Distribution of metals in vacuum residuums, asphaltenes and maltenes by PIXE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero G, E.T.; Camacho M, V.; Sanchez B, A.C.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.
2001-01-01
The PIXE technique for determining directly the distribution and abundance of trace metals in vacuum residuum, asphaltenes and maltenes separated with n-alkanes (C 5 -C 8 ) is used. The metal content of petroleum derivatives revealed that the vacuum residuum contains iron, aluminium, vanadium and nickel mainly, while that the asphaltenes and maltenes maintain inside of their composition only preferably the vanadium and nickel as majority elements. (Author)
Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina
2012-01-01
the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted...... at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear......We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly...
Biomass to Gasoline and Diesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kraus, Larry [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); DelPaggio, Alan [CRI-Criterion, Houston, TX (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Gromov, Dmitri [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Purtle, Ian [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Dorrington, Paul [Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation, Nelson (New Zealand); Stevens, James [Blue Marble Biomaterials, Missoula, MT (United States); Shonnard, David [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Maleche, Edwin [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)
2013-01-02
Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH^{2}). The IH^{2} gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH^{2} gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH^{2} technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH^{2} has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH^{2} unit. These studies show when using IH^{2} technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH^{2} and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH^{2} technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH^{2} technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH^{2} will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH^{2} biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.
Mobis HRH process residue hydroconversion using a recoverable nano-catalyst
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romocki, S.; Rhodey, G. [Mobis Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2009-07-01
This presentation described a newly developed pseudo-homogeneous catalyst (PHC) for hydroconversion of heavy hydrocarbon feeds with high levels of sulphur, nitrogen, resins, asphaltenes and metals. An active catalyst is formed in the reaction system, consisting of particles that are 2-9 nm in size and whose properties resemble those of a colloid solution at both room and reaction temperature. Residue processing with this pseudo-homogeneous catalyst system results in better cracking and hydrogenation at lower process severity. The PHC system in heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process achieves up to 95 per cent residue conversion at pressures below 7.3 MPa, reaction temperatures between 400 to 460 degrees C, and with feed space velocity between 1 to 2 per hour, thus rendering the PHC catalyst system suitable for deep conversion of hydrocarbon residues. As much as 95 per cent of the catalyst can be recovered and regenerated within the process. Pilot plants are in operation for the hydroconversion of Athabasca vacuum bottoms using this technology. The use of the HRH process in oilsands and refinery operations were discussed along with comparative yields and economics. tabs., figs.
Reactivity of Athabasca residue and of its SARA fractions during residue hydroconversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verstraete, J.; Danial-Fortain, P.; Gauthier, T.; Merdrignac, I. [IFP-Lyon, Vermaison (France); Budzinski, H. [Bordeaux Univ. (France). ISM-LPTC, UMR CNRS
2009-07-01
Residue conversion processes are becoming increasingly important because of the declining market for residual fuel oil and a greater demand for middle distillates. Ebullated-bed hydroconversion is a commercially proven technology for converting heavy feedstocks with high amounts of impurities. The process enables the conversion of atmospheric or vacuum residues at temperatures up to 440 degrees C, and at liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) conditions in the range of 0.15 to 0.5 per hour. A 540 degrees C conversion of up to 80 weight per cent can be achieved under these conditions. This paper reported on a research study conducted at IFP Lyon in which the residue hydroconversion in a large-scale ebullated bed bench unit was investigated to determine the impact of operating conditions and feed properties on yield and product qualities. Hydrogen was added to the feed in the bench units to keep a high hydrogen partial pressure and favour the catalytic hydroconversion reactions. In a typical test, the reactor was fed with 50 g of feedstock and 0.45 g of crushed equilibrium industrial NiMo catalyst, pressurized hydrogen and quickly heated at the reaction temperature. This paper also discussed the conversion of Athabasca bitumen residue in the large-scale pilot plant and also in the small scale batch reactor. The effect of operating temperature and space velocity was examined. The reactivity of the saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA) fractions of the bitumen was studied separately in order to better understand the conversion mechanisms and reactivities. The Athabasca bitumen feed and SARA fractions were also analyzed in terms of standard petroleum analysis, SARA fractionation, elemental analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 13C NMR. Hydroconversion experiments were conducted in the batch unit at different reaction temperatures and reaction times. A comparison of small-scale batch results with those obtained with the continuous large-scale bench
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boda, L.; Thernesz, A. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Co. Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary); Onyestyak, G.; Solt, H.; Lonyi, F.; Valyon, J. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Nanochemistry and Catalysis
2010-07-01
Palladium/activated carbon (Pd/C) and non-sulfided Ni,Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were used. The hydroconversion was found to proceed in consecutive steps of tricaprylin (TC) hydrogenolysis (HYS) to caprylic acid (CA) and propane, and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the acid intermediate to get hydrocarbon. Two HDO routes were distinguished: (i) over Pd/C the prevailing reaction route was the decarbonylation, whereas (ii) over molybdena-alumina catalysts the main reaction was the reduction of oxygen to get water. (orig.)
Hydroconversion of coal tars: effect of the temperature of pyrolysis on the reactivity of tars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M.
1988-12-01
The hydroconversion of a low-temperature and of a high-temperature tar was carried out in the presence of a sulfided Ni and Mo on alumina catalyst - pure or mixed with an acid catalyst (HY zeolite). Significant amounts of light products can be obtained from low temperature tar, formed however through a non-catalytic process. On the contrary, there is a slight catalytic effect during the hydroprocessing of high temperature tar, but the yield in light products is very low. These results can be explained by an extensive poisoning of the NiMo on alumina catalyst by coke which is initiated by the O- and N-containing compounds of the tars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romocki, S.M.; Rhodey, W.G. [Mobis Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-10-15
This paper described a pseudo-homogenous catalyst (PHC) designed to refine heavy hydrocarbon residues containing sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltene impurities known to clog pores and deactivate traditional hydrocrackers. The heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process incorporated a single particle, chemically generated PHC uniformly distributed in the feed. Thermal decomposition within the reaction system of a water-in-oil emulsion containing ammonium paramolybdate was used to form molybdenum oxide, which was then sulfided within the feed in order to create an ultra-dispersed suspension of catalytically active molybdenum disulfide particles measuring between 2 and 9 nm. A proprietary online catalyst recovery and regeneration step was used to maintain high catalyst activity. The molybdenum was then recovered from a purge stream and then reintroduced to the catalyst preparation area as a catalyst precursor. After being conditioned, the feed was combined with hydrogen and a water-oil catalyst emulsion and introduced into a furnace. Heavy components were cracked, hydrogenated and converted to lighter products. The high performance catalyst system was able to convert 95 per cent of residues at pressures below 7.3 Mpa and at reaction temperatures ranging between 400 and 460 degrees C. The catalyst was tested at a pilot plant using Athabasca vacuum bottoms. It was concluded that the HRH process is now being successfully used to produce 200 barrels of heavy oil per day. Designs for commercial installations are now being prepared. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.
Properties and application of magnetite-bearing leaching residuum in metals ions removal process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hredzak, S.; Vaclavikova, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Lovas, M.; Macasek, F.; Kufcakova, J.; Rajec, P.; Kopunec, R.
2003-01-01
The utility of magnetic sorbents is their potential application in heterogeneous systems like suspensions and body liquids, where they can be specifically removed in a magnetic field. Last not least, also the residues of leached iron-nickel laterite ores at the former Sered (Slovakia) hydrometallurgical plant were found to be a suitable magnetic sorbent for the removal of radionuclides and toxic elements from suspensions. Thus, the promising field of utilising of a stock of six million tons, which represents a local environmental problem because of the resulting spread of the so called black dusts, and the chromium contamination of underground waters, is the application in the decontamination of soils. The properties of the Sered residuum (further: SOR) are introduced. SOR, the raw and mechano-chemically activated by the grinding in potassium ferrocyanide solution in vibrating, ball or attrition mills, were used as a semi-natural magnetic sorbent. The parameters of raw and activated SOR are presented. The vibrating mill activation appears as the most efficient in respect of its activation, though the biggest increase of specific surface was achieved by attrition grinding. The soil in vicinity of nuclear facilities is generally contaminated by caesium-137, cobalt-60 and strontium-90 and should be decontaminated down the level of radiocaesium of about 1 kBq/kg. For this reason the sorption properties for Cs + , Sr 2+ , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ ions were evaluated. The Toth sorption isotherm was used. Speciation by the Tessier and BCR standard leaching procedures indicates differences between the ions. Raw and activated SOR have convenient sorption properties for caesium, strontium, lead and partially also for trivalent lanthanides. That, together with SOR magnetic properties makes them promising for treatment of radioactive contaminated soils and sediments. Sorption of anions was demonstrated by TcO 4- sorption as a result of secondary ion-exchange mechanism. The results of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya
2004-04-01
Nitrogen gas can be an extinguisher or a mitigating material in the case of sodium leak and fire accident in an air atmosphere, which may occur at a liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant. However, sodium combustion residuum sometimes reignites in the air atmosphere even at room temperature when it was produced by nitrogen gas injection to the burning sodium. Then, in this study we executed conclusive experiments of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition by a mixture of carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, humidity and nitrogen gas. The experiments were carried out with the FRAT-1 test equipment; the humidity conditions were changed in air which were used to sodium combustion atmosphere and exposure air for confirmation of prevented combustion residue reignition. First of all, the sodium of about 2.5 kg was leaked in air atmosphere, and next, the sodium combustion was stopped by nitrogen gas injection. Next, the combustion residuum was cooled in the nitrogen atmosphere, and then the combustion residuum was exposed to atmosphere of carbon-dioxide (4%); humidity (6000vppm); oxygen (3%)-nitrogen (based gas) mixture. It was confirmed that the combustion residuum was not reignition even if exposed to the air atmosphere again at the end of experiment. We had confirmed that the prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition to establish by this research were effective. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Institute; Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Institute; Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Institute; Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Institute; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Institute; Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Institute; McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst; Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst; Gephart, John [Johnson Timber; Starr, Jack [Cargill; Hahn, John [Cargill
2013-06-09
Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M. (Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique CNRS, Poitiers (France))
1989-09-15
Acid catalysts were added to sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst in order to obtain a higher hydrocracking activity. The hydroconversion of phenanthrene, alone or in the presence of carbazole and/or 1-naphthol, was chosen as a model reaction. The presence of acid catalysts greatly increases the conversion of phenanthrene and allows significant amounts of light products to be obtained. In the presence of carbazole or of 1-naphthol, acid catalysts create a small increase in phenanthrene conversion, but light products are no longer obtained as the acid sites are poisoned either by adsorption of ammonia from carbazole decomposition, or by extensive coke deposition generated from 1-naphthol. In the presence of carbazole and 1-naphthol, there is no longer any effect of the acid catalysts on the hydroconversion of phenanthrene, owing to complete inhibition of the acid sites. 12 refs., 5 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, S.
1982-01-01
We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)
Nie, Ziyang; Zhang, Zhena; Chen, Jixiang
2017-10-01
SiO2 supported bifunctional MoP catalysts modified with different metal promoters (Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt), where Mo/Ni and Mo/M(M = Ru, Pd and Pt) atomic ratios was respectively 10 and 40, were prepared by TPR method from the phosphate precursors. It was found that the introduction of metal promoters facilitated the reduction of phosphate precursor and enhanced the dispersion of MoP. However, the MoP catalyst acidity was scarcely influenced by the small amount of metal promoters. In the hydroconversion of methyl laurate, the promoters enhanced the MoP catalyst activity for conversion of methyl laurate and hydrogenation of alkenes (intermediate), but reduced isomerization ability. Among the promoters, Ru was an optimum to decrease selectivity to alkenes while maintain high selectivity to iso-alkanes, and Mo40RuP showed better stability than MoP. At 380 °C and 3.0 MPa, the conversion of methyl laurate, the total selectivity to C11 and C12 hydrocarbons and the selectivity to iso-alkanes maintained at 100%, ∼94% and ∼30% on Mo40RuP during 102 h, respectively. The good stability of Mo40RuP is ascribed to that the presence of Ru prevented the sintering of MoP particles and suppressed carbon deposition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M. (Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique CNRS, Poitiers (France))
1989-09-15
The conversion of tars from coal pyrolysis into light aromatics, such as BTX (benzene-toluene-xylenes) and naphthalene, requires the hydrocracking of heavy polyaromatics in the presence of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds. The hydroconversion of phenanthrene, which occurs through bifunctional catalysis, was chosen as a model reaction. It was carried out over a sulphided Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst (Ketjen 153) in the presence of carbazole and 1-naphthol. Carbazole poisons slightly through coking both the hydrogenating and the acid sites of the catalyst. 1-Naphthol has a more significant deactivating effect: the hydrogenating sites of the catalyst are poisoned by the water eliminated from 1-naphthol and the acid sites by coke generated by 1-naphthol. Lastly, the hydrogenating activity of the catalyst is not substantially affected in the presence of carbazole and 1-naphthol, but its cracking activity is much reduced, making it impossible for the catalyst to achieve the hydrocracking of phenanthrene into into light aromatics. 5 figs, 21 refs., 1 tab.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zongwei Zhang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The hydroconversion of waste cooking oil into hydrocarbon fuel was investigated over the hierarchical USY zeolite-supported NiMo catalysts which were prepared by dealumination ((NH42SiF6/desilication (NaOH. The physical and acidity properties of the hierarchical catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine (Py-IR, ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR. The Brønsted/Lewis (B/L acid distribution was little affected by dealumination and the acid density decreased significantly. However, the highly-desilicated catalysts decreased the B/L ratio obviously. Therefore, many more Mo species in the NiMoO4− and MoO3 phases were produced in the AHFS-treated catalysts, while more high-valence-state Mo species in the NiMoO4− phase were formed in the NaOH-treated catalysts. The AHFS-treated catalysts showed higher catalytic activity and better DCO2 selectivity and selective cracking for jet fuel. The 42.3% selectivity of jet fuel and 13.5% selectivity of jet-range aromatics was achieved over the 8 wt % (NH42SiF6-treated catalyst with 67% DCO2 selectivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2009-01-01
We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.
Zhao, Sha; Zhang, Zhena; Zhu, Kongying; Chen, Jixiang
2017-05-01
A series of Ni2P/AlMCM-41-x bifunctional catalysts with different Si/Al ratios (x) were synthesized by in situ phosphorization of Ni/AlMCM-41-x with triphenylphosphine (nominal Ni/P ratio of 0.75) at 300 °C on a fixed-bed reactor. For comparison, NiP/AlMCM-41-5-TPR was also prepared by the TPR method from the supported nickel phosphate with the Ni/P ratio of 1.0, during which metallic Ni rather than Ni2P formed. TEM images show that Ni and Ni2P particles uniformly distributed in Ni2P/AlMCM-41-x and NiP/AlMCM-41-5-TPR. The Ni2P/AlMCM-41-x acidity increased with decreasing the Si/Al ratio. In the hydroconversion of methyl laurate, the conversions were close to 100% on all catalysts at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, methyl laurate WHSV of 2 h-1 and H2/methyl laurate ratio of 25. As to Ni2P/AlMCM-41-x, with decreasing the Si/Al ratio, the total selectivity to C11 and C12 hydrocarbons decreased, while the total selectivity to isoundecane and isododecane (Si-C11+i-C12) firstly increased and then decreased. Ni2P/AlMCM-41-5 gave the largest Si-C11+i-C12 of 43.2%. While NiP/AlMCM-41-5-TPR gave higher Si-C11+i-C12 than Ni2P/AlMCM-41-5, it was more active for the undesired Csbnd C bond cleavage and methanation. We propose that the in-situ phosphorization adopted here is a promising approach to preparing Ni2P-based bifunctional catalysts.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk
2015-01-01
Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Sha; Zhang, Zhena [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Technology, Department of Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Kongying, E-mail: ausky@tju.edu.cn [Analysis and Measurement Center, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Jixiang, E-mail: jxchen@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Technology, Department of Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Bifunctional Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41 was prepared by in situ phosphorization at 300 °C. • There were similar Ni{sub 2}P particle sizes in Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41 with different Si/Al ratios. • The acid amount of Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41 increased with decreasing the Si/Al ratio. • Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41 with the Si/Al ratio of 5 had the highest activity for isomerization. • Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41 had very low activity for methanation and C−C bond hydrogenolysis. - Abstract: A series of Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41-x bifunctional catalysts with different Si/Al ratios (x) were synthesized by in situ phosphorization of Ni/AlMCM-41-x with triphenylphosphine (nominal Ni/P ratio of 0.75) at 300 °C on a fixed-bed reactor. For comparison, NiP/AlMCM-41-5-TPR was also prepared by the TPR method from the supported nickel phosphate with the Ni/P ratio of 1.0, during which metallic Ni rather than Ni{sub 2}P formed. TEM images show that Ni and Ni{sub 2}P particles uniformly distributed in Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41-x and NiP/AlMCM-41-5-TPR. The Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41-x acidity increased with decreasing the Si/Al ratio. In the hydroconversion of methyl laurate, the conversions were close to 100% on all catalysts at 360 °C, 3.0 MPa, methyl laurate WHSV of 2 h{sup −1} and H{sub 2}/methyl laurate ratio of 25. As to Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41-x, with decreasing the Si/Al ratio, the total selectivity to C11 and C12 hydrocarbons decreased, while the total selectivity to isoundecane and isododecane (S{sub i-C11+i-C12}) firstly increased and then decreased. Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41-5 gave the largest S{sub i-C11+i-C12} of 43.2%. While NiP/AlMCM-41-5-TPR gave higher S{sub i-C11+i-C12} than Ni{sub 2}P/AlMCM-41-5, it was more active for the undesired C−C bond cleavage and methanation. We propose that the in-situ phosphorization adopted here is a promising approach to preparing Ni{sub 2}P-based bifunctional catalysts.
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbonell, Montserrat Motas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: montserrat@petrobras.com.br; Guirardello, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Processos Quimicos]. E-mail: guira@feq.unicamp.br
2004-07-01
The environmental evaluation of a chemical process during its development, design or retrofit is important to reduce environmental impacts of industrial processes. This is called design for the environment (DfE) and has been done through the development and use of environmental indicators. This paper presents a brief literature review, discussing the main characteristics and comparing two selected environmental indicators. The paper also presents the 'Heinzle et al. (1998) modified method', adapted for the use in the evaluation of petroleum refining process. The environmental indicator is based on mass balances through defined regions and qualitative scales to consider the environmental aspects of: availability of raw materials resources, environmental impacts in the synthesis of raw materials, air and water pollution and special problems for disposal. This indicator helps in the identification of major loss and environmental problems in process components, streams or schemes so that process alternatives can be proposed and evaluated, leading to the development of environmentally friendly processes. The Heinzle et al. modified method is applied to the hydroconversion reaction balance region, showing the calculation of the environmental factor of the pseudo components. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.
1988-01-01
The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)
Characterization of revenue equivalence
Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.
2009-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds
Characterization of Revenue Equivalence
Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh
2008-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.
1978-06-01
A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined
Molenaar, Peter C M
2017-01-01
Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.
Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics
Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.
Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, C.S.
1994-01-01
Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.
1990-01-01
The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges
Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"
Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong
2005-01-01
Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…
Correspondences. Equivalence relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouligand, G.M.
1978-03-01
We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veltman, H.
1990-01-01
The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs
Equivalence, commensurability, value
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albertsen, Niels
2017-01-01
Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....
Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)
2012-07-01
by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)
Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics
Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.
Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.
Quantification of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epstein, K.J.
1978-01-01
Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries
New recommendations for dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bengtsson, G.
1985-01-01
In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)
System equivalent model mixing
Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis
2018-05-01
This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smorodinskij, Ya.A.
1980-01-01
The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world
Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases
Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana
2017-01-01
Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...
Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence
Wellek, Stefan
2010-01-01
Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the
Developments in hydroconversion processes for residues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Douwes, C T [Shell Res. B.V.; Wijffels, J B; Van Klinken, J; Van Zijll Langhout, W C
1979-01-01
A review of recent developments in hydrotreating processes for demetallization, desulfurization, and conversion to distillate products of residues covers catalyst developments for suppression of coke formation, maximum metals tolerance, and conversion selectivity; the effects of hydrogen pressure and temperature on catalyst deactivation and conversion; basic operating characteristics of conventional fixed-bed trickle-flow reactors, and of onstream catalyst replacement reactors, including the expanded-bed and the moving-bed reactor; a comparison of catalyst bed activity level, dirt tolerance, reactor effectiveness, temperature control, and thermal stability of the expanded-bed and moving-bed reactors; residue upgrading in slurry-bed reactors of dispersed vanadium sulfide catalyst in the oil; design and control features for safety and reliability; and a cost comparison between the indirect hydrotreating route, in which the asphalt fraction is separated prior to hydrotreating, and the as yet incompletely developed direct route.
HDHPLUS/SHP : heavy residue hydroconversion technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morel, F. [Axens, Rueil Malmaison (France)
2009-07-01
This presentation described an integrated refinery process that achieves nearly full conversion of heavy and refractory residues into ultra high quality and ultra low sulphur transportation fuels with a yield great than 100 volume per cent. The Axens, IFP and Intevep/PDVSA Alliance combined the HDHPLUS vacuum residue slurry technology with Sequential Hydro Processing (SHP) of primary hydrocracked products. Both technologies have undergone extensive testing at a refinery in Puerto La Cruz (RPLC), Venezuela to begin production of 50,000 BPSD in 2012. The demonstration unit at Intevep has been used to investigate production of effluent for the downstream SHP processing. This paper also reviewed the SHP bench unit operations at IFP's Lyon research center in France and disclosed the final product yields and qualities. The test results have shown the expected RPLC deep conversion commercial unit performances and fully secure its design basis. tabs., figs.
SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA
Saxena, R. B.
1994-01-01
Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.
Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.
Saxena, R B
1994-07-01
Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Guanxin
1991-01-01
A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested
Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.
1989-01-01
Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)
What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franic, Z.
1994-01-01
In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible
Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-03-15
A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)
Matching of equivalent field regions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.
2005-01-01
In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...
Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity
González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2015-12-01
There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.
Attainment of radiation equivalency principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.
2004-01-01
Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru
Comments on field equivalence principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1987-01-01
It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...
EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina, Chifane
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.
The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power
Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.
Francis, Gregory
2017-08-01
Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.
Equivalent nozzle in thermomechanical problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cesari, F.
1977-01-01
When analyzing nuclear vessels, it is most important to study the behavior of the nozzle cylinder-cylinder intersection. For the elastic field, this analysis in three dimensions is quite easy using the method of finite elements. The same analysis in the non-linear field becomes difficult for designs in 3-D. It is therefore necessary to resolve a nozzle in two dimensions equivalent to a 3-D nozzle. The purpose of the present work is to find an equivalent nozzle both with a mechanical and thermal load. This has been achieved by the analysis in three dimensions of a nozzle and a nozzle cylinder-sphere intersection, of a different radius. The equivalent nozzle will be a nozzle with a sphere radius in a given ratio to the radius of a cylinder; thus, the maximum equivalent stress is the same in both 2-D and 3-D. The nozzle examined derived from the intersection of a cylindrical vessel of radius R=191.4 mm and thickness T=6.7 mm with a cylindrical nozzle of radius r=24.675 mm and thickness t=1.350 mm, for which the experimental results for an internal pressure load are known. The structure was subdivided into 96 finite, three-dimensional and isoparametric elements with 60 degrees of freedom and 661 total nodes. Both the analysis with a mechanical load as well as the analysis with a thermal load were carried out on this structure according to the Bersafe system. The thermal load consisted of a transient typical of an accident occurring in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, with a peak of the temperature (540 0 C) for the sodium inside the vessel with an insulating argon temperature constant at 525 0 C. The maximum value of the equivalent tension was found in the internal area at the union towards the vessel side. The analysis of the nozzle in 2-D consists in schematizing the structure as a cylinder-sphere intersection, where the sphere has a given relation to the
21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...
Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames
Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.
2006-01-01
Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…
Wijsman Orlicz Asymptotically Ideal -Statistical Equivalent Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bipan Hazarika
2013-01-01
in Wijsman sense and present some definitions which are the natural combination of the definition of asymptotic equivalence, statistical equivalent, -statistical equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense. Finally, we introduce the notion of Cesaro Orlicz asymptotically -equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense and establish their relationship with other classes.
Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.
Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.
1985-01-01
In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)
Derived equivalences for group rings
König, Steffen
1998-01-01
A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.
Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.
1987-11-01
A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. Critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 [1] methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. The effective dose equivalent determined using ICRP-26 methods is significantly smaller than the dose equivalent determined by traditional methods. No existing personnel dosimeter or health physics instrument can determine effective dose equivalent. At the present time, the conversion of dosimeter response to dose equivalent is based on calculations for maximal or ''cap'' values using homogeneous spherical or cylindrical phantoms. The evaluated dose equivalent is, therefore, a poor approximation of the effective dose equivalent as defined by ICRP Publication 26. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harvey, J.R.
1985-01-01
The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)
Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.
Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A
2008-08-01
The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.
Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medina, V.O.
1982-01-01
The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)
Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.
1980-01-01
A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)
Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.
Equivalent damage of loads on pavements
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Prozzi, JA
2009-05-26
Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...
Investigation of Equivalent Circuit for PEMFC Assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myong, Kwang Jae
2011-01-01
Chemical reactions occurring in a PEMFC are dominated by the physical conditions and interface properties, and the reactions are expressed in terms of impedance. The performance of a PEMFC can be simply diagnosed by examining the impedance because impedance characteristics can be expressed by an equivalent electrical circuit. In this study, the characteristics of a PEMFC are assessed using the AC impedance and various equivalent circuits such as a simple equivalent circuit, equivalent circuit with a CPE, equivalent circuit with two RCs, and equivalent circuit with two CPEs. It was found in this study that the characteristics of a PEMFC could be assessed using impedance and an equivalent circuit, and the accuracy was highest for an equivalent circuit with two CPEs
2010-10-01
... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable...
Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J
2008-01-01
Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators
The definition of the individual dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehrlich, Margarete
1986-01-01
A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)
The role of polar aromatics in residuum hydrocracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benham, N.K.; Pruden, B.B.
1997-01-01
The CANMET hydrocracking process was developed to convert the heavy pitch fraction in bitumen into salable products. Some of the defining features of the CANMET technology were described. A 5000 BPD demonstration unit was built for Petro-Canada's Montreal Refinery in 1985. The CANMET slurry hydrocracking process uses a solid additive to inhibit coke formation and is capable of 975+ degrees F conversion levels in excess of 90 per cent. The process can be used for a wide range of refinery residues including conventional crudes and residues from refinery conversion units. The CANMET process has the capability of upgrading FCCU slurry, visbreaker vacuum tower bottoms, deasphalter bottoms residue, and poor quality gas oils from cokers and visbreakers. The current practices of the Petro-Canada commercial operation were discussed in the context of adapting the process to handle higher levels of asphaltenes. Pilot plant projects are being considered for ROSE R deasphalter bottoms. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs
The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro
1999-01-01
We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...
Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid
Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin
2013-01-01
The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...
Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.
1988-01-01
A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed
Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.
ZAITSEV, DMITRI
2001-01-01
PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.
Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumer, L.; Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.
1982-01-01
A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed
Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens
1996-01-01
languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....
Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herbert Ernst Wiegand
2011-10-01
Full Text Available
Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.
Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE
Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.
Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ
Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations
Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han
1999-01-01
Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the
On uncertainties in definition of dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Keiji
1995-01-01
The author has entertained always the doubt that in a neutron field, if the measured value of the absorbed dose with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber is 1.02±0.01 mGy, may the dose equivalent be taken as 10.2±0.1 mSv. Should it be 10.2 or 11, but the author considers it is 10 or 20. Even if effort is exerted for the precision measurement of absorbed dose, if the coefficient being multiplied to it is not precise, it is meaningless. [Absorbed dose] x [Radiation quality fctor] = [Dose equivalent] seems peculiar. How accurately can dose equivalent be evaluated ? The descriptions related to uncertainties in the publications of ICRU and ICRP are introduced, which are related to radiation quality factor, the accuracy of measuring dose equivalent and so on. Dose equivalent shows the criterion for the degree of risk, or it is considered only as a controlling quantity. The description in the ICRU report 1973 related to dose equivalent and its unit is cited. It was concluded that dose equivalent can be considered only as the absorbed dose being multiplied by a dimensionless factor. The author presented the questions. (K.I.)
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2008-01-01
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...
7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...
7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...
7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...
7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...
7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...
7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. ...
7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...
7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...
7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...
7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...
7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...
Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard
Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2000-01-01
Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As
What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...
EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS
LUIJBEN, TCW
1991-01-01
Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank
Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer
2011-08-01
We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.
Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jiri
2009-01-01
We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...
2013-11-12
... Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of the designation of five new equivalent methods for...) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, five new equivalent methods, one for measuring...
2012-10-05
... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY... equivalent methods, one for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 , one for measuring concentrations of PM 10...
Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.
Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G
2003-08-01
The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.
Geometry of the local equivalence of states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sawicki, A; Kus, M, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)
2011-12-09
We present a description of locally equivalent states in terms of symplectic geometry. Using the moment map between local orbits in the space of states and coadjoint orbits of the local unitary group, we reduce the problem of local unitary equivalence to an easy part consisting of identifying the proper coadjoint orbit and a harder problem of the geometry of fibers of the moment map. We give a detailed analysis of the properties of orbits of 'equally entangled states'. In particular, we show connections between certain symplectic properties of orbits such as their isotropy and coisotropy with effective criteria of local unitary equivalence. (paper)
Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.
2013-01-01
The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule
On the equivalence of chaos control systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaofan
2003-01-01
For a given chaotic system, different control systems can be constructed depending on which parameter is tuned or where the external input is added. We prove that two different feedback control systems are qualitatively equivalent if they are feedback linearizable
Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.
Sidman, M
2000-07-01
Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.
REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game
Tucker, Stephen I.
2014-01-01
Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.
ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.
interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability
African Journals Online (AJOL)
jgmweri
translatability in cultural diversity in terms equivalences such as –Vocabulary or lexical ..... A KSL interpreter who does not understand this English idiom may literally interpret it .... Nida, E.A. (1958) Analysis of meaning and dictionary making.
Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Francaviglia
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.
The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, S.J. Jr.
1984-01-01
Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation
Dark matter and the equivalence principle
Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1993-01-01
A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.
S-equivalents lagrangians in generalized mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Negri, L.J.; Silva, Edna G. da.
1985-01-01
The problem of s-equivalent lagrangians is considered in the realm of generalized mechanics. Some results corresponding to the ordinary (non-generalized) mechanics are extended to the generalized case. A theorem for the reduction of the higher order lagrangian description to the usual order is found to be useful for the analysis of generalized mechanical systems and leads to a new class of equivalence between lagrangian functions. Some new perspectives are pointed out. (Author) [pt
Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin
2014-01-01
In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.
Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks
Wong, Thomas G.
2017-09-01
Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.
Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P C W
2004-01-01
A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics
Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.
2007-01-01
To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z eff ), electron density (ρ e ), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μ en /ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ) tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( en /ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application
Using frequency equivalency in stability calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruzdev, I.A.; Temirbulatov, R.A.; Tereshko, L.A.
1981-01-01
A methodology for calculating oscillatory instability that involves using frequency equivalency is employed in carrying out the following proceedures: dividing an electric power system into subgroups; determining the adjustments to the automatic excitation control in each subsystem; simplifying the mathematical definition of the separate subsystems by using frequency equivalency; gradually re-tuning the automatic excitation control in the separate subsystems to account for neighboring subsystems by using their equivalent frequency characteristics. The methodology is to be used with a computer program to determine the gain in the stabilization channels of the automatic excitation control unit in which static stability of the entire aggregate of normal and post-breakdown conditions acceptable damping of transient processes are provided. The possibility of reducing the equation series to apply to chosen regions of the existing range of frequencies is demonstrated. The use of the methodology is illustrated in a sample study on stability in a Siberian unified power system.
The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars
Nijholt, Antinus; Gecsec, F.
It will be shown that the equivalence problem for LL-regular grammars is decidable. Apart from extending the known result for LL(k) grammar equivalence to LLregular grammar equivalence, we obtain an alternative proof of the decidability of LL(k) equivalence. The equivalence prob]em for LL-regular
Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. DE BONIS
1998-09-01
Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.
Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters
Zhang, Xueqian
2011-01-01
An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.
Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Huynh Phan; Tran Van Nhung
1995-12-01
We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in R n of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small ( * ) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large ( ** ). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy ( ** ). (author). 18 refs
A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu
2012-01-01
The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)
Measurements of the personal dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.
2008-01-01
Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung
2012-06-01
... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen... INFORMATION: In accordance with regulations at 40 CFR Part 53, the EPA evaluates various methods for...
Development of a General Modelling Methodology for Vacuum Residue Hydroconversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pereira de Oliveira L.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This work concerns the development of a methodology for kinetic modelling of refining processes, and more specifically for vacuum residue conversion. The proposed approach allows to overcome the lack of molecular detail of the petroleum fractions and to simulate the transformation of the feedstock molecules into effluent molecules by means of a two-step procedure. In the first step, a synthetic mixture of molecules representing the feedstock for the process is generated via a molecular reconstruction method, termed SR-REM molecular reconstruction. In the second step, a kinetic Monte-Carlo method (kMC is used to simulate the conversion reactions on this mixture of molecules. The molecular reconstruction was applied to several petroleum residues and is illustrated for an Athabasca (Canada vacuum residue. The kinetic Monte-Carlo method is then described in detail. In order to validate this stochastic approach, a lumped deterministic model for vacuum residue conversion was simulated using Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm. Despite the fact that both approaches are based on very different hypotheses, the stochastic simulation algorithm simulates the conversion reactions with the same accuracy as the deterministic approach. The full-scale stochastic simulation approach using molecular-level reaction pathways provides high amounts of detail on the effluent composition and is briefly illustrated for Athabasca VR hydrocracking.
Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne
2015-01-01
Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...
Free Fall and the Equivalence Principle Revisited
Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2017-01-01
Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton's law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field.…
Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...
Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...
On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations
Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H
2010-01-01
This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel
Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.
Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin
2017-01-01
Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.
Possibility and necessity measures and integral equivalence
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chen, T.; Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Stupňanová, A.
2017-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 1 (2017), s. 62-72 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Integral equivalence * Necessity measure * Possibility measure * Survival function * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477092.pdf
Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl
In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...
Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Le, Hong-Van
LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.
2001-01-01
We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data
Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. ... With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans ...
Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.
2009-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649
Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroyter, Michael
2009-01-01
We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.
Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany
Charlier, E.
1997-01-01
Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions
Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne
2014-01-01
Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...
Equivalence of rational representations of behaviors
Gottimukkala, Sasanka; Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.
This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems. In general, the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel and image representations. Two kernel
Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Dezhong; He Bin
2003-01-01
In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping
Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao Dezhong [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu City, 610054, Sichuan Province (China); He Bin [The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States)
2003-11-07
In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.
On the equivalence of GPD representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill
2016-01-01
Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs
Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
2009-07-01
This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)
Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.
1995-01-01
The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)
Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob
2015-01-01
A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....
The Logic of Equivalence in Academic Discourse?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Dorte
2017-01-01
of discourse to distinguish between the scientific field, where interrelationships among academic disciplines are taken as an object of research, and the widespread uses of ‘interdisciplinary’ and ‘interdisciplinarity’ in academic discourse more generally, typically for legitimation purposes. The assumption......-discourses meet. It is suggested that the logics of signification, and the tension between difference and equivalence, may be important tools for theorizing this borderland. It is argued that whereas the logic of equivalence and the production of empty signifiers appears to be of marginal interest...... to the scientific field, the logic of difference as a more complex articulation of elements, seems to be more in line with the ideals of academic discourse....
On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits
Kagan, Mikhail
2015-01-01
While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.
Symmetry adaptation, operator equivalents and magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibler, M.; Chatterjee, R.
1977-12-01
Basic quantities for symmetry adaptation are discussed in connection with molecular and solid state physics. This gives rise to a formalism whose the central elements are operator equivalents adapted to a point group. Such symmetry adapted operator equivalents are defined in terms of Schwinger operators so that they cover the off-diagonal and diagonal cases. Special emphasis is put on the applications of the formalism to magnetic resonance. More specifically, it is shown how to apply the formalism to the construction, the study of the transformation properties, and the determination of the eigenstates of a generalized spin hamiltonian. Numerous examples are given as well as key tables relative to the chain SO(3) for making easy the application of the formalism to electron paramagnetic resonance [fr
A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.
2007-01-01
-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....
Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere
Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.
2015-11-01
As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.
Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish
Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin
2017-01-01
Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...
Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Doucha, Michal
2012-01-01
Roč. 159, č. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#
Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1997-01-01
The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S 0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.
2011-01-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worden, P.W. Jr.
1976-01-01
The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10 -14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10 -15 ; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10 -18 . Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described
Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions
Obiekezie, Chijioke S.
2016-01-01
This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems.\\ud For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...
Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.
1992-01-01
Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme
Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haugan, M.P.
1979-01-01
If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity
Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain
Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh
2007-11-01
In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.
Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.
2009-01-01
As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time
Generating carbyne equivalents with photoredox catalysis
Wang, Zhaofeng; Herraiz, Ana G.; Del Hoyo, Ana M.; Suero, Marcos G.
2018-02-01
Carbon has the unique ability to bind four atoms and form stable tetravalent structures that are prevalent in nature. The lack of one or two valences leads to a set of species—carbocations, carbanions, radicals and carbenes—that is fundamental to our understanding of chemical reactivity. In contrast, the carbyne—a monovalent carbon with three non-bonded electrons—is a relatively unexplored reactive intermediate; the design of reactions involving a carbyne is limited by challenges associated with controlling its extreme reactivity and the lack of efficient sources. Given the innate ability of carbynes to form three new covalent bonds sequentially, we anticipated that a catalytic method of generating carbynes or related stabilized species would allow what we term an ‘assembly point’ disconnection approach for the construction of chiral centres. Here we describe a catalytic strategy that generates diazomethyl radicals as direct equivalents of carbyne species using visible-light photoredox catalysis. The ability of these carbyne equivalents to induce site-selective carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage in aromatic rings enables a useful diazomethylation reaction, which underpins sequencing control for the late-stage assembly-point functionalization of medically relevant agents. Our strategy provides an efficient route to libraries of potentially bioactive molecules through the installation of tailored chiral centres at carbon-hydrogen bonds, while complementing current translational late-stage functionalization processes. Furthermore, we exploit the dual radical and carbene character of the generated carbyne equivalent in the direct transformation of abundant chemical feedstocks into valuable chiral molecules.
Equivalent conserved currents and generalized Noether's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, T.J.
1984-01-01
A generalized Noether theorem is presented, relating symmetries and equivalence classes of local) conservation laws in classical field theories; this is contrasted with the standard theorem. The concept of a ''Noether'' field theory is introduced, being a theory for which the generalized theorem applies; not only does this include the cases of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories, these structures are ''derived'' from the Noether property in a natural way. The generalized theorem applies to currents and symmetries that contain derivatives of the fields up to an arbitrarily high order
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.
2015-01-01
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil
2002-01-01
Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...
Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidmar, T.; Celik, N.; Cornejo Diaz, N.; Dlabac, A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Hult, M.; Jovanovic, S.; Lepy, M.-C.; Mihaljevic, N.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vidmar, G.
2010-01-01
Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases.
The equivalence principle in a quantum world
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal
2015-01-01
the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A
2009-08-31
We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.
Money and bonds: an equivalence theorem
Narayana R. Kocherlakota
2007-01-01
This paper considers four models in which immortal agents face idiosyncratic shocks and trade only a single risk-free asset over time. The four models specify this single asset to be private bonds, public bonds, public money, or private money respectively. I prove that, given an equilibrium in one of these economies, it is possible to pick the exogenous elements in the other three economies so that there is an outcome-equivalent equilibrium in each of them. (The term ?exogenous variables? ref...
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2015-02-12
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
Integrable topological billiards and equivalent dynamical systems
Vedyushkina, V. V.; Fomenko, A. T.
2017-08-01
We consider several topological integrable billiards and prove that they are Liouville equivalent to many systems of rigid body dynamics. The proof uses the Fomenko-Zieschang theory of invariants of integrable systems. We study billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and their generalizations, generalized billiards, where the motion occurs on a locally planar surface obtained by gluing several planar domains isometrically along their boundaries, which are arcs of confocal quadrics. We describe two new classes of integrable billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics, namely, non-compact billiards and generalized billiards obtained by gluing planar billiards along non-convex parts of their boundaries. We completely classify non-compact billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and study their topology using the Fomenko invariants that describe the bifurcations of singular leaves of the additional integral. We study the topology of isoenergy surfaces for some non-convex generalized billiards. It turns out that they possess exotic Liouville foliations: the integral trajectories of the billiard that lie on some singular leaves admit no continuous extension. Such billiards appear to be leafwise equivalent to billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics in the Minkowski metric.
Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it
2009-04-01
The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].
Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence
Newell, David B.
2000-04-01
Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.
Borel equivalence relations structure and classification
Kanovei, Vladimir
2008-01-01
Over the last 20 years, the theory of Borel equivalence relations and related topics have been very active areas of research in set theory and have important interactions with other fields of mathematics, like ergodic theory and topological dynamics, group theory, combinatorics, functional analysis, and model theory. The book presents, for the first time in mathematical literature, all major aspects of this theory and its applications. This book should be of interest to a wide spectrum of mathematicians working in set theory as well as the other areas mentioned. It provides a systematic exposition of results that so far have been only available in journals or are even unpublished. The book presents unified and in some cases significantly streamlined proofs of several difficult results, especially dichotomy theorems. It has rather minimal overlap with other books published in this subject.
Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guanglei Li
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.
Multiplicities of states od equivalent fermion shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savukinas, A.Yu.; Glembotskij, I.I.
1980-01-01
Classification of states of three or four equivalent fermions has been studied, i.e. possible terms and their multiplicities have been determined. For this purpose either the group theory or evident expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients have been used. In the first approach the formulas obtained by other authors for the multiplicities of terms through the characters of the transformation matrices of bond moments have been used. This approach happens to be more general as compared with the second one, as expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients in many cases are not known. The multiplicities of separate terms have been determined. It has been shown that the number of terms of any multiplicity becomes constant when l or j is increased [ru
Sample size allocation in multiregional equivalence studies.
Liao, Jason J Z; Yu, Ziji; Li, Yulan
2018-06-17
With the increasing globalization of drug development, the multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) has gained extensive use. The data from MRCTs could be accepted by regulatory authorities across regions and countries as the primary sources of evidence to support global marketing drug approval simultaneously. The MRCT can speed up patient enrollment and drug approval, and it makes the effective therapies available to patients all over the world simultaneously. However, there are many challenges both operationally and scientifically in conducting a drug development globally. One of many important questions to answer for the design of a multiregional study is how to partition sample size into each individual region. In this paper, two systematic approaches are proposed for the sample size allocation in a multiregional equivalence trial. A numerical evaluation and a biosimilar trial are used to illustrate the characteristics of the proposed approaches. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak
Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2015-08-01
We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.
Development of air equivalent gamma dose monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alex, Mary; Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Karpagam, R.; Prasad, D.N.; Jakati, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Patil, R.K.
2010-01-01
The paper describes design and development of air equivalent gamma absorbed dose monitor. The monitor has gamma sensitivity of 84 pA/R/h for 60 Co source. The characterization of the monitor has been done to get energy dependence on gamma sensitivity and response to gamma radiation field from 1 R/hr to 5000 R/hr. The gamma sensitivity in the energy range of 0.06 to 1.25MeV relative to 137 Cs nuclide was within 2.5%. The linearity of the monitor response as a function of gamma field from 10 R/h to 3.8 kR/h was within 6%. The monitor has been designed for its application in harsh environment. It has been successfully qualified to meet environmental requirements of shock. (author)
A new concept of equivalent homogenization method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Young Jin; Pogoskekyan, Leonid; Kim, Young Il; Ju, Hyung Kook; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-07-01
A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The offered concept covers both those of K. Koebke and K. Smith; both of them can be simulated within framework of new concept. Also, the offered concept covers Siemens KWU approach for baffle/reflector simulation, where the equivalent homogenized reflector XS are derived from the conservation of response matrix at the interface in 1D simi-infinite slab geometry. The IM and XS of new concept satisfy the same assumption about response matrix conservation in 1D semi-infinite slab geometry. It is expected that the new concept provides more accurate approximation of heterogeneous cell, especially in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are: improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith`s approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b) control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO{sub 2}/MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANDOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions. 9 figs., 7 refs. (Author).
Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.
2009-01-01
Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in
49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...
A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for Von Neumann algebras
R.M. Brouwer (Rachel)
2003-01-01
textabstractWe relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ``Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if and only if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are
Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries
African Journals Online (AJOL)
rbr
Page 1 ... translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable ... ideal in translation is to achieve structural and semantic equivalence. Absolute equivalence between any two ...
The equivalence principle in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics
Mannheim, Philip D.
1998-01-01
We discuss our understanding of the equivalence principle in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. We show that not only does the equivalence principle hold for the trajectories of quantum particles in a background gravitational field, but also that it is only because of this that the equivalence principle is even to be expected to hold for classical particles at all.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, E.Z.
1991-01-01
An equivalent diffusion theory PWR reflector model is presented, which has as its basis Smith's generalisation of Koebke's Equivalent Theory. This method is an adaptation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, of the Generalised Equivalence Theory (GET). Since the method involves the renormalisation of the GET discontinuity factors at nodal interfaces, it is called the Normalised Generalised Equivalence Theory (NGET) method. The advantages of the NGET method for modelling the ex-core nodes of a PWR are summarized. 23 refs
A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouwer, R. M.
2003-01-01
We relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ''Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are bimodules. We present a similar result for von Neumann algebras. We show that von Neumann algebras form a bicategory, having Connes's correspondences as 1-morphisms, and (bounded) intertwiners as 2-morphisms. Further, we prove that two von Neumann algebras are Morita equivalent iff they are equivalent objects in the bicategory. The proofs make extensive use of the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory
Theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault
2012-01-01
We review several theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics, while general relativity and its generalizations (Kaluza–Klein, …, string theory) suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related to deep, and mysterious, issues in fundamental physics. (paper)
Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.
Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A
2015-06-01
Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation
Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel
2005-01-01
Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.
Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.
Song, Miri
2014-03-01
We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Testing the equivalence principle on a trampoline
Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.
2001-07-01
We are developing a Galilean test of the equivalence principle in which two pairs of test mass assemblies (TMA) are in free fall in a comoving vacuum chamber for about 0.9 s. The TMA are tossed upward, and the process repeats at 1.2 s intervals. Each TMA carries a solid quartz retroreflector and a payload mass of about one-third of the total TMA mass. The relative vertical motion of the TMA of each pair is monitored by a laser gauge working in an optical cavity formed by the retroreflectors. Single-toss precision of the relative acceleration of a single pair of TMA is 3.5×10-12 g. The project goal of Δg/g = 10-13 can be reached in a single night's run, but repetition with altered configurations will be required to ensure the correction of systematic error to the nominal accuracy level. Because the measurements can be made quickly, we plan to study several pairs of materials.
Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales
Bonvin, Camille; Fleury, Pierre
2018-05-01
The equivalence principle, that is one of the main pillars of general relativity, is very well tested in the Solar system; however, its validity is more uncertain on cosmological scales, or when dark matter is concerned. This article shows that relativistic effects in the large-scale structure can be used to directly test whether dark matter satisfies Euler's equation, i.e. whether its free fall is characterised by geodesic motion, just like baryons and light. After having proposed a general parametrisation for deviations from Euler's equation, we perform Fisher-matrix forecasts for future surveys like DESI and the SKA, and show that such deviations can be constrained with a precision of order 10%. Deviations from Euler's equation cannot be tested directly with standard methods like redshift-space distortions and gravitational lensing, since these observables are not sensitive to the time component of the metric. Our analysis shows therefore that relativistic effects bring new and complementary constraints to alternative theories of gravity.
A Bayesian equivalency test for two independent binomial proportions.
Kawasaki, Yohei; Shimokawa, Asanao; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyaoka, Etsuo
2016-01-01
In clinical trials, it is often necessary to perform an equivalence study. The equivalence study requires actively denoting equivalence between two different drugs or treatments. Since it is not possible to assert equivalence that is not rejected by a superiority test, statistical methods known as equivalency tests have been suggested. These methods for equivalency tests are based on the frequency framework; however, there are few such methods in the Bayesian framework. Hence, this article proposes a new index that suggests the equivalency of binomial proportions, which is constructed based on the Bayesian framework. In this study, we provide two methods for calculating the index and compare the probabilities that have been calculated by these two calculation methods. Moreover, we apply this index to the results of actual clinical trials to demonstrate the utility of the index.
Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevens, R.H.; Cole, D.A.
1983-01-01
Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer
Biomonitoring Equivalents for bisphenol A (BPA).
Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M
2010-10-01
Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline. BE values are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for bisphenol A (BPA) from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). BE values were derived based on data on BPA urinary excretion in humans. The BE value corresponding to the oral provisional tolerable daily intake (pTDI) of 25 microg/kg-d from Health Canada is 1mg/L (1.3mg/g creatinine); value corresponding to the US EPA reference dose (RfD) and EFSA tolerable daily intake (TDI) estimates (both of which are equal to 50 microg/kg-d) is 2mg/L (2.6 mg/g creatinine). These values are estimates of the 24-h average urinary BPA concentrations that are consistent with steady-state exposure at the respective exposure guidance values. These BE values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of central tendency measures of population biomonitoring data for BPA in a risk assessment context and can assist in prioritization of the potential need for additional risk assessment efforts for BPA relative to other chemicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changchun Cai
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.
Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan
2005-01-01
With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD 0 and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD 0 was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD 0 was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n could lead to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.; Ma, R.
2001-01-01
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)
Dynamic equivalence relation on the fuzzy measure algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roya Ghasemkhani
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to extend classical results from the measure theory and dynamical systems to the fuzzy subset setting. In this paper, the notion of dynamic equivalence relation is introduced and then it is proved that this relation is an equivalence relation. Also, a new metric on the collection of all equivalence classes is introduced and it is proved that this metric is complete.
Dose equivalent distributions in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, B.J.; Bailey, G.M.; McGregor, B.J.
1985-01-01
The incident neutron dose equivalent in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility is measured by a calibrated remmeter. Dose equivalent rates and distributions are calculated by Monte Carlo techniques which take account of the secondary neutron flux from the collimator. Experiment and calculation are found to be in satisfactory agreement. The effective dose equivalent per exposure is determined by weighting organ doses, and the potential detriment per exposure is calculated from ICRP risk factors
Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.
2010-01-01
We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.
Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.
Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)
Equivalence of quantum states under local unitary transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fei Shaoming; Jing Naihuan
2005-01-01
In terms of the analysis of fixed point subgroup and tensor decomposability of certain matrices, we study the equivalence of quantum bipartite mixed states under local unitary transformations. For non-degenerate case an operational criterion for the equivalence of two such mixed bipartite states under local unitary transformations is presented
40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...
Microcystin-LR equivalent concentrations in fish tissue during a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effects of a decomposing cyanobacteria bloom on water quality and the accumulation of microcystin-LR equivalent toxin in fish at Loskop Dam were studied in May 2012. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] was used to confirm the presence of microcystin-LR equivalent in the water and to determine the ...
Decompositional equivalence: A fundamental symmetry underlying quantum theory
Fields, Chris
2014-01-01
Decompositional equivalence is the principle that there is no preferred decomposition of the universe into subsystems. It is shown here, by using simple thought experiments, that quantum theory follows from decompositional equivalence together with Landauer's principle. This demonstration raises within physics a question previously left to psychology: how do human - or any - observers agree about what constitutes a "system of interest"?
Preparation of A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saion, E.B.; Shaari, A.H.; Watt, D.E.
1992-01-01
A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic is widely used as a wall material for tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCS) used in experimental microdosimetry. The objective of this note is to give a technical account of how A-150 TE plastic film can be fabricated in the laboratory from commercially available A-150 TE plastic. (author)
Equivalence of several Chern-Simons matter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, W.; Itoi, C.
1994-01-01
Chern-Simons (CS) coupling characterizes not only statistics, but also spin and scaling dimension of matter fields. We demonstrate spin transmutation in relativistic CS matter theory, and moreover show equivalence of several models. We study the CS vector model in some detail, which provides a consistent check to the assertion of the equivalence
29 CFR 4.170 - Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. 4.170 Section 4... Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.170 Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. (a) General. Fringe benefits required under the Act shall be furnished, separate from and in addition to the...
Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1996-01-01
In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalized...
Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continuous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalize...
Graphene-based THz modulator analyzed by equivalent circuit model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Xie, Zhiyi
2016-01-01
A terahertz (THz) modulator based on graphene is proposed and analysed by use of equivalent transmission line of a homogeneous mediumand the local anisotropic model of the graphene conductivity. The result calculated by the equivalent circuit is consistent with that obtained byFresnel transfer...
The lexicographical handling of grammatical equivalence: the case ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Lexicographers compiling translating dictionaries are not exclusively concerned with semantic equivalence when selecting translating equivalents for lemmata, but often include also grammatical information in illustrative examples when the lexical item to be translated does not have an exact grammatical counterpart in the ...
30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent...
Teaching Brain-Behavior Relations Economically with Stimulus Equivalence Technology
Fienup, Daniel M.; Covey, Daniel P.; Critchfield, Thomas S.
2010-01-01
Instructional interventions based on stimulus equivalence provide learners with the opportunity to acquire skills that are not directly taught, thereby improving the efficiency of instructional efforts. The present report describes a study in which equivalence-based instruction was used to teach college students facts regarding brain anatomy and…
Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haugan, M.P.
1978-01-01
A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory
Calculation simulation of equivalent irradiation swelling for dispersion nuclear fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Wei; Zhao Yunmei; Gong Xin; Ding Shurong; Huo Yongzhong
2015-01-01
The dispersion nuclear fuel was regarded as a kind of special particle composites. Assuming that the fuel particles are periodically distributed in the dispersion nuclear fuel meat, the finite element model to calculate its equivalent irradiation swelling was developed with the method of computational micro-mechanics. Considering irradiation swelling in the fuel particles and the irradiation hardening effect in the metal matrix, the stress update algorithms were established respectively for the fuel particles and metal matrix. The corresponding user subroutines were programmed, and the finite element simulation of equivalent irradiation swelling for the fuel meat was performed in Abaqus. The effects of the particle size and volume fraction on the equivalent irradiation swelling were investigated, and the fitting formula of equivalent irradiation swelling was obtained. The results indicate that the main factors to influence equivalent irradiation swelling of the fuel meat are the irradiation swelling and volume fraction of fuel particles. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dror G. Feitelson
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisen, Y.
1986-01-01
The performance of Rossi-type spherical tissue-equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 μm and 2 μm was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. In agreement with theoretical predictions both chambers failed to provide LET information at low neutron energies. A dose equivalent algorithm was derived that utilises the event distribution but does not attempt to correlate event size with LET. The algorithm was predicted theoretically and confirmed by experiment. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5 μm chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2 μm chamber to better than +-20% over the energy range of 60 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is 33 counts per μSv, or equivalently about 10 counts s -1 per mSv.h -1 . This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates above 1 mSv.h -1 for an integration period of 3 s. Integrated dose equivalents can be measured as low as 1 μSv. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansen, J.Th.M.; Suliman, I.I.; Zoetelief, J.
2002-01-01
Full text: In the radiation protection research programme of the European Union, as part of the DIMOND concerted action, constancy check protocols for fluoroscopic systems have been developed. For practical reasons copper filters are preferred to patients and tissue equivalent, water or PMMA, phantoms. The objectives are to derive patient entrance surface dose rates and the dose rate at the image intensifier input. The protocol states that copper sheets of either 1 mm or 1.5 mm thick may be used. The present study investigates the equivalent thickness of copper filters compared to PMMA phantoms in terms of attenuation for both geometries and different tube voltage and filter combinations. The geometry to determine the patient entrance surface dose is with the copper filter close to the image intensifier. The ionisation chamber is placed on the side of the copper sheet nearest to the X-ray tube. The inverse square law is used to correct for differences in position. Measurements are performed with different settings and with and without the use of an anti-scatter grid. The geometry to determine the air kerma rate at the image intensifier is with the copper filter attached to the X-ray tube diaphragm. The ionisation chamber is placed on the surface of the image intensifier housing. Again measurements are performed with different settings and with and without anti-scatter grid. If necessary, the inverse square law correction is applied. Two different radiation beam sizes are used, i.e., a small beam with a diameter of 0.10 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus and a large beam with a diameter of 0.23 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus. The applied tube voltages and PMMA phantom thickness combinations are 60 kV, 13 cm; 80 kV, 14 cm; 100 kV, 16 cm; 120 kV, 17 cm; 150 kV, 18 cm; 150 kV, 20 cm and 150 kV, 30 cm. The spectra for the different tube voltages are generated with the IPEM Report 78 software at an anode angle of 16 degree, 0% ripple and 2.5 mm added
Mathematical simulation of biologically equivalent doses for LDR-HDR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slosarek, K.; Zajusz, A.
1996-01-01
Based on the LQ model examples of biologically equivalent doses LDR, HDR and external beams were calculated. The biologically equivalent doses for LDR were calculated by appending to the LQ model the corrector for the time of repair of radiation sublethal damages. For radiation continuously delivered at a low dose rate the influence of sublethal damage repair time changes on biologically equivalent doses were analysed. For fractionated treatment with high dose rate the biologically equivalent doses were calculated by adding to the LQ model the formula of accelerated repopulation. For total biologically equivalent dose calculation for combine LDR-HDR-Tele irradiation examples are presented with the use of different parameters of the time of repair of sublethal damages and accelerated repopulation. The calculations performed show, that the same biologically equivalent doses can be obtained for different parameters of cell kinetics changes during radiation treatment. It also shows, that during biologically equivalent dose calculations for different radiotherapy schedules, ignorance of cell kinetics parameters can lead to relevant errors
Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craciun, Diana Iuliana
2010-01-01
In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described
Asymptotically double lacunry equivalent sequences defined by Orlicz functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayhan Esi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the following definition which is natural combition of the definition for asymptotically equivalent and Orlicz function. The two nonnegative double sequences x=(x_{k,l} and y=(y_{k,l} are said to be M-asymptotically double equivalent to multiple L provided that for every ε>0, P-lim_{k,l}M(((|((x_{k,l}/(y_{k,l}-L|/ρ=0, for some ρ>0, (denoted by x∽y and simply M-asymptotically double equivalent if L=1. Also we give some new concepts related to this definition and some inclusion theorems.
Calculation of committed dose equivalent from intake of tritiated water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Law, D.V.
1978-08-01
A new computerized method of calculating the committed dose equivalent from the intake of tritiated water at Harwell is described in this report. The computer program has been designed to deal with a variety of intake patterns and urine sampling schemes, as well as to produce committed dose equivalents corresponding to any periods for which individual monitoring for external radiation is undertaken. Details of retrospective doses are added semi-automatically to the Radiation Dose Records and committed dose equivalents are retained on a separate file. (author)
The Application of Equivalence Theory to Advertising Translation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张颖
2017-01-01
Through analyzing equivalence theory, the author tries to find a solution to the problems arising in the process of ad?vertising translation. These problems include cultural diversity, language diversity and special requirement of advertisement. The author declares that Nida''s functional equivalence is one of the most appropriate theories to deal with these problems. In this pa?per, the author introduces the principles of advertising translation and culture divergences in advertising translation, and then gives some advertising translation practices to explain and analyze how to create good advertising translation by using functional equivalence. At last, the author introduces some strategies in advertising translation.
Spaces of homotopy self-equivalences a survey
Rutter, John W
1997-01-01
This survey covers groups of homotopy self-equivalence classes of topological spaces, and the homotopy type of spaces of homotopy self-equivalences. For manifolds, the full group of equivalences and the mapping class group are compared, as are the corresponding spaces. Included are methods of calculation, numerous calculations, finite generation results, Whitehead torsion and other areas. Some 330 references are given. The book assumes familiarity with cell complexes, homology and homotopy. Graduate students and established researchers can use it for learning, for reference, and to determine the current state of knowledge.
Apparent violation of the principle of equivalence and Killing horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Oregon Univ., Eugene
1980-01-01
By means of the principle of equivalence it is deduced that the qualitative behavior of the Schwarzschild horizon about a uniformly accelerating particle. This result is confirmed for an exact solution of a uniformly accelerating object in the limit of small accelerations. For large accelerations the Schwarzschild horizon appears to violate the qualitative behavior established via the principle of equivalence. When similar arguments are extended to an observable such as the red shift between two observers, there is no departure from the results expected from the principle of equivalence. The resolution of the paradox is brought about by a compensating effect due to the Rindler horizon. (author)
Deciding Type Equivalence in a Language with Singleton Kinds
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Stone, Christopher
1999-01-01
...: S(A) is the kind of all types provably equivalent to the type A. Singletons are interesting because they provide a very general form of definitions for type variables and allow fine-grained control of type computations...
Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan, Huo-Jun; Wang, Yang; Xi, Li-Feng
2014-01-01
Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets is an important area in the study of fractal geometry. It is known that two dust-like self-similar sets with the same contraction ratios are always Lipschitz equivalent. However, when self-similar sets have touching structures the problem of Lipschitz equivalence becomes much more challenging and intriguing at the same time. So far, all the known results only cover self-similar sets in R with no more than three branches. In this study we establish results for the Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures in R with arbitrarily many branches. Key to our study is the introduction of a geometric condition for self-similar sets called substitutable. (paper)
Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...
ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...
Bisimulation Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata (Journal Version)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Christian
2013-01-01
Probabilistic automata (PA) have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL and its extension PCTL*. Various behavioral...... equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strong bisimulation...... relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL* exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizing PCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, our paper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences in this setting....
Noncommutative Yang-Mills from equivalence of star products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.
2000-01-01
It is shown that the transformation between ordinary and noncommutative Yang-Mills theory as formulated by Seiberg and Witten is due to the equivalence of certain star products on the D-brane world-volume. (orig.)
Noncommutative Yang-Mills from equivalence of star products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Schupp, P. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)
2000-05-01
It is shown that the transformation between ordinary and noncommutative Yang-Mills theory as formulated by Seiberg and Witten is due to the equivalence of certain star products on the D-brane world-volume. (orig.)
Existence and equivalence of twisted products on a symplectic manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichnerowicz, A.
1979-01-01
The twisted products play an important role in Quantum Mechanics. A distinction is introduced between Vey *sub(γ) products and strong Vey *sub(γ) products and it is proved that each *sub(γ) product is equivalent to a Vey *sub(γ) product. If b 3 (W) = 0, the symplectic manifold (W,F) admits strong Vey *sub(Gn) products. If b 2 (W) = 0, all *sub(γ) products are equivalent as well as the Vey Lie algebras. In the general case the formal Lie algebras are characterized which are generated by a *sub(γ) product and it proved that the existance of a *sub(γ)-product is equivalent to the existance of a formal Lie algebra infinitesimally equivalent to a Vey Lie algebra at the first order. (Auth.)
On conjugate points and the Leitmann equivalent problem approach
Wagener, F.O.O.
2009-01-01
This article extends the Leitmann equivalence method to a class of problems featuring conjugate points. The class is characterised by the requirement that the set of indifference points of a given problem forms a finite stratification.
Thévenin equivalent based static contingency assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
of the determined present state of the power system and determining a first representation of the network based on the determined Thevenin equivalents, determining a modified representation of the network, wherein the modified representation is a representation of the network having at least one contingency......, wherein at least one Thevenin equivalent of at least one voltage controlled node is modified due to the at least one contingency, the modified network representation being determined on the basis of the modified Thevenin equivalents, calculating voltage angles of the modified Thevenin equivalents......, and evaluating the voltage angles to determine whether the network having at least one contingency admit a steady state. Also a method of providing information on a real time static security assessment of a power system is disclosed....
Evaluation of pharmaceutical and chemical equivalence of selected ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Personal
Evaluation of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Equivalence of Selected Brands of Diclofenac Sodium .... strength- friability. /disintegration time ratio. (CSFR/DT). Drug content. % w/w ... Table 3: Parameters obtained from Kitazawa analysis. Brand.
Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, R.J.
1990-01-01
We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs
Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, Kenzo
1989-01-01
The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs
Estimating water equivalent snow depth from related meteorological variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steyaert, L.T.; LeDuc, S.K.; Strommen, N.D.; Nicodemus, M.L.; Guttman, N.B.
1980-05-01
Engineering design must take into consideration natural loads and stresses caused by meteorological elements, such as, wind, snow, precipitation and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship of water equivalent snow depth measurements to meteorological variables. Several predictor models were evaluated for use in estimating water equivalent values. These models include linear regression, principal component regression, and non-linear regression models. Linear, non-linear and Scandanavian models are used to generate annual water equivalent estimates for approximately 1100 cooperative data stations where predictor variables are available, but which have no water equivalent measurements. These estimates are used to develop probability estimates of snow load for each station. Map analyses for 3 probability levels are presented
The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.
1986-05-01
An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)
Einstein's equivalence principle instead of the inertia forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herreros Mateos, F.
1997-01-01
In this article I intend to show that Einstein's equivalence principle substitutes advantageously the inertia forces in the study and resolution of problems in which non-inertial systems appear. (Author) 13 refs
Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation
Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.
2011-06-01
A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.
Establishment of an equivalence acceptance criterion for accelerated stability studies.
Burdick, Richard K; Sidor, Leslie
2013-01-01
In this article, the use of statistical equivalence testing for providing evidence of process comparability in an accelerated stability study is advocated over the use of a test of differences. The objective of such a study is to demonstrate comparability by showing that the stability profiles under nonrecommended storage conditions of two processes are equivalent. Because it is difficult at accelerated conditions to find a direct link to product specifications, and hence product safety and efficacy, an equivalence acceptance criterion is proposed that is based on the statistical concept of effect size. As with all statistical tests of equivalence, it is important to collect input from appropriate subject-matter experts when defining the acceptance criterion.
Analysis of equivalent antenna based on FDTD method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun-xing Yang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An equivalent microstrip antenna used in radio proximity fuse is presented. The design of this antenna is based on multilayer multi-permittivity dielectric substrate which is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD method. Equivalent iterative formula is modified in the condition of cylindrical coordinate system. The mixed substrate which contains two kinds of media (one of them is airtakes the place of original single substrate. The results of equivalent antenna simulation show that the resonant frequency of equivalent antenna is similar to that of the original antenna. The validity of analysis can be validated by means of antenna resonant frequency formula. Two antennas have same radiation pattern and similar gain. This method can be used to reduce the weight of antenna, which is significant to the design of missile-borne antenna.
- Synonymy in the Translation Equivalent Paradigms of a Standard ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
directional dictionaries". ... Examples from Groot Woordeboek / Major Dictionary, ... Examples of such divergence which may require labelling (or even more ..... Selection and Presentation of Ready Equivalents in a Translation Dictionary.
On the equivalence of different definitions of R-operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wegrzyn, P.
1989-01-01
Three well-known definitions of R-operation in the BPHZ formalism are presented. The equivalence between the Zimmermann's forest formula and the factorized version of R-operation is proved. 11 refs. (author)
Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R. (Office for Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control (ASMW), Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Geske, G. (Jena Univ. (Germany, F.R.))
1991-01-01
This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author).
Annual average equivalent dose of workers form health area
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daltro, T.F.L.; Campos, L.L.
1992-01-01
The data of personnel monitoring during 1985 and 1991 of personnel that work in health area were studied, obtaining a general overview of the value change of annual average equivalent dose. Two different aspects were presented: the analysis of annual average equivalent dose in the different sectors of a hospital and the comparison of these doses in the same sectors in different hospitals. (C.G.C.)
Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games
Kobayashi, Naoki
2007-01-01
A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...
An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.
1992-01-01
It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light
Modified methods for growing 3-D skin equivalents: an update.
Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A
2014-01-01
Artificial epidermis can be reconstituted in vitro by seeding primary epidermal cells (keratinocytes) onto a supportive substrate and then growing the developing skin equivalent at the air-liquid interface. In vitro skin models are widely used to study skin biology and for industrial drug and cosmetic testing. Here, we describe updated methods for growing 3-dimensional skin equivalents using de-vitalized, de-epidermalized dermis (DED) substrates including methods for DED substrate preparation, cell seeding, growth conditions, and fixation procedures.
Feedback equivalence of convolutional codes over finite rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DeCastro-García Noemí
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The approach to convolutional codes from the linear systems point of view provides us with effective tools in order to construct convolutional codes with adequate properties that let us use them in many applications. In this work, we have generalized feedback equivalence between families of convolutional codes and linear systems over certain rings, and we show that every locally Brunovsky linear system may be considered as a representation of a code under feedback convolutional equivalence.
An Algebraic Approach to Knowledge Bases Informational Equivalence
Plotkin, B.; Plotkin, T.
2003-01-01
In this paper we study the notion of knowledge from the positions of universal algebra and algebraic logic. We consider first order knowledge which is based on first order logic. We define categories of knowledge and knowledge bases. These notions are defined for the fixed subject of knowledge. The key notion of informational equivalence of two knowledge bases is introduced. We use the idea of equivalence of categories in this definition. We prove that for finite models there is a clear way t...
Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shyroki, Dzmitry
2008-01-01
Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling...... of in-plane curved or helically wound waveguides with use of available simulators for straight waveguides without the restrictions of the known approximate equivalent-index formulas....
Multi-channel phase-equivalent transformation and supersymmetry
Shirokov, A. M.; Sidorenko, V. N.
2000-01-01
Phase-equivalent transformation of local interaction is generalized to the multi-channel case. Generally, the transformation does not change the number of the bound states in the system and their energies. However, with a special choice of the parameters, the transformation removes one of the bound states and is equivalent to the multi-channel supersymmetry transformation recently suggested by Sparenberg and Baye. Using the transformation, it is also possible to add a bound state to the discr...
Equivalence groups of (2+1) dimensional diffusion equation
Özer, Saadet
2017-01-01
If a given set of differential equations contain somearbitrary functions, parameters, we have in fact a family of sets of equationsof the same structure. Almost all field equations of classical physichs havethis property, representing different materials with various paramaters. Equivalence groups are defined as the groupof transformations which leave a given family of differential equationsinvariant. Therefore, equivalence group of family of differential equations isan important area within...
Gap sequence, Lipschitz equivalence and box dimension of fractal sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao Hui; Yang Yamin; Ruan Huojun
2008-01-01
We introduce a notion of gap sequences for compact sets E subset of R d , which is a generalization of the gap sequences of compact sets on the real line. We show that if the gap sequences of two fractal sets are not equivalent, then these two sets cannot be Lipschitz equivalent, where the latter fact is usually very hard to verify. Finally, we show that for some typical fractal sets, the gap sequences characterize the upper box dimension
Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics
Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath
2012-01-01
The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have str...
The Equivalence of Grayson and Friedlander-Suslin Spectral Sequences
Podkopaev, Oleg
2013-01-01
This thesis establishes the equivalence of Grayson and Friedlander-Suslin spectral sequences, that was previously only known for the respective E_2-terms. We develop the necessary techniques regarding K_0-presheaves of spectra, building on the work of M. Walker and construct certain filtrations on the K-theory presheaf of spectra that we use as intermediate steps in obtaining the equivalence of the filtrations.
The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.
Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C
2015-05-01
Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David eGarratt-Reed
2016-05-01
Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment
P. Mazzanti; F. Bozzano
2009-01-01
Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides i...
ASCERTAINMENT OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Safaryan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article considers experimental and analytical determination of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters with application of the reference data. Transient processes investigation of the asynchronous machines necessitates the equivalent circuit parameters (resistance impedance, inductances and coefficient of the stator-rotor contours mutual inductance that help form the transitory-process mathematical simulation model. The reference books do not provide those parameters; they instead give the rated ones (active power, voltage, slide, coefficient of performance and capacity coefficient as well as the ratio of starting and nominal currents and torques. The noted studies on the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuits parametrization fail to solve the problems ad finem or solve them with admissions. The paper presents experimental and analytical determinations of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters: the experimental one based on the results of two measurements and the analytical one where the problem boils down to solving a system of nonlineal algebraic equations. The authors investigate the equivalent asynchronous machine input-resistance properties and adduce the dependence curvatures of the input-resistances on the slide. They present a symbolic model for analytical parameterization of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit that represents a system of nonlineal equations and requires one of the rotor-parameters arbitrary assignment. The article demonstrates that for the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit experimental parameterization the measures are to be conducted of the stator-circuit voltage, current and active power with two different slides and arbitrary assignment of one of the rotor parameters. The paper substantiates the fact that additional measurement does not discard the rotor-parameter choice arbitrariness. The authors establish that in motoring mode there is a critical slide by which the
Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding
Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.
2009-01-01
The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater
Equivalence relations for the 9972-9975 SARP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemer, K.A.; Frost, R.L.
1994-10-01
Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogeneous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the -SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included
Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, J.E.; Piper, R.K.; Leonowich, J.A.; Faust, L.G.
1992-01-01
Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modelling techniques and a knowledge of the incident radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron doses and dose equivalents were measured in a RANDO phantom at specific locations using thermoluminescence dosemeters, etched track dosemeters, and a 1.27 cm (1/2 in) tissue-equivalent proportional counter. The phantom was exposed to a bare and a D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutron source at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and to calculate the organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared with the calculations. (author)
Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, J.E.; Piper, R.K.; Leonowich, J.A.; Faust, L.G.
1991-10-01
Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modeling techniques and a knowledge of the radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well-chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron measurements were performed in a RANDO phantom using thermoluminescent dosemeters, track etch dosemeters, and a 1/2-in. (1.27-cm) tissue equivalent proportional counter in order to estimate neutron doses and dose equivalents within the phantom at specific locations. The phantom was exposed to bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutrons at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and calculate organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared to the calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Committed dose equivalent in the practice of radiological protection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nenot, J.C.; Piechowski, J.
1985-01-01
In the case of internal exposure, the dose is not received at the moment of exposure, as happens with external exposure, since the incorporated radionuclide irradiates the various organs and tissues during the time it is present in the body. By definition, the committed dose equivalent corresponds to the received dose integrated over 50 years from the date of intake. In order to calculate it, one has to know the intake activity and the value of the committed dose equivalent per unit of intake activity. The uncertainties of the first parameter are such that the committed dose equivalent can only be regarded as an order of magnitude and not as a very accurate quantity. The use of it is justified, however, for, like the dose equivalent for external exposure, it expresses the risk of stochastic effects for the individual concerned since these effects, should they appear, would do so only after a latent period which is generally longer than the dose integration time. Moreover, the use of the committed dose equivalent offers certain advantages for dosimetric management, especially when it is simplified. A practical problem which may arise is that the annual dose limit is apparently exceeded by virtue of the fact that one is taking account, in the first year, of doses which will actually be received only in the following years. These problems are rare enough in practice to be dealt with individually in each case. (author)
A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2016-01-01
This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces. An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch. The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...
Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies.
Allen, Douglas R.; Nakamura, Noboru
2003-01-01
Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a numerical synthesis of a PV-like tracer from a long-term integration of the advection-diffusion equation on isentropic surfaces. It is found that the tracer equivalent latitude (TrEL) behaves much like the traditional PV equivalent latitude (PVEL) despite the simplified governing physics; this is evidenced by examining the kinematics of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex. Yet in some cases TrEL performs markedly better as a coordinate for long-lived trace species such as ozone. These instances include analysis of lower stratospheric ozone during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and three-dimensional reconstruction of total column ozone during November-December 1999 from fitted ozone-equivalent latitude relationship. It is argued that the improvement is due to the tracer being free from the diagnostic errors and certain diabatic processes that affect PV. The sensitivity of TrEL to spatial and temporal resolution, advection scheme, and driving winds is also examined.
Inertia and Double Bending of Light from Equivalence
Shuler, Robert L., Jr.
2010-01-01
Careful examination of light paths in an accelerated reference frame, with use of Special Relativity, can account fully for the observed bending of light in a gravitational field, not just half of it as reported in 1911. This analysis also leads to a Machian formulation of inertia similar to the one proposed by Einstein in 1912 and later derived from gravitational field equations in Minkowsky Space by Sciama in 1953. There is a clear inference from equivalence that there is some type of inertial mass increase in a gravitational field. It is the purpose of the current paper to suggest that equivalence provides a more complete picture of gravitational effects than previously thought, correctly predicting full light bending, and that since the theory of inertia is derivable from equivalence, any theory based on equivalence must take account of it. Einstein himself clearly was not satisfied with the status of inertia in GRT, as our quotes have shown. Many have tried to account for inertia and met with less than success, for example Davidson s integration of Sciama s inertia into GRT but only for a steady state cosmology [10], and the Machian gravity theory of Brans and Dicke [11]. Yet Mach s idea hasn t gone away, and now it seems that it cannot go away without also disposing of equivalence.
Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle
Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace
2017-11-01
As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.
Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.
Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie
2016-06-01
Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices.
Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA
1994-04-01
We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem
The experimental method for neutron dose-equivalent detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Changsong
1992-01-01
A new method, for getting neutron dose-equivalent Cd rode absorption method is described. The method adopts Cd-rode-swarm buck absorption, which greatly improved the neutron sensitivity and simplified the adjustment method. By this method, the author has developed BH3105 model neutron dose equivalent meter, the sensitivity of this instrument reach 10 cps/μSvh -1 . γ-ray depression rate reaches 4000:1, the measurement range is 0.1 μSv/h-10 6 μSv/h. The energy response is good (from thermal neutron-14 MeV neutron), this instrument can be used to measure the dose equivalent of the neutron areas
Water-equivalence of gel dosimeters for radiology medical imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valente, M; Vedelago, J.; Perez, P.; Chacon, D.; Mattea, F.; Velasquez, J.
2017-10-01
International dosimetry protocols are based on determinations of absorbed dose to water. Ideally, the phantom material should be water equivalent; that is, it should have the same absorption and scatter properties as water. This study presents theoretical, experimental and Monte Carlo modeling of water-equivalence of Fricke and polymer (NIPAM, PAGAT and itaconic acid ITABIS) gel dosimeters. Mass and electronic densities along with effective atomic number were calculated by means of theoretical approaches. Samples were scanned by standard computed tomography and high-resolution micro computed tomography. Photon mass attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers were examined by Monte Carlo simulations. Theoretical, Monte Carlo and experimental results confirmed good water-equivalence for all gel dosimeters. Overall variations with respect to water in the low energy radiology range (up to 130 k Vp) were found to be less than 3% in average. (Author)
Water-equivalence of gel dosimeters for radiology medical imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valente, M; Vedelago, J.; Perez, P. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola - CONICET, Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA, Cordoba (Argentina); Chacon, D.; Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, FAMAF, Laboratorio de Investigacion e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina); Velasquez, J., E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [ICOS Inmunomedica, Lago Puyehue 01745, Temuco (Chile)
2017-10-15
International dosimetry protocols are based on determinations of absorbed dose to water. Ideally, the phantom material should be water equivalent; that is, it should have the same absorption and scatter properties as water. This study presents theoretical, experimental and Monte Carlo modeling of water-equivalence of Fricke and polymer (NIPAM, PAGAT and itaconic acid ITABIS) gel dosimeters. Mass and electronic densities along with effective atomic number were calculated by means of theoretical approaches. Samples were scanned by standard computed tomography and high-resolution micro computed tomography. Photon mass attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers were examined by Monte Carlo simulations. Theoretical, Monte Carlo and experimental results confirmed good water-equivalence for all gel dosimeters. Overall variations with respect to water in the low energy radiology range (up to 130 k Vp) were found to be less than 3% in average. (Author)
Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.
1995-01-01
We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle, quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs the quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the nonuniversality of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the Sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can place stringent bounds on the violation of the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10 15 --10 16 if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem
A Model for Semantic Equivalence Discovery for Harmonizing Master Data
Piprani, Baba
IT projects often face the challenge of harmonizing metadata and data so as to have a "single" version of the truth. Determining equivalency of multiple data instances against the given type, or set of types, is mandatory in establishing master data legitimacy in a data set that contains multiple incarnations of instances belonging to the same semantic data record . The results of a real-life application define how measuring criteria and equivalence path determination were established via a set of "probes" in conjunction with a score-card approach. There is a need for a suite of supporting models to help determine master data equivalency towards entity resolution—including mapping models, transform models, selection models, match models, an audit and control model, a scorecard model, a rating model. An ORM schema defines the set of supporting models along with their incarnation into an attribute based model as implemented in an RDBMS.
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of the Dielectric Loaded Microwave Biosensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Jilani
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This article describes the modeling of biological tissues at microwave frequency using equivalent lumped elements. A microwave biosensor based on microstrip ring resonator (MRR, that has been utilized previously for meat quality evaluation is used for this purpose. For the first time, the ring-resonator loaded with the lossy and high permittivity dielectric material, such as; biological tissue, in a partial overlay configuration is analyzed. The equivalent circuit modeling of the structure is then performed to identify the effect of overlay thickness on the resonance frequency. Finally, the relationship of an overlay thickness with the corresponding RC values of the meat equivalent circuit is established. Simulated, calculated and measured results are then compared for validation. Results are well agreed while the observed discrepancy is in acceptable limit.
Lumped-parameters equivalent circuit for condenser microphones modeling.
Esteves, Josué; Rufer, Libor; Ekeom, Didace; Basrour, Skandar
2017-10-01
This work presents a lumped parameters equivalent model of condenser microphone based on analogies between acoustic, mechanical, fluidic, and electrical domains. Parameters of the model were determined mainly through analytical relations and/or finite element method (FEM) simulations. Special attention was paid to the air gap modeling and to the use of proper boundary condition. Corresponding lumped-parameters were obtained as results of FEM simulations. Because of its simplicity, the model allows a fast simulation and is readily usable for microphone design. This work shows the validation of the equivalent circuit on three real cases of capacitive microphones, including both traditional and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems structures. In all cases, it has been demonstrated that the sensitivity and other related data obtained from the equivalent circuit are in very good agreement with available measurement data.
Reduction of Linear Functional Systems using Fuhrmann's Equivalence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed S. Boudellioua
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Functional systems arise in the treatment of systems of partial differential equations, delay-differential equations, multidimensional equations, etc. The problem of reducing a linear functional system to a system containing fewer equations and unknowns was first studied by Serre. Finding an equivalent presentation of a linear functional system containing fewer equations and fewer unknowns can generally simplify both the study of the structural properties of the linear functional system and of different numerical analysis issues, and it can sometimes help in solving the linear functional system. In this paper, Fuhrmann's equivalence is used to present a constructive result on the reduction of under-determined linear functional systems to a single equation involving a single unknown. This equivalence transformation has been studied by a number of authors and has been shown to play an important role in the theory of linear functional systems.
Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasilyeva, A.N.; Starkov, O.V.
2001-01-01
In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 10 9 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)
Conditions needed to give meaning to rad-equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latarjet, R.
1980-01-01
To legislate on mutagenic chemical pollution the problem to be faced is similar to that tackled about 30 years ago regarding pollution by ionizing radiations. It would be useful to benefit from the work of these 30 years by establishing equivalences, if possible, between chemical mutagens and radiations. Inevitable mutagenic pollutions are considered here, especially those associated with fuel based energy production. As with radiations the legislation must derive from a compromise between the harmful and beneficial effects of the polluting system. When deciding on tolerance doses it is necessary to safeguard the biosphere without inflicting excessive restrictions on industry and on the economy. The present article discusses the conditions needed to give meaning to the notion of rad-equivalence. Some examples of already established equivalences are given, together with the first practical consequences which emerge [fr
Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.
Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R
2016-03-01
Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The equivalence myth of quantum mechanics-part II
Muller, F. A.
The author endeavours to show two things: first, that Schrödingers (and Eckarts) demonstration in March (September) 1926 of the equivalence of matrix mechanics, as created by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan and Dirac in 1925, and wave mechanics, as created by Schrödinger in 1926, is not foolproof; and second, that it could not have been foolproof, because at the time matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were neither mathematically nor empirically equivalent. That they were is the Equivalence Myth. In order to make the theories equivalent and to prove this, one has to leave the historical scene of 1926 and wait until 1932, when von Neumann finished his magisterial edifice. During the period 1926-1932 the original families of mathematical structures of matrix mechanics and of wave mechanics were stretched, parts were chopped off and novel structures were added. To Procrustean places we go, where we can demonstrate the mathematical, empirical and ontological equivalence of 'the final versions of' matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. The present paper claims to be a comprehensive analysis of one of the pivotal papers in the history of quantum mechanics: Schrödingers equivalence paper. Since the analysis is performed from the perspective of Suppes structural view ('semantic view') of physical theories, the present paper can be regarded not only as a morsel of the internal history of quantum mechanics, but also as a morsel of applied philosophy of science. The paper is self-contained and presupposes only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. For reasons of length, the paper is published in two parts; Part I appeared in the previous issue of this journal. Section 1 contains, besides an introduction, also the papers five claims and a preview of the arguments supporting these claims; so Part I, Section 1 may serve as a summary of the paper for those readers who are not interested in the detailed arguments.
Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, S.R.
1980-01-01
ICRP introduced the concept of Effective Dose Equivalent H(sub)E and fixed the basic limits of radiation exposure in terms of H(sub)I. As H(sub)E cannot be measured, ICRP stated that with external exposure to penetrating radiation the limitation of the Dose Equivalent Index H(sub)I would afford at least as good a level of protection. However, difficulties arise in measuring H(sub)I and in calibrating instruments in terms of H(sub)I, since the height and location of the dose equivalent maximum in the sphere which is the phantom used in the definition of H(sub)I, depend on the energy and the angular distribution of the incident radiation. That is, H(sub)I is not an additive quantity relative to the partial H(sub)I(sub)i-values of the different energy and angular components. Hence, 1) the distribution of dose equivalent in the sphere must be measured in full for a determination of H(sub)I, and 2) it is not possible to calibrate an instrument which does not exhibit the scattering and absorption properties of the sphere, consistently for arbitrary radiation fields in terms of H(sub)I. Thus the calibration in an unidirectional beam would infer an uncertainty which may amount to a factor of up to 4. This would hardly be tolerable as a base for radiation protection provisions. An alternative is to introduce operational quantities which are additive, e.g. 1) the sum of maxima of the dose equivalent distributions in the sphere produced by different radiation components, and 2) the mean dose equivalent in the sphere. Their relation to H(sub)E for different types of radiation and consequences on secondary limits are discussed. (H.K.)
Equivalent equations of motion for gravity and entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czech, Bartłomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James
2017-01-01
We demonstrate an equivalence between the wave equation obeyed by the entanglement entropy of CFT subregions and the linearized bulk Einstein equation in Anti-de Sitter space. In doing so, we make use of the formalism of kinematic space https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2015)175 and fields on this space, introduced in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2016)129. We show that the gravitational dynamics are equivalent to a gauge invariant wave-equation on kinematic space and that this equation arises in natural correspondence to the conformal Casimir equation in the CFT.
A weak equivalence principle test on a suborbital rocket
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D, E-mail: reasenberg@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2010-05-07
We describe a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle, to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. The test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of sigma(eta) < 10{sup -16} after averaging the results of eight separate drops. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four laser gauges that are expected to achieve 0.1 pm Hz{sup -1/2}. The discovery of a violation (eta not = 0) would have profound implications for physics, astrophysics and cosmology.
Conditions for equivalence of statistical ensembles in nuclear multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, Swagata; Chaudhuri, Gargi
2012-01-01
Statistical models based on canonical and grand canonical ensembles are extensively used to study intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. The underlying physical assumption behind canonical and grand canonical models is fundamentally different, and in principle agree only in the thermodynamical limit when the number of particles become infinite. Nevertheless, we show that these models are equivalent in the sense that they predict similar results if certain conditions are met even for finite nuclei. In particular, the results converge when nuclear multifragmentation leads to the formation of predominantly nucleons and low mass clusters. The conditions under which the equivalence holds are amenable to present day experiments.
Analysis of Equivalent Circuits for Cells: A Fractional Calculus Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernal-Alvarado J.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Fractional order systems are considered by many mathematicians the systems of the XXI century. The reason is that nature has proved to be best described in terms of systems composed of fractional order derivatives. This emerging area of research is slowly gaining more strength in engineering, biochemistry, medicine, biophysics, among others. This paper presents an analysis in the frequency domain equivalent of cellular systems described by equations of integer and fractional order; it also carries out an analysis in time domain in order to display the memory capacity of fractional systems. It presents the fractional differential equations equivalent models and simulations comparing integer and fractional order.
Semantical Characterizations and Complexity of Equivalences in Answer Set Programming
Eiter, Thomas; Fink, Michael; Woltran, Stefan
2005-01-01
In recent research on non-monotonic logic programming, repeatedly strong equivalence of logic programs P and Q has been considered, which holds if the programs P union R and Q union R have the same answer sets for any other program R. This property strengthens equivalence of P and Q with respect to answer sets (which is the particular case for R is the empty set), and has its applications in program optimization, verification, and modular logic programming. In this paper, we consider more lib...
Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerviller, H. de
1965-01-01
The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10 -2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [fr
A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.
Essex, Ryan
2017-08-01
The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.
The Public Market Equivalent and Private Equity Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Morten; Jagannathan, Ravi
2015-01-01
The authors show that the public market equivalent approach is equivalent to assessing the performance of private equity (PE) investments using Rubinstein’s dynamic version of the CAPM. They developed two insights: (1) one need not compute betas of PE investments, and any changes in PE cash flow...... betas due to changes in financial leverage, operating leverage, or the nature of the business are automatically taken into account; (2) the public market index used in evaluations should be the one that best approximates the wealth portfolio of the investor considering the PE investment opportunity....
Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs of irreducible sextics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eyral, Christophe; Oka, Mutsuo
2009-01-01
The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example.......The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example....
New equivalent lumped electrical circuit for piezoelectric transformers.
Gonnard, Paul; Schmitt, P M; Brissaud, Michel
2006-04-01
A new equivalent circuit is proposed for a contour-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer (PT). It is shown that the usual lumped equivalent circuit derived from the conventional Mason approach is not accurate. The proposed circuit, built on experimental measurements, makes an explicit difference between the elastic energies stored respectively on the primary and secondary parts. The experimental and theoretical resonance frequencies with the secondary in open or short circuit are in good agreement as well as the output "voltage-current" characteristic and the optimum efficiency working point. This circuit can be extended to various PT configurations and appears to be a useful tool for modeling electronic devices that integrate piezoelectric transformers.
Idiomaticity of English Business Terms and Their Equivalents in Lithuanian
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Skorupa
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the survey of idiomatic English business terms and their Lithuanian equivalents. The study was based on the theory of idioms and idiomaticity, highlighting the idea that idiomaticity can affect single words, word combinations, and longer text passages. Idiomatic business terms were taken from different English and Lithuanian general and special dictionaries, course books, as well as business texts. The analyzed terms were classified into distinct groups according to their meaning. The key problem encountered was the lack of Lithuanian translation equivalents to certain idiomatic English business terms. Possible Lithuanian translation was provided.
Culturemes and Non-Equivalent Lexis in Dictionaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciej Paweł Jaskot
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Culturemes and Non-Equivalent Lexis in Dictionaries The article raises the question of the need to improve the structural diversity and operational capabilities of the modern dictionary (bi- or multilingual to avoid lacunes in the transmission of culturemes and non-equivalent words into another language. Without it the dictionary is incomplete and languages are unequal. The article deals with various options of asymmetry reflection of the culturemes in the context of social and ethno-psychic reality of a native-speaking community. The specifics of lexicographical transmission is observed in order to emphasize the need of further investigation of the linguistic map of the world.
Determination of the water insoluble residuum in potassium salts using gamma logging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, G.T.; Gavrilova, L.I.
1976-01-01
For potassium salts the relationship has been established between the concentration of heavy radioelements (the uranium-radium and thorium series) and the content of the water-insoluble, residue which is mainly represented by the clay-iodine fraction. A method is described for determining the content of the insoluble residue with the aid of PRKS-2 equipment. The results are given of experimental investigations aimed at studying the content of the insoluble residue in salts along the section of rising production wells. The results of the determination of the insoluble residue in potassium salts define their quality with an accuracy sufficient for industrial purposes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brikowski, T.
1993-07-01
Analytic solutions are used in this study to evaluate potential groundwater transport of tritium used in goundwater tracer tests southwest of the Nevada Test Site. Possible transport from this site is of interest because initial radionuclide concentrations were high and the site is close to goundwater discharge points (12 km). Anecdotal evidence indicates that 90 percent of these tracers were removed by pumping at the completion of the tests; this study examines the probable transport of the tracers with and without the removal. Classical dispersive transport analytic solutions are used, treating the tracer test as a point slug injection. Input parameters for the solutions were measured at the site, and consideration of parameter uncertainty is incorporated in the results. With removal of the tracer, the maximum expected region with above-Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR 121) concentrations of tritium extends 5 km from the injection point, and does not reach any sites of public access. Detectable tritium from the tests is likely to have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone, but flow along the fault probably diluted the tracer to below detection limits before arrival at springs along the fault. Arrival at the springs would have occurred 20 to 25 years after the tests. Without removal of the tracer, the solutions indicate that tritium concentrations just above Safe Drinking Water Act standards would have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone. In this case, detectable tritium might have been found in Devil's Hole or Longstreet Spring, the nearest points of possible public exposure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tullett, J.D.
1990-01-01
P Benoist has developed a method for calculating cross-sections for Fast Reactor control rods and their followers described by a single homogenised region (the Equivalent Parameter Method). When used in a diffusion theory calculation, these equivalent cross-sections should give the same rod worth as one would obtain from a transport theory calculation with a heterogeneous description of the control rod and the follower. In this report, Benoist's theory is described, and a comprehensive set of tests is presented. These tests show that the method gives very good results over a range of geometries and control rod positions for a model fast reactor core. (author)
State-Dependent Implication and Equivalence in Quantum Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedor Herbut
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ideal occurrence of an event (projector leads to the known change of a state (density operator into (the Lüders state. It is shown that two events and give the same Lüders state if and only if the equivalence relation is valid. This relation determines equivalence classes. The set of them and each class, are studied in detail. It is proved that the range projector of the Lüders state can be evaluated as , where denotes the greatest lower bound, and is the null projector of . State-dependent implication extends absolute implication (which, in turn, determines the entire structure of quantum logic. and are investigated in a closely related way to mutual benefit. Inherent in the preorder is the state-dependent equivalence , defining equivalence classes in a given Boolean subalgebra. The quotient set, in which the classes are the elements, has itself a partially ordered structure, and so has each class. In a complete Boolean subalgebra, both structures are complete lattices. Physical meanings are discussed.
Seeing through Symbols: The Case of Equivalent Expressions.
Kieran, Carolyn; Sfard, Anna
1999-01-01
Presents a teaching experiment to turn students from external observers into active participants in a game of algebra learning where students use graphs to build meaning for equivalence of algebraic expressions. Concludes that the graphic-functional approach seems to make the introduction to algebra much more meaningful for the learner. (ASK)
43 CFR 426.11 - Class 1 equivalency.
2010-10-01
...) Costs of production; (v) Land development costs; (vi) Water quality and adequacy; (vii) Elevation; (viii... equivalency factors by comparing the weighted average farm size required to produce a given level of income on... measured in terms of net income per acre (reflecting both productivity and costs of production). The...
Skin Dose Equivalent Measurement from Neutron-Deficient Isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Costigan, Steve A.; Romero, Leonard L.; Whicker, Jeffrey J.
1997-12-01
Neutron-deficient-isotopes decay via positron emission and/or electron capture often followed by x-ray, gamma-ray, and 0.511 MeV photons from positron annihilation. For cases of significant area and/or personnel contamination with these isotopes, determination of skin dose equivalent (SDE) is required by 10CFR835. For assessment of SDE, we evaluated the MICROSPEC-2(TM) system manufactured by Bubble Technology Industries of Canada which uses three different probes for dose measurement. We used two probes: (1) the X-probe which measures lower energy (4 - 120 keV) photon energy distributions and determines deep dose equivalent, SDE and dose equivalent to eyes, and (2) the B-probe which measures electron (positron) energy distributions, and determines skin dose equivalent. Also, the measured photon and beta spectra can be used to identify radioactive isotopes in the contaminated area. Measurements with several neutron-deficient sources showed that this system provided reasonably accurate SDE rate measurements when compared with calculated benchmark SDE rates with an average percent difference of 40%. Variations were expected because of differences between the assumed geometries used by MlCROSPEC-2 and the calculations when compared to the measurement conditions
Equivalence properties for the Radon-Nikodym property types and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We show that the types I- and II-Λ-Radon-Nikodym Property of Banach spaces on the one hand, and the I- and II-Λ-Complete Continuity Property on the other, are equivalent properties whenever Λ is an ordering subset of a discrete abelian group. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): Primary 46E40, 46G10; ...
Mass Equivalent Pantographs for Synthesis of Balanced Focal Mechanisms
van der Wijk, V.; Lenarcic, Jadran; Merlet, Jean-Pierre
2016-01-01
Force balance is an important property in the design of high-speed high precision machinery to reduce base vibrations and also for the design of inherently safe large movable structures. This paper presents the synthesis of inherently balanced overconstrained focal mechanisms with mass equivalent
Equivalence of Dirac quantization and Schwinger's action principle quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Scherer, W.
1987-01-01
We show that the method of Dirac quantization is equivalent to Schwinger's action principle quantization. The relation between the Lagrange undetermined multipliers in Schwinger's method and Dirac's constraint bracket matrix is established and it is explicitly shown that the two methods yield identical (anti)commutators. This is demonstrated in the non-trivial example of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in superspace. (orig.)
A Test of the Discrimination Account in Equivalence Class Formation
Wang, Ting; McHugh, Louise A.; Whelan, Robert
2012-01-01
An equivalence class is typically established when a subject is taught a set of interrelated conditional discriminations with physically unrelated stimuli and additional, untaught, conditional discriminations are then demonstrated. Interestingly, and perhaps counter-intuitively, the relations among the stimuli within such a class are not…
Equivalence of two non-commutative geometry approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Hanying; Wu Ke; Li Jianming.
1994-10-01
We show that differential calculus on discrete group Z 2 is equivalent to A. Connes' approach in the case of two discrete points. They are the same theory in terms of different basis and the discrete group Z 2 is the permutation group of two discrete point. (author). 11 refs
Dose distribution around ion track in tissue equivalent material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Wenzhong; Guo Yong; Luo Yisheng
2007-01-01
Objective: To study the energy deposition micro-specialty of ions in body-tissue or tissue equivalent material (TEM). Methods: The water vapor was determined as the tissue equivalent material, based on the analysis to the body-tissue, and Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the behavior of proton in the tissue equivalent material. Some features of the energy deposition micro-specialty of ion in tissue equivalent material were obtained through the analysis to the data from calculation. Results: The ion will give the energy by the way of excitation and ionization in material, then the secondary electrons will be generated in the progress of ionization, these electron will finished ions energy deposition progress. When ions deposited their energy, large amount energy will be in the core of tracks, and secondary electrons will devote its' energy around ion track, the ion dose distribution is then formed in TEM. Conclusions: To know biological effects of radiation , the research to dose distribution of ions is of importance(significance). (authors)
Consequences of Violated Equating Assumptions under the Equivalent Groups Design
Lyren, Per-Erik; Hambleton, Ronald K.
2011-01-01
The equal ability distribution assumption associated with the equivalent groups equating design was investigated in the context of a selection test for admission to higher education. The purpose was to assess the consequences for the test-takers in terms of receiving improperly high or low scores compared to their peers, and to find strong…
Section Preequating under the Equivalent Groups Design without IRT
Guo, Hongwen; Puhan, Gautam
2014-01-01
In this article, we introduce a section preequating (SPE) method (linear and nonlinear) under the randomly equivalent groups design. In this equating design, sections of Test X (a future new form) and another existing Test Y (an old form already on scale) are administered. The sections of Test X are equated to Test Y, after adjusting for the…
Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence
Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind
2011-01-01
The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…
Development of dose equivalent meters based on microdosimetric principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booz, J.
1984-01-01
In this paper, the employment of microdosimetric dose-equivalent meters in radiation protection is described considering the advantages of introducing microdosimetric methods into radiation protection, the technical suitability of such instruments for measuring dose equivalent, and finally technical requirements, constraints and solutions together with some examples of instruments and experimental results. The advantage of microdosimetric methods in radiation protection is illustrated with the evaluation of dose-mean quality factors in radiation fields of unknown composition and with the methods of evaluating neutron- and gamma-dose fractions. - It is shown that there is good correlation between dose-mean lineal energy, anti ysub(anti D), and the ICRP quality factor. - Neutron- and gamma-dose fractions of unknown radiation fields can be evaluated with microdosimetric proportional counters without recurrence to other instruments and methods. The problems of separation are discussed. The technical suitability of microdosimetric instruments for measuring dose equivalent is discussed considering the energy response to neutrons and photons and the sensitivity in terms of dose-equivalent rate. Then, considering technical requirements, constraints, and solutions, the problem of the large dynamic range in LET, the large dynamic range in pulse rate, geometry of sensitive volume and electrodes, evaluation of dose-mean quality factors, calibration methods, and uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)
'Equivalent' potential to SVZ moments to order 4>
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, R.A.
1984-01-01
We extend the 'equivalent' potential of Bell and Bertlmann on the basis of field theory by accounting for operators of dimension 6 and 8. There is no sign of flavour smoothening. The discrepancy between Schroedinger result and moment result improves but is still present. The moment result remains remarkably stable. (Author)
Generalization of boson-fermion equivalence and Fay's addition theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Hideyuki; Saito, Satoru
1989-01-01
Generalizations of Fay's addition theorem for Abel functions are obtained by using generalized boson-fermion equivalence of off-shell string amplitudes. A simple example of such generalizations is presented explicitly which relates derivatives of a Riemann θ-function to its determinant. (orig.)
Equivalence of Symptom Dimensions in Females and Males with Autism
Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
2017-01-01
This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic…
Cardinal Equivalence of Small Number in Young Children.
Kingma, J.; Roelinga, U.
1982-01-01
Children completed three types of equivalent cardination tasks which assessed the influence of different stimulus configurations (linear, linear-nonlinear, and nonlinear), and density of object spacing. Prior results reported by Siegel, Brainerd, and Gelman and Gallistel were not replicated. Implications for understanding cardination concept…
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan
2000-01-01
In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about the ...
Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
leakage from 'open to air' system or breakage of glass bottle (with associated risk to ... and an air-leak detection system. It is connected to a ... need to add water. Xpand chest drain: assessing equivalence to current standard therapy – a randomised controlled trial. CHARL COOPER, M.B. CH.B. TIMOTHY HARDCASTLE ...
Mirror-Image Equivalence and Interhemispheric Mirror-Image Reversal.
Corballis, Michael C
2018-01-01
Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d ) must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain. In the course of learning, mirror-image equivalence may be established through a process of symmetrization, achieved through homotopic interhemispheric exchange in the formation of memory circuits. Such circuits would not distinguish between mirror images. Learning to discriminate mirror-image discriminations may depend either on existing brain asymmetries, or on extensive learning overriding the symmetrization process. The balance between mirror-image equivalence and mirror-image discrimination may nevertheless be precarious, with spontaneous confusions or reversals, such as mirror writing, sometimes appearing naturally or as a manifestation of conditions like dyslexia.
Synonymy in the translation equivalent paradigms of a standard ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The norm in current canonical translation dictionaries with Afrikaans and English as the treated language pair is an undiscriminated grouping of partially synonymous translation equivalents. These are separated by commas as sole markers of synonymy. Lexicographers should reject this practice and embrace the view that ...
Mirror-Image Equivalence and Interhemispheric Mirror-Image Reversal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael C. Corballis
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain. In the course of learning, mirror-image equivalence may be established through a process of symmetrization, achieved through homotopic interhemispheric exchange in the formation of memory circuits. Such circuits would not distinguish between mirror images. Learning to discriminate mirror-image discriminations may depend either on existing brain asymmetries, or on extensive learning overriding the symmetrization process. The balance between mirror-image equivalence and mirror-image discrimination may nevertheless be precarious, with spontaneous confusions or reversals, such as mirror writing, sometimes appearing naturally or as a manifestation of conditions like dyslexia.
The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars
Nijholt, Antinus
1982-01-01
The equivalence problem for context-free grammars is "given two arbitrary grammars, do they generate the same language?" Since this is undecidable in general, attention has been restricted to decidable subclasses of the context-free grammars. For example, the classes of LL(k) grammars and real-time
Approaches to the treatment of zero equivalence in a bilingual ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Then follows a detailed discussion of lemmata expressing pragmatic meaning in the SL, lemmata with lexico-grammatical, grammatical and lexical differences between the SL and the TL as well as lemmata with a number of SL senses included under one sense in the ESD. In the ESD, the problem of zero equivalence is ...
Equivalent viscous damping procedure for multi-material systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.
1979-01-01
The inclusion of accurate viscous damping effects in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants is discussed. A procedure to evaluate and use equivalent viscous damping coefficients in conjunction with the substructure method of finite element analysis is outlined in detail
Electrical gearbox equivalent by means of dynamic machine operation
Gerrits, T.; Wijnands, C.G.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Duarte, J.L.
2011-01-01
A dynamic propulsion system using variable torque/speed characteristics, designed to realize a machine integrated equivalent of a gearbox is presented. This is achieved through adaption of the machine characteristics, and driven by specialized power electronics, leading to a reconfigurable stator
Modelling of multilayer piezoelectric transducers for echographic applications Equivalent circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, A.; Riera, E.; San Emeterio, J.L.; Sanz, P.T.
1988-01-01
In this paper, the main equivalent circuits of pulse-echo, single element, multilayer piezoelectric transducers, are analysed. The analogy of matching layers with lossless transmission lines is described. Finally, using the KLM model, the effects of backing and matching layers on the bandwidth and impulse response is analysed. (Author)
STRICT CONVEXITY THROUGH EQUIVALENT NORMS IN SEPARABLES BANACH SPACES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Willy Zubiaga Vera
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Let E be a separable Banach space with norm || . ||. In the present work, the objective is to construct a norm || . ||1 that is equivalent to || . || in E, such that || . ||1 is strictly convex. In addition it is shown that its dual conjugate norm is also strictly convex.
School Principals' Leadership Skills: Measurement Equivalence across Cultures
Da'as, Rima'a
2017-01-01
Despite substantial interest and research in measuring leader's skills, little is known about the measurement equivalence and mean differences in the scores measuring principals' skills (cognitive, interpersonal, strategic) across cultures (collectivism versus individualism). The aim of the present study was to assess measurement…
Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, S.R.
1980-01-01
The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)
On scales of equivalent conditions characterizing weighted Stieltjes inequality
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gogatishvili, Amiran; Persson, L. E.; Stepanov, V.D.; Wall, P.
2012-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), s. 738-739 ISSN 1064-5624 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : integral inequalities * Stieltjes transform * scales of equivalents conditions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1064562412060026
Technical background for shallow (skin) dose equivalent evaluations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; Crawford, O.H.; Hamm, R.N.; Reaves, K.L.; McMahan, K.L.
1991-01-01
Department of Energy Order 5480.11 describes procedures for radiation protection for occupational workers. The revisions dealing with non-uniform exposure to the skin are the subject of this report. We describe measurements and analysis required to assess shallow (skin) dose equivalent from skin contamination. 6 refs., 4 tabs
Equivalent refractive index of the human lens upon accommodative response
Hermans, E.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.
2008-01-01
PURPOSE.: To experimentally verify the suggestion of Gullstrand (1909), i.e., that the equivalent refractive index of the human lens increases with accommodation. METHODS.: The left eye of five subjects was focused on different accommodation stimuli, while the right eye was imaged with Scheimpflug
Equivalent properties for perforated plates. An analytical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cepkauskas, M.M.; Yang Jianfeng
2005-01-01
Structures that contain perforated plates have been a subject of interest in the Nuclear Industry. Steam generators, condensers and reactor internals utilize plates containing holes which act as flow holes or separate structures from flow by using a 'tube bank' design. The equivalent plate method has been beneficial in analyzing perforate plates. Details are found in various papers found in the bibliography. In addition the ASME code addresses perforated plates in Appendix A-8000, but is limited to a triangular hole pattern. This early work performed in this field utilized test data and analytical approaches. This paper is an examination of an analytical approach for determining equivalent plate mechanical and thermal properties. First a patch of the real plate is identified that provides a model for the necessary physical behavior of the plate. The average strain of this patch is obtained by first applying simplified one dimensional mechanical load to the patch, determining stress as a function of position, converting the stress to strain and then integrating the strain over the patch length. This average strain is then equated to the average strain of an equivalent fictitious rectangular patch. This results in obtaining equivalent Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio for the equivalent plate in all three orthogonal directions. The corresponding equivalent shear modulus in all three directions is then determined. An orthotropic material stress strain matrix relationship is provided for the fictitious properties. By equating the real average strain with the fictitious average strain in matrix form, a stress multiplier is found to convert average fictitious stress to average real stress. This same type of process is repeated for heat conduction coefficients and coefficients of thermal expansion. Results are provided for both a square and triangular hole pattern. Reasonable results are obtained when comparing the effective Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio with ASME
Uniformly accelerating charged particles. A threat to the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyle, Stephen N.
2008-01-01
There has been a long debate about whether uniformly accelerated charges should radiate electromagnetic energy and how one should describe their worldline through a flat spacetime, i.e., whether the Lorentz-Dirac equation is right. There are related questions in curved spacetimes, e.g., do different varieties of equivalence principle apply to charged particles, and can a static charge in a static spacetime radiate electromagnetic energy? The problems with the LD equation in flat spacetime are spelt out in some detail here, and its extension to curved spacetime is discussed. Different equivalence principles are compared and some vindicated. The key papers are discussed in detail and many of their conclusions are significantly revised by the present solution. (orig.)
Post-prior equivalence for transfer reactions with complex potentials
Lei, Jin; Moro, Antonio M.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we address the problem of the post-prior equivalence in the calculation of inclusive breakup and transfer cross sections. For that, we employ the model proposed by Ichimura et al. [Phys. Rev. C 32, 431 (1985), 10.1103/PhysRevC.32.431], conveniently generalized to include the part of the cross section corresponding the transfer to bound states. We pay particular attention to the case in which the unobserved particle is left in a bound state of the residual nucleus, in which case the theory prescribes the use of a complex potential, responsible for the spreading width of the populated single-particle states. We see that the introduction of this complex potential gives rise to an additional term in the prior cross-section formula, not present in the usual case of real binding potentials. The equivalence is numerically tested for the 58Ni(d ,p X ) reaction.
Equivalence principle and quantum mechanics: quantum simulation with entangled photons.
Longhi, S
2018-01-15
Einstein's equivalence principle (EP) states the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and corresponding inertial field in an accelerated reference frame. However, to what extent the EP remains valid in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is a controversial issue. To avoid violation of the EP, Bargmann's superselection rule forbids a coherent superposition of states with different masses. Here we suggest a quantum simulation of non-relativistic Schrödinger particle dynamics in non-inertial reference frames, which is based on the propagation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in curved and birefringent optical waveguides and Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference measurement. The photonic simulator can emulate superposition of mass states, which would lead to violation of the EP.
Tests of the equivalence principle with neutral kaons
Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
1999-01-01
We test the Principle of Equivalence for particles and antiparticles, using CPLEAR data on tagged Pkao and Pkab decays into $pi^+ pi^-$. For the first time, we search for possible annual, monthly and diurnal modulations of the observables $|eta_{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$, that could be correlated with variations in astrophysical potentials. Within the accuracy of CPLEAR, the measured values of $|eta _{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$ are found not to be correlated with changes of the gravitational potential. We analyze data assuming effective scalar, vector and tensor interactions, and we conclude that the Principle of Equivalence between particles and antiparticles holds to a level of $6.5$, $4.3$ and $1.8 imes 10^{-9}$, respectively, for scalar, vector and tensor potentials originating from the Sun with a range much greater than the distance Earth-Sun. We also study energy-dependent effects that might arise from vector or tensor interactions. Finally, we compile upper limits on the gravitational coupling difference betwee...
Infrared equivalence of strongly and weakly coupled gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olesen, P.
1975-10-01
Using the decoupling theorem of Apelquist and Carazzone, it is shown that in terms of Feynman diagrams the pure Yang-Mills theory is equivalent in the infrared limit to a theory (zero-mass renormalized), where the vector mesons are coupled fo fermions, and where the fermions do not decouple. By taking enough fermions it is then shown that even though the pure Yang-Mills theory is characterized by the lack of applicability of perturbation theory, nevertheless the effective coupling in the equivalent fermion description is very weak. The effective mass in the zero-mass renormalization blows up. In the fermion description, diagrams involving only vector mesons are suppressed relative to diagrams containing at least one fermion loop. (Auth.)
Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lo C. Y.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.
Gauge equivalence between two-boson KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aratyn, H.
1994-01-01
In this paper it is explained the status of the two-boson KP hierarchy, which appears in this setting as an invariant subspace of the coadjoint orbit within the KP l=1 hierarchy. We will work with two main cases of two-boson KP hierarchies, one defined within KP l=1 hierarchy will be called Faa di Bruno KP hierarchy, while the second defined within KP hierarchy for a quadratic two-boson KP hierarchy. It will be established for them the gauge invariance playing the role of generalized Miura transformations. It is emphasized the symplectic character of equivalence of KP l=1 and KP. It is also made a point that the gauge equivalence established for two-boson systems is valid for an arbitrary n-th Poisson bracket structure and not only the first Poisson bracket structure. (author). 7 refs
On the electrical equivalent circuits of gravitational-wave antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pallottino, G.V.; Pizzella, G.; Rome Univ.
1978-01-01
The electrical equivalent circuit of a Weber gravitational-wave antenna with piezoelectric transducers is derived for the various longitudinal normal modes by using the Lagrangian formalism. The analysis is applied to the antenna without piezoelectric ceramics, as well as with one or more ceramics operated in both passive and active mode. Particular attention is given to the dissipation problem in order to obtain an expression of the overall merit factor directly related to the physics of the actual dissipation processes. As an example the results are applied to a cylindrical bar with two ceramics: one for calibrating the antenna, the other as sensor of the motion. The values of the physical parameters and of the pertinent parameters of the equivalent circuit for the small antenna (20 kg) and those (predicted) for the intermediate antenna (390 kg) of the Rome group are given in the appendix. (author)
Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.
1981-01-01
Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru
Dose equivalent distribution during occupational exposure in oncology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marco H, J.
1996-01-01
In this work are presented the results of the radiological surveillance of occupationally exposed workers at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology during 26 years. The incidence of the equivalent dose in the personal working with radiant sources and radioactive substances in areas of x rays diagnostic, teletherapy, brachytherapy, nuclear medicine and biomedical research was showed. The employed dosimetric system makes use of ORWO RD3/RD4 monitoring film with copper and lead filters inside a plastic cassette manufactured in Cuba. The experimental method is supported by the optical densitometric analysis of films together with a set of standard film calibrated in standard X and gamma photon beams by means of a secondary standard dosimeter, type NPL. Statistics show that except those workings with radium-226, manual brachytherapy or Mo-99/Tc-99 generator elution, the equivalent dose distribution in our workers has been kept in regions well down the annual permissible limit. (authors). 6 refs., 3 tabs
Transport equivalent diffusion constants for reflector region in PWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahara, Yoshihisa; Sekimoto, Hiroshi
2002-01-01
The diffusion-theory-based nodal method is widely used in PWR core designs for reason of its high computing speed in three-dimensional calculations. The baffle/reflector (B/R) constants used in nodal calculations are usually calculated based on a one-dimensional transport calculation. However, to achieve high accuracy of assembly power prediction, two-dimensional model is needed. For this reason, the method for calculating transport equivalent diffusion constants of reflector material was developed so that the neutron currents on the material boundaries could be calculated exactly in diffusion calculations. Two-dimensional B/R constants were calculated using the transport equivalent diffusion constants in the two-dimensional diffusion calculation whose geometry reflected the actual material configuration in the reflector region. The two-dimensional B/R constants enabled us to predict assembly power within an error of 1.5% at hot full power conditions. (author)
Determination of dose equivalent and risk in thorium cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ney, C.L.V.N.
1988-01-01
In these report are presented the calculations of dose equivalent and risk, utilizing the dosimetric model described in publication 30 of the International Comission on Radiological Protection. This information was obtained by the workers of the thorium cycle, employed at the Praia and Santo Amaro Facilities, by assessing the quantity and concentration of thorium in the air. The samples and the number of measurements were established through design of experiments techniques, and the results were evaluated with the aid of variance analysis. The estimater of dose equivalent for internal and external radiation exposure and risk associated were compared with the maximum recommended limits. The results indicate the existence of operation areas whose values were above those limits, requiring so an improvement in the procedures and services in order to meet the requirements of the radiological protetion. (author) [pt
Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif
1999-01-01
The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...... similarities between the two circuits that are compared. These properties make BEDs suitable for verifying the equivalence of combinational circuits. BEDs can be seen as an intermediate representation between circuits (which are compact) and OBDDs (which are canonical).Based on a large number of combinational...
Global transport calculations with an equivalent barotropic system
Salby, Murry L.; O'Sullivan, Donal; Garcia, Rolando R.; Tribbia, Joseph
1990-01-01
Transport properties of the two-dimensional equations governing equivalent barotropic motion are investigated on the sphere. This system has ingredients such as forcing, equivalent depth, and thermal dissipation explicitly represented, and takes into account compression effects associated with vertical motion along isentropic surfaces. Horizontal transport properties of this system are investigated under adiabatic and diabatic conditions for different forms of dissipation, and over a range of resolutions. It is shown that forcing represetative of time-mean and amplified conditions at 10 mb leads to the behavior typical of observations at this level. The displacement of the polar night vortex and its distortion into a comma shape are evident, as is irreversible mixing under sufficiently strong forcing amplitude. It is shown that thermal dissipation influences the behavior significantly by inhibiting the amplification of unstable eddies and thereby the horizontal stirring of air.
Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.
Heller, Richard E
2014-02-01
Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Equivalent Circuit for Magnetoelectric Read and Write Operations
Camsari, Kerem Y.; Faria, Rafatul; Hassan, Orchi; Sutton, Brian M.; Datta, Supriyo
2018-04-01
We describe an equivalent circuit model applicable to a wide variety of magnetoelectric phenomena and use spice simulations to benchmark this model against experimental data. We use this model to suggest a different mode of operation where the 1 and 0 states are represented not by states with net magnetization (like mx , my, or mz) but by different easy axes, quantitatively described by (mx2-my2), which switches from 0 to 1 through the write voltage. This change is directly detected as a read signal through the inverse effect. The use of (mx2-my2) to represent a bit is a radical departure from the standard convention of using the magnetization (m ) to represent information. We then show how the equivalent circuit can be used to build a device exhibiting tunable randomness and suggest possibilities for extending it to nonvolatile memory with read and write capabilities, without the use of external magnetic fields or magnetic tunnel junctions.
Development of a neutron personal dose equivalent detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujimura, N.; Yoshida, T.; Takada, C.; Momose, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Aoyama, K.
2007-01-01
A new neutron-measuring instrument that is intended to measure a neutron personal dose equivalent, H p (10) was developed. This instrument is composed of two parts: (1) a conventional moderator-based neutron dose equivalent meter and (2) a neutron shield made of borated polyethylene, which covers a backward hemisphere to adjust the angular dependence. The whole design was determined on the basis of MCNP calculations so as to have response characteristics that would generally match both the energy and angular dependencies of H p (10). This new instrument will be a great help in assessing the reference values of neutron H p (10) during field testing of personal neutron dosemeters in workplaces and also in interpreting their readings. (authors)
The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik
2001-01-01
The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...
Composition variability and equivalence of Shonka TE plastic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spokas, J.J.
1973-01-01
A number of conducting plastic mixtures had been developed by Francis R. Shonka, and collaborators, in the Physical Sciences Laboratory of Illinois Benedictine College (formerly St. Procopius College). Several of these mixtures have been used widely in radiation research. In particular, a tissue-equivalent (muscle) formulation designated A-150 has been used extensively in the dosimetry, research and measurements of gamma, neutron and pion beams. Certain confusion has arisen concerning the composition of A-150. The definition of A-150 is reviewed and what is known of the composition is summarized. The equivalence of A-150 and ICRU ''muscle'' with respect to photons is discussed as a function of photon energy using the latest data on extra-nuclear photon cross sections. (U.S.)
Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seveso, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.seveso@unimi.it [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2017-05-15
We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.
Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G.A.
2017-01-01
We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.
Contribution to the study of the transport-scattering equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soldevila, Michel.
1978-01-01
The algorithm of the TERMINUS code that analytically resolves the equations of multigroup scattering in one dimensional plane geometry is described in this report. This code has been written and utilized to test the mathematical methods of transport-scattering equivalence. The results are then given of a comparison between the APOLLO, NEPTUNE and TERMINUS codes. The mathematical problem having been formulated, the reasons which led to the choice from among the alternative methods are explained thus enabling the ANACREON and KALGAN programmes to be written. The results achieved with these programs, both of which use TERMINUS as scattering code, are presented. The problems raised by coupling the ANACREON and KALGAN codes to the NEPTUNE system are mentioned and the results achieved with the equivalence module coupled to NEPTUNE are given [fr
Equivalence of symptom dimensions in females and males with autism.
Frazier, Thomas W; Hardan, Antonio Y
2017-08-01
This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were mapped to nine a priori symptom dimensions. Multi-group confirmatory factor models, including measurement equivalence and item response theory analyses, examined whether males and females showed measurement or structural differences in autism symptom constructs. Results indicated mean differences in restricted interests that were not due to measurement bias. No other symptom dimension showed evidence of measurement bias and autism symptom structure was highly similar between males and females. Future studies are needed to carefully estimate any sex differences in the content, frequency, or intensity/severity of restricted interests in females and males.
On the equivalence between progressive taxation and inequality reduction
JU, Biung-Ghi; MORENO-TERNERO, Juan D.
2007-01-01
We establish the precise connections between progressive taxation and inequality reduction, in a setting where the level of tax revenue to be raised is endogenously fixed and tax schemes are balanced. We show that, in contrast with the traditional literature on taxation, the equivalence between inequality reduction and the combination of progressivity and income order preservation does not always hold in this setting. However, we show that, among rules satisfying consistency and, either reven...
An Application of Equivalence Transformations to Reaction Diffusion Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariano Torrisi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a quite general class of advection reaction diffusion systems. By using an equivalence generator, derived in a previous paper, the authors apply a projection theorem to determine some special forms of the constitutive functions that allow the extension by one of the two-dimensional principal Lie algebra. As an example, a special case is discussed at the end of the paper.
Density matrix in quantum electrodynamics, equivalence principle and Hawking effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.; Gitman, D.M.
1978-01-01
The expression for the density matrix describing particles of one sort (electrons or positrons) created by an external electromagnetic field from the vacuum is obtained. The explicit form of the density matrix is found for the case of constant and uniform electric field. Arguments are given for the presence of a connection between the thermal nature of the density matrix describing particles created by the gravitational field of a black hole and the equivalence principle. (author)
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics, phase equivalence, and low energy scattering anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.
1991-01-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics links two Hamiltonians with the same scattering (phase equivalence) but different number of bound states. We examine the Green's functions for these Hamiltonians as a prelude to embedding the two-body dynamics in a many-body system. We study the effect of the elimination of a two-body bound state near zero energy for the Efimov effect and Beg's theorem
Obfuscation Framework Based on Functionally Equivalent Combinatorial Logic Families
2008-03-01
of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCS/ENG/08-12 Obfuscation Framework Based on Functionally Equivalent Combinatorial Logic Families...time, United States policy strongly encourages the sale and transfer of some military equipment to foreign governments and makes it easier for...Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, 2007. 14. McDonald, J. Todd and Alec Yasinsac. “Of unicorns and random
Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method
Frantisek Jelenciak; Michael Gerke; Ulrich Borgolte
2015-01-01
This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM) as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a...
Acceleration Measurements Using Smartphone Sensors: Dealing with the Equivalence Principle
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.
2014-01-01
Acceleration sensors built into smartphones, i-pads or tablets can conveniently be used in the physics laboratory. By virtue of the equivalence principle, a sensor fixed in a non-inertial reference frame cannot discern between a gravitational field and an accelerated system. Accordingly, acceleration values read by these sensors must be corrected for the gravitational component. A physical pendulum was studied by way of example, and absolute acceleration and rotation angle values were derived...
Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filk, T.
1992-01-01
It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0
General quantum polynomials: irreducible modules and Morita equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artamonov, V A
1999-01-01
In this paper we continue the investigation of the structure of finitely generated modules over rings of general quantum (Laurent) polynomials. We obtain a description of the lattice of submodules of periodic finitely generated modules and describe the irreducible modules. We investigate the problem of Morita equivalence of rings of general quantum polynomials, consider properties of division rings of fractions, and solve Zariski's problem for quantum polynomials
F-sigma equivalence relations and Laver forcing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Doucha, Michal
2014-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 644-653 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * Laver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287231&fileId=S0022481213000327
Phenomenology of the Equivalence Principle with Light Scalars
Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.
2010-01-01
Light scalar particles with couplings of sub-gravitational strength, which can generically be called 'dilatons', can produce violations of the equivalence principle. However, in order to understand experimental sensitivities one must know the coupling of these scalars to atomic systems. We report here on a study of the required couplings. We give a general Lagrangian with five independent dilaton parameters and calculate the "dilaton charge" of atomic systems for each of these. Two combinatio...
Certainty Equivalence M-MRAC for Systems with Unmatched Uncertainties
Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje
2012-01-01
The paper presents a certainty equivalence state feedback indirect adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties. The approach is based on the parameter identification (estimation) model, which is completely separated from the control design and is capable of producing parameter estimates as fast as the computing power allows without generating high frequency oscillations. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters.
Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.
1992-01-01
Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan
2000-01-01
In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...... of the temperature on the mechanical resonance frequency is considered and thereby integrated in the final model for long term operations....
The Equivalence Principle and Anomalous Magnetic Moment Experiments
Alvarez, C.; Mann, R. B.
1995-01-01
We investigate the possibility of testing of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) using measurements of anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles. We compute the one loop correction for the $g-2$ anomaly within the class of non metric theories of gravity described by the \\tmu formalism. We find several novel mechanisms for breaking the EEP whose origin is due purely to radiative corrections. We discuss the possibilities of setting new empirical constraints on these effects.
Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert
2010-01-01
Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n≥28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n≥195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.
Stochastic equivalent linearization in 3-D hysteretic frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casciati, F.; Faravelli, L.
1987-01-01
Stochastic equivalent linearization technique for hysteretic systems is extended to study the dynamic response of 3-D frames with hysteretic constitutive laws in the potential plastic hinges. The constitutive law is idealized by an appropriate endochronic model. A general purpose finite element code is adopted in order to generate the matrices by which the equations of motion to be linearized are built. (orig./HP)
Probabilistic Compositional Models: solution of an equivalence problem
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kratochvíl, Václav
2013-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 5 (2013), s. 590-601 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Probabilistic model * Compositional model * Independence * Equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kratochvil-0391079.pdf
Quantitative comparison of mutagenic hazards: rad-equivalences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
The present situation concerning the problem of estimating genetic risks associated with the exposure of living beings, including man, to chemical compounds present in the environment is defined. Since these compounds affect the genetic material of cells by reactions similar to those produced by radiations, attempts have been made to establish rad-equivalences for some of these substances. This idea is discussed through the different publications mentioned [fr
Equivalent Circuit of a High Q Tunable PIFA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej
2011-01-01
This paper presents an Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) for a high Quality factor (Q) tunable Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA). A PIFA is described and simulated with the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. The resonance behavior of the proposed ECM is compared to the FDTD results and shows...... a match. The ECM is also valid when the PIFA is made tunable with an additional capacitor....
Sample size determination for equivalence assessment with multiple endpoints.
Sun, Anna; Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi
2014-01-01
Equivalence assessment between a reference and test treatment is often conducted by two one-sided tests (TOST). The corresponding power function and sample size determination can be derived from a joint distribution of the sample mean and sample variance. When an equivalence trial is designed with multiple endpoints, it often involves several sets of two one-sided tests. A naive approach for sample size determination in this case would select the largest sample size required for each endpoint. However, such a method ignores the correlation among endpoints. With the objective to reject all endpoints and when the endpoints are uncorrelated, the power function is the production of all power functions for individual endpoints. With correlated endpoints, the sample size and power should be adjusted for such a correlation. In this article, we propose the exact power function for the equivalence test with multiple endpoints adjusted for correlation under both crossover and parallel designs. We further discuss the differences in sample size for the naive method without and with correlation adjusted methods and illustrate with an in vivo bioequivalence crossover study with area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) as the two endpoints.
The equivalent energy method: an engineering approach to fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witt, F.J.
1981-01-01
The equivalent energy method for elastic-plastic fracture evaluations was developed around 1970 for determining realistic engineering estimates for the maximum load-displacement or stress-strain conditions for fracture of flawed structures. The basis principles were summarized but the supporting experimental data, most of which were obtained after the method was proposed, have never been collated. This paper restates the original bases more explicitly and presents the validating data in graphical form. Extensive references are given. The volumetric energy ratio, a modelling parameter encompassing both size and temperature, is the fundamental parameter of the equivalent energy method. It is demonstrated that, in an engineering sense, the volumetric energy ratio is a unique material characteristic for a steel, much like a material property except size must be taken into account. With this as a proposition, the basic formula of the equivalent energy method is derived. Sufficient information is presented so that investigators and analysts may judge the viability and applicability of the method to their areas of interest. (author)
Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.
A reformulation of the transport-transport SPH equivalence technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hebert, A., E-mail: alain.hebert@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)
2015-07-01
The superhomogeneisation (SPH) equivalence technique is a correction procedure based on equivalence factors. These equivalence factors are computed in such a way that a macro calculation made over a macro region and a coarse energy group with a simplified transport operator leads to the same leakage and reaction rates as a reference calculation performed without homogenization and with a fine group discretization. The situation where the macro calculation is performed with diffusion theory is a well understood and a common application of the technique. However, the case where the macro calculation is performed in transport theory is more complex and the SPH technique was reformulated in order to take into account the angular parity of the flux moments and cross sections. We found that the general rule to multiply all cross sections by a SPH factor and to divide all flux moment by the same factor is not valid. A new correction strategy is proposed to deal with transport-theory macro calculations. The strategy is slightly different whether or not the macro calculation is performed with a spherical harmonics (PN or SPN) discretization. The new approach was implemented in the DRAGON lattice code. Numerical results are comparing the classical and reformulated techniques. (author)
A reformulation of the transport-transport SPH equivalence technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebert, A.
2015-01-01
The superhomogeneisation (SPH) equivalence technique is a correction procedure based on equivalence factors. These equivalence factors are computed in such a way that a macro calculation made over a macro region and a coarse energy group with a simplified transport operator leads to the same leakage and reaction rates as a reference calculation performed without homogenization and with a fine group discretization. The situation where the macro calculation is performed with diffusion theory is a well understood and a common application of the technique. However, the case where the macro calculation is performed in transport theory is more complex and the SPH technique was reformulated in order to take into account the angular parity of the flux moments and cross sections. We found that the general rule to multiply all cross sections by a SPH factor and to divide all flux moment by the same factor is not valid. A new correction strategy is proposed to deal with transport-theory macro calculations. The strategy is slightly different whether or not the macro calculation is performed with a spherical harmonics (PN or SPN) discretization. The new approach was implemented in the DRAGON lattice code. Numerical results are comparing the classical and reformulated techniques. (author)
Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiltshire, David L.
2008-01-01
The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z -10 ms -2 , is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.
A method to obtain new cross-sections transport equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmiotti, G.
1988-01-01
We present a method, that allows the calculation, by the mean of variational principle, of equivalent cross-sections in order to take into account the transport and mesh size effects on reactivity variation calculations. The method validation has been made in two and three dimensions geometries. The reactivity variations calculated in three dimensional hexagonal geometry with seven points by subassembly using two sets of equivalent cross-sections for control rods are in a very good agreement with the ones of a transport, extrapolated to zero mesh size, calculation. The difficulty encountered in obtaining a good flux distribution has lead to the utilisation of a single set of equivalent cross-sections calculated by starting from an appropriated R-Z model that allows to take into account also the axial transport effects for the control rod followers. The global results in reactivity variations are still satisfactory with a good performance for the flux distribution. The main interest of the proposed method is the possibility to simulate a full 3D transport calculation, with fine mesh size, using a 3D diffusion code, with a larger mesh size. The results obtained should be affected by uncertainties, which do not exceed ± 4% for a large LMFBR control rod worth and for very different rod configurations. This uncertainty is by far smaller than the experimental uncertainties. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 9 tabs
On the homotopy equivalence of simple AI-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aristov, O Yu
1999-01-01
Let A and B be simple unital AI-algebras (an AI-algebra is an inductive limit of C*-algebras of the form BigOplus i k C([0,1],M N i ). It is proved that two arbitrary unital homomorphisms from A into B such that the corresponding maps K 0 A→K 0 B coincide are homotopic. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the Elliott invariant for A and B to be homotopy equivalent are indicated. Moreover, two algebras in the above class having the same K-theory but not homotopy equivalent are constructed. A theorem on the homotopy of approximately unitarily equivalent homomorphisms between AI-algebras is used in the proof, which is deduced in its turn from a generalization to the case of AI-algebras of a theorem of Manuilov stating that a unitary matrix almost commuting with a self-adjoint matrix h can be joined to 1 by a continuous path consisting of unitary matrices almost commuting with h
The Goldstone equivalence theorem and AdS/CFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anand, Nikhil; Cantrell, Sean [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2015-08-03
The Goldstone equivalence theorem allows one to relate scattering amplitudes of massive gauge fields to those of scalar fields in the limit of large scattering energies. We generalize this theorem under the framework of the AdS/CFT correspondence. First, we obtain an expression of the equivalence theorem in terms of correlation functions of creation and annihilation operators by using an AdS wave function approach to the AdS/CFT dictionary. It is shown that the divergence of the non-conserved conformal current dual to the bulk gauge field is approximately primary when computing correlators for theories in which the masses of all the exchanged particles are sufficiently large. The results are then generalized to higher spin fields. We then go on to generalize the theorem using conformal blocks in two and four-dimensional CFTs. We show that when the scaling dimensions of the exchanged operators are large compared to both their spins and the dimension of the current, the conformal blocks satisfy an equivalence theorem.
Evaluation of Permacol as a cultured skin equivalent.
MacLeod, T M; Cambrey, A; Williams, G; Sanders, R; Green, C J
2008-12-01
Skin loss following severe burn requires prompt wound closure to avoid such complications as fluid and electrolyte imbalance, infection, immune suppression, and pain. In clinical situations in which insufficient donor skin is available, the development of cultured skin equivalents (dermal matrices seeded with keratinocytes and fibroblasts) may provide a useful alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a porcine-derived dermal collagen matrix (Permacol) to function as a cultured skin equivalent in supporting the growth of keratinocytes in vitro and providing cover to full thickness wounds in the BALB C/nude mouse model. A histological comparison was against Glycerol treated-Ethylene Oxide Sterilised Porcine Dermis (Gly-EO Dermis) which has successfully been used as a cultured skin equivalent in previous studies. Both Gly-EO Dermis and to a lesser extent Permacol were able to support the growth of cultured keratinocytes following a 16-day period of cell culture, however, this study was only able to demonstrate the presence of an epidermal layer on Gly-EO dermis 2 weeks after grafting onto full-thickness wounds in the BALB C/nude mouse model.
Measurement Of Lead Equivalent Thickness For Irradiation Room: An Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Khalid Matori; Azuhar Ripin; Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khairusalih Mohd Zin; Muhammad Jamal Muhd Isa; Mohd Faizal Abdul Rahman
2014-01-01
The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have a sufficient thickness of shielding to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for irradiation room at health clinics own by MOH. Results of measurement of 8 irradiation rooms conducted in 2014 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that almost all the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)
Application of A150-plastic equivalent gases in microdosimetric measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Higgins, P.D.; Pearson, D.W.; Schell, M.; Attix, F.H.
1981-01-01
Neutron dosimetry measurements with ionization chambers, for the most part, employ tissue equivalent plastic-walled cavities (Shonka A150) filled with either air or a methane-base tissue-like gas. The atomic composition of TE-gas and A150 plastic are not matched and are quite dissimilar from muscle. Awschalom and Attix (1980) have partially resolved the problem by formulating a novel A150-plastic equivalent gas. This establishes a homogeneous wall-gas cavity dosimeter for neutron measurements and confines the necessary corrections to the applications of kerma ratios. In this report, we present measurements of applications of two A150-plastic equivalent gases in a low pressure spherical proportional counter. Gas gains and alpha-particle resolutions were determined. For these A150-mixtures as well as a methane-based TE-gas and an Ar-CO 2 mixture, we report measurements of event size distributions from exposure to a beam of 14.8 MeV neutrons
Investigation of radiological properties and water equivalency of PRESAGE dosimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka; Adamovics, John; Bosi, Stephen; Kim, Jung-Ha; Baldock, Clive
2011-01-01
Purpose: PRESAGE is a dosimeter made of polyurethane, which is suitable for 3D dosimetry in modern radiation treatment techniques. Since an ideal dosimeter is radiologically water equivalent, the authors investigated water equivalency and the radiological properties of three different PRESAGE formulations that differ primarily in their elemental compositions. Two of the formulations are new and have lower halogen content than the original formulation. Methods: The radiological water equivalence was assessed by comparing the densities, interaction probabilities, and radiation dosimetry properties of the three different PRESAGE formulations to the corresponding values for water. The relative depth doses were calculated using Monte Carlo methods for 50, 100, 200, and 350 kVp and 6 MV x-ray beams. Results: The mass densities of the three PRESAGE formulations varied from 5.3% higher than that of water to as much as 10% higher than that of water for the original formulation. The probability of photoelectric absorption in the three different PRESAGE formulations varied from 2.2 times greater than that of water for the new formulations to 3.5 times greater than that of water for the original formulation. The mass attenuation coefficient for the three formulations is 12%-50% higher than the value for water. These differences occur over an energy range (10-100 keV) in which the photoelectric effect is the dominant interaction. The collision mass stopping powers of the relatively lower halogen-containing PRESAGE formulations also exhibit marginally better water equivalency than the original higher halogen-containing PRESAGE formulation. Furthermore, the depth dose curves for the lower halogen-containing PRESAGE formulations are slightly closer to that of water for a 6 MV beam. In the kilovoltage energy range, the depth dose curves for the lower halogen-containing PRESAGE formulations are in better agreement with water than the original PRESAGE formulation. Conclusions: Based
10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle is...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SWATI C. JAGDALE
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had
Diversity, variation and fairness: Equivalence in national level language assessments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Albert Weideman
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The post-1994 South African constitution proudly affirms the language diversity of the country, as do subsequent laws, while ministerial policies, both at further and higher education level, similarly promote the use of all 11 official languages in education. However, such recognition of diversity presents several challenges to accommodate potential variation. In language education at secondary school, which is nationally assessed, the variety being promoted immediately raises issues of fairness and equivalence. The final high-stakes examination of learners’ ability in home language at the exit level of their pre-tertiary education is currently contentious in South Africa. It is known, for example, that in certain indigenous languages, the exit level assessments barely discriminate among learners with different abilities, while in other languages they do. For that reason, the Council for Quality Assurance in General and Further Education, Umalusi, has commissioned several reports to attempt to understand the nature of the problem. This article will deal with a discussion of a fourth attempt by Umalusi to solve the problem. That attempt, undertaken by a consortium of four universities, has already delivered six interim reports to this statutory body, and the article will consider some of their content and methodology. In their reconceptualisation of the problem, the applied linguists involved first sought to identify the theoretical roots of the current curriculum in order to articulate more sharply the construct being assessed. That provides the basis for a theoretical justification of the several solutions being proposed, as well as for the preliminary designs of modifications to current, and the introduction of new assessments. The impact of equivalence of measurement as a design requirement will be specifically discussed, with reference to the empirical analyses of results of a number of pilots of equivalent tests in different languages.
Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sossan, Fabrizio
2017-01-01
A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT OF THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH INCORPORATED MAGNETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fyong Le Ngo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic circuitry computation is one of the central stages of designing a synchronous motor with incorporated magnets, which can be performed by means of a simplified method of the magnetic-circuits equivalent modeling. The article studies the magnetic circuit of the motor with the rotor-incorporated magnets, which includes four sectors: constant magnets with the field pole extension made of magnetically soft steel, magniflux dispersion sections containing air barriers and steel bridges; the air gap; the stator grooves, cogs and the frame yoke. The authors introduce an equivalent model of the magnetic circuit. High-energy magnets with a linear demagnetization curve are employed in the capacity of constant magnets. Two magnets create the magnetic flux for one pole. The decline of magnetic potential in the steel of the pole is negligible consequent on the admission that the poles magnetic inductivity µ = ∞. The rotor design provides for the air barriers and the steel bridges that close leakage flux. The induction-permeability curve linearization serves for the bridges magnetic saturation accountability and presents a polygonal line consisting of two linear sections. The estimation of the magnet circuit section including the cogs and the frame yoke is executed with account of the steel saturation, their magnetic conductivities thereat being dependent on the saturation rate. Relying on the equivalent model of the magnetic circuit, the authors deduce a system of two equations written from the first and the second Kirchhoff laws of the magnetic circuits. These equations allow solving two problems: specifying dimensions of the magnets by the preset value of the magnetic flow in the clearance and determining the clearance magnetic flow at the preset motor rotor-and-stator design.
A New Equivalence Theory Method for Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung
2014-01-01
The unique characteristics cannot be handled easily by conventional computer code. A new methodology is being developed to treat resonance self-shielding in a doubly heterogeneous system. The method first homogenizes the material in the fuel compact region using an analytical approximation for the disadvantage factor based on equivalence theory. The disadvantage factor accounts for spatial self-shielding of the resonance flux within the fuel grains. The doubly-heterogeneous effects are accounted by using a modified definition of background cross section, which includes geometry parameters and the cross sections of both the fuel grain and fuel compact regions. For the verification, the new DH methodology was implemented in deterministic transport code TICTOC developed at UNIST which uses equivalence theory for resonance treatment and Method of Characteristics (MOC) for the ray tracing. In previous research, this new methodology was verified for several pin cell problems but further verification is required to confirm the validity of the methodology for various situations. Therefore, in this study, 9 cases for unit pin cell problems are designed and the accuracy of the new DH method is compared to the Monte Carlo code, McCARD. The new method for doubly-heterogeneous self-shielding using equivalence theory was summarized and calculation procedure was presented. The new methods use analytical expression for the disadvantage factor therefore additional complicated module is not required. The new method was verified for 9 pin cell models. As a result, TICTOC with the new DH method predicts the eigenvalues within about 200 pcm error compared with Monte Carlo results for the most of problems
Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. C. Block
2009-01-01
Full Text Available
Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage^{®} (marketed as Glifage^{®} in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500^{®}, C = PVP K30^{®}, D = PVP K90^{®}. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage^{®}. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence
Ecological equivalency as a tool for endangered species management.
Searcy, Christopher A; Rollins, Hilary B; Shaffer, H Bradley
2016-01-01
The use of taxon substitutes for extinct or endangered species is a controversial conservation measure. We use the example of the endangered California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense; CTS), which is being replaced by hybrids with the invasive barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium), to illustrate a strategy for evaluating taxon substitutes based on their position in a multivariate community space. Approximately one-quarter of CTS's range is currently occupied by "full hybrids" with 70% nonnative genes, while another one-quarter is occupied by "superinvasives" where a specific set of 3/68 genes comprising 4% of the surveyed genome is nonnative. Based on previous surveys of natural CTS breeding ponds, we stocked experimental mesocosms with field-verified, realistic densities of tiger salamander larvae and their prey, and used these mesocosms to evaluate ecological equivalency between pure CTS, full hybrids, and superinvasives in experimental pond communities. We also included a fourth treatment with no salamanders present to evaluate the community effects of eliminating Ambystoma larvae altogether. We found that pure CTS and superinvasive larvae were ecologically equivalent, because their positions in the multivariate community space were statistically indistinguishable and they did not differ significantly along any univariate community axes. Full hybrids were ecologically similar, but not equivalent, to the other two genotypes, and the no-Ambystoma treatment was by far the most divergent. We conclude that, at least for the larval stage, superinvasives are adequate taxon substitutes for pure CTS and should probably be afforded protection under the Endangered Species Act. The proper conservation status for full hybrids remains debatable.
Polyhedral aspects of score equivalence in Bayesian network structure learning
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cussens, J.; Haws, D.; Studený, Milan
2017-01-01
Roč. 164, 1-2 (2017), s. 285-324 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : family-variable polytope * characteristic-imset polytope * score equivalent face/facet * supermodular set function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/studeny-0475315.pdf
Three-nucleon problem with phase equivalent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pushkash, O.M.; Shapoval, D.V.; Simenog, I.V.
1991-01-01
The effect of the t-matrix off-shell variations with nonlocal phase equivalent N-N potentials on the three-nucleon parameters is studied. The variations, which lower or increase the tritium binding energy, are revealed. We show that under certain conditions, the three-nucleon low-energy observables are almost insensitive to the high energy behaviour of the negative parts of the scattering phase shifts. The inverse problem method is applied to reconstruct simple S-wave potentials which to provide a unified description of the two-nucleon and low-energy three-nucleon data. 22 refs.; 6 figs. (author)
On proving confluence modulo equivalence for Constraint Handling Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne
2017-01-01
-logical built-in predicates such as var/1 and incomplete ones such as is/2, that are ignored in previous work on confluence. To this end, a new operational semantics for CHR is developed which includes such predicates. In addition, this semantics differs from earlier approaches by its simplicity without loss......Previous results on proving confluence for Constraint Handling Rules are extended in two ways in order to allow a larger and more realistic class of CHR programs to be considered confluent. Firstly, we introduce the relaxed notion of confluence modulo equivalence into the context of CHR: while...
Supersymmetric QED at finite temperature and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinett, R.W.
1985-01-01
Unbroken supersymmetric QED is examined at finite temperature and it is shown that the scalar and spinor members of a chiral superfield acquire different temperature-dependent inertial masses. By considering the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor it is also shown that the T-dependent scalar-spinor gravitational masses are also no longer degenerate and, moreover, are different from their T-dependent inertial mass shifts implying a violation of the equivalence principle. The temperature-dependent corrections to the spinor (g-2) are also calculated and found not to vanish
Physically-insightful equivalent circuit models for electromagnetic periodic structures
Mesa, F.; Rodríguez-Berral, R.; Medina, F.
2018-02-01
In this presentation it will be discussed how to obtain analytical or quasi-analytical equivalent circuits to deal with periodic structures such as frequency selective surfaces and/or metasurfaces. Both the topology and the values of the involved elements of these circuits are obtained from a basic rationale to solve the corresponding integral equation. This procedure, besides providing a very efficient analysis/design tool, allows for a good physical insight into the operating mechanisms of the structure in contrast with the almost blind numerical scheme of commercial simulators.
Granger Causality and Transfer Entropy Are Equivalent for Gaussian Variables
Barnett, Lionel; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.
2009-12-01
Granger causality is a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression. Developed originally in the field of econometrics, it has since found application in a broader arena, particularly in neuroscience. More recently transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between jointly dependent processes, has gained traction in a similarly wide field. While it has been recognized that the two concepts must be related, the exact relationship has until now not been formally described. Here we show that for Gaussian variables, Granger causality and transfer entropy are entirely equivalent, thus bridging autoregressive and information-theoretic approaches to data-driven causal inference.
Isotope determinations of renal clearance equivalent with physiological clearance measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junges, R.
1983-01-01
The concept of renal clearance in nuclear medicine describes the tubular secretion and glomerular filtration of a substance being removed from the blood plasma. The concept of clearance as used physiologically is rather wider and includes consideration of the outflow of the substances remained back in the kidneys. The present paper discusses clearance measurements as seen from a thermodynamic point of view, in which isotope clearances become equivalent with the physiological concept of clearance. In addition, it is possible to quantify each single step of the excretory function of each kidney separately. (orig.) [de
Equivalence relations between deterministic and quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G.
1988-01-01
Several quantum mechanical models are shown to be equivalent to certain deterministic systems because a basis can be found in terms of which the wave function does not spread. This suggests that apparently indeterministic behavior typical for a quantum mechanical world can be the result of locally deterministic laws of physics. We show how certain deterministic systems allow the construction of a Hilbert space and a Hamiltonian so that at long distance scales they may appear to behave as quantum field theories, including interactions but as yet no mass term. These observations are suggested to be useful for building theories at the Planck scale
The gravitational lens effect and its optical equivalents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freitas, L.R. de.
1987-01-01
This work presents the evolution of the use of the so called gravitational lens effect from a simple observational teste of the General Relativity theory to an instrument to measure cosmological parameters. A detailed analysis of how a gravitational ''lens'' deflects light without forming images is shown for the case of the deflector with spherical symmetry. In addition, the exact optical equivalent of a cylindrical gravitational lens, which forms true images, is proposed. Finally the problem of the formation of multiple images and the related astronomical observations is discussed. (author) [pt
Mapping wordnets from the perspective of inter-lingual equivalence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ewa Katarzyna Rudnicka
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Mapping wordnets from the perspective of inter-lingual equivalence This paper explores inter-lingual equivalence from the perspective of linking two large lexico-semantic databases, namely the Princeton WordNet of English and the plWordnet (pl. Słowosieć of Polish. Wordnets are built as networks of lexico-semantic relations between words and their meanings, and constitute a type of monolingual dictionary cum thesaurus. The development of wordnets for different languages has given rise to many wordnet linking projects (e.g. EuroWordNet, Vossen, 2002. Regardless of a linking method used, these projects require defining rules for establishing equivalence links between wordnet building blocks, known as synsets (sets of synonymous lexical units, i.e., lemma-sense pairs. In this paper an analysis is carried out of a set of inter-wordnet relations used in the mapping of the plWordNet onto the Princeton WordNet, and an attempt is made to relate them to equivalence taxonomies described in specialist literature on bilingual lexicography and translation. Rzutowanie wordnetów w perspektywie ekwiwalencji międzyjęzykowej Artykuł przedstawia analizę zjawiska ekwiwalencji międzyjęzykowej z perspektywy powiązania dwóch wielkich wordnetów: polskiej Słowosieci i angielskiego WordNetu princetońskiego. Wordnety są relacyjnymi bazami danych leksykalno-semantycznych opisującymi sieć relacji leksykalno-semantycznych pomiędzy słowami i ich znaczeniami. Stanowią zatem rodzaj słownika jednojęzycznego połączonego z tezaurusem. Rozwój wordnetów dla wielu języków świata zaowocował następnie ich wzajemnymi powiązaniami. Wymagało to zdefiniowania metodologii dla ustalenia ekwiwalencji pomiędzy ich podstawowymi elementami tzn. synsetami, które są zbiorami synonimicznych jednostek leksykalnych tzn. par lemat numer znaczenia. W artykule analizujemy zbiór relacji międzywordnetowych używanych w rzutowaniu pomiędzy Słowosiecią a Word
Preparation of water-equivalent radioactive solid sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, Ione M.; Koskinas, Marina F.; Dias, Mauro S.
2011-01-01
The development of water-equivalent solid sources in two geometries, cylindrical and flat without the need of irradiation in a strong gamma radiation source to obtain polymerization is described. These sources should have density similar to water and good uniformity. Therefore, the density and uniformity of the distribution of radioactive material in the resins were measured. The variation of these parameters in the cylindrical geometry was better than 2.0% for the density and 2.3% for the uniformity and for the flat geometry the values obtained were better than 2.0 % and better than 1.3%, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the literature. (author)
Formalization, equivalence and generalization of basic resonance electrical circuits
Penev, Dimitar; Arnaudov, Dimitar; Hinov, Nikolay
2017-12-01
In the work are presented basic resonance circuits, which are used in resonance energy converters. The following resonant circuits are considered: serial, serial with parallel load parallel capacitor, parallel and parallel with serial loaded inductance. For the circuits under consideration, expressions are generated for the frequencies of own oscillations and for the equivalence of the active power emitted in the load. Mathematical expressions are graphically constructed and verified using computer simulations. The results obtained are used in the model based design of resonant energy converters with DC or AC output. This guaranteed the output indicators of power electronic devices.
Dynamic determination of equivalent CT source models for personalized dosimetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosendahl Stephan
2017-09-01
Full Text Available With improvements in CT technology, the need for reliable patient-specific dosimetry increased in the recent years. The accuracy of Monte-Carlo simulations for absolute dose estimation is related to scanner specific information on the X-ray spectra of the scanner as well as the form filter geometries and compositions. In this work a mobile measurement setup is developed, which allows both to determine the X-ray spectra and equivalent form filter of a specific scanner from just one helical scan in less than 2 minutes.
Characteristic Properties of Equivalent Structures in Compositional Models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kratochvíl, Václav
2011-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 5 (2011), s. 599-612 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA201/09/1891; GA ČR GEICC/08/E010 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Equivalence problem * Compositional model * Persegram * Characteristic properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.948, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/MTR/kratochvil-0359927. pdf
Remarks on Fermion-Boson equivalence in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutra, A. de Souza; Natividade, C.P.
1998-06-01
Starting from a decomposition of the self-dual field in (2+1) dimensions, we build up an alternative quantum theory which consists of a self-dual model coupled to a Maxwell-generalized Chern-Simons theory. We discuss the fermion-boson equivalence of this quantum theory by comparing it to the Thirring model. Using these results we were able to compute the mass of the bosonized fermions up to third order in (1/m). Some problems related to the number of poles of the effective propagator are also addressed. (author)
Equivalence between the semiclassical and effective approaches to gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paszko, Ricardo; Accioly, Antonio
2010-01-01
Semiclassical and effective theories of gravitation are quite distinct from each other as far as the approximation scheme employed is concerned. In fact, while in the semiclassical approach gravity is a classical field and the particles and/or remaining fields are quantized, in the effective approach everything is quantized, including gravity, but the Feynman amplitude is expanded in terms of the momentum exchanged between the particles and/or fields. In this paper, we show that these approaches, despite being radically different, lead to equivalent results if one of the masses under consideration is much greater than all the other energies involved.
Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Moriuchi, S.; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.
1991-01-01
Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)
Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Andrew CR
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and
Possible test of the strong principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brecher, K.
1978-01-01
We suggest that redshift determinations of X-ray and γ-ray lines produced near the surface of neutron stars which arise from different physical processes could provide a significant test of the strong principle of equivalence for strong gravitational fields. As a complement to both the high-precision weak-field solar-system experiments and the cosmological time variation searches, such observations could further test the hypothesis that physics is locally the same at all times and in all places
Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor
Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.
2016-06-01
Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.
On the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Dutra, A. de.
1991-01-01
We show the equivalence between the Schwinger and axial models, in the sense that all Green's functions of one model can be obtained from those of the other, and that both models have the same effective Lagrangian density (and so they have equal partition functions associated with them). In particular, we show that the two models have the same chiral anomaly. Finally it is demonstrated that the Schwinger model can keep gauge invariance for an arbitrary mass, dispensing with an additional gauge group integration. (author)
Global education implications of the foreign pharmacy graduate equivalency examination.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M
2010-06-15
Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.
Equivalence of the theories of reciprocity and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.
1976-01-01
Khan's theory (Nuovo Cimento; 57B:321 (1968) and Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 6:383 (1972)) of reciprocity has been shown to be equivalent to the theory of general relativity (in a conformally flat space-time) in that the same predictions are made physically. It is is proved that, since 'centrifugal forces' are used by Khan, gravitational phenomena are being considered equal in status to electromagnetic phenomena, and hence the difference claimed to exist between Milne's theory and Khan's theory disappears. (author)
Remarks on Fermion-Boson equivalence in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutra, A de Souza [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Natividade, C P [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1998-06-01
Starting from a decomposition of the self-dual field in (2+1) dimensions, we build up an alternative quantum theory which consists of a self-dual model coupled to a Maxwell-generalized Chern-Simons theory. We discuss the fermion-boson equivalence of this quantum theory by comparing it to the Thirring model. Using these results we were able to compute the mass of the bosonized fermions up to third order in (1/m). Some problems related to the number of poles of the effective propagator are also addressed. (author) 13 refs.
Applications of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.
1997-01-01
The piping systems in nuclear power plants, even with conventional snubber supports, are highly complex nonlinear structures under severe earthquake loadings mainly due to various mechanical gaps in support structures. Some type of nonlinear analysis is necessary to accurately predict the piping responses under earthquake loadings. The application of equivalent linearization approaches (ELA) to seismic analyses of nonlinear piping systems is presented. Two types of ELA's are studied; i.e., one based on the response spectrum method and the other based on the linear random vibration theory. The test results of main steam and feedwater piping systems supported by snubbers and energy absorbers are used to evaluate the numerical accuracy and limitations
Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merced Montesinos
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.
Equivalence of two alternative approaches to Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goenuel, B; Koeksal, K
2006-01-01
A recently developed simple approach for the exact/approximate solution of Schroedinger equations with constant/position-dependent mass, in which the potential is considered as in the perturbation theory, is shown to be equivalent to the one leading to the construction of exactly solvable potentials via the solution of second-order differential equations in terms of known special functions. The formalism in the former solves difficulties encountered in the latter in revealing the corrections explicitly to the unperturbed piece of the solutions whereas the other obviates cumbersome procedures used in the calculations of the former
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman
2017-01-01
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
RTL2RTL Formal Equivalence: Boosting the Design Confidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M V Achutha Kiran Kumar
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Increasing design complexity driven by feature and performance requirements and the Time to Market (TTM constraints force a faster design and validation closure. This in turn enforces novel ways of identifying and debugging behavioral inconsistencies early in the design cycle. Addition of incremental features and timing fixes may alter the legacy design behavior and would inadvertently result in undesirable bugs. The most common method of verifying the correctness of the changed design is to run a dynamic regression test suite before and after the intended changes and compare the results, a method which is not exhaustive. Modern Formal Verification (FV techniques involving new methods of proving Sequential Hardware Equivalence enabled a new set of solutions for the given problem, with complete coverage guarantee. Formal Equivalence can be applied for proving functional integrity after design changes resulting from a wide variety of reasons, ranging from simple pipeline optimizations to complex logic redistributions. We present here our experience of successfully applying the RTL to RTL (RTL2RTL Formal Verification across a wide spectrum of problems on a Graphics design. The RTL2RTL FV enabled checking the design sanity in a very short time, thus enabling faster and safer design churn. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to any complex hardware design.
Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA
Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua
2018-04-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.
Tissue Equivalents Based on Cell-Seeded Biodegradable Microfluidic Constructs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah L. Tao
2010-03-01
Full Text Available One of the principal challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is the formation of functional microvascular networks capable of sustaining tissue constructs. Complex tissues and vital organs require a means to support oxygen and nutrient transport during the development of constructs both prior to and after host integration, and current approaches have not demonstrated robust solutions to this challenge. Here, we present a technology platform encompassing the design, construction, cell seeding and functional evaluation of tissue equivalents for wound healing and other clinical applications. These tissue equivalents are comprised of biodegradable microfluidic scaffolds lined with microvascular cells and designed to replicate microenvironmental cues necessary to generate and sustain cell populations to replace dermal and/or epidermal tissues lost due to trauma or disease. Initial results demonstrate that these biodegradable microfluidic devices promote cell adherence and support basic cell functions. These systems represent a promising pathway towards highly integrated three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs for a wide range of clinical applications.
Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Changsong
1995-10-01
The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)
Cosmology with equivalence principle breaking in the dark sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keselman, Jose Ariel; Nusser, Adi; Peebles, P. J. E.
2010-01-01
A long-range force acting only between nonbaryonic particles would be associated with a large violation of the weak equivalence principle. We explore cosmological consequences of this idea, which we label ReBEL (daRk Breaking Equivalence principLe). A high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the distributions of baryons and dark matter confirms our previous findings that a ReBEL force of comparable strength to gravity on comoving scales of about 1 h -1 Mpc causes voids between the concentrations of large galaxies to be more nearly empty, suppresses accretion of intergalactic matter onto galaxies at low redshift, and produces an early generation of dense dark-matter halos. A preliminary analysis indicates the ReBEL scenario is consistent with the one-dimensional power spectrum of the Lyman-Alpha forest and the three-dimensional galaxy autocorrelation function. Segregation of baryons and DM in galaxies and systems of galaxies is a strong prediction of ReBEL. ReBEL naturally correlates the baryon mass fraction in groups and clusters of galaxies with the system mass, in agreement with recent measurements.
Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator
Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.
2005-01-01
This Annual Report illustrates the work carried out during the last grant-year activity on the Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator. The activity focused on the following main topics: (1) analysis and conceptual design of a detector configuration suitable for the flight tests; (2) development of techniques for extracting a small signal from data strings with colored and white noise; (3) design of the mechanism that spins and releases the instrument package inside the cryostat; and (4) experimental activity carried out by our non-US partners (a summary is shown in this report). The analysis and conceptual design of the flight-detector (point 1) was focused on studying the response of the differential accelerometer during free fall, in the presence of errors and precession dynamics, for various detector's configurations. The goal was to devise a detector configuration in which an Equivalence Principle violation (EPV) signal at the sensitivity threshold level can be successfully measured and resolved out of a much stronger dynamics-related noise and gravity gradient. A detailed analysis and comprehensive simulation effort led us to a detector's design that can accomplish that goal successfully.
Array of piezoelectric energy harvesting by the equivalent impedance approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lien, I C; Shu, Y C
2012-01-01
This article proposes to use the idea of equivalent impedance to investigate the electrical response of an array of piezoelectric oscillators endowed with distinct energy harvesting circuits. Three interface electronics systems are considered including standard AC/DC and parallel/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits. Various forms of equivalent load impedance are analytically obtained for different interfaces. The steady-state response of an array system is then shown to be determined by the matrix formulation of generalized Ohm’s law whose impedance matrix is explicitly expressed in terms of the load impedance. A model problem is proposed for evaluating the ability of power harvesting under various conditions. It is shown first that harvested power is increased dramatically for the case of small deviation in the system parameters. On the other hand, if the deviation in mass is relatively large, the result is changed from the power-boosting mode to wideband mode. In particular, the parallel-SSHI array system exhibits much more significant bandwidth improvement than the other two cases. Surprisingly, the series-SSHI array system shows the worst electrical response. Such an observation is opposed to our previous finding that an SSHI technique avails against the standard technique in the case based on a single piezoelectric energy harvester and the explanation is under investigation. (fast track communication)
Response of radiation monitors for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos
2001-01-01
Radiation monitors are used all over the world to evaluate if places with presence of ionising radiation present safe conditions for people. Radiation monitors should be tested according to international or national standards in order to be qualified for use. This work describes a methodology and procedures to evaluate the energy and angular responses of any radiation monitor for ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), according to the recommendations of ISO and IEC standards. The methodology and the procedures were applied to the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026, developed by the Instituto em Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), to evaluate and to adjust its response for H*(10), characterizing it as an ambient dose equivalent meter. The tests were performed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), and results showed that the Monitor Inteligente de Radiacao MIR 7026 can be used as an EI*(10) meter, in accordance to the IEC 60846 standard requirements. The overall estimated uncertainty for the determination of the MIR 7026 response, in all radiation qualities used in this work, was 4,5 % to a 95 % confidence limit. (author)
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agrawal, Prateek [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sundrum, Raman [Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-05-29
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.
Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A
2013-11-01
Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.
Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems
Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena
2011-03-01
With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.
Economic decision-making compared with an equivalent motor task.
Wu, Shih-Wei; Delgado, Mauricio R; Maloney, Laurence T
2009-04-14
There is considerable evidence that human economic decision-making deviates from the predictions of expected utility theory (EUT) and that human performance conforms to EUT in many perceptual and motor decision tasks. It is possible that these results reflect a real difference in decision-making in the 2 domains but it is also possible that the observed discrepancy simply reflects typical differences in experimental design. We developed a motor task that is mathematically equivalent to choosing between lotteries and used it to compare how the same subject chose between classical economic lotteries and the same lotteries presented in equivalent motor form. In experiment 1, we found that subjects are more risk seeking in deciding between motor lotteries. In experiment 2, we used cumulative prospect theory to model choice and separately estimated the probability weighting functions and the value functions for each subject carrying out each task. We found no patterned differences in how subjects represented outcome value in the motor and the classical tasks. However, the probability weighting functions for motor and classical tasks were markedly and significantly different. Those for the classical task showed a typical tendency to overweight small probabilities and underweight large probabilities, and those for the motor task showed the opposite pattern of probability distortion. This outcome also accounts for the increased risk-seeking observed in the motor tasks of experiment 1. We conclude that the same subject distorts probability, but not value, differently in making identical decisions in motor and classical form.
Neutron kerma factors, and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M.; Vega C, H. R.
2014-08-01
The kerma factors and kerma relative to air and water of 24 compounds used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energy from 2.53 x 10 -8 up to 29 MeV. The kerma ratio of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated by the ratio of kerma factors of the tissue substitute to air and water respectively. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies 100 eV. Kerma ratio relative to the air for Poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon are found to be nearest to unity in very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV respectively. It was found that the natural rubber as a water equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the kerma factors in our investigation shows a very good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the kerma factors and kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds are approximately same, but differences are large for energies below 100 eV. (Author)
Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu
2005-01-01
We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl 3 as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN 3 as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl 3 and agarose are varied from 0-140 μmol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research
Further investigation on the precise formulation of the equivalence theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, H.; Kuang, Y.; Li, X.
1994-01-01
Based on a systematic analysis of the renormalization schemes in the general R ξ gauge, the precise formulation of the equivalence theorem for longitudinal weak boson scatterings is given both in the SU(2) L Higgs theory and in the realistic SU(2)xU(1) electroweak theory to all orders in the perturbation for an arbitrary Higgs boson mass m H . It is shown that there is generally a renormalization-scheme- and ξ-dependent modification factor C mod and a simple formula for C mod is obtained. Furthermore, a convenient particular renormalization scheme is proposed in which C mod is exactly unity. Results of C mod in other currently used schemes are also discussed especially on their ξ and m H dependence through explicit one-loop calculations. It is shown that in some currently used schemes the deviation of C mod from unity and the ξ dependence of C mod are significant even in the large-m H limit. Therefore care should be taken when applying the equivalence theorem
Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.
1995-01-01
The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA exclamation point s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports
Dextran derivatives modulate collagen matrix organization in dermal equivalent.
Frank, Laetitia; Lebreton-Decoster, Corinne; Godeau, Gaston; Coulomb, Bernard; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline
2006-01-01
Dextran derivatives can protect heparin binding growth factor implied in wound healing, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these compounds on human dermal fibroblasts in culture with or without TGF-beta1. Several dextran derivatives obtained by substitution of methylcarboxylate (MC), benzylamide (B) and sulphate (Su) groups were used to determine the effects of each compound on fibroblast growth in vitro. The data indicate that sulphate groups are essential to act on the fibroblast proliferation. The dextran derivative LS21 DMCBSu has been chosen to investigate its effect on dermal wound healing process. Fibroblasts cultured in collagenous matrices named dermal equivalent were treated with the bioactive polymer alone or associated to TGF-beta1 or FGF-2. Cross-sections of dermal equivalent observed by histology or immunohistochemistry, demonstrated that the bioactive polymer accelerates the collagen matrices organization and stimulates the human type-III collagen expression. This bioactive polymer induces apoptosis of myofibroblast, property which may be beneficial in treatment of hypertrophic scar. Culture media analyzed by zymography and Western blot showed that this polymer significantly increases the secretion of zymogen and active form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), involved in granulation tissue formation. These data suggest that this bioactive polymer has properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of wound healing.
Segmented and "equivalent" representation of the cable equation.
Andrietti, F; Bernardini, G
1984-11-01
The linear cable theory has been applied to a modular structure consisting of n repeating units each composed of two subunits with different values of resistance and capacitance. For n going to infinity, i.e., for infinite cables, we have derived analytically the Laplace transform of the solution by making use of a difference method and we have inverted it by means of a numerical procedure. The results have been compared with those obtained by the direct application of the cable equation to a simplified nonmodular model with "equivalent" electrical parameters. The implication of our work in the analysis of the time and space course of the potential of real fibers has been discussed. In particular, we have shown that the simplified ("equivalent") model is a very good representation of the segmented model for the nodal regions of myelinated fibers in a steady situation and in every condition for muscle fibers. An approximate solution for the steady potential of myelinated fibers has been derived for both nodal and internodal regions. The applications of our work to other cases dealing with repeating structures, such as earthworm giant fibers, have been discussed and our results have been compared with other attempts to solve similar problems.
Classical-Equivalent Bayesian Portfolio Optimization for Electricity Generation Planning
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Hellinton H. Takada
2018-01-01
Full Text Available There are several electricity generation technologies based on different sources such as wind, biomass, gas, coal, and so on. The consideration of the uncertainties associated with the future costs of such technologies is crucial for planning purposes. In the literature, the allocation of resources in the available technologies has been solved as a mean-variance optimization problem assuming knowledge of the expected values and the covariance matrix of the costs. However, in practice, they are not exactly known parameters. Consequently, the obtained optimal allocations from the mean-variance optimization are not robust to possible estimation errors of such parameters. Additionally, it is usual to have electricity generation technology specialists participating in the planning processes and, obviously, the consideration of useful prior information based on their previous experience is of utmost importance. The Bayesian models consider not only the uncertainty in the parameters, but also the prior information from the specialists. In this paper, we introduce the classical-equivalent Bayesian mean-variance optimization to solve the electricity generation planning problem using both improper and proper prior distributions for the parameters. In order to illustrate our approach, we present an application comparing the classical-equivalent Bayesian with the naive mean-variance optimal portfolios.
High energy cosmic neutrinos and the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, H.
1996-01-01
Observation of ultra-high energy neutrinos, in particular detection of ν τ , from cosmologically distant sources like active galactic nuclei (AGN) opens new possibilities to search for neutrino flavor conversion. We consider the effects of violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) on propagation of these cosmic neutrinos. In particular, we discuss two effects: (1) the oscillations of neutrinos due to VEP in the gravitational field of our Galaxy and in the intergalactic space; (2) resonance flavor conversion driven by the gravitational potential of AGN. We show that ultra-high energies of the neutrinos as well as cosmological distances to AGN, or strong AGN gravitational potential allow to improve the accuracy of testing of the equivalence principle by 25 orders of magnitude for massless neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -41 ) and by 11 orders of magnitude for massive neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -28 x (Δm 2 /1eV 2 )). The experimental signatures of the transitions induced by VEP are discussed. (author). 17 refs
Electrical equivalent circuit of an ion-exchange membrane system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikonenko, Victor V., E-mail: v_nikonenko@mail.r [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation); Kozmai, Anton E. [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation)
2011-01-01
Usually, the current flowing through an electrochemical cell is divided into the faradaic current going to an electrochemical interface reaction, and the current charging electric double layer (EDL). This division leads to the Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit with an EDL capacitance in one branch, and the faradaic impedance in the other, specific for each particular system. However, the physics of the separation of the impedance into faradaic and capacitive components for different electrochemical systems is not sufficiently clear. The most of derivations resulting in the formal construction of the Randles-Ershler or similar equivalent circuits are based on the a priori separation of the electroneutral and the double-layer regions. In this paper, we derive an equation for the impedance of a three-layer system consisted of an ion-exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion boundary layers (DBL) starting from the Poisson equation. The system is polarized by a constant electric current over which a small sinusoidal signal is applied. The equation shows that the impedance of the considered system can be formally interpreted via an equivalent circuit with a frequency dependent capacitance in one branch and a finite-length Warburg-type impedance in the other. To take into account this dependence, the impedance of the system may be presented as a series connection of five circuits. Three of them are consisted of a geometric capacitance connected in parallel with an ohmic resistance, respectively, for both diffusion layers and for the membrane bulk; the two others being the double-layer capacitance in parallel with the finite-length Warburg impedance for the left and the right interfaces, respectively. The comparison of the impedance spectra calculated within our analytical approach with those obtained by the full numerical solution of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations shows a good agreement. Different possible situations, which might arise in real systems
ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF BIOLOGICAL OBJECTS OF VEGETABLE
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I. M. Golev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Summary.The results of measurements of complex biological tissues electrical resistance of vegetable origin are presented. The measurements were performed at T=296 K in the frequency range from 5 to 500 kHz. As the electrodes were covered with tin (purity of 99.9% copper plates.. Experimentally investigated the following objects: samples parenchymal tissue of Apple in the form of cylinders with a diameter of 20 mm and a length of 20 mm; Apple juice, obtained by mechanical destruction of cells; pressed Apple pulp (juice content of not more than 20%obtained by the centrifugal separation, which destroyed the system of cells. For plant tissue with a holistic system of cells in the field 103 - 105 Hz is observed pronounced minimum angle of phase shift. In the absence of cells and its value is greatly reduced .The equivalent electrical circuit fabrics are considered. The calculation of all its elements is made. The equivalent capacitance of the electrical double layer at the interface of metal measuring electrode and extracellular fluid is element of C1 . The electrical resistance of this layer alternating current is characterized by the element R1 . Chain parallel connected resistance and capacitance describes the system of plant cells. The capacitance C2 is due to the electrical capacity of the cell membranes, and the resistance R2 is the electrical resistance of the membranes and intracellular space.The coincidence of experimental and calculated data in a frequency range of more than 103 Hz satisfactory. In the region of lower frequencies is observed differences. This may be due to the specific behavior of the electrical double layer. However, in the frequency region where the electrical properties of the cell structure of the investigated tissue match good, which proves the validity of the considered equivalent circuit. It is shown that the value of the complex electrical impedance of vegetable tissue in the frequency range from 103 Hz to 105
Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator
Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.
2004-01-01
The scientific goal of the experiment is to test the equality of gravitational and inertial mass (i.e., to test the Principle of Equivalence) by measuring the independence of the rate of fall of bodies from their compositions. The measurement is accomplished by measuring the relative displacement (or equivalently acceleration) of two falling bodies of different materials which are the proof masses of a differential accelerometer spinning about an horizontal axis to modulate a possible violation signal. A non-zero differential acceleration appearing at the signal frequency will indicate a violation of the Equivalence Principle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the Eotvos ratio og/g (differential acceleration/common acceleration) with a targeted accuracy that is about two orders of magnitude better than the state of the art (presently at several parts in 10(exp 13). The analyses carried out during this first grant year have focused on: (1) evaluation of possible shapes for the proof masses to meet the requirements on the higher-order mass moment disturbances generated by the falling capsule; (2) dynamics of the instrument package and differential acceleration measurement in the presence of errors and imperfections; (3) computation of the inertia characteristic of the instrument package that enable a separation of the signal from the dynamics-related noise; (4) a revised thermal analysis of the instrument package in light of the new conceptual design of the cryostat; (5) the development of a dynamic and control model of the capsule attached to the gondola and balloon to define the requirements for the leveling mechanism (6) a conceptual design of the leveling mechanism that keeps the capsule aligned before release from the balloon; and (7) a new conceptual design of the customized cryostat and a preliminary valuation of its cost. The project also involves an international cooperation with the Institute of Space Physics (IFSI) in Rome, Italy. The group at IFSI
Dosimetric characteristics of water equivalent for two solid water phantoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jianhua; Wang Xun; Ren Jiangping
2011-01-01
Objective: To investigate the water equivalent of two solid water phantoms. Methods: The X-ray and electron beam depth-ion curves were measured in water and two solid water phantoms, RW3 and Virtual Water. The water-equivalency correction factors for the two solid water phantoms were compared. We measured and calculated the range sealing factors and the fluence correction factors for the two solid water phantoms in the case of electron beams. Results: The average difference between the measured ionization in solid water phantoms and water was 0.42% and 0.16% on 6 MV X-ray (t=-6.15, P=0.001 and t=-1.65, P=0.419) and 0.21% and 0.31% on 10 MV X-ray (t=1.728, P=0.135 and t=-2.296, P=0.061), with 17.4% and 14.5% on 6 MeV electron beams (t=-1.37, P=0.208 and t=-1.47, P=0.179) and 7.0% and 6.0% on 15 MeV electron beams (t=-0.58, P=0.581 and t=-0.90, P=0.395). The water-equivalency correction factors for the two solid water phantoms varied slightly largely, F=58.54, P=0.000 on 6 MV X-ray, F=0.211, P=0.662 on 10 MV X-ray, F=0.97, P=0.353 on 6 MeV electron beams, F=0.14, P=0.717 on 15 MeV electron beams. However, they were almost equal to 1 near the reference depths. The two solid water phantoms showed a similar tread of C pl increasing (F=26.40, P=0.014) and h pl decreasing (F=7.45, P=0.072) with increasing energy. Conclusion: The solid water phantom should undergo a quality control test before being clinical use. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Mazzanti
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.
A homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.
2001-01-01
In this paper any gravitational field (both in the Einsteinian case and in the Newtonian case) is described by the connection, called gravitational. A homogeneous static gravitational field is considered in the four-dimensional area z>0 of a space-time with Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, and t. Such field can be created by masses, disposed outside the area z>0 with a density distribution independent of x, y, and t. Remarkably, in the four-dimensional area z>0, together with the primitive background connection, the primitive gravitational connection has been derived. In concordance with the Principle of Equivalence all components of such gravitational connection are equal to zero in the uniformly accelerated frame system, in which the gravitational force of attraction is balanced by the inertial force. However, all components of such background connection are equal to zero in the resting frame system, but not in the accelerated frame system
On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies
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Purushottam D. Gujrati
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.
The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.
Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue
2015-01-01
Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.
The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets
Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue
2015-01-01
Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845
BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling
1995-10-01
It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)
On the equivalence of continuum and lattice models for fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.
2000-01-01
It was demonstrated that finely discretized lattice models for fluids with particles interacting via Lennard-Jones or exponential-6 potentials have essentially identical thermodynamic and structural properties to their continuum counterparts. Grand canonical histogram reweighting Monte Carlo calculations were performed for systems with repulsion exponents between 11 and 22. Critical parameters were determined from mixed-field finite-size scaling methods. Numerical equivalence of lattice and continuous space models, within simulation uncertainties, was observed for lattices with ratio of particle diameter σ to grid spacing of 10. The lattice model calculations were more efficient computationally by factors between 10 and 20. It was also shown that Lennard-Jones and exponential-6 based models with identical critical properties can be constructed by appropriate choice of the repulsion exponent. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Equivalent formulations of “the equation of life”
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ao Ping
2014-01-01
Motivated by progress in theoretical biology a recent proposal on a general and quantitative dynamical framework for nonequilibrium processes and dynamics of complex systems is briefly reviewed. It is nothing but the evolutionary process discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace. Such general and structured dynamics may be tentatively named “the equation of life”. Three equivalent formulations are discussed, and it is also pointed out that such a quantitative dynamical framework leads naturally to the powerful Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and the second law in physics. In this way, the equation of life provides a logically consistent foundation for thermodynamics. This view clarifies a particular outstanding problem and further suggests a unifying principle for physics and biology. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)
Improved equivalent circuit for twin slot terahertz receivers
McGrath, W. R.
2002-01-01
Series-fed coplanar waveguide embedding circuits are being developed for terahertz mixers using, in particular, submicron-sized superconducting devices, such as hot electron bolometers as the nonlinear element. Although these mixers show promising performance, they usually also show a considerable downward shift in the center frequency, when compared with simulations obtained by using simplified models. This makes it very difficult to design low-noise mixers for a given THz frequency. This shiftis principally caused by parasitics due to the extremely small details (in terms of wavelength) of the device, and by the electrical properties of the RF choke filter in the DC/IF line. In this paper, we present an improved equivalent network model of such mixer circuits which agrees with measured results at THz frequencies and we propose a new set of THz bolometric mixers that have been fabricated and are currently being tested.
Determination of equivalent mixing height and atmospheric stability assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, J.; Bulko, M.; Holy, K.
2007-01-01
Atmospheric stability is an indicator that reflects the intensity of boundary layer mixing processes. This feature of the atmosphere is especially important since it defines dispersive atmospheric conditions and provides information on how effectively the anthropogenic pollution will be transferred to the higher levels of the atmosphere. The assessment of atmospheric dispersiveness plays a crucial role in the protection of air quality and public health in big cities. The presented paper deals with determination of atmospheric stability via so called Equivalent Mixing Height (EMH) quantity using a radioactive noble gas 222 Rn. A method of deriving a link between 222 Rn activity concentration, eddy diffusion coefficient and EMH using fluid mechanics is also outlined in this work. (authors)
The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)
2004-01-01
STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.
3D MR gel dosimetry with lung equivalent gel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherer, J.; Solleder, M.; Schiessl, I.; Bogner, L.; Herbst, M.
1998-01-01
The MR gel dosimetry is used to verify complex 3D treatment plans. Till now this method served only for dose evaluation in homogeneous phantoms. On the way to build a heterogeneous anthropomorphic gel phantom, a lung equivalent gel with the density 0.4 g/cm 3 was developed. First experiments show a 1.55 times higher dose reponse in the low density gel (LD gel). The comparison of a dose distribution in a gel/LD gel/gel slab phantom with Monte Carlo calculations shows good agreement within 5%. More over the accuray of the measuring device magnetic resonance imager was studied in respect to the now exclusive digital image processing with the software MRD (MR dosimetry). Because of the dimensions of the Fricke gel phantom an artefact correction, based on the data from the unirradiated phantom proved to be essential. (orig.) [de
The short-circuit concept used in field equivalence principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1990-01-01
In field equivalence principles, electric and magnetic surface currents are specified and considered as impressed currents. Often the currents are placed on perfect conductors. It is shown that these currents can be treated through two approaches. The first approach is decomposition of the total...... field into partial fields caused by the individual impressed currents. When this approach is used, it is shown that, on a perfect electric (magnetic) conductor, impressed electric (magnetic) surface currents are short-circuited. The second approach is to note that, since Maxwell's equations...... and the boundary conditions are satisfied, none of the impressed currents is short-circuited and no currents are induced on the perfect conductors. Since all currents and field quantities are considered at the same time, this approach is referred to as the total-field approach. The partial-field approach leads...
Design Of Load-klystron Equivalent For Jlc
Grishanov, B I
2004-01-01
In this paper a design of a resistive load - an equivalent of a klystron for the Japan Linear Collider JLC is described. The load should operate in a pulse mode at high voltage and high averege power. Different design variants were considered. The choice in favour of ceramic bulk resistor with longitudinal conductivity was done. A caloric and hydraulic calculation was executed. A mesurements of ceramics thermal conductivity of the bulk resistor and of a single radiator produced warmth remooval were done. Unfortunataly the last events on JLC forbad us to realys the project "in metall". But authours houp that this design experience could be usefull for another accelerating centers. The load can find an application as a absorbing resistor in high voltage schemes.
Monetary and social macroeconomic impact of equivalent energy production strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lattes, Robert; Thiriet, Lucien
1981-01-01
This current report updates a previous report (February 1979) and brings to light many new factors; a comparative analysis of global impacts is presented, particular emphasis being given to large scale equilibria, and equivalent, but different energy strategies and policies. The way in which different energy strategies might reduce externally imposed constraints is examined in detail, i.e. enabling higher economic growth to be achieved, and unemployment to be reduced without increasing or even with a decrease in the external balance-of-payments deficit. A reference electricity generating program (realized with coal, oil or uranium) similar to the medium and long term French nuclear program was retained. Attention was given to ensure that the ratio between the amount of electricity generated and the total electricity requirements remained realistic. This was also true for the ratio between the amount of nuclear origin generated electricity and the total amount of electricity generated [fr
Optimization of a neutron ambient dose equivalent rate meter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgkhardt, B.; Fieg, G.; Piesch, E.; Klett, A.; Maushart, R.
1994-01-01
Co-operating in a technology transfer project, the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and EG and G Berthold have developed a neutron equivalent doserate probe with high sensitivity and an energy dependent detection efficiency in accordance with the ICRP60 requirements. The special features of this probe were realized, on the one hand, by optimizing the moderator and absorber geometry through simulation calculations with the neutron transport code MCNP, and, on the other hand, by using a newly designed 3 He-methane proportional counter tube. The measurements were not yet completed when this paper went to press, however, it is to be expected that the response sensitivity will be more than 3 counts/nSv. (orig.) [de
Calculations of a wideband metamaterial absorber using equivalent medium theory
Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin; Wang, Danqi; Yu, Shengqing; Lou, Yanchao; Guo, Ling
2016-08-01
Metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) have drawn increasing attention in many areas due to the fact that they can achieve electromagnetic (EM) waves with unity absorptivity. We demonstrate the design, simulation, experiment and calculation of a wideband MMA based on a loaded double-square-loop (DSL) array of chip resisters. For a normal incidence EM wave, the simulated results show that the absorption of the full width at half maximum is about 9.1 GHz, and the relative bandwidth is 87.1%. Experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. More importantly, equivalent medium theory (EMT) is utilized to calculate the absorptions of the DSL MMA, and the calculated absorptions based on EMT agree with the simulated and measured results. The method based on EMT provides a new way to analysis the mechanism of MMAs.
Operation and application of tissue-equivalent proportional counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerdung, S.; Roos, H.
1995-01-01
The application of TEPCs during the past decades in dosimetry, radiation protection and radiation therapy has revealed their large potential but also the necessity of careful operation. This paper reviews the experience gathered in the past and summarises the experimental procedures to ensure proper TEPC operation. The measurement system is described including detector, electronics and quality assurance. The pulse height analysis and its interpretation in terms of microdosimetric spectra and mean values are presented as well as the variance method. On the basis of these evaluation procedures, the second part of the paper presents some typical examples of TEPC applications: dose spectrometry, time-of-flight techniques and the measurement of dose equivalent quantities. Special attention is paid to possible extensions but also to limitations of the use of TEPCs in the various fields of application. (Author)
Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.
1997-04-01
This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels
The Thermodynamical Arrow and the Historical Arrow; Are They Equivalent?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Tamm
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between the thermodynamic and historical arrows of time is studied. In the context of a simple combinatorial model, their definitions are made more precise and in particular strong versions (which are not compatible with time symmetric microscopic laws and weak versions (which can be compatible with time symmetric microscopic laws are given. This is part of a larger project that aims to explain the arrows as consequences of a common time symmetric principle in the set of all possible universes. However, even if we accept that both arrows may have the same origin, this does not imply that they are equivalent, and it is argued that there can be situations where one arrow may be well-defined but the other is not.
Modification of equivalent photon approximation (EPA) for resolved photon processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drees, M.; Godbole, R.M.
1995-05-01
The authors propose a modification of the equivalent photon approximation (EPA) for processes which involve the parton content of the photon, to take into account the suppression of the photonic parton fluxes due to the virtuality of the photon. They present simple, physically motivated ansaetze to model this suppression and show that even though the parton content of the electron no longer factorizes into an electron flux function and photon structure function, it is still possible to express it as a single integral. They also show that for the TRISTAN (transposable ring intersecting storage accelerators in Nippon) experiments its effects can be numerically of the same size as that of the NLO corrections. Further, it is discussed a possible measurements at HERA (hadron electron ring an large), which can be provide an experimental handle on the effect the authors model through their ansaetze
A new equivalent circuit model for micro electroporation systems
Shagoshtasbi, Hooman
2011-02-01
Electroporation (EP) is a unique biotechnique in which intense electric pulses are applied on the cell membrane to temporarily generate nanoscale electropores and to increase the membrane permeability for the delivery of exogenous biomolecules or drugs. We propose a new equivalent circuit model with 8 electric components to predict the electrodynamic response of a micro EP system. As the permeability of the cell membrane increases, the membrane resistance decreases. The numerical simulations of the transmembrane current responses to different applied voltages (1∼6V) are consistent with the experimental results using HeLa cells. Besides, the transmembrane voltage as a function of applied voltages is determined as well. These transmembrane current and voltage responses can be extremely useful for the design of new generation of micro EP systems for transfection of large DNA molecules in the future. © 2011 IEEE.
Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam
Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.
2016-01-01
Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.
A new equivalent circuit model for micro electroporation systems
Shagoshtasbi, Hooman; Lee, Yi-Kuen
2011-01-01
Electroporation (EP) is a unique biotechnique in which intense electric pulses are applied on the cell membrane to temporarily generate nanoscale electropores and to increase the membrane permeability for the delivery of exogenous biomolecules or drugs. We propose a new equivalent circuit model with 8 electric components to predict the electrodynamic response of a micro EP system. As the permeability of the cell membrane increases, the membrane resistance decreases. The numerical simulations of the transmembrane current responses to different applied voltages (1∼6V) are consistent with the experimental results using HeLa cells. Besides, the transmembrane voltage as a function of applied voltages is determined as well. These transmembrane current and voltage responses can be extremely useful for the design of new generation of micro EP systems for transfection of large DNA molecules in the future. © 2011 IEEE.
Determination of skin dose reduction by lead equivalent gloves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norriza Mohd Isa; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli
2006-01-01
Radiation protective gloves are always used in medical facilities to protect radiation workers from unnecessary radiation exposure. A study on radiation protection gloves which are produced by local company had been performed by the Medical Physics Group, MINT. The gloves were made of lead equivalent material, as the attenuating element. The gloves were evaluated in term of the percentage of skin dose reduction by using a newly developed procedure and facilities in MINT. Attenuation measurements of the gloves had been carried out using direct beams and scattered radiations of different qualities. TLD rings were fitted on finger phantom; and water phantom were used in the measurement. The result were obtained and analysed based on data supplied by manufacturer. (Author)
The equivalence principle and the gravitational constant in experimental relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spallicci, A.D.A.M.
1988-01-01
Fischbach's analysis of the Eotvos experiment, showing an embedded fifth force, has stressed the importance of further tests of the Equivalence Principle (EP). From Galilei and Newton, the EP played the role of a postulate for all gravitational physics and mechanics (weak EP), until Einstein, who extended the validity of the EP to all physics (strong EP). After Fischbach's publication on the fifth force, several experiments have been performed or simply proposed to test the WEP. They are concerned with possible gravitational potential anomalies, depending upon distances or matter composition. While the low level of accuracy with which the gravitational constant G is known has been recognized, experiments have been proposed to test G in the range from few cm until 200 m. This paper highlights the different features of the proposed space experiments. Possible implications on the metric formalism for objects in low potential and slow motion are briefly indicated
Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, D; Gay, R J [Organogenesis Incorporated, Camton, MA (United States)
1993-05-01
The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author).
Strength Estimation of Die Cast Beams Considering Equivalent Porous Defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Moon Shik [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
As a shop practice, a strength estimation method for die cast parts is suggested, in which various defects such as pores can be allowed. The equivalent porosity is evaluated by combining the stiffness data from a simple elastic test at the part level during the shop practice and the theoretical stiffness data, which are defect free. A porosity equation is derived from Eshelby's inclusion theory. Then, using the Mori-Tanaka method, the porosity value is used to draw a stress-strain curve for the porous material. In this paper, the Hollomon equation is used to capture the strain hardening effect. This stress-strain curve can be used to estimate the strength of a die cast part with porous defects. An elastoplastic theoretical solution is derived for the three-point bending of a die cast beam by using the plastic hinge method as a reference solution for a part with porous defects.
Searches on star graphs and equivalent oracle problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jaehak; Lee, Hai-Woong; Hillery, Mark
2011-01-01
We examine a search on a graph among a number of different kinds of objects (vertices), one of which we want to find. In a standard graph search, all of the vertices are the same, except for one, the marked vertex, and that is the one we wish to find. We examine the case in which the unmarked vertices can be of different types, so the background against which the search is done is not uniform. We find that the search can still be successful, but the probability of success is lower than in the uniform background case, and that probability decreases with the number of types of unmarked vertices. We also show how the graph searches can be rephrased as equivalent oracle problems.
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts.
Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter
2015-12-31
The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ(1.23 GHz)-γ(1.45 GHz)]radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.
Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, D.; Gay, R.J.
1993-01-01
The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author)
Analysis of time series and size of equivalent sample
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernal, Nestor; Molina, Alicia; Pabon, Daniel; Martinez, Jorge
2004-01-01
In a meteorological context, a first approach to the modeling of time series is to use models of autoregressive type. This allows one to take into account the meteorological persistence or temporal behavior, thereby identifying the memory of the analyzed process. This article seeks to pre-sent the concept of the size of an equivalent sample, which helps to identify in the data series sub periods with a similar structure. Moreover, in this article we examine the alternative of adjusting the variance of the series, keeping in mind its temporal structure, as well as an adjustment to the covariance of two time series. This article presents two examples, the first one corresponding to seven simulated series with autoregressive structure of first order, and the second corresponding to seven meteorological series of anomalies of the air temperature at the surface in two Colombian regions
Is albuminuria a myocardial infarction risk equivalent for atherothrombotic events?
Rein, Philipp; Saely, Christoph H; Vonbank, Alexander; Fraunberger, Peter; Drexel, Heinz
2015-05-01
People with chronic kidney disease frequently experience cardiovascular events. This study sought to investigate whether the presence of albuminuria displays a vascular risk equivalent to that in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 μg/mg or greater in 852 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Prospectively, we recorded vascular events over 3.2±1.2 years. From our patients, 513 (60.2%) had neither albuminuria nor a history of MI, 126 (14.8%) had albuminuria without prior MI, 137 (16.1%) did not have albuminuria but had a history of MI, and 76 (8.9%) had both, albuminuria and prior MI. Compared with the incidence of the composite endpoint among normoalbuminuric patients with no prior MI (11.9%), event rates nearly doubled both in patients with albuminuria without prior MI (24.6%; p=0.003) and in normoalbuminuric patients with a history of prior MI (21.2%; p=0.004) and were highest in patients with both, albuminuria and prior MI (36.8%; p<0.001). Importantly, event rates were not significantly different between patients with albuminuria and no prior history of MI and those with normoalbuminuria but prior MI (p=0.972). Moreover, the event rate in patients with both, albuminuria and history of MI, was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the two groups exhibiting only one of the two conditions. This is the first study demonstrating that albuminuria is a CAD risk equivalent. Thus, cardiovascular risk factors in albuminuric patients should be treated as aggressively as in patients with prior MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry
Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge
2017-04-01
To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.
Ignition Delay of Combustible Materials in Normoxic Equivalent Environments
McAllister, Sara; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Ruff, Gary; Urban, David
2009-01-01
Material flammability is an important factor in determining the pressure and composition (fraction of oxygen and nitrogen) of the atmosphere in the habitable volume of exploration vehicles and habitats. The method chosen in this work to quantify the flammability of a material is by its ease of ignition. The ignition delay time was defined as the time it takes a combustible material to ignite after it has been exposed to an external heat flux. Previous work in the Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) apparatus has shown that the ignition delay in the currently proposed space exploration atmosphere (approximately 58.6 kPa and32% oxygen concentration) is reduced by 27% compared to the standard atmosphere used in the Space Shuttle and Space Station. In order to determine whether there is a safer environment in terms of material flammability, a series of piloted ignition delay tests using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was conducted in the FIST apparatus to extend the work over a range of possible exploration atmospheres. The exploration atmospheres considered were the normoxic equivalents, i.e. reduced pressure conditions with a constant partial pressure of oxygen. The ignition delay time was seen to decrease as the pressure was reduced along the normoxic curve. The minimum ignition delay observed in the normoxic equivalent environments was nearly 30% lower than in standard atmospheric conditions. The ignition delay in the proposed exploration atmosphere is only slightly larger than this minimum. Interms of material flammability, normoxic environments with a higher pressure relative to the proposed pressure would be desired.
The effective dose equivalent from external and internal radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattsson, Soeren
1989-01-01
The various sources of low-level ionizing radiation are discussed and compared in terms of mean effective dose equivalent to man. For the most nonoccupationally exposed individuals, natural sources given the dominating contribution to the effective dose equivalent. The size of this contribution is strongly dependent on human activities. Natural sources contribution on average 2.4 mSV per year, of which half is due to irradiation of lungs and airways from short lived radon daughters present in indoor air. In Sweden this radon daughter contribution is considerably higher and contributes a mean of 3 mSv per year, thus giving a total contribution from natural radiation of about 4 mSV per year. In extreme cases, radon daughter contributions of several hundreds of mSv per year may be reached. Medical exposure, mainly diagnostic X-rays, contributes 0.4-1 mSv per year both in Sweden and as a world average. The testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere has given 1-2 mSv to each person in the world as a mean. The contribution from the routine operation of nuclear reactors is insignificant. The reactor accident in Chernobyl resulted in widely varying exposures of the European population. The average for Sweden is estimated to be 0.1 mSv during the first year and about 1 mSv during a 50-year period. For groups of Swedes who eat a considerable amount of game this contribution will be 10 times higher, and for the Lapps who breed reindeer in the most contaminated areas, typical values of 20-70 mSv and extreme values of about 1 Sv may be reached in 50 years. This means that the Chernobyl reactor accident for several years will be their dominating source of irradiation
Time-variant reliability assessment through equivalent stochastic process transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Zequn; Chen, Wei
2016-01-01
Time-variant reliability measures the probability that an engineering system successfully performs intended functions over a certain period of time under various sources of uncertainty. In practice, it is computationally prohibitive to propagate uncertainty in time-variant reliability assessment based on expensive or complex numerical models. This paper presents an equivalent stochastic process transformation approach for cost-effective prediction of reliability deterioration over the life cycle of an engineering system. To reduce the high dimensionality, a time-independent reliability model is developed by translating random processes and time parameters into random parameters in order to equivalently cover all potential failures that may occur during the time interval of interest. With the time-independent reliability model, an instantaneous failure surface is attained by using a Kriging-based surrogate model to identify all potential failure events. To enhance the efficacy of failure surface identification, a maximum confidence enhancement method is utilized to update the Kriging model sequentially. Then, the time-variant reliability is approximated using Monte Carlo simulations of the Kriging model where system failures over a time interval are predicted by the instantaneous failure surface. The results of two case studies demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to accurately predict the time evolution of system reliability while requiring much less computational efforts compared with the existing analytical approach. - Highlights: • Developed a new approach for time-variant reliability analysis. • Proposed a novel stochastic process transformation procedure to reduce the dimensionality. • Employed Kriging models with confidence-based adaptive sampling scheme to enhance computational efficiency. • The approach is effective for handling random process in time-variant reliability analysis. • Two case studies are used to demonstrate the efficacy
Equivalent Gene Expression Profiles between Glatopa™ and Copaxone®.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josephine S D'Alessandro
Full Text Available Glatopa™ is a generic glatiramer acetate recently approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Gene expression profiling was performed as a means to evaluate equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone®. Microarray analysis containing 39,429 unique probes across the entire genome was performed in murine glatiramer acetate--responsive Th2-polarized T cells, a test system highly relevant to the biology of glatiramer acetate. A closely related but nonequivalent glatiramoid molecule was used as a control to establish assay sensitivity. Multiple probe-level (Student's t-test and sample-level (principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling, and hierarchical clustering statistical analyses were utilized to look for differences in gene expression induced by the test articles. The analyses were conducted across all genes measured, as well as across a subset of genes that were shown to be modulated by Copaxone. The following observations were made across multiple statistical analyses: the expression of numerous genes was significantly changed by treatment with Copaxone when compared against media-only control; gene expression profiles induced by Copaxone and Glatopa were not significantly different; and gene expression profiles induced by Copaxone and the nonequivalent glatiramoid were significantly different, underscoring the sensitivity of the test system and the multiple analysis methods. Comparative analysis was also performed on sets of transcripts relevant to T-cell biology and antigen presentation, among others that are known to be modulated by glatiramer acetate. No statistically significant differences were observed between Copaxone and Glatopa in the expression levels (magnitude and direction of these glatiramer acetate-regulated genes. In conclusion, multiple methods consistently supported equivalent gene expression profiles between Copaxone and Glatopa.