (31/36, 86.1%), and symptoms (30/36, 83.3%). Six reviews (6/36, 16.7%) drew definitely positive conclusions, while the others suggested potential benefits in the symptoms, electrocardiogram, and adverse events. The overall methodological and reporting quality of the reviews was limited, with many serious flaws such as the lack of review protocol and incomprehensive literature searches. Though many systematic reviews/meta-analyses on oral CPM for angina suggested potential benefits or definitely positive effects, stakeholders should interpret the findings of these reviews with caution, considering the overall limited methodological and reporting quality. We recommend further studies should be appropriately conducted and systematic reviews reported according to PRISMA standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Changes or introductions of technology or equipment can affect how a sport is played or influence its performances. This article conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify any case studies of controversial events surrounding the implementation or use of sports technology. 56 articles were identified that highlighted 31 different case studies found over a three decade time period. Thematic analysis revealed six distinctive themes when reviewing the articles. Whilst the sport of golf had the highest number of case studies, it was found that a significant level of attention had been recorded in the cases of Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic legs in athletics and the use of full length swimsuits in swimming. The trend surrounding the number of articles was shown to be initially intermittent but saw a peak period from 2008 to 2010. However, the frequency of such articles since this peak has been more consistent. It is proposed that long periods of time without intervention or resolution by a governing body often increases the peer-reviewed attention paid to such cases in examples such as those identified in this systematic review.

  12. Osteopathy for primary headache patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerritelli F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Cerritelli,1–3 Eleonora Lacorte,4 Nuria Ruffini,1 Nicola Vanacore4 1Clinical-based Human Research Department, Centre for Osteopathic Medicine Collaboration, 2Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, 3ITAB – Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti, Pescara, 4National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Objective: This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT in patients with headache. Background: Migraine is one of the most common and disabling medical conditions. It affects more than 15% of the general population, causing high global socioeconomic costs, and the currently available treatment options are inadequate.Methods: We systematically reviewed all available studies investigating the use of OMT in patients with migraine and other forms of headache.Results: The search of literature produced six studies, five of which were eligible for review. The reviewed papers collectively support the notion that patients with migraine can benefit from OMT. OMT could most likely reduce the number of episodes per month as well as drug use. None of the included studies, however, was classified as low risk of bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias.Conclusion: The results from this systematic review show a preliminary low level of evidence that OMT is effective in the management of headache. However, studies with more rigorous designs and methodology are needed to strengthen this evidence. Moreover, this review suggests that new manual interventions for the treatment of acute migraine are available and developing. Keywords: osteopathic manipulative treatment, tension type headache, pain, migraine, disability 

  13. AHRQ series on complex intervention systematic reviews-paper 7: PRISMA-CI elaboration and explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Butler, Mary; Chang, Christine; Viswanathan, Meera; Pigott, Terri; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Complex interventions are widely used in health care, public health, education, criminology, social work, business, and welfare. They have increasingly become the subject of systematic reviews and are challenging to effectively report. The Complex Interventions Methods Workgroup developed an extension to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Complex Interventions (PRISMA-CI). Following the EQUATOR Network guidance for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extensions, this Explanation and Elaboration (EE) document accompanies the PRISMA-CI checklist to promote consistency in reporting of systematic reviews of complex interventions. The EE document explains the meaning and rationale for each unique PRISMA-CI checklist item and provides examples to assist systematic review authors in operationalizing PRISMA-CI guidance. The Complex Interventions Workgroup developed PRISMA-CI as an important start toward increased consistency in reporting of systematic reviews of complex interventions. Because the field is rapidly expanding, the Complex Interventions Methods Workgroup plans to re-evaluate periodically for the need to add increasing specificity and examples as the field matures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CrossFit Overview: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, João Gustavo; Gabbett, Tim J; Bourgeois, Frank; Souza, Helton de Sá; Miranda, Rafael Chagas; Mezêncio, Bruno; Soncin, Rafael; Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bottaro, Martim; Hernandez, Arnaldo Jose; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2018-02-26

    CrossFit is recognized as one of the fastest growing high-intensity functional training modes in the world. However, scientific data regarding the practice of CrossFit is sparse. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the findings of scientific literature related to CrossFit via systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme/MedLine, and SciELO online databases were conducted for articles reporting the effects of CrossFit training. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The Oxford Levels of Evidence was used for all included articles, and only studies that investigated the effects of CrossFit as a training program were included in the meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, effect sizes (ESs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. Thirty-one articles were included in the systematic review and four were included in the meta-analysis. However, only two studies had a high level of evidence at low risk of bias. Scientific literature related to CrossFit has reported on body composition, psycho-physiological parameters, musculoskeletal injury risk, life and health aspects, and psycho-social behavior. In the meta-analysis, significant results were not found for any variables. The current scientific literature related to CrossFit has few studies with high level of evidence at low risk of bias. However, preliminary data has suggested that CrossFit practice is associated with higher levels of sense of community, satisfaction, and motivation.

  15. Applicable or non-applicable: investigations of clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Chess

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical heterogeneity can be defined as differences in participant characteristics, types or timing of outcome measurements and intervention characteristics. Clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews has the possibility to significantly affect statistical heterogeneity leading to inaccurate conclusions and misled decision making. The aim of this study is to identify to what extent investigators are assessing clinical heterogeneity in both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods The most recent 100 systematic reviews from the top five journals in medicine—JAMA, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, The Lancet, and PLOS Medicine—and the 100 most recently published and/or updated systematic reviews from Cochrane were collected. Various defined items of clinical heterogeneity were extracted from the included reviews. Investigators used chi-squared tests, logarithmic modeling and linear regressions to determine if the presence of such items served as a predictor for clinical heterogeneity when comparing Cochrane to non-Cochrane reviews. Extracted variables include number of studies, number of participants, presence of quantitative synthesis, exploration of clinical heterogeneity, heterogeneous characteristics explored, basis and methods used for investigating clinical heterogeneity, plotting/visual aids, author contact, inferences from clinical heterogeneity investigation, reporting assessment, and the presence of a priori or post-hoc analysis. Results A total of 317 systematic reviews were considered, of which 199 were in the final analysis. A total of 81 % of Cochrane reviews and 90 % of non-Cochrane reviews explored characteristics that are considered aspects of clinical heterogeneity and also described the methods they planned to use to investigate the influence of those characteristics. Only 1 % of non-Cochrane reviews and 8 % of Cochrane reviews explored the clinical

  16. Surgically facilitated orthodontic treatment : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin

    INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane

  17. Twelve myths about systematic reviews for health system policymaking rebutted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Mike G; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are increasingly being viewed as important sources of information for policymakers who need to make decisions on different aspects of the health system, often under tight time constraints and with many factors competing for their attention. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions, or 'myths', stand in the way of promoting their use. The belief that systematic review topics are not relevant to health systems policymaking, that they cannot be found quickly, and that they are not available in formats that are useful for policymakers are but three examples of such myths. This paper uses evidence drawn mainly from Health Systems Evidence, a continuously updated repository of syntheses of health systems research, to counter these and nine other common myths, with the aim of changing the constraining beliefs associated with them, while improving the prospects for the use of systematic reviews in health system policymaking.

  18. [A systematic review of the effectiveness of workplace safety interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasseroni, A; Olimpi, Nadia; Bonaccorsi, G

    2009-01-01

    The authors carried out a systematic review of the effectiveness of workplace safety interventions, as a part of a wider project funded by CCM, Centre for Disease Control. Several electronic bibliographic databases were checked, using a standardized string selection. The string contained the following four items: the intervention; job features; type of injury; efficacy/effectiveness. Of the various databases consulted, Web of Science was the most efficient. Overall 5531 articles were selected. After reading the title and abstract, 4695 were excluded and eventually 35 systematic reviews were selected, which synthesized 769 original articles. The main topics of the selected systematic reviews were: certain sectors (building industry, agriculture, health care); personal protective equipment; work organization and prevention management at plant level; evaluation of prevention policies by national and regional authorities. A clear need for multiple bibliographical data-base search emerged at the end of this study.

  19. Varicocele management for infertility and pain: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Lundy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being first described two thousand years ago, the varicocele remains a controversial multifaceted disease process with numerous biological consequences including infertility, hypogonadism, and chronic orchidalgia. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and likely include hypoxia, oxidative stress, hyperthermia, anatomical aberrations, and genetics as primary components. Despite a high prevalence amongst asymptomatic fertile men, varicoceles paradoxically also represent the most common correctable cause for male infertility. In this systematic review we discuss the rich historical aspects of the varicocele and the contemporary data regarding its clinical manifestations. We performed a systematic literature review with the goal of comparing outcomes and complication rates of each of the major surgical approaches as they relate to infertility and pain. We performed a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-compliant systematic literature review for manuscripts focused on varicocele and its biological consequences. We identified 112 studies suitable for qualitative analysis and included 56 of these for quantitative analysis, with an emphasis on infertility and chronic pain outcomes. Taken together, the clinical work to date suggests that the highest fertility rates and the lowest complication rates are associated with the microsurgical subinguinal surgical approach to varicocelectomy. In all, 26–40% of patients undergoing varicocelectomy will successfully achieve short-term spontaneous pregnancy, and up to 90% of all patients undergoing varicocelectomy for pain will have improvement and/or resolution of their symptoms. Taken together, the data support an ongoing role for varicocelectomy in both of these clinical arenas. Keywords: Varicocele, Infertility, Orchidalgia, Hypogonadism, Pampiniform plexus

  20. Does Indigenous health research have impact? A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Mccalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; Lui, Felecia Watkin

    2017-03-21

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (hereafter respectfully Indigenous Australians) claim that they have been over-researched without corresponding research benefit. This claim raises two questions. The first, which has been covered to some extent in the literature, is about what type(s) of research are likely to achieve benefits for Indigenous people. The second is how researchers report the impact of their research for Indigenous people. This systematic review of Indigenous health reviews addresses the second enquiry. Fourteen electronic databases were systematically searched for Indigenous health reviews which met eligibility criteria. Two reviewers assessed their characteristics and methodological rigour using an a priori protocol. Three research hypotheses were stated and tested: (1) reviews address Indigenous health priority needs; (2) reviews adopt best practice guidelines on research conduct and reporting in respect to methodological transparency and rigour, as well as acceptability and appropriateness of research implementation to Indigenous people; and (3) reviews explicitly report the incremental impacts of the included studies and translation of research. We argue that if review authors explicitly address each of these three hypotheses, then the impact of research for Indigenous peoples' health would be explicated. Seventy-six reviews were included; comprising 55 journal articles and 21 Australian Government commissioned evidence review reports. While reviews are gaining prominence and recognition in Indigenous health research and increasing in number, breadth and complexity, there is little reporting of the impact of health research for Indigenous people. This finding raises questions about the relevance of these reviews for Indigenous people, their impact on policy and practice and how reviews have been commissioned, reported and evaluated. The findings of our study serve two main purposes. First, we have identified knowledge and

  1. ERAD-dependent control of the Wnt secretory factor Evi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Kathrin; Urban, Manuela; Fenech, Emma; Voloshanenko, Oksana; Kranz, Dominique; Lari, Federica; Christianson, John C; Boutros, Michael

    2018-02-15

    Active regulation of protein abundance is an essential strategy to modulate cellular signaling pathways. Within the Wnt signaling cascade, regulated degradation of β-catenin by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) affects the outcome of canonical Wnt signaling. Here, we found that abundance of the Wnt cargo receptor Evi (Wls/GPR177), which is required for Wnt protein secretion, is also regulated by the UPS through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In the absence of Wnt ligands, Evi is ubiquitinated and targeted for ERAD in a VCP-dependent manner. Ubiquitination of Evi involves the E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2J2 and the E3-ligase CGRRF1. Furthermore, we show that a triaging complex of Porcn and VCP determines whether Evi enters the secretory or the ERAD pathway. In this way, ERAD-dependent control of Evi availability impacts the scale of Wnt protein secretion by adjusting the amount of Evi to meet the requirement of Wnt protein export. As Wnt and Evi protein levels are often dysregulated in cancer, targeting regulatory ERAD components might be a useful approach for therapeutic interventions. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. Strengthening the partnership between routine immunization and the global polio eradication initiative to achieve eradication and assure sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Dietz, Vance; Eggers, Rudolf; Maher, Christopher; Olaniran, Marianne; Sandhu, Hardeep; Vandelaer, Jos

    2014-11-01

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, the number of polio endemic countries has declined from 125 to 3 in 2013. Despite this remarkable achievement, ongoing circulation of wild poliovirus in polio-endemic countries and the increase in the number of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, especially those caused by type 2, is a cause for concern. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP) was developed and includes 4 objectives: detection and interruption of poliovirus transmission, containment and certification, legacy planning, and a renewed emphasis on strengthening routine immunization (RI) programs. This is critical for the phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine, beginning with the type 2 component, and the introduction of a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine into RI programs. This objective has inspired renewed consideration of how the GPEI and RI programs can mutually benefit one another, how the infrastructure from the GPEI can be used to strengthen RI, and how a strengthened RI can facilitate polio eradication. The PEESP is the first GPEI strategic plan that places strong and clear emphasis on the necessity of improving RI to achieve and sustain global polio eradication. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Literature search strategies for conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E Diane

    2013-01-01

    To report literature search strategies for the purpose of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Qualitative systematic reviews lie on a continuum from knowledge-building and theory-generating to aggregating and summarizing. Different types of literature searches are needed to optimally support these dissimilar reviews. Articles published between 1989-Autumn 2011. These documents were identified using a hermeneutic approach and multiple literature search strategies. Redundancy is not the sole measure of validity when conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews. When conducting these types of reviews, literature searches should be consistent with the goal of fully explicating concepts and the interrelationships among them. To accomplish this objective, a 'berry picking' approach is recommended along with strategies for overcoming barriers to finding qualitative research reports. To enhance integrity of knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews, reviewers are urged to make literature search processes as transparent as possible, despite their complexity. This includes fully explaining and rationalizing what databases were used and how they were searched. It also means describing how literature tracking was conducted and grey literature was searched. In the end, the decision to cease searching also needs to be fully explained and rationalized. Predetermined linear search strategies are unlikely to generate search results that are adequate for purposes of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Instead, it is recommended that iterative search strategies take shape as reviews evolve. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature

    OpenAIRE

    Boaz, Annette; Baeza, Juan; Fraser, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing...

  5. Systematic Review of Errors in Inhaler Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    in these outcomes over these 40 years and when partitioned into years 1 to 20 and years 21 to 40. Analyses were conducted in accordance with recommendations from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. Results Data...... A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...

  6. Adult Craniopharyngioma: Case Series, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, Charlotte; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Akagami, Ryojo; Gooderham, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The optimal therapeutic approach for adult craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Some advocate for gross total resection (GTR), while others advocate for subtotal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (STR + XRT). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the rate of recurrence in the follow-up of 3 yr in adult craniopharyngioma stratified by extent of resection and presence of adjuvant radiotherapy. MEDLINE (1946-July 1, 2016) and EMBASE (1980-June 30, 2016) were systematically reviewed. From1975 to 2013, 33 patients were treated with initial surgical resection for adult onset craniopharyngioma at our center and were reviewed for inclusion in this study. Data from 22 patients were available for inclusion as a case series in the systematic review. Eligible studies (n = 21) were identified from the literature in addition to a case series of our institutional experience. Three groups were available for analysis: GTR, STR + XRT, and STR. The rates of recurrence were 17%, 27%, and 45%, respectively. The risk of developing recurrence was significant for GTR vs STR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.38) and STR + XRT vs STR (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Risk of recurrence after GTR vs STR + XRT did not reach significance (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-1.24, P = .18). This is the first and largest systematic review focusing on the rate of recurrence in adult craniopharyngioma. Although the rates of recurrence are favoring GTR, difference in risk of recurrence did not reach significance. This study provides guidance to clinicians and directions for future research with the need to stratify outcomes per treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  7. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R

    2017-01-01

    and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies reporting on extension of ulcerative colitis to determine frequency of disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on disease extension of ulcerative colitis...... (UC) and predictors of disease progression. RESULTS: Overall, 41 studies were eligible for systematic review but only 30 for meta-analysis. The overall pooled frequency of UC extension was 22.8% with colonic extension being 17.8% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years. Extension was 17.8% (95% CI 11...... in patients from North America (37.8%) than from Europe (19.6%) (Pmeta-analysis, approximately one quarter of patients with limited UC extend over time with most extension occurring during the first 10 years. Rate of extension depends on age at diagnosis and geographic origin...

  8. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P 2015 statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Estarli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015. PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium. Translation with permission of the authors. The original authors have not revised and verified the Spanish translation, and they do not necessarily endorse it.

  9. Age determination of subdural hematomas with CT and MRI: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Postema, Floor A. M.; Verbaan, Dagmar; Majoie, Charles B.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the literature on dating subdural hematomas (SDHs) on CT and MRI scans. We performed a systematic review in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane to search for articles that described the appearance of SDHs on CT or MRI in relation to time between trauma and scanning. Two researchers

  10. Interventions for Secondary Traumatic Stress with Mental Health Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Melissa L.; Maynard, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A systematic review was conducted to examine effects of indicated interventions to reduce symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (STS) experienced by mental health workers. Method: Systematic review methods were employed to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies that met study inclusion criteria. Results: Over 4,000 citations…

  11. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  12. How do authors of systematic reviews deal with research malpractice and misconduct in original studies? A cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Nadia; von Elm, Erik; Chatagner, Alexandra; Pöpping, Daniel M; Tramèr, Martin R

    2016-03-02

    To study whether systematic reviewers apply procedures to counter-balance some common forms of research malpractice such as not publishing completed research, duplicate publications, or selective reporting of outcomes, and to see whether they identify and report misconduct. Cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors. 118 systematic reviews published in four journals (Ann Int Med, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet), and the Cochrane Library, in 2013. Number (%) of reviews that applied procedures to reduce the impact of: (1) publication bias (through searching of unpublished trials), (2) selective outcome reporting (by contacting the authors of the original studies), (3) duplicate publications, (4) sponsors' and (5) authors' conflicts of interest, on the conclusions of the review, and (6) looked for ethical approval of the studies. Number (%) of reviewers who suspected misconduct are reported. The procedures applied were compared across journals. 80 (68%) reviewers confirmed their data. 59 (50%) reviews applied three or more procedures; 11 (9%) applied none. Unpublished trials were searched in 79 (66%) reviews. Authors of original studies were contacted in 73 (62%). Duplicate publications were searched in 81 (69%). 27 reviews (23%) reported sponsors of the included studies; 6 (5%) analysed their impact on the conclusions of the review. Five reviews (4%) looked at conflicts of interest of study authors; none of them analysed their impact. Three reviews (2.5%) looked at ethical approval of the studies. Seven reviews (6%) suspected misconduct; only 2 (2%) reported it explicitly. Procedures applied differed across the journals. Only half of the systematic reviews applied three or more of the six procedures examined. Sponsors, conflicts of interest of authors and ethical approval remain overlooked. Research misconduct is sometimes identified, but rarely reported. Guidance on when, and how, to report suspected misconduct is needed. Published by the BMJ

  13. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  14. Effective implementation of research into practice: an overview of systematic reviews of the health literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Alec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gap between research findings and clinical practice is well documented and a range of interventions has been developed to increase the implementation of research into clinical practice. Findings A review of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase the use of research in clinical practice. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted of Medline and the Cochrane Database of Reviews 1998-2009. 13 systematic reviews containing 313 primary studies were included. Four strategy types are identified: audit and feedback; computerised decision support; opinion leaders; and multifaceted interventions. Nine of the reviews reported on multifaceted interventions. This review highlights the small effects of single interventions such as audit and feedback, computerised decision support and opinion leaders. Systematic reviews of multifaceted interventions claim an improvement in effectiveness over single interventions, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. This review found that a number of published systematic reviews fail to state whether the recommended practice change is based on the best available research evidence. Conclusions This overview of systematic reviews updates the body of knowledge relating to the effectiveness of key mechanisms for improving clinical practice and service development. Multifaceted interventions are more likely to improve practice than single interventions such as audit and feedback. This review identified a small literature focusing explicitly on getting research evidence into clinical practice. It emphasizes the importance of ensuring that primary studies and systematic reviews are precise about the extent to which the reported interventions focus on changing practice based on research evidence (as opposed to other information codified in guidelines and education materials.

  15. WJBF TV tower meteorological database for the ERAD Code-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model (Boughton and DeLaurentis 1992) is a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating atmospheric transport and dispersion. The ERAD code is particularly adept at handling explosive releases into the atmosphere and is being used by the Materials and Accountability Department at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide risk estimates. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) was asked to provide meteorological data to be used for applying ERAD to some site facilities. The ERAD model requires a vertical profile of meteorological measurements. The 1993 data from the WJBF-TV tower has been processed and provided for this purpose. This document describes the steps taken to prepare and format the database

  16. Pancreatectomy for metastatic disease: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adler, H

    2014-04-01

    Tumours rarely metastasise to the pancreas. While surgical resection of such metastases is believed to confer a survival benefit, there is limited data to support such management. We present a systematic review of case series of pancreatic metastasectomy and analysis of survival outcomes.

  17. Conservative treatment of sciatica : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, PCAJ; de Krom, MCTFM; Slofstra, PD; Knottnerus, JA

    2000-01-01

    Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking,

  18. Telerheumatology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John A; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Glover, Janis; Fraenkel, Liana

    2017-10-01

    To identify and summarize the published and gray literature on the use of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic disease. We performed a registered systematic search (CRD42015025382) for studies using MEDLINE (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1974 to July 2015), Web of Science (1900 to July 2015), and Scopus (1946 to July 2015) databases. We included studies that demonstrated the use of telemedicine for diagnosis and/or management of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic disease. Following data extraction, we performed a descriptive analysis. Our literature search identified 1,468 potentially eligible studies. Of these studies, 20 were ultimately included in this review. Studies varied significantly in publication type, quality of evidence, and the reporting of methods. Most demonstrated a high risk of bias. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most commonly studied rheumatic disease (42% of patients). Studies demonstrated conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine (18 found it effective, 1 found it effective but possibly harmful, and 1 found it ineffective). A limited number of studies included some component of a cost analysis (n = 6; 16% of patients); all of these found telemedicine to be cost-effective. Studies identified by this systematic review generally found telemedicine to be effective for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune/inflammatory rheumatic disease; however, there is limited evidence to support this conclusion. Further studies are needed to determine the best uses of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Systematic Review of Nondrug, Nonsurgical Treatment of Shoulder Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Cheryl; Minkalis, Amy L; Khorsan, Raheleh; Daniels, Clinton J; Homack, Dennis; Gliedt, Jordan A; Hartman, Julie A; Bhalerao, Shireesh

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of conservative nondrug, nonsurgical interventions, either alone or in combination, for conditions of the shoulder. The review was conducted from March 2016 to November 2016 in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), and was registered with PROSPERO. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, or meta-analyses studying adult patients with a shoulder diagnosis. Interventions qualified if they did not involve prescription medication or surgical procedures, although these could be used in the comparison group or groups. At least 2 independent reviewers assessed the quality of each study using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists. Shoulder conditions addressed were shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS), rotator cuff-associated disorders (RCs), adhesive capsulitis (AC), and nonspecific shoulder pain. Twenty-five systematic reviews and 44 RCTs met inclusion criteria. Low- to moderate-quality evidence supported the use of manual therapies for all 4 shoulder conditions. Exercise, particularly combined with physical therapy protocols, was beneficial for SIS and AC. For SIS, moderate evidence supported several passive modalities. For RC, physical therapy protocols were found beneficial but not superior to surgery in the long term. Moderate evidence supported extracorporeal shockwave therapy for calcific tendinitis RC. Low-level laser was the only modality for which there was moderate evidence supporting its use for all 4 conditions. The findings of this literature review may help inform practitioners who use conservative methods (eg, doctors of chiropractic, physical therapists, and other manual therapists) regarding the levels of evidence for modalities used for common shoulder conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Regional analgesia for video-assisted thoracic surgery – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julia Steinthorsdottir, Kristin; Wildgaard, Lorna; Jessen Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    there is no gold standard for regional analgesia for VATS. This systematic review aimed to assess different regional techniques in regards to effect on acute post-operative pain following VATS, with emphasis on VATS lobectomy. The systematic review of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases yielded...... be demonstrated, but a guide of factors to include in future studies on regional analgesia for VATS is presented....

  1. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Systematic Reviews in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    This article sets out to look critically at the use of systematic reviews in the cross-disciplinary field of early childhood and international development. Systematic reviews--a specialist methodology involving the secondary analysis of existing knowledge on a particular topic--is prevalently used to address complex questions in social and…

  2. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  3. User involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Bjønness, Stig Erlend; Berg, Siv Hilde; Cardenas, Nicole Elizabeth; Game, Julia Rose; Aase, Karina; Storm, Marianne

    2017-12-21

    User involvement has become a growing importance in healthcare. The United Nations state that adolescents have a right to be heard, and user involvement in healthcare is a legal right in many countries. Some research provides an insight into the field of user involvement in somatic and mental healthcare for adults, but little is known about user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare, and no overview of the existing research evidence exists. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of existing research reporting on experiences with and the effectiveness and safety issues associated with user involvement for adolescents' mental healthcare at the individual and organisational level. A systematic literature search and assessment of published research in the field of user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare will be carried out. Established guidelines will be used for data extraction (Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)), critical appraisal (Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary) and reporting of results (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and CASP). Confidence in the research evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Adolescents are included as coresearchers for the planning and carrying out of this systematic review. This systematic review will provide an overview of the existing research literature and thereby fill a knowledge gap. It may provide various stakeholders, including decision-makers, professionals, individuals and their families, with an overview of existing knowledge in an underexplored field of research. Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as we are not collecting primary data. The results

  4. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Hunt, N; Bagguley, D; Bash, K; Turner, V; Turnbull, S; Valtorta, N; Caan, W

    2017-11-01

    Social isolation and loneliness have been associated with ill health and are common in the developed world. A clear understanding of their implications for morbidity and mortality is needed to gauge the extent of the associated public health challenge and the potential benefit of intervention. A systematic review of systematic reviews (systematic overview) was undertaken to determine the wider consequences of social isolation and loneliness, identify any differences between the two, determine differences from findings of non-systematic reviews and to clarify the direction of causality. Eight databases were searched from 1950 to 2016 for English language reviews covering social isolation and loneliness but not solely social support. Suitability for inclusion was determined by two or more reviewers, the methodological quality of included systematic reviews assessed using the a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR) checklist and the quality of evidence within these reviews using the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE) approach. Non-systematic reviews were sought for a comparison of findings but not included in the primary narrative synthesis. Forty systematic reviews of mainly observational studies were identified, largely from the developed world. Meta-analyses have identified a significant association between social isolation and loneliness with increased all-cause mortality and social isolation with cardiovascular disease. Narrative systematic reviews suggest associations with poorer mental health outcomes, with less strong evidence for behavioural and other physical health outcomes. No reviews were identified for wider socio-economic or developmental outcomes. This systematic overview highlights that there is consistent evidence linking social isolation and loneliness to worse cardiovascular and mental health outcomes. The role of social isolation and loneliness in other conditions and their socio

  5. Reporting Quality of Search Methods in Systematic Reviews of HIV Behavioral Interventions (2000-2010): Are the Searches Clearly Explained, Systematic and Reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary M.; DeLuca, Julia B.; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an essential tool for researchers, prevention providers and policy makers who want to remain current with the evidence in the field. Systematic review must adhere to strict standards, as the results can provide a more objective appraisal of evidence for making scientific decisions than traditional narrative reviews. An…

  6. Intergenerational Trauma in Refugee Families: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangalang, Cindy C; Vang, Cindy

    2017-06-01

    Although a robust literature describes the intergenerational effects of traumatic experiences in various populations, evidence specific to refugee families is scattered and contains wide variations in approaches for examining intergenerational trauma. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria, the purpose of this systematic review was to describe the methodologies and findings of peer-reviewed literature regarding intergenerational trauma in refugee families. In doing so we aimed to critically examine how existing literature characterizes refugee trauma, its long-term effects on descendants, and psychosocial processes of transmission in order to provide recommendations for future research. The results highlight populations upon which current evidence is based, conceptualizations of refugee trauma, effects of parental trauma transmission on descendants' health and well-being, and mechanisms of transmission and underlying meanings attributed to parental trauma in refugee families. Greater methodological rigor and consistency in future evidence-based research is needed to inform supportive systems that promote the health and well-being of refugees and their descendants.

  7. Stem cell injections in knee osteoarthritis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, Haiko I. M. F. L.; Winters, Marinus; Haisma, Hidde J.; Koenis, Martinus J. J.; Tol, Johannes L.; Moen, Maarten H.

    Objective Stem cell injection for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is an emerging new therapy, and we aimed to review its evidence of efficacy. Design Systematic review. Eligibility criteria Criteria for eligibility were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCT on the efficacy of stem cell

  8. Great Expectations of Public Service Delegation: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, Sjors

    2016-01-01

    Politicians use a variety of expectations to justify the delegation of public services to public, semi-public or private organizations. This article reveals expectations of delegation, as well as its correlates. Empirical evidence is drawn from a systematic review of 250 peer-reviewed articles

  9. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  10. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R; Kirkham, Jamie J

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. © Saini et al 2014.

  12. Cognition in Childhood Dystonia : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike A; Eggink, Hendriekje; Tijssen, M.A.; Spikman, Jacoba

    Background and aim: Cognitive impairments have been established as part of the non-motor phenomenology of adult dystonia. In childhood dystonia, the extent of cognitive impairments is less clear. This systematic review aims at presenting an overview over the existing literature to elucidate the

  13. Impact of librarians on reporting of the literature searching component of pediatric systematic reviews*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Deborah; Torabi, Nazi; Costella, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective A critical element in conducting a systematic review is the identification of studies. To date, very little empirical evidence has been reported on whether the presence of a librarian or information professional can contribute to the quality of the final product. The goal of this study was to compare the reporting rigor of the literature searching component of systematic reviews with and without the help of a librarian. Method Systematic reviews published from 2002 to 2011 in the twenty highest impact factor pediatrics journals were collected from MEDLINE. Corresponding authors were contacted via an email survey to determine if a librarian was involved, the role that the librarian played, and functions that the librarian performed. The reviews were scored independently by two reviewers using a fifteen-item checklist. Results There were 186 reviews that met the inclusion criteria, and 44% of the authors indicated the involvement of a librarian in conducting the systematic review. With the presence of a librarian as coauthor or team member, the mean checklist score was 8.40, compared to 6.61 (plibrarian. Conclusions Findings indicate that having a librarian as a coauthor or team member correlates with a higher score in the literature searching component of systematic reviews. PMID:27822147

  14. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle Nygaard; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases......Introduction: The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension...

  15. Measurement properties of the craniocervical flexion test: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Francisco Xavier de; Ferreira, Giovanni Esteves; Scholl Schell, Maurício; Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi de; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury

    2018-02-22

    Neck pain is the leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide and it accounts for high economic and societal burden. Altered activation of the neck muscles is a common musculoskeletal impairment presented by patients with neck pain. The craniocervical flexion test with pressure biofeedback unit has been widely used in clinical practice to assess function of deep neck flexor muscles. This systematic review will assess the measurement properties of the craniocervical flexion test for assessing deep cervical flexor muscles. This is a protocol for a systematic review that will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, PEDro, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus and Science Direct will be systematically searched from inception. Studies of any design that have investigated and reported at least one measurement property of the craniocervical flexion test for assessing the deep cervical flexor muscles will be included. All measurement properties will be considered as outcomes. Two reviewers will independently rate the risk of bias of individual studies using the updated COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments risk of bias checklist. A structured narrative synthesis will be used for data analysis. Quantitative findings for each measurement property will be summarised. The overall rating for a measurement property will be classified as 'positive', 'indeterminate' or 'negative'. The overall rating will be accompanied with a level of evidence. Ethical approval and patient consent are not required since this is a systematic review based on published studies. Findings will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CRD42017062175. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The basic reproduction number (R0) of measles: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fiona M; Bolotin, Shelly; Lim, Gillian; Heffernan, Jane; Deeks, Shelley L; Li, Ye; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2017-12-01

    The basic reproduction number, R nought (R 0 ), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R 0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R 0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity. In July, 2010, a panel of experts convened by WHO concluded that measles can and should be eradicated. Despite the existence of an effective vaccine, regions have had varying success in measles control, in part because measles is one of the most contagious infections. For measles, R 0 is often cited to be 12-18, which means that each person with measles would, on average, infect 12-18 other people in a totally susceptible population. We did a systematic review to find studies reporting rigorous estimates and determinants of measles R 0 . Studies were included if they were a primary source of R 0 , addressed pre-existing immunity, and accounted for pre-existing immunity in their calculation of R 0 . A search of key databases was done in January, 2015, and repeated in November, 2016, and yielded 10 883 unique citations. After screening for relevancy and quality, 18 studies met inclusion criteria, providing 58 R 0 estimates. We calculated median measles R 0 values stratified by key covariates. We found that R 0 estimates vary more than the often cited range of 12-18. Our results highlight the importance of countries calculating R 0 using locally derived data or, if this is not possible, using parameter estimates from similar settings. Additional data and agreed review methods are needed to strengthen the evidence base for measles elimination modelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary neural leprosy: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Garbino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.

  18. Systematic reviews of diagnostic tests in endocrinology: an audit of methods, reporting, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Brito, Juan P; Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole; Tamhane, Shrikant; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan; Montori, Victor M

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews provide clinicians and policymakers estimates of diagnostic test accuracy and their usefulness in clinical practice. We identified all available systematic reviews of diagnosis in endocrinology, summarized the diagnostic accuracy of the tests included, and assessed the credibility and clinical usefulness of the methods and reporting. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to December 2015 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting accuracy measures of diagnostic tests in endocrinology. Experienced reviewers independently screened for eligible studies and collected data. We summarized the results, methods, and reporting of the reviews. We performed subgroup analyses to categorize diagnostic tests as most useful based on their accuracy. We identified 84 systematic reviews; half of the tests included were classified as helpful when positive, one-fourth as helpful when negative. Most authors adequately reported how studies were identified and selected and how their trustworthiness (risk of bias) was judged. Only one in three reviews, however, reported an overall judgment about trustworthiness and one in five reported using adequate meta-analytic methods. One in four reported contacting authors for further information and about half included only patients with diagnostic uncertainty. Up to half of the diagnostic endocrine tests in which the likelihood ratio was calculated or provided are likely to be helpful in practice when positive as are one-quarter when negative. Most diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrine lack methodological rigor, protection against bias, and offer limited credibility. Substantial efforts, therefore, seem necessary to improve the quality of diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrinology.

  19. A quality assessment of systematic reviews on telerehabilitation: what does the evidence tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rogante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the quality of systematic reviews on telerehabilitation. Methods. The AMSTAR - Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews - checklist was used to appraise the evidence related to the systematic reviews. Results. Among the 477 records initially identified, 10 systematic reviews matched the inclusion criteria. Fifty percent were of high quality; anyway the majority of them did not report the following aspects: i analysis of the grey literature; ii a list of the excluded studies and their characteristics; iii the identification of possible source of bias and the assessment of its likehood; iv an appropriate method to combine the findings of the included studies addressing the heterogeneity as well. From the main findings of the high-scored systematic reviews telerehabilitation resulted at least as effective as usual care: 1 in the short term treatment of mental health related to people affected by spinal cord injury; 2 in rural communities for treating patients affected by chronic conditions; 3 in treating common pathologies (mainly asthma affecting children and adolescents. As for stroke, evidence is currently insufficient to reach conclusions about its effectiveness. As for costs, there is insufficient evidence to confirm that telerehabilitation is a cost-saving or cost-effective solution. Conclusions. In the authors' knowledge this is the first attempt to evaluate the quality of systematic reviews on telerehabilitation. This work also identified the main findings related to the high-scored systematic reviews; the analysis confirms that there is a mounting evidence concerning the effectiveness of telerehabilitation, at least for some pathologies.

  20. Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke : systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora

    Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke: systematic review. This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Stroke is the second leading

  1. The polio eradication campaign: time to shift the goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Emmanuel; Magone, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The social rejection of the polio eradication campaign in endemic countries challenges an assumption underlying the goal itself: the full compliance of an entire population to a public health programme. The polio campaign, which has been an extraordinary public health enterprise, is at risk of becoming irremediably unpopular if the eradication goal is pursued at all costs. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) should not be driven by the fear of failure, because the greatest benefit of the polio campaign is that it has demonstrated how simple, community-wide actions can contribute to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of a disease.

  2. Cyber threats to health information systems: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Raul; Rhine, Emily; Myhra, Matthew; Sullivan, Ross; Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2016-01-01

    Recent legislation empowering providers to embrace the electronic exchange of health information leaves the healthcare industry increasingly vulnerable to cybercrime. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the biggest threats to healthcare via cybercrime. The rationale behind this systematic review is to provide a framework for future research by identifying themes and trends of cybercrime in the healthcare industry. The authors conducted a systematic search through the CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases to gather literature relative to cyber threats in healthcare. All authors reviewed the articles collected and excluded literature that did not focus on the objective. Researchers selected and examined 19 articles for common themes. The most prevalent cyber-criminal activity in healthcare is identity theft through data breach. Other concepts identified are internal threats, external threats, cyber-squatting, and cyberterrorism. The industry has now come to rely heavily on digital technologies, which increase risks such as denial of service and data breaches. Current healthcare cyber-security systems do not rival the capabilities of cyber criminals. Security of information is a costly resource and therefore many HCOs may hesitate to invest what is required to protect sensitive information.

  3. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2017-06-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Effects of the Pilates method on neck pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cemin, Natália Fernanda; Schmit, Emanuelle Francine Detogni; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Pilates method has been used for neck pain reduction. Objective: To systematically review randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Pilates on neck pain when compared to other groups (CRD42015025987). Methods: This study involved a systematic review directed by the PRISMA Statement based on the recommendations of the Cochrane Colaboration, registered in PROSPERO under the code CRD42015025987. The following databases were searche...

  5. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  6. Trauma in Ethiopia Revisited: A systematic Review | Azaj | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This is a systematic review on trauma/injury incidents which has ... searches for trauma/injuries from peer-reviewed literature and websites from 1960 ... included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables.

  7. Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafen, Jennifer J Schneider; Newberry, Sydne J; Riedl, Marc A; Bravata, Dena M; Maglione, Margaret; Suttorp, Marika J; Sundaram, Vandana; Paige, Neil M; Towfigh, Ali; Hulley, Benjamin J; Shekelle, Paul G

    2010-05-12

    There is heightened interest in food allergies but no clear consensus exists regarding the prevalence or most effective diagnostic and management approaches to food allergies. To perform a systematic review of the available evidence on the prevalence, diagnosis, management, and prevention of food allergies. Electronic searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Searches were limited to English-language articles indexed between January 1988 and September 2009. Diagnostic tests were included if they had a prospective, defined study population, used food challenge as a criterion standard, and reported sufficient data to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for management and prevention outcomes were also used. For foods where anaphylaxis is common, cohort studies with a sample size of more than 100 participants were included. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles and resolved discrepancies by repeated review and discussion. Quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, the quality of diagnostic studies using the QUADAS criteria most relevant to food allergy, and the quality of RCTs using the Jadad