Sample records for equine parasites diagnosis

  1. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus. (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G


    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  2. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (egus: diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mot, T.,


    Full Text Available Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is especially reported in racing horses, with a prevalence of 60-90% in adults and 25-50% in foals. The ethiology of equine gastric ulcer is polifactorial, represented by nutritional factors, stress generated by training and captivity, drugs (corticosteroids-prednisolone, dexametasone, nesteroidicanti-inflammatory drugs: flumixin-meglumine, fenilbutazone, duodenal refluence. The diagnosis is established on clinical signs and therapeutic response and it is confirmed by endoscopic exam. Therapeutically it is recommended to administer: antiacide (aluminiu hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, inhibitors of H2 receptors(cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, inhibitors of protons pump (Omeprazol, Sucralphate. Diagnosis and therapeutic aspects in equine gastric ulcer syndrome are presented in this study.

  3. Rabies laboratory diagnosis: peculiar features of samples from equine origin

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    Peixoto Zélia M.P.


    Full Text Available Rabies laboratory diagnosis is performed by using microscopic examination for Negri bodies (MEN, fluorescent-antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT. In the majority of cases, when specimens are properly collected and conserved and the laboratory worker has good experience, agreement among employed techniques is verified. Comparing the sensitivity of these three diagnosis techniques in 3,713 samples (hippocampus and brain stem received during 1981-1994 period, being 3,010 from bovine (983 positives and 703 from equine (111 positives species, it was observed that in equine rabid samples, this agreement was not maintained. For the latter specie, only in few opportunities the Negri bodies could be observed. With respect to FAT, the test detected a lower porcentage of positive equine samples compared to bovine species. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the difference was significative. Mouse inoculation test proved to be more sensitive. However, a significant difference in mice incubation period was observed for samples from both species. The absence of inclusion bodies and the longer incubation period for equine samples suggest that rabies pathogenesis studies for equine species have to be intensified.

  4. A survey on parasite management by equine veterinarians highlights the need for a regulation change. (United States)

    Sallé, Guillaume; Cabaret, Jacques


    In-depth knowledge of the use of anthelminthics in the field, especially by veterinarians, is required to design more sustainable parasite control strategies. An online survey was sent by e-mail to 940 equine veterinary practitioners to describe their equine practice, their awareness about parasites and the management strategies they apply. Gastrointestinal parasites were generally considered (68%) as an issue of moderate importance. Drug efficacy failure was a minor or moderate issue for 47% and 48% of responders, respectively. Parasite management mostly relied on the use of systematic calendar treatments across a wide variety of horse owners (ie, riding schools, studs or hobby horse owners). Almost half of the practitioners (42%) never performed Faecal Egg Count (FEC) before drenching. Horse owners or their employees in charge of equines were reported to be the only person managing drenching in 59% of the collected answers. This was associated with the report of many off-label uses of anthelmintics and the frequent buying of drugs using the internet. Given the critical situation regarding anthelmintic resistance, it seems necessary for veterinarians to reclaim parasite management and prevention as a specific topic. Implementation of stricter regulations for use of anthelmintics, like the one applied in Denmark, may make parasitic management in equids more sustainable.

  5. Application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in equine blastocysts

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    Grady ST


    Full Text Available Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a procedure used to screen in vitroproduced embryos or embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine genetic traits by DNA testing prior to transfer into the uterus. Biopsy methods to obtain a sample of cells for genetic analysis before implantation have been successful in small embryos (morulae and blastocysts 300 µm diameter. The successful biopsy of expanded equine blastocysts via micromanipulation, with subsequent normal pregnancy rates, was first reported in 2010. Direct PCR may be performed when evaluating only one gene, such as for embryo sexing, while whole genome amplification is effective for subsequent multiplex PCR of multiple genes.

  6. Sustainable equine parasite control: Perspectives and research needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, M.K


    .... Treatment regimens involving routine deworming of all horses throughout the year are now being replaced by more sustainable approaches, which take in to account the importance of maintaining adequate parasite refugia...

  7. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia (United States)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin


    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  8. Killing of Trypanozoon Parasites by the Equine Cathelicidin eCATH1. (United States)

    Cauchard, S; Van Reet, N; Büscher, P; Goux, D; Grötzinger, J; Leippe, M; Cattoir, V; Laugier, C; Cauchard, J


    Trypanozoon parasites infect both humans, causing sleeping sickness, and animals, causing nagana, surra, and dourine. Control of nagana and surra depends to a great extent on chemotherapy. However, drug resistance to several of the front-line drugs is rising. Furthermore, there is no official treatment for dourine. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop antiparasitic agents with novel modes of action. Host defense peptides have recently gained attention as promising candidates. We have previously reported that one such peptide, the equine antimicrobial peptide eCATH1, is highly active against equine Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, without cytotoxicity against mammalian cells at bacteriolytic concentrations. In the present study, we show that eCATH1 exhibits an in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 9.5 μM against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma evansi, and Trypanosoma equiperdum Its trypanocidal mechanism involves plasma membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial alteration based on the following data: (i) eCATH1 induces the rapid influx of the vital dye SYTOX Green; (ii) it rapidly disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential, as revealed by immunofluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123; (iii) it severely damages the membrane and intracellular structures of the parasites as early as 15 min after exposure at 9.5 μM and 5 min after exposure at higher concentrations (19 μM), as evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We also demonstrate that administration of eCATH1 at a dose of 10 mg/kg to T. equiperdum-infected mice delays mortality. Taken together, our findings suggest that eCATH1 is an interesting template for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of trypanosome infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten


    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations,

  10. Equine infection with Leishmania in Portugal

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    Rolão N.


    Full Text Available The present report describes the first case of equine leishmaniasis in Portugal. Leishmania infection was detected in one animal, which presented an ulcerated skin lesion. Diagnosis was based on serology by CIE, and parasite DNA detection by real-time PCR using a probe specific for L. infantum. This finding requests further leishmaniasis equine surveys in order to clarify the role of the horse as reservoir host in european endemic areas.

  11. Alternative Methods in Laboratory Diagnosis of Equine Piroplasmosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro culture, spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect Babesia equi parasites. A ten-fold serial dilution of a 10% parasitemic culture was done to simulate low levels of parasitemia characteristic of sub-clinical and chronic infections in live animals. The various ...

  12. "Smart Diagnosis" of Parasitic Diseases by Use of Smartphones. (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad A; Jabbar, Abdul


    Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial in combating parasitic diseases that cause millions of deaths worldwide. However, the scarcity of specialized diagnostic equipment in low- and middle-income countries is one of the barriers to effective management of parasitic diseases and warrants the need for alternative, inexpensive, point-of-care diagnostic tools. Due to their multiple built-in sensors, smartphones offer cost-effective alternative to expensive diagnostic devices. However, the use of smartphones in parasitic diagnoses remains in its infancy. This minireview describes various smartphone-based devices applied specifically for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and discusses challenges and potential implications for their use in future. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of pygopagus tetrapus parasitic twin: case report

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    Ceylan Yavuz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymmetric and parasitic conjoined twins are rarer anomalies of monochorionic monoamniotic twins, consisting of an incomplete twin attached to the fully developed body of the co-twin. Case presentation A 30-year-old multigravid woman referred to maternal fetal unit due to polyhydramnios at 28th week of gestation. Sonographic examination revealed a single fetus and polyhydramnios with amniotic fluid index 30 cm. The fetus had normal apparent single head, spine, thorax, abdomen, two upper and two lower limbs, and two relatively well developed rudimentary parasitic lower limbs at sacral region. Lower limbs of the autosite were moving freelly but no movement was detected at the parasite. The parasite contained irregular lower limbs and left foot with three toes. Short and deformed long bones were also present in the parasitic limbs. A Cesarean section was performed at 38th week of gestation and a live female infant weighing 3600 g was delivered. The parasitic lower limbs were totally excised. Post-operative period was uneventful and the newborn was discharged as healthy. Post-natal follow-up was normal at nine-month-old. Conclusion Pygopagus tetrapus parasitic twin is a rare form of conjoined twins and in utero diagnosis with ultrasound assists in prenatal management and counselling with parents.

  14. Recent advances in diagnosing pathogenic equine gastrointestinal helminths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup


    Parasites infecting horses are ubiquitous and clinically important across the world. The major parasitic threats to equine health are cyathostomins, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and Strongylus vulgaris. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance reported world wide in equine...... the needs for reliable and practical diagnostic tools for detection of major parasites infecting equines. The current, widely used coprological techniques are important and useful, but they do have considerable limitations as they are incapable of diagnosing the pathogenic migrating stages. Species...... that classical coprological techniques remain the cornerstone of equine parasitology diagnosis and surveillance, and will remain so in a foreseeable future. However, promising progress has been made for developing assays capable of diagnosing prepatent stages of strongyle infection, and there is reason to hope...

  15. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches

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    Momar Ndao


    Full Text Available Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 20–30 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the “modern” microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests.

  16. Blastocystis, an unrecognized parasite: an overview of pathogenesis and diagnosis (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Poirier, Philippe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dionigia, Meloni; Texier, Catherine; Delbac, Frédéric


    Blastocystis sp. is among the few enteric parasites with a prevalence that often exceeds 5% in the general population of industrialized countries and can reach 30–60% in developing countries. This parasite is frequently found in people who are immunocompromised (patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or cancer) and a higher risk of Blastocystis sp. infection has been found in people with close animal contact. Such prevalence in the human population and the zoonotic potential naturally raise questions about the impact of these parasites on public health and has increased interest in this area. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shed new light on the pathogenic power of this parasite, suggesting that Blastocystis sp. infection is associated with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, may play a significant role in irritable bowel syndrome, and may be linked with cutaneous lesions (urticaria). Despite recent significant advances in the knowledge of the extensive genetic diversity of this species, the identification of extracellular proteases as virulence factors and the publication of one isolate genome, many aspects of the biology of Blastocystis sp. remain poorly investigated. In this review, we investigate several biological aspects of Blastocystis sp. (diversity and epidemiology, diagnosis tools and pathophysiology). These data pave the way for the following challenges concerning Blastocystis sp. research: deciphering key biological mechanisms and pathways of this parasite and clarification of its clinical impact in humans. PMID:25165551

  17. Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

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    Spelta CW


    Full Text Available Caroline W Spelta Townsville Vet Clinic, Townsville, QLD, Australia Abstract: Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID is a neurodegenerative disease of the hypothalamus, resulting in the loss of dopaminergic inhibition of pars intermedia. An oxidative stress injury of unknown etiology has been suggested to initiate the neurodegeneration. While hypertrichosis (formerly known as hirsutism is considered pathognomic for advanced disease, the antemortem diagnosis of subclinical and early disease has continued to prove difficult. Numerous tests have been used with varying sensitivities and specificities. The overnight dexamethasone suppression test, originally documented to have 100% sensitivity and specificity in horses with advanced disease, has proven to be less valuable in identifying early disease. Basal plasma adrenocorticotropin concentrations have improved sensitivity and specificity when sampled during the autumn months, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, while not yet commercially available, shows promise as a sensitive and specific single sample test. Recent advances in our knowledge include the strong association between laminitis and hyperinsulinemia, both common clinical signs associated with PPID. The pathogenesis of hyperinsulinemia, laminitis, and their association with this disease is a focus of current research. The dopamine agonist pergolide mesylate is still the mainstay of medical management, with studies on oral bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and long-term survival rates now published. Keywords: PPID, ACTH, α-MSH, laminitis, pergolide, hypertrichosis, pars pituitary intermedia dysfunction

  18. Development of a peptide ELISA for the diagnosis of Equine arteritis virus


    Metz, German Ernesto; Lorenzon, Esteban Nicolás; Serena, Maria Soledad; Corva, Santiago Gerardo; Panei, Carlos Javier; Diaz, Silvina; Maffud Cilli, Eduardo; Echeverria, Maria Gabriela


    A peptide-based indirect ELISA was developed to detect antibodies against Equine arteritis virus (EAV). Two peptides for epitope C of protein GP5 and fragment E of protein M were designed, synthesized, purified and used as antigens either alone or combined. Ninety-two serum samples obtained from the 2010 Equine viral arteritis outbreak, analyzed previously by virus neutralization, were evaluated by the ELISA here developed. The best resolution was obtained using peptide GP5. The analysis of t...

  19. Serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis: use of recombinant antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A; Flavell, R A; Padula, S J; Anderson, J F; Fikrig, E


    Serum samples from dogs and equids suspected of having canine or equine borreliosis, respectively, were analyzed in polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Purified preparations of recombinant antigens included outer surface protein A (OspA), OspB, OspC, OspE, OspF, and p41-G (a fragment of flagellin). Of the 36 dog sera that reacted positively to whole-cell antigen, 32 (88.9%) contained antibodies to one or more recombinant antigens. Reactivities to OspF (88.9% positive) and p41-G (75% positive) were most prevalent. In analyses of 30 equid sera positive in an ELISA with whole cells, 24 (80%) contained antibodies to one or more recombinant antigens. Seropositivities in ELISAs with p41-G (50% positive) and OspF (46.7% positive) were more than twofold greater than in ELISAs with OspA, OspB, or OspC (10 to 20% positive). In parallel tests of eight canine and three equine sera, there was good agreement in results of Western blot (immunoblot) analyses and ELISAs. Although dog and equid sera with antibodies to whole-cell B. burgdorferi frequently reacted positively to one or more recombinant antigens, the inclusion of OspF and p41-G antigens in ELISAs was most useful in the serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis.

  20. New multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous diagnosis of the three known species of equine tapeworm. (United States)

    Bohórquez, G Alejandro; Luzón, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu


    Although several techniques exist for the detection of equine tapeworms in serum and feces, the differential diagnosis of tapeworm infection is usually based on postmortem findings and the morphological identification of eggs in feces. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the simultaneuos detection of Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephaloides mamillana has been developed and validated. The method simultaneously amplifies hypervariable SSUrRNA gene regions in the three tapeworm species in a single reaction using three pairs of primers, which exclusively amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) in each target gene. The method was tested on three types of sample: (a) 1/10, 1/100, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 and 1/5000 dilutions of 70 ng of genomic DNA of the three tapeworm species, (b) DNA extracted from negative aliquots of sediments of negative control fecal samples spiked with 500, 200, 100, 50 and 10 eggs (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available) and (c) DNA extracted from 80, 50, 40, 30, 10 and 1 egg per 2 μl of PCR reaction mix (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available). No amplification was observed against the DNA of Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum and Strongylus vulgaris. The multiplex PCR method emerged as specific for the three tapeworms and was able to identify as few as 50 eggs per fecal sample and as little as 0.7 ng of control genomic DNA obtained from the three species. The method proposed is able to differentiate infections caused by the two most frequent species A. magna or A. perfoliata when the eggs are present in feces and is also able to detect mixed infections by the three cestode species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of routine diagnosis of intestinal parasites with multiple sampling and SAF-fixative in the triple-faeces-test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, Olivier; van Laethem, Yves; Souayah, Hichem; Kutane, Waltaji Terfa; van Gool, Tom; Dediste, Anne


    To perform optimal laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasites is demanding. Because intestinal parasites are intermittently shedded, examination of multiple stools is imperative. For reliable detection of vegetative stages of protozoa, fresh stools should be examined direct after production, or

  2. Molecular biological applications in the diagnosis and control of leishmaniasis and parasite identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Oskam, Linda


    Molecular biology is increasingly relevant to the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases. Information on DNA sequences has been extensively exploited for the development of polymerase chain reaction-based assays for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and the identification of parasite species. It

  3. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites]. (United States)

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino


    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, psedimentation process.

  4. Use of nuclear medicine imaging: Scintigraphy in diagnosis of equine orthopedic disease

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    Kovač Milomir


    Full Text Available This study describes techniques, indications and findings of nuclear medicine imaging – scintigraphy of 42 horses with acute and chronic lameness of unknown origin. Most horses showed increased uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in the tarsal joint (linked to the osteoarthritis and distal tarsal synovitis, the distal sesamoid bones (linked to the navicular disease, proximal attaches of the musculus interoseus medius on the palmar/plantar region of the metacarpus or metatarsus (linked to the insertations desmopathie and in the dorsal processes of thoracic vertebrae (linked to the kissing spine syndrome. The interpretation of scintigraphy appeared to be a more reliable and sensitive diagnostic method than radiography in diagnosing these equine orthopedic disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Kotlyarov


    Full Text Available We analyzed imaging findings of 18 patients with atypical manifestations of parasitic diseases of the lung, who were admitted to the hospital with suspected lung cancer or metastatic lung cancer. The common CT, MRT and US findings of parasitic lung disease are fluid-containing lesions, septal structures (echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, cisticercosis, no evidence of bronchial involvement and the absence of contrast agent accumulation in the affected area (paragonimiasis, shistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, pneumocystis. Realtime monitoring with dynamic CT is often critical for differential diagnosis between atypical manifestations of parasitic lung disease and cancer or secondary lung tumor. 

  6. Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two Western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Daft, Barbara M; Conrad, Patricia A; Packham, Andrea E; Gardner, Ian A


    A serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the areaunder the curves of the WB and the mWB (P = 0.025 and P = 0.044, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the areas under the curves of the WBs (P > 0.05). On the basis of an arbitrarily chosen cut-off titer for a positive test result of 1:80 for the IFAT and interpreting weak positive WB results as positive test results, the sensitivities and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of all 3 tests were identical and equal to 88.9% (51.8-99.7%). The specificities and 95% CIs of the IFAT, WB, and mWB test were 100% (91-100%), 87.2% (72.6-95.7%), and 69.2% (52.4-83%), respectively. The overall accuracy of the IFAT was shown to be better than that of the WBs and, therefore, the test has potential for use in the diagnosis of EPM caused by Sarcocystis neurona.

  7. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.


    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal...... foreign bodies in horses. They were more commonly diagnosed in horses living in subtropical climatic areas of the world. Therapeutic recommendations to treat equine SAs were historically nearly always a medical approach directed at bacteria and the often associated severe iridocyclitis. Today...... the pathogenesis of most equine SAs appears to be more often related to fungal inoculation of the anterior corneal stroma followed by posterior migration of the fungi deeper into the corneal stroma. There is also now an increased incidence of diagnosis of corneal SAs in horses living in more temperate climates...

  8. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  9. Prevalence of liver fluke infection in Irish horses and assessment of a serological test for diagnosis of equine fasciolosis. (United States)

    Quigley, A; Sekiya, M; Egan, S; Wolfe, A; Negredo, C; Mulcahy, G


    There is little information on the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in the horse population in Ireland or the potential impact of fluke infection on animal health. To investigate F. hepatica infection in the Irish horse population and to assess the diagnostic potential of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the F. hepatica recombinant cathepsin L1 (CL1) antigen. Cross-sectional abattoir survey of horses for liver fluke status. Animals (n = 200) were examined at an abattoir between May 2013 and April 2014. Horses were graded ante mortem for body condition score. Blood and faeces were collected and livers were examined post mortem by gross morphology. A cohort (n = 35) of livers were also examined histologically. Haematology and blood biochemistry, including serum liver enzyme activities, were measured and faeces were sedimented for egg counts. Serum was assayed by indirect ELISA using a recombinant CL1. The prevalence of liver fluke infection was 9.5%. There was no correlation between liver fluke status and time of year, breed classification, age group, sex, body condition score, ante mortem assessment, strongyle infection status, serum liver enzyme activities or CL1 concentration. A comparison of the CL1 ELISA in horse sera compared with a reference standard diagnosis showed high specificity of 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91.5-98.0%), but low sensitivity of 42.1% (95% CI 20.2-66.5%). This study is limited by its nature as an abattoir study, the relatively small number of animals examined (n = 200), and the absence of a known negative group of horses. Blood biomarkers are not good indicators of liver fluke infection and the CL1 ELISA is not a sensitive tool for diagnosis of fluke infection in the horse. The prevalence of F. hepatica in horses indicates that further research is required to assess the potential impact of liver fluke on equine liver health. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  10. How to make a cost-efficient and reliable diagnosis in equine dermatology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.


    To make a diagnosis in skin disease it is important to establish the signalment of the patient and to obtain an comprehensive anamnesis (history). Many skin conditions are presented initially at an advanced stage and many have had some (or more) attempts at treatment. A thorough

  11. Parasites


    Mehlum, Halvor; Moene, Karl O.; Torvik, Ragnar


    Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self enforcing configuration of beliefs and practices that result in persistent poverty. In some insta...

  12. [Analysis of capability of examining helminthes: National technique competition of parasitic disease diagnosis in 2013]. (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-jun; Zang, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Li-ying; Fu, Qing; Li, Shi-zhu; Chen, Ying-dan; Zhou, Chang-hai; Wang, Ju-jun; Wang, Li-ying; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Xiao-nong


    To understand the ability of worm detection of staff of centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) in China, so as to promote the ability construction. In each province, four competitors were selected from the institutions of parasitic diseases control to attend the National Technique Competition for Parasitic Disease Diagnosis and the results of competition were collected and analyzed. The average scores of microscopic identification and slide preparation of all the 124 competitors were 27.3 and 7.6 respectively and the scores were increased significantly (t = 3.169, 5.009, both P detection rate of helminthes was 62.7%, and it was increased significantly (χ2 = 28.630, P detection for soil transmitted helminth eggs should be intensified. Monitoring sites should be established in low endemic areas of parasites and provinces without the prevention and control task and the training for the professional staff should be strengthened.

  13. Evaluation of the accuracy of parasitological techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanstter Hallison Alves Rezende

    Full Text Available Abstract The accuracy of the parasitological techniques of Willis, Hoffman-Pons-Janer or Lutz (HPLJ, Sheather and Faust was evaluated in fecal samples from stray cats caught by the Zoonosis Control Center in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. These four techniques were applied separately to analyze 154 fecal samples, and their accuracy was analyzed based on an evaluation of their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and Kappa index, resulting in the selection of the Willis technique as the nominal gold standard. Of the 154 samples, 115 (74.68% tested positive for intestinal parasites. The analysis of the frequency of positivity indicated that the HPLJ technique detected 86.1% of the positive samples and was the closest to the gold standard. The analysis of the accuracy of the techniques was evaluated using the most prevalent parasites. The Sheather technique showed the highest accuracy in the detection of Ancylostomatidae, while the Sheather and HPLJ techniques showed similar accuracies in the detection of Cystoisospora spp. when compared to the gold standard. Lastly, the Faust technique showed the highest accuracy in the detection of Toxoplasma gondii when compared to the gold standard. This study underscores the importance of combining parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in cats.

  14. The helminth parasite proteome at the host-parasite interface - Informing diagnosis and control. (United States)

    van der Ree, Anna M; Mutapi, Francisca


    Helminth parasites are a significant health burden for humans in the developing world and also cause substantial economic losses in livestock production across the world. The combined lack of vaccines for the major human and veterinary helminth parasites in addition to the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics in sheep and cattle mean that controlling helminth infection and pathology remains a challenge. However, recent high throughput technological advances mean that screening for potential drug and vaccine candidates is now easier than in previous decades. A better understanding of the host-parasite interactions occurring during infection and pathology and identifying pathways that can be therapeutically targeted for more effective and 'evolution proof' interventions is now required. This review highlights some of the advances that have been made in understanding the host-parasite interface in helminth infections using studies of the temporal expression of parasite proteins, i.e. the parasite proteome, and discuss areas for potential future research and translation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Progress of science from microscopy to microarrays (Part 1: Diagnosis of parasitic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Dey


    Full Text Available Even though description of the magnifying glass goes back to 1021 by an Arabic physicist in his book, Antony van Leeuwenhoek was the first man to improve the then simple microscope for viewing biological specimens in 1674. This suggests that every discovery has scope for improvement, be it physics or be it biology. In the field of biology, scientists have long studied gene expression as a hallmark of gene activities reflecting the current cell conditions and response to host immune defense systems. These studies have been cumbersome, technically demanding and time-consuming. Application of microarrays has revolutionized this field and help understand the simultaneous expression of thousands of genes in a single sample put onto a single solid support. It is also now possible to compare gene expression in two different cell types, different stages of life cycle or two tissue samples, such as in healthy and diseased ones. Thus microarrays are beginning to dominate other conventional and molecular diagnostic technologies. The microarrays consist of solid supports onto which the nucleic acid sequences from thousands of different genes are immobilized, or attached at fixed locations. These solid supports themselves are usually glass slides, silicon chips or nylon membranes. The nucleic acids are spotted or synthesized directly onto the support. Application of microarrays is new for parasites. Most of these applications are done for monitoring parasite gene expression, to predict the functions of uncharacterized genes, probe the physiologic adaptations made under various environmental conditions, identify virulence-associated genes and test the effects of drug targets. The best examples are vector-borne parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania, in which genes expressed, during mammalian and insect host stages, have been elucidated. Microarrays have also been successfully applied to understand the factors responsible to induce

  16. Cutaneous Amebiasis: The Importance of Molecular Diagnosis of an Emerging Parasitic Disease (United States)

    Morán, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Cerritos, René; Zermeño, Valeria; Valadez, Alicia; de Oca, Griselda Montes; Reyes, Miguel Ángel; González, Enrique; Partida, Oswaldo; Hernández, Eric; Nieves, Miriam; Portillo, Tobías; Gudiño, Marco; Ramiro, Manuel; Ximénez, Cecilia


    Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis. PMID:23208883

  17. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites in reptiles: comparison of two coprological methods. (United States)

    Wolf, Denis; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Failing, Klaus; Rossier, Christophe; Hermosilla, Carlos; Pantchev, Nikola


    Exotic reptiles have become increasingly common domestic pets worldwide and are well known to be carriers of different parasites including some with zoonotic potential. The need of accurate diagnosis of gastrointestinal endoparasite infections in domestic reptiles is therefore essential, not only for the well-being of captive reptiles but also for the owners. Here, two different approaches for the detection of parasite stages in reptile faeces were compared: a combination of native and iodine stained direct smears together with a flotation technique (CNF) versus the standard SAF-method. A total of 59 different reptile faeces (20 lizards, 22 snakes, 17 tortoises) were coprologically analyzed by the two methods for the presence of endoparasites. Analyzed reptile faecal samples contained a broad spectrum of parasites (total occurence 93.2%, n = 55) including different species of nematodes (55.9%, n = 33), trematodes (15.3%, n = 9), pentastomids (3.4%, n = 2) and protozoans (47.5%, n = 28). Associations between the performances of both methods to detect selected single parasite stages or groups of such were evaluated by Fisher's exact test and marginal homogeneity was tested by the McNemar test. In 88.1% of all examined samples (n = 52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 77.1 - 95.1%) the two diagnostic methods rendered differing results, and the McNemar test for paired observations showed highly significant differences of the detection frequency (P < 0.0001). The combination of direct smears/flotation proved superior in the detection of flagellates trophozoites, coccidian oocysts and nematode eggs, especially those of oxyurids. SAF-technique was superior in detecting larval stages and trematode eggs, but this advantage failed to be statistically significant (P = 0.13). Therefore, CNF is the recommended method for routine faecal examination of captive reptiles while the SAF-technique is advisable as additional measure particularly for

  18. Eastern equine encephalitis. (United States)

    Berlin, Daniel; Gilani, Ahmed I; Grewal, Amrit K; Fowkes, Mary


    We describe a patient who died from a fulminant presentation of encephalitis. After an exhaustive search, we found no treatable cause. Postmortem PCR analysis of brain tissue led to a diagnosis of eastern equine encephalitis. We have identified several clinical pearls that may assist others in making the diagnosis earlier in the disease course. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Equine grass sickness. (United States)

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H


    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. (United States)

    Daft, Barbara M; Barr, Bradd C; Gardner, Ian A; Read, Deryck; Bell, William; Peyser, Karen G; Ardans, Alex; Kinde, Hailu; Morrow, Jennifer K


    To determine sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. Prospective investigation. 65 horses with and 169 horses without neurologic abnormalities. CSF and serum from horses submitted for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem examination were used as the gold standard against which results of the WBT were compared. Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Regardless of whether horses did or did not have neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of WBT of serum were not significantly different from values for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation. The low specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test result alone because of the possibility of false-positive test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation was common in horses with and without S neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not be considered an indication of CNS infection with S neurona.

  1. Equine diseases caused by known genetic mutations. (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Spier, Sharon J; Valberg, Stephanie J


    The recent development of equine genome maps by the equine genome community and the complete sequencing of the horse genome performed at the Broad Institute have accelerated the pace of genetic discovery. This review focuses on genetic diseases in the horse for which a mutation is currently known, including hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, severe combined immunodeficiency, overo lethal white syndrome, junctional epidermolysis bullosa, glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, malignant hyperthermia, hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia, and polysaccharide storage myopathy. Emphasis is placed on the prevalence, clinical signs, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease.

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David


    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  3. A new trivalent SnSAG surface antigen chimera for efficient detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona and diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. (United States)

    Yeargan, Michelle; de Assis Rocha, Izabela; Morrow, Jennifer; Graves, Amy; Reed, Stephen M; Howe, Daniel K


    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the SnSAG surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona provide reliable detection of infection by the parasite. Moreover, accurate serodiagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is achieved with the SnSAG ELISAs by measuring antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to reveal active infection in the central nervous system. Two independent ELISAs based on recombinant (r)SnSAG2 or a chimeric fusion of SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 (rSnSAG4/3) are currently used together for EPM serodiagnosis to overcome varied antibody responses in different horses. To achieve reliable antibody detection with a single ELISA instead of 2 separate ELISAs, rSnSAG2 was fused with rSnSAG4/3 into a single trivalent protein, designated rSnSAG2/4/3. Paired serum and CSF from 163 horses were tested with all 3 ELISAs. When the consensus antibody titers obtained with the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs were compared to the single SAG2/4/3 ELISA titers, Spearman rank correlation coefficients of ρ = 0.74 and ρ = 0.90 were obtained for serum and CSF, respectively, indicating strong agreement between the tests. When the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 consensus serum-to-CSF titer ratio was compared to the rSnSAG2/4/3 serum-to-CSF titer ratio, the Spearman correlation coefficient was ρ = 0.87, again signifying strong agreement. Importantly, comparing the diagnostic interpretation of the serum-to-CSF titer ratios yielded a Cohen kappa value of 0.77. These findings suggest that the single ELISA based on the trivalent rSnSAG2/4/3 will provide serologic and diagnostic results that are highly comparable to the consensus of the 2 independent ELISAs based on rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Contribution to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Life-Threatening Parasitosis Caused by the Parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. (United States)

    Šimeková, Katarína; Szilágyiová, Mária; Antolová, Daniela; Laca, Ľudovít; Polaček, Hubert; Nováková, Elena; Števík, Martin; Rosoľanka, Róbert


    Echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease that ends lethally in 95% of untreated infected patients. It was first diagnosed in Slovakia in the year 2000. It is caused by the larval stage of a tapeworm belonging to the genus Echinococcus, which was assigned to the group "A" of zoonoses in the year 2004. The number of new infections is rising because of increasing percentage of infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Early and accurate diagnosis of infections with this parasite is essential for proper initiation of adequate therapy. Thanks to professional multidisciplinary efforts and new laboratory procedures, the number of correctly diagnosed cases has increased. Antimicrobial therapeutic approaches can lead to improved quality of life and better prognosis even if radical surgery is refused by the patient.

  5. Development and validation of a method for purification of mallein for the diagnosis of glanders in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Carvalho Filho Maurício


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allergic test of mallein is one of the most frequently used tests, together with the Complement Fixation Test (CFT, for the diagnosis of glanders in endemic areas. Mallein, a purified protein derivative (PPD, is produced similarly to PPD tuberculin and the end product is a primarily proteic antigen, which is only poorly purified. The immuno-allergic activity of mallein is believed to be due to a high molecular weight group of proteins present in the antigen. To improve the quality of the antigen, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, a new method of mallein production was developed, in which purification was accomplished by ultrafiltration in a Tangential Flow Filtration system (TFF. Results The TFF methodology efficiently separated the high and low molecular weight protein groups of mallein. The five TFF-purified malleins, produced from Burkholderia mallei strains isolated from clinical cases of glanders in Brazil, proved to be more potent than standard mallein in the induction of an allergic reaction in sensitized animals. Regarding specificity, two of the purified malleins were equivalent to the standard and three were less specific. Conclusion Some of the TFF-purified malleins showed considerable potential to be used as an auxiliary test in the diagnosis of glanders.

  6. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Santos


    recorded for the first time in raptors from Mexico. Furthermore, this represents the first report for T. gallinae, trematodes, Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. in raptors from Latin America. Diagnosis and control of parasitic infections should be a part of the routine in health care evaluations for ex situ raptor populations. Finally, this information is also valuable for in situ conservation actions on these birds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1265-1274. Epub 2011 September 01.

  7. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites. (United States)

    Santos, Tiziano; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Vaughan, Christopher; Santiago, Heber


    for the first time in raptors from Mexico. Furthermore, this represents the first report for T. gallinae, trematodes, Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. in raptors from Latin America. Diagnosis and control of parasitic infections should be a part of the routine in health care evaluations for ex situ raptor populations. Finally, this information is also valuable for in situ conservation actions on these birds.

  8. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine. (United States)

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive


    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  9. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner. (United States)

    Al-Dissi, Ahmad


    A wide variety of toxins cause diseases in the horse and are investigated routinely by veterinarians and veterinary pathologists to identify the cause of illness and death. A complete investigation involves performing a thorough necropsy and requires macroscopic and microscopic examination of lesions and a variety of laboratory testing to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The identification of gross lesions by equine practitioners is often the first step in formulating a diagnostic plan. This article provides a description of selected common toxins producing detectable gross lesions in horses in North America. The article is useful to equine practitioners and veterinary pathologists investigating a toxicology-related death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneity of Leishmania donovani parasites complicates diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of different serological tests in three endemic regions. (United States)

    Abass, Elfadil; Kang, Cholho; Martinkovic, Franjo; Semião-Santos, Saul J; Sundar, Shyam; Walden, Peter; Piarroux, Renaud; El Harith, Abdallah; Lohoff, Michael; Steinhoff, Ulrich


    Diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis that are based on antigens of a single Leishmania strain can have low diagnostic performance in regions where heterologous parasites predominate. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the performance of five serological tests, based on different Leishmania antigens, in three endemic countries for visceral leishmaniasis. A total number of 231 sera of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and controls from three endemic regions of visceral leishmaniasis in East Sudan, North India and South France were evaluated by following serological tests: rKLO8- and rK39 ELISA, DAT (ITMA-DAT) and two rapid tests of rK39 (IT LEISH) and rKE16 (Signal-KA). Overall, rKLO8- and rK39 ELISA were most sensitive in immunocompetent patients from all endemic regions (96-100%) and the sensitivity was reduced to 81.8% in HIV co-infected patients from France. Sera of patients from India demonstrated significantly higher antibody responses to rKLO8 and rK39 compared with sera from Sudan (pLeishmania parasites which is common in many endemic regions complicates the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, tests based on homologous Leishmania antigens are required for particular endemic regions to detect cases which are difficult to be diagnosed with currently available tests.

  11. The benefits of the PCR-its/filter paper in the diagnosis of parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most reliable diagnosis method of animal trypanosomoses often used is the microscopic examination for motile trypanosomes. However, the sensitivity of this method remains relatively lower than the classic PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). This latter, besides of its high cost, requires some conditions which ...

  12. Application of the NucliSENS easyMAG system for nucleic acid extraction: optimization of DNA extraction for molecular diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases. (United States)

    Jeddi, Fakhri; Piarroux, Renaud; Mary, Charles


    During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints associated with DNA extraction for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases and illustrate the adaptation of an automated extraction system, NucliSENS easyMAG, to these constraints, with a critical analysis of system performance. Proteinase K digestion of samples is unnecessary with the exception of solid tissue preparation. Mechanically grinding samples prior to cell lysis enhances the DNA extraction rate of fungal cells. The effect of host-derived nucleic acids on the extraction efficiency of parasite DNA varies with sample host cell density. The optimal cell number for precise parasite quantification ranges from 10 to 100,000 cells. Using the NucliSENS easyMAG technique, the co-extraction of inhibitors is reduced, with an exception for whole blood, which requires supplementary extraction steps to eliminate inhibitors. © F. Jeddi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  13. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro


    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  14. Prevalence of equine gastrointestinal parasites in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likewise, quantitative coprological study (egg count per gram of feces) (EPG) indicated moderate infection in 29.4%, 49.4% and 38.6%; and severe infection in 37.3%, 28.9% and 31.8% in donkeys, horses and mules, respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in prevalence rate and EPG across study districts ...

  15. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Santos


    recorded for the first time in raptors from Mexico. Furthermore, this represents the first report for T. gallinae, trematodes, Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. in raptors from Latin America. Diagnosis and control of parasitic infections should be a part of the routine in health care evaluations for ex situ raptor populations. Finally, this information is also valuable for in situ conservation actions on these birds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1265-1274. Epub 2011 September 01.El éxito de los programas de conservación de rapaces (ex situ and in situ requiere de un conocimiento detallado de sus patógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los parásitos internos de rapaces en cautiverio en México, así como verificar su repercusión en el estado de salud de las aves. Las mismas fueron estudiadas, decomisadas y mantenidas en el Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS en Los Reyes La Paz, estado de México. Las muestras de heces y sangre de 74 rapaces (66 Falconiformes y ocho Strigiformes de 15 especies, juveniles y adultos de ambos sexos (39 machos y 35 hembras, fueron examinadas para analizar la presencia de parásitos gastrointestinales y sanguíneos. Asimismo, la cavidad orofaríngea fue evaluada macroscópicamente para verificar la presencia de lesiones compatibles con trichomoniasis. Lesiones compatibles con la infección por Trichomonas gallinae fueron detectadas en dos (2.7% Buteo jamaicensis; no obstante, las aves infectadas estaban en buena condición física. En general, los parásitos gastrointestinales fueron encontrados en 10 (13.5% rapaces: nueve (13.6% Falconiformes y uno (12.5% Strigiformes; los cuales presentaron un único tipo de parásito gastrointestinal (90%. Eimeria spp. fue detectada en Parabuteo unicinctus, B. swainsoni, B. jamaicensis y Bubo virginianus; mientras que los tremátodos lo fueron en Falco peregrinus y B. swainsoni. Capillaria spp. fue diagnosticada únicamente en B. swainsoni. Los hemopar

  16. Equine dental advances. (United States)

    Greene, S K


    The reintroduction and development of safe motorized instruments, the increased availability of continuing education, and the understanding and implementation of appropriate procedures allow practitioners to provide better dental care. Veterinarians realize that sedation, analgesia, a full-mouth speculum, and proper instrumentation are necessary to provide these services. Continued instrument design, future research, and new treatment and prophylactic protocols should have a positive impact on the future of equine dental health. New and rediscovered procedures for equilibrating equine occlusion are allowing horses to masticate more efficiently, carry a bit more comfortably, and experience improved performance. The horse, the horse owner, and the veterinary profession all benefit from providing complete equine dental care.

  17. Microdialysis in equine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup


    for the surveillance of critically ill human patients, such as after brain injuries and reconstructive surgeries. The use of microdialysis in equine medicine has been sparingly described with only 14 published studies within muscle, pulmonary and hoof lamellar tissue, nasal mucosa, intestinal wall, uterine, allantoic...... and cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Only a few papers have been published within each area, indicating that few equine researchers are aware of the unique opportunities provided by the technique. This review discusses the theory and applications of microdialysis with a special emphasis on clinical and experimental...... equine studies, which may be useful to veterinary experimental and clinical researchers....

  18. Heterogeneity of Leishmania donovani parasites complicates diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of different serological tests in three endemic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfadil Abass

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis that are based on antigens of a single Leishmania strain can have low diagnostic performance in regions where heterologous parasites predominate. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the performance of five serological tests, based on different Leishmania antigens, in three endemic countries for visceral leishmaniasis. A total number of 231 sera of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and controls from three endemic regions of visceral leishmaniasis in East Sudan, North India and South France were evaluated by following serological tests: rKLO8- and rK39 ELISA, DAT (ITMA-DAT and two rapid tests of rK39 (IT LEISH and rKE16 (Signal-KA. Overall, rKLO8- and rK39 ELISA were most sensitive in immunocompetent patients from all endemic regions (96-100% and the sensitivity was reduced to 81.8% in HIV co-infected patients from France. Sera of patients from India demonstrated significantly higher antibody responses to rKLO8 and rK39 compared with sera from Sudan (p<0.0001 and France (p<0.0037. Further, some Indian and Sudanese patients reacted better with rKLO8 than rK39. Sensitivity of DAT (ITMA-DAT was high in Sudan (94% and India (92.3% but low in France being 88.5% and 54.5% for VL and VL/HIV patients, respectively. In contrast, rapid tests displayed high sensitivity only in patients from India (96.2% but not Sudan (64-88% and France (73.1-88.5% and 63.6-81.8% in VL and VL/HIV patients, respectively. While the sensitivity varied, all tests showed high specificity in Sudan (96.7-100% and India (96.6%.Heterogeneity of Leishmania parasites which is common in many endemic regions complicates the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, tests based on homologous Leishmania antigens are required for particular endemic regions to detect cases which are difficult to be diagnosed with currently available tests.

  19. Eastern Equine Encephalitis (United States)

    ... bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only ... EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin ...

  20. Equine trait mapping


    Andersson, Lisa S.


    Assigning function to genes is essential for a better understanding of biological systems. To date, approximately half of the genes in the vertebrate genome have known function. Domestic animals are a rich source for trait mapping and in this thesis we have mapped three distinct equine phenotypes. The result provides increased knowledge regarding gene function and importantly, practical implications for horse welfare. In paper I and IV, we confirm that Equine Multiple Congenita...

  1. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela : Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413306046; Kortbeek, Titia M.; Pinelli, Elena


    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular

  2. An evidence-based approach to clinical questions in the practice of equine neurology. (United States)

    Van Biervliet, Jérôme


    The practice of equine neurology has special challenges posed by the size of the animal being examined. Many diagnostic procedures routinely used in small animal practice are unsafe when applied to the equine patient or unavailable to the equine practitioner. Therefore, astute observation is the mainstay of making a neuroanatomic diagnosis, and detailed evidence on the deficits present may be difficult to obtain. Because clinical observation can sometimes be ambiguous and somewhat subjective, it is even more important to approach equine neurology from an evidence-based point of view. Here, such an approach is outlined for the diagnosis of cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), one of the most common noninfectious causes of equine neurologic disease. This article is an attempt to summarize all aspects of making a diagnosis of CVCM on the basis of signalment, clinical examination, ancillary diagnostic tests, and pathologic examination. Each of these considerations has inherent limitations regarding diagnostic accuracy, which are discussed.

  3. Equine influenza: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Waghmare


    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  4. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Mietelka, Kristy


    To investigate histopathologic and immunohistochemical aspects of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with a focus on the histopathologic diagnosis, presumptive etiology, and the immunohistochemical expression of three angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF...

  5. Diagnóstico diferencial de trombose aortoilíaca e mieloencefalite protozoária equina: relato de caso Differential diagnosis between aorto-iliac thrombosis and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Escodro


    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma égua de atividade de polo, que apresentou inicialmente claudicação leve no membro posterior esquerdo, a qual evoluiu para ataxia e atrofia da musculatura glútea do lado esquerdo, com diagnóstico de trombose aortoilíaca (TAI. A paciente foi tratada com suspeita de mieloencefalite protozoária equina, devido à semelhança dos sinais clínicos com essa doença, porém o líquido cefalorraquidiano apresentou-se negativo para anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis neurona. A palpação transretal indicou uma massa na bifurcação aortoilíaca esquerda. Na avaliação ultrassonográfica, visualizou-se imagem hiperecoica aderida ao endotélio vascular, sugerindo TAI atingindo a estenose de 70% da luz arterial.The case of a mare used for polo is reported. The animal showed clinical signs of soft lameness of the hindlimb, evolving to ataxia and gluteal muscle atrophy, with aorto-iliac thrombosis (AIT. The patient was treated with the suspect of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM, due to the resemblance of clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative for antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona. The transrectal examination indicated a mass in the left aorto-iliac bifurcation. In the ultrasonographic evaluation, a hyperechoic image adhered to the vascular endothelium was observed, suggesting (AIT, occupying 70% of arterial lumen. The present article has the objective of pointing out the importance of the differential diagnosis between AIT and EPM in horses with ataxia in hindlimbs and muscular atrophy.

  6. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  7. Secondary databases in equine research


    Penell, Johanna


    Knowledge on disease occurrence in the Swedish equine population is lacking. Secondary data (data not produced primarily for research) including medical information offer potential to investigate disease occurrence in populations without primary data collection. This thesis explored the potential use of two nation-wide secondary equine databases for research on diseases in the Swedish horse population. The data quality in one insurance database and one database from a national equine clinic n...

  8. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity. (United States)

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C


    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR. (United States)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia; Pinelli, Elena


    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides, 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis, 40.4% for D. fragilis, 35.1% for G. intestinalis, and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar. Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs. microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis. Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar. The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between

  10. Synovial fluid as a mirror of equine joint (patho) physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R. van den


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a serious problem in the equine industry and an important cause of the (early) retirement of sport horses. Currently the diagnosis is usually based on X-rays, but by the time changes become radiographically visible, extensive (often irreversible) joint damage is present. This

  11. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.


    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  12. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan


    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  13. Status of parasitism in donkeys of project and control areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Donkey, Central, Ethiopia, Helminth parasite, Prevalence. Introduction. The donkey has spent hundreds of years being used by man. In spite of this fact, little attempt has been made to study any aspect of this equine (Svendsen,. 1997).

  14. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  15. [Assessment of the quality of laboratory diagnosis of intestinal parasitic diseases by the laboratories participating in the Federal System of External Quality Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Testing]. (United States)

    Malakhov, V N; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu; Serdiuk, A P


    In 2010-2013, the quality of microscopic detection of the causative agents ofparasitic diseases in the feces has been assessed by the specialists of the laboratories of the therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions (TPIs) and Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers, Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, which are participants of the Federal System of External Quality Assessment of Clinical Laboratory Testing. Thirty-two specimens containing 16 species of human helminths and 4 species of enteric protozoa in different combinations were examined. The findings suggest that the quality of microscopic detection of the causative agents of parasitic diseases is low in the laboratories of health care facilities and that the specialists of the laboratories of TPIs and Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers, Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, do not not possess the knowledge and skills necessary to make a laboratory diagnosis of helminths and enteric protozoa. The average detection rates of helminths and protozoa were at a level of 64 and 36%, respectively. The correct results showed that the proportion of helminths and protozoa were 94.5 and 5.5%, respectively. According to the biological and epidemiological classification of helminths, there were higher detection rates for contact group parasites (Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana) and geohelminths (Ascaris, Trichuris trichiura, and others). Biohelminths (Opisthorchis, tapeworms, and others) Were detectable slightly worse.

  16. Lawsonia intracellularis and equine proliferative enteropathy. (United States)

    Page, Allen E; Slovis, Nathan M; Horohov, David W


    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiologic agent for equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE), which typically affects weanling and yearling horses. In North America, EPE cases often occur between August and January, although cases outside of this time frame have been reported. Clinical signs of EPE are usually nonspecific and include lethargy, pyrexia, anorexia, peripheral edema, weight loss, colic, and diarrhea. Diagnosis is based on the presence of hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia along with clinical signs and positive commercial serologic and/or molecular testing. Treatment requires the use of antimicrobials with good intracellular penetration and supportive care to prevent or decrease secondary complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the performance of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques for the diagnosis of human intestinal parasites in the absence of a gold standard. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Abellana, Rosa; Pereira-da-Silva, Hélio Doyle; Santos, Ivanildes; Serra, Paula Taquita; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli; Ascaso, Carlos


    Performance evaluation of diagnostic tests is critical in the search for accurate diagnoses. A gold standard test is usually absent in parasitology, thus rendering satisfactory assessment of diagnostic accuracy difficult. Moreover, reliability (assessed by the study of repeatability) is a rarely studied characteristic of diagnostic tests. This study compared and evaluated the performance (repeatability, concordance and accuracy) of the spontaneous sedimentation technique (SST) and the Paratest for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica complex, Blastocystis spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Calodium hepaticum. Fecal samples of 143 individuals were separated into three replicates for each test. Concordance and homogeneity of the results between replicates of each test and between tests were evaluated. Proportions of positives, sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a Bayesian Latent Class Model. High repeatability of both tests was found for the detection of intestinal parasites, except for Blastocystis spp. and hookworm. Concordance between tests was generally high (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.72-0.88), except for Blastocystis spp., hookworm and T. trichiura. The Paratest detected more cases of Blastocystis spp. and fewer of hookworm than the SST. The tests were quite discordant in the detection of T. trichiura. A low sensitivity (39.4-49.2% for SST, 35.8-53.8% for Paratest) and a high specificity (93.2-97.2%) were found for both tests. The Paratest presented a slightly higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. (53.8%), and SST did so for hookworm (49.2%). This is the first study on repeatability and accuracy (using a Bayesian approach) of two spontaneous sedimentation techniques. These results suggest underdiagnosis of little dense parasitic forms due to technical limitations in both tests. We conclude that the combined study of repeatability, concordance and accuracy is a key

  18. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT™ nucleic acid analyzer. (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Yu-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Skillman, Ashley; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Pronost, Stéphane; Zhang, Yan


    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1. The analytical sensitivity of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was 13 genome equivalents per reaction. The assay did not cross react with ten non-target equine viral pathogens. Performance of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was compared to two previously described real-time PCR (qPCR) assays in two laboratories by using 104 archived clinical samples. All 53 qPCR-positive and 46 of the 51 qPCR-negative samples tested positive and negative, respectively, by the iiPCR. The agreement between the two assays was 95.19% (confidence interval 90.48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Invasive anisakiasis by the parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae): diagnosis by real-time PCR hydrolysis probe system and immunoblotting assay. (United States)

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Colantoni, Alessandra; Carbone, Antonella; Gaeta, Raffaele; Proietti, Agnese; Frattaroli, Stefano; Fazii, Paolo; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Nascetti, Giuseppe


    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by Anisakis spp. larvae. One challenging issue in the diagnosis of anisakiasis is the molecular detection of the etiological agent even at very low quantity, such as in gastric or intestinal biopsy and granulomas. Aims of this study were: 1) to identify three new cases of invasive anisakiasis, by a species-specific Real-time PCR probe assay; 2) to detect immune response of the patients against the pathogen. Parasite DNA was extracted from parasites removed in the three patients. The identification of larvae removed at gastric and intestinal level from two patients was first obtained by sequence analysis of mtDNA cox2 and EF1 α-1 of nDNA genes. This was not possible in the third patient, because of the very low DNA quantity obtained from a single one histological section of a surgically removed granuloma. Real-time PCR species-specific hydrolysis probe system, based on mtDNA cox2 gene, was performed on parasites tissue of the three cases. IgE, IgG4 and IgG immune response against antigens A. pegreffii by Immunoblotting assay was also studied. According to the mtDNA cox2 and the EF1 α - 1 nDNA sequence analysis, the larvae from stomach and intestine of two patients were assigned to A. pegreffii. The Real-time PCR primers/probe system, showed a fluorescent signal at 510 nm for A. pegreffii, in all the three cases. In Immunoblotting assay, patient CC1 showed IgE, IgG4 reactivity against Ani s 13-like and Ani s 7-like; patient CC2 revealed only IgG reactivity against Ani s 13-like and Ani s 7-like; while, the third patient showed IgE and IgG reactivity against Ani s 13-like, Ani s 7-like and Ani s 1-like. The Real-time PCR assay, a more sensitive method than direct DNA sequencing for the accurate and rapid identification of etiological agent of human anisakiasis, was successfully assessed for the first time. The study also highlights the importance to use both molecular and immunological tools in the diagnosis of human

  20. New species of Tereancistrum (Dactylogyridae monogenean parasites of Schizodon borellii (Characiformes, Anostomidae from Brazil, and emended diagnosis for T. parvus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cucolo Karling


    Full Text Available Tereancistrum paranaensis sp. n. is described from the gills of Schizodon borellii (Boulenger 1900 (Characiformes from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil. The new species is mainly characterized by morphology of copulatory complex, dorsal anchor with shaft recurved and pointed and arc-shaped dorsal bar. Tereancistrum parvus was described based on only one specimen and some characteristics were not observed. Now we provide an emendation to the diagnosis of this species.

  1. Expanding access to parasite-based malaria diagnosis through retail drug shops in Tanzania: evidence from a randomized trial and implications for treatment. (United States)

    Maloney, Kathleen; Ward, Abigail; Krenz, Bonnie; Petty, Nora; Bryson, Lindsay; Dolkart, Caitlin; Visser, Theodoor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Scott, Valerie K; Cohen, Justin M; Mtumbuka, Esther; Mkude, Sigsbert


    Tanzania has seen a reduction in the fraction of fevers caused by malaria, likely due in part to scale-up of control measures. While national guidelines require parasite-based diagnosis prior to treatment, it is estimated that more than half of suspected malaria treatment-seeking in Tanzania initiates in the private retail sector, where diagnosis by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy is illegal. This pilot study investigated whether the introduction of RDTs into Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) under realistic market conditions would improve case management practices. Dispensers from ADDOs in two intervention districts in Tanzania were trained to stock and perform RDTs and monitored quarterly. Each district was assigned a different recommended retail price to evaluate the need for a subsidy. Malaria RDT and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) uptake and availability were measured pre-intervention and 1 year post-intervention through structured surveys of ADDO owners and exiting customers in both intervention districts and one contiguous control district. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to compare the three districts and identify predictive variables for testing. A total of 310 dispensers from 262 ADDOs were trained to stock and perform RDTs. RDT availability in intervention ADDOs increased from 1% (n = 172) to 73% (n = 163) during the study; ACT medicines were available in 75% of 260 pre-intervention and 68% of 254 post-intervention ADDOs. Pre-treatment testing performed within the ADDO increased from 0 to 65% of suspected malaria patients who visited a shop (95% CI 60.8-69.6%) with no difference between intervention districts. Overall parasite-based diagnosis increased from 19 to 74% in intervention districts and from 3 to 18% in the control district. Prior knowledge of RDT availability (aOR = 1.9, p = 0.03) and RDT experience (aOR = 1.9, p = 0.01) were predictors for testing. Adherence data

  2. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders. (United States)

    Durham, Andy E


    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The embryogenesis of the equine femorotibial joint : The equine interzone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F; van Osch, G J V M; Weninger, W; Geyer, S; Stout, T; van Weeren, René; Brama, P; van Weeren, René

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Articular cartilage regeneration is the focus and goal of considerable research effort. Since articular chondrocytes descend from a distinct cohort of progenitor cells located in embryonic nascent joints (interzones), establishing the timing of equine interzone

  4. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identificatio nof the parasite species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Cardoso da Graça


    Full Text Available In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70 regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism (PCR-RFLP. This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region, internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd. A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  5. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sorensen, Mette A.


    Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem MS analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides....... The current release comprises 24 131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2% at the peptide level and 1.4% at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic...

  6. AIDS - associated parasitic diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora D


    Full Text Available Since the advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with its profound and progressive effect on the cellular immune system, a group of human opportunistic pathogens has come into prominence. Opportunistic parasitic infection can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Because many of these infections are treatable, an early and accurate diagnosis is important. This can be accomplished by a variety of methods such as direct demonstration of parasites and by serological tests to detect antigen and/or specific antibodies. However, antibody response may be poor in these patients and therefore immunodiagnostic tests have to be interpreted with caution. Cryptosporidium parvum , Isospora belli , Cyclospora cayetanensis , Microsporidia, Entamoeba histolytica and Strongyloides stercoralis are the commonly detected parasites. Detection of these parasites will help in proper management of these patients because drugs are available for most of these parasitic infections.

  7. Inflammatory response in equine joints


    Ley, Cecilia


    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate inflammatory responses as well as regulate tissue metabolism. Thus, they may provide a link between inflammation and other pathologic findings seen in equine joint disease. The aims of this thesis were to gain a deeper understanding of the development of chondral pathology in equine osteoarthritis (OA) by obtaining increased knowledge of inflammatory processes in the joint, and to investigate proinflammatory cytokines as markers of joint pathology. Measuremen...

  8. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans. (United States)

    Ferruolo, David M


    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  9. Imaging of parasitic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Maurice C. [American Univ. of Beirut Medical Center (Lebanon). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E. [Riyadh Military Hospital (Saudi Arabia). Radiology and Imaging Dept. 920W; Tamraz, Jean C. (eds.) [CHU Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut (Lebanon)


    This book provides an overview of the imaging findings of parasitic diseases using modern imaging equipment. The chapters consist of short descriptions of causative pathogens, epidemiology, modes of transmission, pathology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, with illustrative examples of parasitic diseases that can affect various systems of the human body. Tables summarizing key diagnostic features and clinical data pertinent to diagnosis are also included. This book is intended for radiologists worldwide. (orig.)

  10. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  11. Update on equine allergies. (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A


    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas


    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  13. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Kaplan, Ray M.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan


    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when the new drug xlasses can be exoected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attemt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible....... The proportion of the parasite pupulation that is not exposed to anthelmintic treatment is descriebed as being "in refugia" and althogt many factors affect the rate at which resistance develops, levels of refugia are considered the most important as these parasites are not selected by treatment and so provide...

  14. Common internal parasites encountered in donkeys in Kiambu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In six donkeys examined at postmortem, several species of internal parasites were encountered. Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Gastrophilus intestinalis, Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus were each isolated from 100% of the donkeys. Cylicocylus radiatus and Strongylus equines were isolated from 83% and 67% of the examined ...

  15. Parasites: Water (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  16. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios


    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F.


    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested tha...

  17. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  18. Equine Medical Center Appoints Veterinary Advisory Board Members


    Nadjar, Ann


    A Veterinary Advisory Board, comprised of Virginia- and Maryland-based equine practitioners, has been established to help the Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center continue its quest to provide excellence in equine healthcare for the region.

  19. Purification of equine Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, Gunnar; Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Objectives With the aim of producing antibodies for an equine Group specific component (Gc)-globulin assay, the protein was purified from normal equine plasma. Methods Equine Gc-globulin was purified from healthy horse plasma using ion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose, CM......-Sepharose) and preparative PAGE. Results Equine Gc-globulin has successfully been purified from healthy horse plasma and rabbits and mice are being immunized to produce specific antibodies. Conclusions Purification of equine Gc-globulin and the production of specific antibodies will make it possible to develop an assay...... to be a sensitive marker of acute tissue injury and fatal outcome in humans. Patients with a low plasma concentration of Gc-globulin due to severe tissue injury might potentially benefit from infusions with purified Gc-globulin [1]. With an equine Gc-globulin assay, future studies will investigate the concentration...

  20. Physiotherapy Assessment for the Equine Athlete. (United States)

    Goff, Lesley


    Physiotherapy assessment of the equine athlete is carried out by qualified physiotherapists, who use a functional approach to the assessment of the horse. Observation, clinical reasoning, good palpation skills and implementation of outcome measures are skills used by these professionals in their assessment of the horse. Equine physiotherapists attempt, where possible, to use an evidence-based approach to the assessment of the equine athlete. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  2. Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... to live. You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms called protozoa to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. ...

  3. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  4. Equine pastern vasculitis: a clinical and histopathological study. (United States)

    Psalla, Dimitra; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Stoffel, Michael H; Chiers, Koen; Gaschen, Véronique; Doherr, Marcus G; Gerber, Vincent; Welle, Monika M


    Equine pastern vasculitis is clinically challenging and the underlying aetiopathogenesis is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to establish histopathological criteria for pastern vasculitis, to look for an underlying cause, to investigate whether the histopathological lesions are associated with a distinct clinical picture, to assess if and how the clinical picture varies, and to determine the treatment response. Skin biopsies and clinical data from 20 horses with a diagnosis of vasculitis of the distal extremities were investigated and histology was compared to biopsies from healthy horses. It was concluded that intramural inflammatory cells, leukocytoclasia with nuclear dust, thickening and oedema of the vessel walls, and microhaemorrhages are highly specific histological findings in equine pastern vasculitis. Based on the feedback from the clinicians, the lesions were mostly seen on the lateral and medial aspects of un-pigmented legs. Lesions in white skin were characterised by exudation and crusts, whereas those in pigmented skin were alopecic and characterised by scaling. The response to treatment was poor and the prognosis guarded. No association was found between any of the histopathological findings and a distinct clinical picture. An underlying cause of equine pastern vasculitis could not be identified. Considering the large number of confounding factors, the causative agents are difficult to identify, but may involve drugs or a hypersensitivity reactions to yet unknown antigens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Equine sperm-neutrophil binding. (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdorrahman S; Madill, Scott; Foster, Douglas N; Troedsson, Mats H T


    When mares are inseminated repeatedly, protein molecules from the seminal plasma (SP) prevent sperm-neutrophil binding and reduced fertility. The molecule(s) responsible for sperm-neutrophil binding is not known and the identification of beneficial SP proteins is complicated by their large numbers and abundant variation. We examined several important aspects of sperm-neutrophil binding to ultimately facilitate the identification and isolation of the molecule(s) responsible. First, we raised anti-equine P-selectin antibodies to determine the involvement of this adhesion molecule in sperm-neutrophil binding. While these antibodies identified equine P-selectin, they did not inhibit sperm-neutrophil binding. However, acrosome-reacted equine sperm expressed a molecule similar to the ligand recognition unit of P-selectin. Second, we attempted to characterize SP protein binding to equine sperm and gauge their affinity. Biotinylated SP proteins were incubated with fresh sperm, washed over a viscous medium, electrophoresed, and probed with avidin. Several SP proteins bound to sperm with a strong affinity to withstand these treatments. This finding may prove valuable for future attempts to identify and characterize specific SP molecules. Lastly, we compared the secretions from male sex organs/glands on sperm motility, sperm-neutrophil binding, and their protein profile. We expected fewer proteins from individual organs/glands, which would facilitate isolation and identification of target molecules. While each secretion had a varying effect on motility and sperm-neutrophil binding, the protein profile was as complex as that seen in whole SP, indicating that collection of proteins from individual sources will not facilitate this work. Together, these experiments answer several important questions related to sperm-neutrophil binding, sperm-SP proteins interaction, and the complexity of the SP proteome. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Anesthesia of the geriatric equine


    Doherty TJ; Seddighi R


    Reza Seddighi, Thomas J DohertyDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USAAbstract: Advancements in veterinary medicine have resulted in an increased number of geriatric horses being presented for medical or surgical procedures that require general anesthesia. Due to the physiological changes associated with aging and the likelihood of concurrent disease conditions, the geriatric equine is...

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons. (United States)

    Padaliya, N R; Ranpariya, J J; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C B; Barvalia, D R


    The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm(2)) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses.

  8. Equine proliferative enteropathy on a Brazilian farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle P. Gabardo


    Full Text Available Abstract:Lawsonia intracellularis infection on a horse farm in the Midwest region of Brazil is described. Thirty-nine foals a few days to months old from a herd with 300 horses, experienced diarrhea with variable characteristics and intensities, weight loss, hyperemic mucous membranes and dehydration. In foals 3 to 6 months of age, hypoproteinemia associated with submandibular edema were also common. Intestinal fragments of a 7-month-old foal were sent to an animal disease laboratory for diagnosis. The observed macroscopic lesions were hyperemic serosa, thickening of the intestinal wall with a corrugation, thickening of the mucosa folds and reduction of intestinal lumen. Histological analysis of the small and large intestine revealed enterocyte hyperplasia of the crypts associated with diffuse marked decrease in the number of goblet cells and positive L. intracellularis antigen labeling by immunohistochemistry. Three out of 11 animals of the same property were seropositive for L. intracellularis, demonstrating the circulation of the agent throughout the farm, but none were PCR positive in fecal samples. Based on clinical signs and pathological findings, the diagnosis of equine proliferative enteropathy was confirmed.

  9. A review of equine dental disorders. (United States)

    Dixon, P M; Dacre, I


    ") and vertical impaction of erupting CT that may lead to large eruption cysts and possibly then to apical infections. Disorders of wear, especially enamel overgrowths ("enamel points"), are the main equine dental disorder and are believed to be largely due to the dietary alterations associated with domestication. If untreated, such disorders will eventually lead to more severe CT disorders such as shearmouth and also to widespread periodontal disease. More focal dental overgrowths will develop opposite any CT not in full opposition to their counterpart, e.g., following maleruption of or loss of a CT. Because of the great length of reserve crown in young (hypsodont) CT, apical infections usually cause infection of the supporting bones and depending on the CT involved, cause facial swellings and fistulae and possibly sinusitis. Diagnosis of apical infection requires radiography, and possibly scintigraphy and other advanced imaging techniques in some early cases. When possible, oral extraction of affected CT is advocated, because it reduces the costs and risks of general anaesthesia and has much less post-extraction sequelae than CT repulsion or buccotomy.

  10. Diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil by parasite, antibody and DNA detection assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, E. S.; van der Meide, W. F.; Schoone, G. J.; Gontijo, C. M. F.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Brazil, R. P.


    Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) is found throughout the South American continent, including Brazil, and dogs are considered to be the main reservoir host for this parasite. To support the implementation of a diagnostic protocol for surveillance of the disease in the

  11. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back Helena


    Full Text Available Abstract A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF. EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5. In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5 and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease.

  12. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  13. Lameness surgeon joins equine medical center faculty


    Musick, Marjorie


    Dr. M. Norris Adams has joined Virginia Tech's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center as a clinical assistant professor in equine lameness and surgery. In this role, Adams will focus on elective orthopedic procedures and will assist with the expansion of the center's outpatient services program.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine... tests to identify antobodies to equine encephalomyelitis virus in serum. The identification aids in the...

  15. The equine veterinarian : past, present and prospects of a profession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831131


    The equine veterinarian has regained its position in the veterinary profession. Equine veterinarians work in equine practices as well as in mixed practices. In general, it can be said that the backbone of equine work is formed by a relatively small amount of activities for which only a limited

  16. CD47 expression in cryopreserved equine cutaneous masses and normal skin. (United States)

    Caston, Stephanie S; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Prashanth; Sponseller, Brett A; Hostetter, Jesse M; Sun, Yaxuan


    We investigated CD47 expression in cryopreserved sections of equine cutaneous masses and normal skin. CD47 is a cell surface protein expressed on many cell types and overexpressed in some tumors. Interaction of CD47 and signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Formalin-fixed tissues from horses prospectively enrolled in the study were used to establish a histologic diagnosis. Immunohistochemical assays were performed on cryopreserved tissues using anti-CD47 antibodies or IgG control antibodies. CD47 was not expressed on equine normal skin but positivity to CD47 was present in 13 of 24 (54%) masses. Immunotherapy with anti-CD47 antibodies for equine cutaneous tumors that express CD47 warrants further investigation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes. (United States)

    Janda, Jozef; Lehmann, Melissa; Luttmann, Werner; Marti, Eliane


    Interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. IL-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. Function of IL-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. Our aim was to produce recombinant equine IL-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Equine IL-3 was cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. PBL of 19 healthy and 20 insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH)-affected horses were stimulated with Culicoides nubeculosus extract with or without IL-3. Sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured in supernatants by ELISA and mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) assessed in cell lysate by quantitative real-time PCR. Recombinant equine IL-3 (req-IL-3) had a dose dependent effect on sLT production by stimulated equine PBL and significantly increased IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP expression compared to non-primed cells. IL-3 priming significantly increased Culicoides-induced sLT production in IBH-affected but not in non-affected horses and was particularly effective in young IBH-affected horses (≤ 3 years). A functionally active recombinant equine IL-3 has been produced which will be useful for future immunological studies in horses. It will also allow improving the sensitivity of cellular in vitro tests for allergy diagnosis in horses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The equine placenta and equine chorionic gonadotrophin--an overview. (United States)

    Hoppen, H O


    Chorionic gonadotrophins seem to be unique for primate and equid species. Unlike primates, the equine conceptus does not implant in the maternal uterine endometrium until around day 37 of pregnancy. At this time specialized cells of the trophoblast, organized in the embryonic girdle, invade the endometrium and become established in the endometrial stroma, forming the so-called endometrial cups. This migration of girdle cells is accompanied by their morphological transformation into large decidual-like cells and by the appearance of a gonadotrophic hormone in the mare's blood. There is convincing evidence today that the hormone is of chorionic origin; therefore the term equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) seems to be more appropriate than the formerly used term Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG). Secretion of eCG peaks between days 60 and 80 in pregnant mares, to decline gradually until day 130 of gestation, with pronounced inter-individual variation. There appear to be no hormonal regulatory mechanisms controlling eCG synthesis and secretion, suggesting that the size and the morphology of the endometrial cups are the limiting factors. Equine CG is a glycoprotein hormone, composed of noncovalently bound alpha- and beta-subunits. The alpha-subunit consists of 96 amino acids and is identical for eCG and the pituitary hormones eLH, eFSH, and eTSH. The beta-subunit is similar to beta-hCG in that both have a C-terminal extension. It is comprised of 149 amino acids and the peptide primary structure is identical to that of beta-eLH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus. (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P


    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  20. Parasitic lung infections. (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi


    Global climate change and population explosion leading to changes in natural ecosystem and travel across the continents have resulted in an increase in the transmission of parasites to human beings. This review focuses on recent advancements in parasitic lung infections. Invasive parasitic diseases including lung infections are increasingly being reported in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. A recombinant kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania donovani has been validated with ELISA using urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been shown to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Intravenous artesunate is an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. The best way to protect from malaria is the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets. Biennial treatment with praziquantel has been found to be cost-effective treatment for control of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary nodules. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection can mimic accelerated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Migratory nodular shadows with halos are important chest computed tomographic findings in human toxocariasis. Patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (HIV infection, organ transplantation and immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids) should be evaluated for early detection of parasitic lung infections.

  1. The genetics of equine osteochondrosis. (United States)

    Distl, Ottmar


    Osteochondrosis (OC) develops in growing horses due to disturbed differentiation and maturation of cartilage, particularly at the predilection sites of the fetlock, hock and stifle joints. Horses with osteochondrotic lesions are at a high risk of developing orthopaedic problems later in life. This article briefly reviews the published heritability estimates for OC and offers perspectives for selection in the horse industry. Heritabilities for OC in Warmblood and Standardbred horses have been estimated at 0.1-0.4 in animal threshold models. Whole genome scans using microsatellites have identified 14 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the eight most important QTL have been refined using dense marker maps. Genome-wide association studies with single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed further QTL in Thoroughbred, Standardbred and Hanoverian horses. Only a few QTL have corresponding locations among the different breeds. Comparative genomics using positional candidate genes and next-generation-sequencing may lead to new insights into the genetic determination of equine OC and might help in understanding the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis. Implementation of selection schemes based on breeding values, or even genomic selection against OC, should be considered as an option for improving equine musculoskeletal health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar


    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  3. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the equine tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro. (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A E; Behnke, J M


    Papaya latex has been demonstrated to be an efficacious anthelmintic against murine, porcine, ovine and canine nematode parasites, and even those infecting poultry, and it has some efficacy against rodent cestodes. The active ingredients of papaya latex are known to be cysteine proteinases (CPs). The experiments described in this paper indicate that CPs in papaya latex, and also those in pineapples, are highly efficacious against the equine cestode Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro, by causing a significant reduction in motility leading to death of the worms. The susceptibility of A. perfoliata to damage by CPs was considerably greater than that of the rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma. Our results are the first to report anthelmintic efficacy of CPs against an economically important equine helminth. Moreover, they provide further evidence that the spectrum of activity of CPs is not restricted to nematodes and support the idea that these plant-derived enzymes can be developed into useful broad-spectrum anthelmintics.

  4. Improved diagnosis of Trichuris trichiura by using a bead-beating procedure on ethanol preserved stool samples prior to DNA isolation and the performance of multiplex real-time PCR for intestinal parasites. (United States)

    Kaisar, Maria M M; Brienen, Eric A T; Djuardi, Yenny; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Verweij, Jaco J; Supali, Taniawati; VAN Lieshout, Lisette


    For the majority of intestinal parasites, real-time PCR-based diagnosis outperforms microscopy. However, the data for Trichuris trichiura have been less convincing and most comparative studies have been performed in populations with low prevalence. This study aims to improve detection of T. trichuria DNA in human stool by evaluating four sample preparation methods. Faecal samples (n = 60) were collected at Flores island, Indonesia and examined by microscopy. Aliquots were taken and a bead-beating procedure was used both on directly frozen stool and on material preserved with 96% ethanol. PCR on frozen samples showed 40% to be positive for T. trichiura, compared with 45% positive by microscopy. The percentage positive increased when using ethanol preservation (45·0%), bead-beating (51·7%) and a combination (55·0%) and all three methods showed significantly higher DNA loads. The various procedures had a less pronounced effect on the PCR results of nine other parasite targets tested. Most prevalent were Ascaris lumbricoides (≈60%), Necator americanus (≈60%), Dientamoeba fragilis (≈50%) and Giardia lamblia (≈12%). To validate the practicality of the procedure, bead-beating was applied in a population-based survey testing 910 stool samples. Findings confirmed bead-beating before DNA extraction to be a highly efficient procedure for the detection of T. trichiura DNA in stool.

  5. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.


    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced m...... and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross...

  6. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn


    The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  7. Equine proliferative enteropathy--a review of recent developments. (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Gebhart, C J


    Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) is a disease of foals caused by the obligate intracellular organism Lawsonia intracellularis. This emerging disease affects mainly weanling foals and causes fever, lethargy, peripheral oedema, diarrhoea, colic and weight loss. The diagnosis of EPE may be challenging and relies on the presence of hypoproteinaemia, thickening of segments of the small intestinal wall observed upon abdominal ultrasonography, positive serology and molecular detection of L. intracellularis in faeces. Although the clinical entity, diagnostic approach and treatment of EPE are well established and described, the epidemiology for this disease has remained largely unaddressed. This article focuses on new developments in the field of EPE, including epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations. (United States)

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E


    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  9. Equine Vaccines: How, When and Why? Report of the Vaccinology Session, French Equine Veterinarians Association, 2016, Reims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Paillot


    Full Text Available To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF at Reims (France in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus, rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4, and tetanus (Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin. (1 Emergency vaccination: while it has been very successful to reduce the impact of equine influenza epizooties and it is also recommended for tetanus in case of surgery and accident, the benefit of emergency vaccination against equine herpes virus 1/4 remains arguable; (2 Compatibility of equine vaccines from different brands: despite being a frequent concerns for equine veterinarians, little information is available about the compatibility of equine vaccines from different commercial origins. The consequence of mixing different equine vaccines targeting the same disease is believed to be limited but scientific evidences are sparse; and, (3 Laps vaccination and vaccine shortage: they could have serious consequences in terms of protection and their impact should be evaluated on a case by case basis, taking into account the risk of contact with the pathogen and the effect on herd immunity.

  10. Risk factors associated with equine motor neuron disease: a possible model for human MND. (United States)

    Mohammed, H O; Cummings, J F; Divers, T J; Valentine, B; de Lahunta, A; Summers, B; Farrow, B R; Trembicki-Graves, K; Mauskopf, A


    Equine motor neuron disease (EMND), a newly described neurodegenerative disease, bears a striking resemblance to progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) in humans. We present a comparison of the equine and human diseases and the results of a case-control study conducted to identify intrinsic factors associated with EMND. Cases included all horses with a confirmed diagnosis of EMND diagnosed in the United States since 1985 (32 cases). Controls included horses diagnosed with either cervical stenotic myelopathy, equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, or protozoan myelitis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University (153 controls). Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with the risk of EMND. Risk factors considered were age, sex, and breed of the horse. Most cases of EMND (30 of 32) have been sporadic. There was a breed association with the risk of EMND. Quarter horses were at a high risk for developing EMND (odds ratio [OR] = 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 3.3 to 49.6); thoroughbred horses were at increased risk (OR = 2.9, 0.8 to 10.4). There was also an age association with the risk of EMND. The risk increased with age, peaked at 16 years, and then declined, a pattern similar to that for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in humans. There was no sex association with the disease. Despite the breed association, equine lymphocyte antigen studies have not revealed a systematic pattern, suggesting that genetic factors influencing susceptibility to EMND may be outside the major histocompatibility complex.

  11. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  12. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie


    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  13. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter (United States)


    ... Equines to Slaughter AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding the commercial transportation of equines to slaughter to add a definition of equine for slaughter and make other changes that will extend the protections...

  14. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 2: the bony disorders. (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H


    The metacarpophangeal/metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joint in the horse is commonly associated with equine lameness and diagnostic imaging is routinely used to investigate disorders of the joint and its surrounding tissues. This review describes the osseous disorders of the fetlock as well as the technical aspects of taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different lesions. In current clinical practice, a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most frequently used approach to arrive at a diagnosis.

  15. Parasites - Lice (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  16. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn


    Full Text Available Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches.

  17. Evolution of equine infection control programs. (United States)

    Smith, Bradford P


    The science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when Semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. In the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. By 1910, sterile instruments, gowns, masks, and gloves had become standard for surgical procedures in large university human hospitals, and isolation of human and veterinary patients with contagious diseases became standard. With the advent of vaccines, many epidemic viral diseases could be controlled, and antimicrobial drugs allowed many previously devastating bacterial diseases to be treated effectively. Before long, however, bacterial resistance became an important issue and remains so today, particularly for Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in horses. Vaccination has decreased the number of animals susceptible to equine influenza and equine herpesvirus 1, yet these contagious diseases still pose a serious issue in large equine veterinary hospitals. The development of equine isolation facilities and improved methods of barn cleaning; mandatory application of procedures, such as handwashing or use of disinfectant hand wipes, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases; and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and use of restricted antimicrobial drugs were driven by recognition and necessity and have given rise to current equine infection control programs.

  18. Report: Unsupervised identification of malaria parasites using computer vision. (United States)

    Khan, Najeed Ahmed; Pervaz, Hassan; Latif, Arsalan; Musharaff, Ayesha


    Malaria in human is a serious and fatal tropical disease. This disease results from Anopheles mosquitoes that are infected by Plasmodium species. The clinical diagnosis of malaria based on the history, symptoms and clinical findings must always be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria involves identification of malaria parasite or its antigen / products in the blood of the patient. Manual diagnosis of malaria parasite by the pathologists has proven to become cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need of automatic, efficient and accurate identification of malaria parasite. In this paper, we proposed a computer vision based approach to identify the malaria parasite from light microscopy images. This research deals with the challenges involved in the automatic detection of malaria parasite tissues. Our proposed method is based on the pixel-based approach. We used K-means clustering (unsupervised approach) for the segmentation to identify malaria parasite tissues.

  19. Pathophysiology of Equine Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ospina Chirivi


    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in horses in their first seven days of life and within their pathophysiology. It is important to consider the extrinsic and intrinsic predisposing factors which make foals susceptible to agents of primarily bacterial etiology. However, other types of infectious etiology (viruses and fungi should be considered too, as well as noninfectious etiologies. The paper mentions a wide variety of mechanisms that produce different injuries that must be addressed with measures of critical neonatal care, so it is imperative for the veterinarian to know the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, its clinical presentation and anatomo-pathological lesions. Thus, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and peripheral circulatory collapse or shock are some of the elements defined as the pillars of the pathophysiology of neonatal septicemia, extensively studied in equine medicine. This paper presents a short review of the triggering mechanisms of neonatal septicemia highlighting the importance of epidemiological investigations in Colombia. It shows the need for retrospective and prospective studies and for divulgation of some of the preventive measures of the disease in horses.

  20. Benzimidazoles Pharmacodynamics in Equine Strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catana


    Full Text Available Our research aimed to assess the effectiveness of four benzimidazoles: albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole against equine strongyles. The tests were performed between March 2015 and May 2016, on samples collected from 20 horses and 8 donkeys living in Harghita County. In vivo, Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was used to evaluate fenbendazole pharmacodynamics. In vitro, Egg hatch assay (EHA and Larval development assay (LDA were used to evaluate the effectiveness of albendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole and thiabendazole. The predominance of small strongyle species was observed, mostly Cyathostomum type A. In the horse group, before treatment, the average intensity was 1595.5 EPG, the maximum value being 4000, and extensivity 55%. Tested again at 14 days after treatment, all samples were negative. In the donkey group, before treatment, the total number was 6550 EPG, intensity of 935.7 and extensivity of 87.5%. 14 days after treatment, the average intensity was 150 and the extensivity 50%. In the horse group, EHA proved the efficacy of fenbendazole (0.0192%, albendazole (0.3740% and thiabendazole (11.62% and a major risk of inducing adaptive phenomena for mebendazole (Y parameter 1009.92. In the donkey group, all benzimidazoles had limited effectiveness: thiabendazole (73.93%, mebendazole (87.51%, fenbendazole (94.05%, albendazole (111.67%. All benzimidazoles inhibited larval development. For all tested benzimidazoles, the resistance induction predictive comparative risk analysis highlighted the benefit of their use, provided that the treatment protocol allows sufficient contact time.

  1. Four cases of equine motor neuron disease in Japan (United States)

    SASAKI, Naoki; IMAMURA, Yui; SEKIYA, Akio; ITOH, Megumi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi


    ABSTRACT In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses. Although lack of vitamin E is speculated to be a contributory factor for development of EMND, no significant improvement was observed following administration of vitamin E. PMID:27703407

  2. Cytotoxic Effects of Serum from Equine Grass Sickness Cases on Neuro-2a and PC12 Tet-Off Cell Lines: Implication for Using In Vitro Methods as Antemortem Diagnostic Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekinejad, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000461; Bull, S.; Rahmani, F.; Fink-Gremmels, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119949997


    A wide variety of clinical and paraclinical methods have been used for diagnosis of equine grass sickness (EGS), but none of them could absolutely confirm the diagnosis, and postmortem pathologic examination is still considered the final step in precise diagnosis of EGS. Use of in vitro cell

  3. Introduction to Equine Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation. (United States)

    McGowan, Catherine M; Cottriall, Suzanne


    Physical therapy (physiotherapy, or PT) can be broadly defined as the restoration of movement and function and includes assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. This review outlines the history, definition, and regulation of PT, followed by the core scientific principles of PT. Because musculoskeletal physiotherapy is the predominant subdiscipline in equine PT, encompassing poor performance, back pain syndromes, other musculoskeletal disorders, and some neuromuscular disorders, the sciences of functional biomechanics, neuromotor control, and the sensorimotor system in the spine, pelvis, and peripheral joints are reviewed. Equine PT also may involve PT assessment and treatment of riders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine. (United States)

    Blach, Edward L


    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  5. [World epidemiology of parasitic diseases]. (United States)

    Paris, Luc; Thellier, Marc; Faussart, Alexandra; Danis, Martin


    Parasitic diseases are cosmopolitan and may affect all the world population. They kill several million people every year. The migrations and tourism make that even tropical diseases can be frequently met outside their geographical distribution area. Except the arthropod-borne infections, the great majority of these diseases are in relation with the faecal contamination of soil, the general level of hygiene and the food practices. Malaria remains the first world parasitic disease in term of mortality. The strong fall of the amoebic endemicity is due only to the improvement of the methods of molecular diagnosis. The socio-political and climatic upheavals may result in a creeping extension of the geographical limits of many parasites.

  6. Parasitic diseases of the pleura. (United States)

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A


    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  7. Skoulekia erythrini n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae): a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (L.) (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the western Mediterranean with an amendment of the generic diagnosis. (United States)

    Palacios-Abella, José F; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, Salvatore; Raga, Juan Antonio; Isbert, Wolf; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, Francisco E


    A new aporocotylid, Skoulekia erythrini n. sp., is described from the heart, cephalic kidney and gill blood vessels of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (L.) collected from several localities of the western Mediterranean off Spain. The new species differs from the type- and only species of the genus, S. meningialis Alama-Bermejo, Montero, Raga & Holzer, 2011 in possessing a symmetrical body (vs laterally curved), short tegumental spines (3-4 vs 7-10 µm) without hooked ends, diffuse (vs conspicuous) oesophageal gland-cells, a relatively longer oesophagus, a testis that is shorter in relation to body length and a much smaller seminal vesicle (17-34 × 10-26 vs 33-101 × 27-97 μm). Elongated ellipsoidal eggs of S. erythrini n. sp. were found trapped in gill vessels in histological sections. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA and ITS2 sequences supported the placement of the new species within Skoulekia and the close relationships of this genus with Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929 and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1986. Skoulekia meningialis is described from a new sparid host, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum), collected off Santa Pola, Spain. The new morphological data for the two Skoulekia spp. and a re-examination of three paratypes of S. meningialis pinpointed features amending both the description of S. meningialis and the generic diagnosis of Skoulekia.

  8. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J


    Full Text Available Abstract The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses.

  9. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection. (United States)

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu


    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  10. Adiestramiento en el diagnóstico de las parasitosis intestinales en la red de laboratorios de Cuba Training for diagnosis of intestinal parasites in the national laboratory system in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Angel Núñez


    Full Text Available En 1997, se desarrolló un proyecto nacional de adiestramiento integral para el diagnóstico de las parasitosis intestinales, el que incluyó 4 cursos; uno com carácter nacional, y otros 3 en las provincias centrales, orientales y occidentales. Al comparar los errores diagnósticos, vimos que Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis y los leucocitos mostraron un porcentaje significativamente menor de fallas después del curso que al comienzo (p 0,05. Por otra parte, al comparar las medias de las puntuaciones antes y después de los cursos, se encontró un aumento significativo en el curso de las provincias centrales (pA national training project in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites was conducted in 1997. An initial national course was followed respectively by courses in the Central, Eastern, and Western Provinces. Our results showed that Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and leukocytes showed a significantly lower percentage of errors after the training than before (p 0.05. Furthermore, when comparing scores before and after training, a significant increase in median scores appeared in the Central Provinces (p < 0.05, Western Provinces (p < 0.01, and in the entire series (p < 0.01. The results showed the effectiveness of this intervention; these periodic mandatory training courses should be developed together with national programs for quality assessment in Parasitology.

  11. Protozoan Parasites. (United States)

    Custodio, Haidee


    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  12. Diagnostic imaging of the equine fetlock region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: Soft tissues. (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Saunders, Jimmy H


    The equine fetlock is the joint most commonly associated with lameness. Although the fetlock is regarded as a simple joint, diagnosis of a fetlock disorder can be a challenge and various imaging modalities are routinely used to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. This review describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the fetlock region and addresses some of the technical aspects involved in taking radiographic and ultrasonographic images of the different soft tissue lesions. A combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still the most commonly used diagnostic approach in clinical practice.

  13. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education. (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  14. (FGA) sponges and Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (ECG)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on estrus response in Sahel (SH) goats. One hundred (n=100) SH does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponge for 14 days. At the end ...

  15. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E


    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues. (United States)

    Vanderperren, Katrien; Raes, Els; Hoegaerts, Michel; Saunders, Jimmy H


    The equine tarsus is the most commonly affected hindlimb region associated with lameness. Diagnostic imaging is routinely applied but because of its complexity, being composed of 10 multifaceted bones and different joints, multiple ligaments, tendons and bursae, imaging this region can be a challenge. This is the first part of a two-part review of the structures and disorders of the equine tarsus. It describes the principal disorders affecting the soft tissues of the tarsal region and addresses some of the technical aspects in taking radiographic, ultrasonographic and scintigraphic images of the different soft tissue lesions. Where applicable, comments on the diagnostic use of contrast radiography, arthroscopy and tenoscopy are made. In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis.

  17. Emerging and established parasitic lung infestations. (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Kilani, Tarek


    Many lung infestations from established and newly emerging parasites have been reported as a result of the emergence of HIV/AIDS, the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs, increasing organ transplantations, the increase in global travel, and climate change. A renewed interest in parasitic lung infections has been observed recently because many protozoal and helminthic parasites cause clinically significant lung diseases. The diseases caused by these parasites may mimic common and complicated lung diseases ranging from asymptomatic disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring critical care management. The availability of new molecular diagnostic methods and antiparasitic drugs enables early diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid the morbidity and mortality associated with these infestations. Good hygiene practices, improvement in socioeconomic conditions, vector control measures, and consumption of hygienically prepared and properly cooked food are essential to reduce the occurrence of parasitic infestations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis. (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G


    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  19. Diversity of flora used for the cure of equine diseases in selected peri-urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan (United States)


    Background Plants have widely been used and documented for their therapeutic potential in many parts of the world. There are, however, few reports on the use of plants for the treatment of diseases of equines. To this end, participatory epidemiology and rapid rural appraisal techniques were used to document the plants having pharmacotherapeutic significance against different ailments of equines in selected population of Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A survey was conducted to interview a total of 450 respondents (150 from each of the districts of Faisalabad, Lahore and Sargodha of Pakistan) to collect information about disease recognition of the equines and their treatment on a well − structured questionnaire. A total of 60 plants belonging to 40 families were documented. An inventory was developed depicting detailed information of plants used in treatment of different conditions of equines. Results The top ten species of plants used were: Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, Vernonia anthelmintica, Capsicum annum, Brassica campestris, Trachyspermum ammi, Anethum graveolens, Picrorhiza kurroa, Azadirachta indica, and Citrullus colocynthis. Seeds were the most frequently used (n = 16/60) parts, followed by leaves (n = 12/60) and fruits (n = 11/60) of plants. Based on the combination of different parts of plants used in different ratios and variation in their dose or mode of preparation led to a large number of recipes/remedies against wounds, lameness, bronchitis, colic, anorexia, dermatitis, weakness, parasitism (internal & external), fever, heat stress, urine retention, swelling, toxemia, and indigestion. Conclusions This study generated lot of data on phytomedicinal approach for the treatment of ailments in the equines in some selected areas. It would, therefore, be imperative to expand similar studies in other parts of Pakistan and elsewhere. Moreover, use of the documented plants may be validated employing standard scientific procedures, which may have

  20. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity : Pathogenesis, diagnosis and immunomodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31400694X


    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic dermatitis primarily caused by Culicoides midges like C. obsoletus. The welfare of IBH-affected horses is compromised due to severe itch with secondary dermatitis and skin infections. Similar to most allergies, IBH can only be controlled

  1. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of parrots. (United States)

    Doneley, Robert J T


    As wild-caught birds become increasingly rare in aviculture, there is a corresponding decline in the incidence of bacterial and parasitic problems and an increase in the recognition of the importance of maintaining health through better nutrition and husbandry. Nevertheless, the relatively close confines of captivity mean an increased pathogen load in the environment in which companion and aviary parrots live. This increased pathogen load leads to greater exposure of these birds to bacteria and parasites, and consequently a greater risk of infection and disease. This article discusses bacterial and parasitic infections in companion and aviary parrots. It includes the origins, pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, and some of the associated risk factors.

  2. Anthelmintic tolerance in free-living and facultative parasitic isolates of Halicephalobus (Panagrolaimidae). (United States)

    Fonderie, P; Bert, W; Hendrickx, F; Houthoofd, W; Moens, T


    Studies on anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites do not include facultative parasites. Halicephalobus gingivalis is a free-living bacterivorous nematode and a known facultative parasite of horses with a strong indication of some form of tolerance to common anthelmintic drugs. This research presents the results of an in vitro study on the anthelmintic tolerance of several isolates of Halicephalobus to thiabendazole and ivermectin using an adaptation of the Micro-Agar Larval Development Test hereby focusing on egg hatching and larval development. Panagrellus redivivus and Panagrolaimus superbus were included as a positive control. The results generally show that the anthelmintic tolerance of Halicephalobus to both thiabendazole and ivermectin was considerably higher than that of the closely related Panagrolaimidae and, compared to other studies, than that of obligatory equine parasites. Our results further reveal a remarkable trend of increasing tolerance from fully free-living isolates towards horse-associated isolates. In vitro anthelmintic testing with free-living and facultative parasitic nematodes offers the advantage of observing drug effect on the complete life cycle as opposed to obligatory parasites that can only be followed until the third larval stage. We therefore propose Halicephalobus gingivalis as an experimental tool to deepen our understanding of the biology of anthelmintic tolerance.

  3. Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli associated with equine valvular endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke


    Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...

  4. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Bailey, Ernest


    ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a critical role in EVA pathogenesis. To this point, however, the host-specified molecules involved in EAV binding and entry into monocytes/macrophages have not been identified. Identification of the cellular receptors for EAV may provide insights to design antivirals and better prophylactic reagents. In this study, we have demonstrated that EqCXCL16 acts as an EAV entry receptor in EAV-susceptible cells, equine monocytes. These findings represent a significant advance in our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms associated with the entry of EAV into susceptible cells. PMID:26764004

  5. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J


    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  6. Combining parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based and histidine-rich protein 2-based rapid tests to improve specificity for diagnosis of malaria Due to Plasmodium knowlesi and other Plasmodium species in Sabah, Malaysia. (United States)

    Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Barber, Bridget E; Parameswaran, Uma; Bird, Elspeth; Piera, Kim; Aziz, Ammar; Dhanaraj, Prabakaran; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M


    Plasmodium knowlesi causes severe and fatal malaria in Malaysia. Microscopic misdiagnosis is common and may delay appropriate treatment. P. knowlesi can cross-react with "species-specific" parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) monoclonal antibodies used in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax. At one tertiary-care hospital and two district hospitals in Sabah, we prospectively evaluated two combination RDTs for malaria diagnosis by using both a pan-Plasmodium-pLDH (pan-pLDH)/P. falciparum-specific-pLDH (Pf-pLDH) RDT (OptiMAL-IT) and a non-P. falciparum VOM-pLDH/Pf-HRP2 RDT (CareStart). Differential cross-reactivity among these combinations was hypothesized to differentiate P. knowlesi from other Plasmodium monoinfections. Among 323 patients with PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi (n = 193), P. falciparum (n = 93), and P. vivax (n = 37) monoinfections, the VOM-pLDH individual component had the highest sensitivity for nonsevere (35%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 43%) and severe (92%; CI, 81 to 100%) P. knowlesi malaria. CareStart demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 42% (CI, 34 to 49%) and specificity of 74% (CI, 65 to 82%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 83% (CI, 66 to 93%) and specificity of 71% (CI, 65 to 76%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 97% (CI, 90 to 99%) and specificity of 99% (CI, 97 to 100%). OptiMAL-IT demonstrated a P. knowlesi sensitivity of 32% (CI, 25 to 39%) and specificity of 21% (CI, 15 to 29%), a P. vivax sensitivity of 60% (CI, 42 to 75%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 94 to 99%), and a P. falciparum sensitivity of 82% (CI, 72 to 89%) and specificity of 39% (CI, 33 to 46%). The combination of CareStart plus OptiMAL-IT for P. knowlesi using predefined criteria gave a sensitivity of 25% (CI, 19 to 32%) and specificity of 97% (CI, 92 to 99%). Combining two RDT combinations was highly specific for P. knowlesi malaria diagnosis; however, sensitivity was poor. The specificity of pLDH RDTs was decreased for P. vivax and P

  7. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter


    prominent. In humans, troponins and natriuretic peptides are mostly used for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. These cardiac entities, however, are rare in horses. In this species, cardiac biomarkers are rather proposed for the assessment of valvular or myocardial disease...

  8. A diagnostic evaluation of real-time PCR, fluorescent antibody and microscopic agglutination tests in cases of equine leptospiral abortion. (United States)

    Erol, E; Jackson, C B; Steinman, M; Meares, K; Donahoe, J; Kelly, N; Locke, S; Smith, J L; Carter, C N


    A comprehensive evaluation of the real-time PCR assay for leptospirosis in comparison with other diagnostic assays on a large-scale basis is fundamental in validating the assay and determining the causes of equine abortions. To compare and evaluate the diagnostic value of real-time PCR assay for leptospirosis with traditional methods in equine leptospiral abortions. Cross-sectional observational study. A Leptospira spp. fluorescent antibody test (FAT), microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time PCR (targeting the LipL32 gene) were compared and evaluated in equine fetal necropsy specimens (placenta, kidney, liver and heart blood) and maternal serum (when available) in 339 equine fetuses. From a total of 339 equine fetuses necropsied, 21 cases (6.19%) were diagnosed as leptospiral abortion. The majority of leptospiral abortions occurred in January (8 cases) and February (5 cases). Real-time PCR detected 21 of 21 cases, whereas MAT and FAT detected 19 and 18 (including 2 suspicious cases) cases, respectively. Comparing tissues, placenta yielded somewhat similar cycle of threshold values by real-time PCR compared with kidney, whereas kidney was the best specimen for the diagnosis of leptospirosis by the FAT test. In all MAT positive cases, the predominant titre in fetal heart blood was to serovar Pomona (ranging 1:100 to 1:204,800) with little or no cross-reaction to serovar Grippotyphosa. The results indicate that real-time PCR is an effective method for the diagnosis of leptospiral abortion in horses. However, MAT should continue to be used in clinical cases for serovar determination. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Equine metabolic syndrome: Etiopathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Dragiša R.


    Full Text Available Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS is a term adopted in 2002 in aim to define the complex pathology involving obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis in horses and ponies. The EMS was terminologically derived upon similar condition in humans. The metabolic disturbance in equines is developed sequentially to the primary chronic overfeeding, i.e. intake of surplus food to individual needs combined with insufficient activity of animal. The syndrome has been reported more frequently in ponies than in other breeds although genetic background of EMS has not been confirmed. The characteristic symptoms include regional collection of adipose tissue under the skin often distributed regionally i.e. in crest (neck from pool to withers, behind the shoulders, at the dock of the tail and in prepuce in males or in the udder in mares; as well as impaired locomotion and/or lameness in all four limbs and cycling disturbance in mares.

  10. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria. (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A


    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population.

  11. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios. (United States)

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F


    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested that sex-ratio data offer a relatively cheap and easy method for indirectly estimating inbreeding rates. Here, we exploit a new theoretical machinery to show that there are generally valid relationships between f, Wright's coefficient of inbreeding, and sex ratio, z(*), the generality being with respect to population structure. To focus the discussion, we concentrate on malaria and show that the previously derived result, f = 1 - 2z(*), does not depend on the artificial assumptions about population structure that were previously made. Not only does this justify the use of sex ratio as an indirect measure of f, but also we argue that it may actually be preferable to measure f by measuring sex ratios, rather than by measuring departures from Hardy-Weinberg genotypic proportions both in malaria and parasites more generally.

  12. Equine – assisted social pedagogic family work


    Bojc, Karin


    Master's thesis presents literature and research projects on the equine-assisted and video-based social pedagogical work with individuals, groups and families. It describes different ways of assistance of horses in a process of establishing family issues and some ways of horse support assistance in the process of solving those issues in cooperation with social pedagogue. The thesis represents a use of video material in social pedagogical processes, advantages in using video material for resea...

  13. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J


    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  14. Parasites as prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Thieltges, D.W.


    Parasites are usually considered to use their hosts as a resource for energy. However, there is increasing awareness that parasites can also become a resource themselves and serve as prey for other organisms. Here we describe various types of predation in which parasites act as prey for other

  15. Cryptosporidium (Crypto) Disease: Diagnosis & Detection (United States)

    ... this parasite. Related Links For more information about laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis, see the DPDx Web site: Cryptosporidiosis [ ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  16. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.


    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  17. Equine-Assisted Experiential Learning in Occupational Therapy Education (United States)

    Murphy, Lynne; Wilson, Jacqueline; Greenberg, Stacey


    Equine-assisted occupational therapy (EAOT) employs horse and human cooperation in activities that facilitate social, emotional, and cognitive development. The potential benefits of equine-assisted activities for students may influence the development of these types of skills in professional occupational therapy practice. This study explored the…

  18. Perceptions of parents about equine therapy for children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of parents of children with intellectual disabilities regarding the effect of equine therapy on them. Various techniques are used to help individuals with intellectual disabilities to overcome their psychological hurdles. This study focuses on equine therapy namely ...

  19. Equine Helminthiasis In And Around Assela, Arsi Zone Of Oromia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study was conducted on a total of 384 equine comprising 167 each horses and donkeys, and 50 mules by randomly sampling to assess the statues of equine helminthiasis in and around Assela, Arsi-Oromia regional state, Ethiopia by considering species, sex and age of the animal. Qualitative coprological fecal ...

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine infectious diseases continue to be one of the most important threats to the overall health of domesticated horses and proper vaccination is one the most important preventive measure against such infectious diseases. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of equine vaccination among horse ...

  1. The palmar metric: A novel radiographic assessment of the equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital radiographs are often used to subjectively assess the equine digit. Recently, quantitative and objective radiographic measurements have been reported that give new insight into the form and function of the equine digit. We investigated a radio-dense curvilinear profile along the distal phalanx on lateral radiographs ...

  2. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus ...

  3. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification (United States)

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole


    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  4. Autism and Equine-Assisted Interventions: A Systematic Mapping Review (United States)

    McDaniel Peters, B. Caitlin; Wood, Wendy


    This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies,…

  5. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not? (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy


    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  6. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  7. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) (United States)

    Dubey, J. P.; Howe, D. K.; Furr, M.; Saville, W. J.; Marsh, A.E.; Reed, S. M.; Grigg, M. E.


    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especially sea otters (Enhydra lutris). EPM-like illness has also been recorded in several other mammals, including domestic dogs and cats. This paper updates S. neurona and EPM information from the last 15 years on the advances regarding life cycle, molecular biology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and control. PMID:25737052

  8. Equine motor neuron disease: report on the first cases in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Martins Amorim


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to report cases of equine motor neuron disease in different breeds and ages. The main clinical signs were progressive weight loss, muscle atrophy, generalized weakness, muscle fasciculation and trembling, frequent shifting of support hindlimbs, feet under body, excessive recumbency and death. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological studies of the spinal cord, which revealed degeneration and loss of neurons in the ventral horn, particularly cervical and lumbar intumescence. Muscle biopsy revealed neuromuscular disorders with denervation atrophy. The progressive muscle atrophy, weakness and motor neuron degeneration are similar to those in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig’s disease, as described in human beings.

  9. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany. (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder


    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  10. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  11. IgA in the horse: cloning of equine polymeric Ig receptor and J chain and characterization of recombinant forms of equine IgA


    Lewis, M J; Wagner, B; Irvine, R.M.; Woof, J.M.


    As in other mammals, immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the horse has a key role in immune defense. To better dissect equine IgA function, we isolated complementary DNA (cDNA) clones for equine J chain and polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). When coexpressed with equine IgA, equine J chain promoted efficient IgA polymerization. A truncated version of equine pIgR, equivalent to secretory component, bound with nanomolar affinity to recombinant equine and human dimeric IgA but not with monomeric IgA from eithe...

  12. Intestinal parasites and pregnancy. (United States)

    D'Alauro, F; Lee, R V; Pao-In, K; Khairallah, M


    Intestinal parasites and pregnancy commonly coexist. Environmental, nutritional, and immunologic factors influence the clinical manifestations and determine the need for treatment of intestinal parasitism during pregnancy. No serious medical or obstetric problems attributable to intestinal parasites developed among 147 parasitized pregnant refugees living and delivering in a refugee camp in Southeast Thailand. These patients received adequate nutrition, careful prenatal monitoring, and no antiparasitic drug therapy. During pregnancy chemotherapy for intestinal parasites should not be used unless required for appropriate clinical and public health reasons.

  13. Equine coital exanthema and its potential economic implications for the equine industry. (United States)

    Barrandeguy, Maria; Thiry, Etienne


    Equine coital exanthema (ECE) caused by equid herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) is a contagious venereal disease characterised by the formation of painful papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers on the external genitalia of both mares and stallions. EHV-3 is an alphaherpesvirus that is distinct from the other equine herpesviruses and endemic in most horse breeding populations worldwide. The negative impacts of ECE on equine breeding enterprises are the forced, temporary disruption of mating activities of mares and stallions, the additional care and supportive treatment that is required for affected horses, and the risk of virus spread by either fresh or frozen semen as well as by artificial insemination and embryo transfer. Because there are no effective surveillance systems to report ECE, its true prevalence and economic impact are difficult to assess and are probably underestimated. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances in understanding of EHV-3 infections and to consider the economic consequences of ECE within the current context of the equine industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Paradigms for parasite conservation. (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C


    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  15. Methanol as a cryoprotectant for equine embryos. (United States)

    Bass, L D; Denniston, D J; Maclellan, L J; McCue, P M; Seidel, G E; Squires, E L


    Equine embryos (n=43) were recovered nonsurgically 7-8 days after ovulation and randomly assigned to be cryopreserved in one of two cryoprotectants: 48% (15M) methanol (n=22) or 10% (136 M) glycerol (n=21). Embryos (300-1000 microm) were measured at five intervals after exposure to glycerol (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min) or methanol (0, 15, 35, 75 and 10 min) to determine changes (%) in diameter over time (+/-S.D.). Embryos were loaded into 0.25-ml plastic straws, sealed, placed in a programmable cell freezer and cooled from room temperature (22 degrees C) to -6 degrees C. Straws were then seeded, held at -6 degrees C for 10 min and then cooled to -33 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Two or three embryos within a treatment group were thawed and assigned to be either cultured for 12 h prior to transfer or immediately nonsurgically transferred to a single mare. Embryo diameter decreased in all embryos upon initial exposure to cryoprotectant. Embryos in methanol shrank and recovered slightly to 76+/-8 % of their original diameter; however, embryos in glycerol continued to shrink, reaching 57+/-6 % of their original diameter prior to cryopreservation. Survival rates of embryos through Day 16 of pregnancy were 38 and 23%, respectively (P>0.05) for embryos cryopreserved in the presence of glycerol or methanol. There was no difference in pregnancy rates of mares receiving embryos that were cultured prior to transfer or not cultured (P>0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated that 48% methanol was not toxic to fresh equine embryos but methanol provided no advantage over glycerol as a cryoprotectant for equine blastocysts.

  16. Microbial quality of equine frozen semen. (United States)

    Corona, A; Cherchi, R


    Bacteriological surveillance is little applied in management of equine frozen semen but it is quite important to verify the microbial contamination in order to find out the chance of transmission of pathology to the mare in AI. Authors describe a qualitative and quantitative analysis for bacterial contamination on long time (3-17 years) equine frozen semen stored in liquid nitrogen. The semen checked, produced in Italy and in another Europe country, was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen inside sealed plastic straws. One hundred and ten straws were checked out for pathogenic and no pathogenic bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes and fungi (moulds and yeasts). The Total Microbial Charge was quite variable with an average of about 1.4 x 10(5)CFU/ml. Mostly the microbial agents identified were fungi (17.5%), Enterobacter-coccus spp. (15%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.25%), Stenothophomonas maltophila (6.25%) and anaerobic bacteria like Propionibacterium granulosum (7.5%) and Clostridium spp. (3.75%). 3.75% were unidentified Gram-negative rod and cocci. Streptococcus spp., Staph. aureus, E. coli, Th. equigenitalis and Mycoplasma spp. were not detected. The most represented species were Enterobacter-coccus spp. (1.1 x 10(5)CFU/ml), St. maltophila (8 x 10(4)CFU/ml) and Pr. granulosum (7 x 10(4)CFU/ml) while yeast and even more moulds were little abundant (4.7 x 10(4) and 3.4 x 10(4)CFU/ml respectively). The knowledge of equine frozen semen microbial quality is essential to check out transmission of venereal disease and improve the quality of cryopreserved germplasm.

  17. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome. (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M


    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infection control in equine critical care settings. (United States)

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S


    There is a recognizable standard of practice for infection control in veterinary medicine. Effort must be given to control and prevention of infectious disease transmission within a facility and among animal populations. In the critical care setting, patients typically have a high degree of systemic illness and immune compromise, are commonly subjected to invasive procedures and placement of indwelling devices, and frequently receive antimicrobials and gastric protectants. Every equine critical care unit is distinctive in its physical and operational features and the types of patients that are managed. Infection control programs must therefore be tailored to each facility's needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations in equine myopathies of unknown origin. (United States)

    Van Driessche, K; Ducatelle, R; Chiers, K; Van Coster, R; van der Kolk, J H; van der Kolk, H


    Very few mitochondrial myopathies have been described in horses. To examine the ultrastructure of muscle mitochondria in equine cases of myopathy of unknown origin. Biopsies of vastus lateralis of the Musculus quadriceps femoris were taken predominantly immediately post mortem and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As a result, electron micrographs of 90 horses in total were available for analysis comprising 4 control horses, 16 horses suffering from myopathy and 70 otherwise diseased horses. Following a thorough clinical and laboratory work-up, four out of five patients that did not fit into the usual algorithm to detect known causes of myopathy showed ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations. Small mitochondria with zones with complete disruption of cristae associated with lactic acidemia were detected in a 17-year-old pony mare, extremely long and slender mitochondria with longitudinal cristae in a 5-year-old Quarter horse stallion, a mixture of irregular extremely large mitochondria (measuring 2500 by 800 nm) next to smaller ones in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare and round mitochondria with only few cristae in a 11-year-old pony gelding. It remains uncertain whether the subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulations observed in the fifth patient have any pathological significance. Ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria were detected in at least four horses. To conclude that these are due to mitochondrial dysfuntions, biochemical tests should be performed. The possibility of a mitochondrial myopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of muscle weakness.

  20. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R.


    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based

  1. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection. (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio


    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  2. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  3. Parasites, Plants, and People. (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony


    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund


    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  5. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Xie


    Full Text Available Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  6. Common intestinal parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V


    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E...

  7. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano


    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  8. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners]. (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M


    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  9. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes. (United States)

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J


    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new laboratorial method for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs Um novo método laboratorial para diagnóstico de parasitos gastrointestinais em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho


    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to introduce a new technique called TF-Test Modified∕Dog for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. Fecal samples from 106 dogs were processed by the technique TF-Test Modified∕Dog and the techniques of centrifugation-flotation in zinc sulfate, simple-flotation by saturated solution of sodium chloride, direct microscopy exam and TF-Test Conventional. Sensitivity was higher in the TF-Test Modified∕Dog (98.41%, followed by flotation in saturated zinc sulfate (77.78%, TF-Test Conventional (73.02%, flotation by saturated sodium chloride (55.55%, and direct microscopy exam (30.16%. The diagnostic efficiency varied from 58.49% to 99.06%, with the highest value also obtained by the new proposed technique. Efficiency level of 99.06% with kappa index 0.979 (almost perfect was obtained with the TF-Test Modified∕Dog. These results represent significant statistical gains (P O objetivo deste estudo foi introduzir a nova técnica TF-Test Modified∕Dog para diagnóstico de parasitos gastrointestinais em cães. Amostras fecais de 106 cães foram processadas pela técnica de TF-Test Modified∕Dog e também por técnicas de centrifugação-flutuação em sulfato de zinco, flutuação simples em solução saturada de cloreto de sódio, exame microscópico direto e TF-Test Convencional. A sensibilidade foi maior no TF-Test Modified∕Dog (98,41%, seguido por centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sulfato de zinco (77,78%, TF-Test Convencional (73,02%, flutuação em solução saturada de cloreto de sódio (55,55%, e exame microscópico direto (30,16%. A eficiência diagnóstica variou de 58,49% a 99,06%, com maior valor obtido pela nova técnica. Foi obtido com o TF-Test Modified∕Dog eficiência de 99,06%, com índice kappa de 0,979 (Quase perfeito. Estes resultados representam ganhos estatisticamente significativos (P < 0,05 de 20,63% de sensibilidade e 12,27% de eficiência sobre a melhor entre as outras t

  11. Validation and usefulness of the Sperm Quality Analyzer V equine for equine semen analysis. (United States)

    Hoogewijs, M; De Vliegher, S; De Schauwer, C; Govaere, J; Smits, K; Hoflack, G; de Kruif, A; Van Soom, A


    Routine semen analysis includes evaluation of concentration combined with seminal volume, morphology and motility. Subjective analysis of these parameters is known to be inaccurate, imprecise and subject to variability. Automated semen analysis could lead to an increased standardization in and between laboratories but for that to happen automated devices need to be validated. A new device, the sperm quality analyzer V equine (SQA-Ve) version 1.00.43, was evaluated for its repeatability and agreement with light microscopy (LM), for raw and extended equine semen. Results were compared with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA), which was also tested for its repeatability and agreement with LM. The SQA-Ve showed a good repeatability and fine agreement for assessing sperm concentration of raw semen based on scatter and Bland-Altman plots. This was in contrast with the motility parameters, which had a low repeatability. Morphology assessment with SQA-Ve was poorly repeatable as well as in poor agreement with LM. For extended semen, the findings were comparable. The SQA-Ve did well for concentration, whereas for the motility parameters repeatability was only just acceptable, with no agreement with LM. This sharply contrasted the CASA findings that were highly repeatable and almost in perfect agreement with LM. Based on these findings, the tested version of the SQA-Ve is insufficiently accurate to be used for analyzing raw or extended equine semen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for 14 ...

  13. Epidemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in La Guajira, Colombia, 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Rivas; L. A. Diaz; V. M. Cardenas; E. Daza; L. Bruzon; A. Alcala; O. De la Hoz; F. M. Caceres; G. Aristizabal; J. W. Martinez; D. Revelo; F. De la Hoz; J. Boshell; T. Camacho; L. Calderon; V. A. Olano; L. I. Villarreal; D. Roselli; G. Alvarez; G. Ludwig; T. Tsai


    In 1995, the first Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) outbreak in Colombia in 22 years caused an estimated 75,000 human cases, 3000 with neurologic complications and 300 fatal, in La Guajira State...

  14. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe


    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  15. Parasites from the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    will investigate how the diversity of food-borne parasitic infections has changed with cultural and dietary habits, hunting practice and intensity of animal husbandry. This is done by isolating and typing ancient DNA remains from parasite eggs found in archeological samples from across Denmark....

  16. (Cobb) Thorne, parasite de

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 11, 2012 ... Sarah JL, Pinochet J, Stanton J (1996). Radopholus similis Cobb, nematode parasite des bananiers. Parasites et ravageurs des Musa. Fiche technique n° 1. INIBAP, Montpellier, France, p. 2. Singleton VL, Ortofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and ...

  17. Parasites and marine invasions (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.


    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  18. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.


    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini


    Full Text Available Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71 and 97.2% (70 of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72 also responded with protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8 viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses.

  20. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes. (United States)

    King, Melissa R


    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Emerging Trauma-Informed Intervention


    Page Walker Buck; Nadine Bean; Kristen de Marco


    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) has emerged as a promising, evidence-based intervention for the treatment of trauma and stressor-related disorders. This experiential therapy offers an option for clients whose traumatic experiences render traditional talk therapies ineffective. Initial research on the most robust model of EAP, developed by the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA), indicates strong, positive effects for children, adolescents and adults who have experienc...

  2. Western equine encephalitis with rapid onset of parkinsonism. (United States)

    Schultz, D R; Barthal, J S; Garrett, G


    A patient with confirmed western equine encephalitis had the rapid onset of postencephalitic parkinsonian sequelae. This observation corroborates similar previous but rare reports. Response to therapy with levodopa, dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, and trihexyphenidyl was dramatic. However, remission maintained for 12 months without medication suggests that the parkinsonism would have remitted spontaneously. In either case, this has not previously been reported with the western equine togavirus.



    Garber, Lindsey


    The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) is sponsored by the USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services (VS). The NAHMS Equine '98 Study was designed to provide information about the nation's equine population. Twenty-eight states were included in the study. The USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with VS to select a statistically-valid sample such that inferences could be made to all equids and operations with equids in the 28 states. For the purposes of the s...

  4. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Hestand

    Full Text Available Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons.

  5. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals]. (United States)

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina


    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  6. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India. (United States)

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay


    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a 'notifiable' disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication.

  7. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  8. Equine and human mutual welfare: a whole subject? Critical aspects and possible strategies in equine-assisted activities and therapies


    Li Destri Nicosia, Dora


    General aim of the study is equine welfare, particularly concerning different husbandry methodic and inter-specific relational factors. Specific aim is the evaluation of possible mutual (to humans and to equines) benefits and the analysis of critical factors/strength points, of human-horse relationship within Therapeutic Riding context (TR). The peculiarities of human-horse relationship (compared to the bond with “Pet”) are analyzed, concerning their socio-anthropological, psychological, p...

  9. Equine Hoof Canker: Cell Proliferation and Morphology. (United States)

    Apprich, V; Licka, T; Zipfl, N; Tichy, A; Gabriel, C


    Hoof canker is described as progressive pododermatitis of the equine hoof with absent epidermal cornification and extensive proliferation of the dermal papillary body; however, in-depth research on the type of proliferative activity has not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine cell-specific proliferation patterns together with morphological analysis of hoof canker tissue. Tissues removed during surgery from 19 horses presented for treatment of canker were compared with similar postmortem tissues of healthy hooves of 10 horses. Morphological alterations visible in light microscopy were assessed semiquantitatively and graded for severity. Proliferative activity was evaluated by means of anti-PCNA (proliferative cell nuclear antigen) and anti-Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Histologically, canker tissue showed 5 major morphological alterations-the presence of lacunae, vacuoles, giant cells, hemorrhage, and inflammation-not seen in control tissue. Also, there was a notable koilocytotic appearance of keratinocytes in canker tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of PCNA protein expression in keratinocytes and fibroblasts of canker tissue compared with control tissue. In control tissue, keratinocytes showed higher levels of Ki67 compared with canker tissue, while the dermal fibroblasts of both groups showed similar levels of Ki67, indicating similar proliferative activity of less than 3% of total dermal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to previous reports, there is no evidence for increased proliferative activity of the dermal papillary body associated with hoof canker. Increased levels of PCNA protein expression and morphological alterations indicate that dysregulation of keratinocyte differentiation constitutes a key event in equine hoof canker development.

  10. Glucose transport in the equine hoof. (United States)

    Asplin, K E; Curlewis, J D; McGowan, C M; Pollitt, C C; Sillence, M N


    Several conditions associated with laminitis in horses are also associated with insulin resistance, which represents the failure of glucose uptake via the insulin-responsive glucose transport proteins in certain tissues. Glucose starvation is a possible mechanism of laminitis, but glucose uptake mechanisms in the hoof are not well understood. To determine whether glucose uptake in equine lamellae is dependent on insulin, to characterise the glucose transport mechanism in lamellae from healthy horses and ponies, and to compare this with ponies with laminitis. Study 1 investigated the effects of insulin (300 µU/ml; acute and 24 h) and various concentrations of glucose up to 24 mmol/l, on 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-(3)H] glucose uptake in hoof lamellar explants in vitro. Study 2 measured the mRNA expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 transport proteins by PCR analysis in coronary band and lamellar tissue from healthy horses and ponies, ponies with insulin-induced laminitis, and ponies suffering from chronic laminitis as a result of equine Cushing's syndrome. Glucose uptake was not affected by insulin. Furthermore, the relationship between glucose concentration and glucose uptake was consistent with an insulin-independent glucose transport system. GLUT1 mRNA expression was strong in brain, coronary band and lamellar tissue, but was weak in skeletal muscle. Expression of GLUT4 mRNA was strong in skeletal muscle, but was either absent or barely detectable in coronary band and lamellar tissue. The results do not support a glucose deprivation model for laminitis, in which glucose uptake in the hoof is impaired by reduced insulin sensitivity. Hoof lamellae rely on a GLUT1-mediated glucose transport system, and it is unlikely that GLUT4 proteins play a substantial role in this tissue. Laminitis associated with insulin resistance is unlikely to be due to impaired glucose uptake and subsequent glucose deprivation in lamellae. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Diagnosis of leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Elmahallawy, Ehab Kotb; Sampedro Martinez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Granger, Javier; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannick; Agil, Ahamd; Navarro Mari, Jose Mari; Gutierrez Fernandez, Jose


    Leishmaniasis is a clinically heterogeneous syndrome caused by intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (not apparent), localized (skin lesion), and disseminated (cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral) infection. This spectrum of manifestations depends on the immune status of the host, on the parasite, and on immunoinflammatory responses. Visceral leishmaniasis causes high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Reliable laboratory methods become mandatory for accurate diagnosis, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those infected with HIV. In this article, we review the current state of the diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis, especially  the serological test.

  12. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Özgür


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen. Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15% were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies. Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis.

  13. Parasitic miticidal therapy. (United States)

    Ghubash, Rudayna


    Parasites are a common cause of dermatological disease in the dog and cat. Knowledge of different miticidal options for the common parasitic diseases is imperative when choosing the appropriate treatment for a patient. This is especially important with the recent advent of safer and more effective antiparasitic medications. Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for Cheyletiella spp., Demodex spp., Notoedres cati, Sarcoptes scabei, and Otodectes cyanotis are discussed, with emphasis on protocols for miticidal therapies, as well as safety concerns and side effects. This information will allow the practitioner to choose the safest and most efficient treatment for parasitic skin disease in their small animal patients.

  14. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology]. (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S


    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  15. Detection of Strongylus vulgaris in equine faecal samples by real-time PCR and larval culture - method comparison and occurrence assessment. (United States)

    Kaspar, A; Pfister, K; Nielsen, M K; Silaghi, C; Fink, H; Scheuerle, M C


    Strongylus vulgaris has become a rare parasite in Germany during the past 50 years due to the practice of frequent prophylactic anthelmintic therapy. To date, the emerging development of resistance in Cyathostominae and Parascaris spp. to numerous equine anthelmintics has changed deworming management and the frequency of anthelmintic usage. In this regard, reliable detection of parasitic infections, especially of the highly pathogenic S. vulgaris is essential. In the current study, two diagnostic methods for the detection of infections with S. vulgaris were compared and information on the occurrence of this parasite in German horses was gained. For this purpose, faecal samples of 501 horses were screened for S. vulgaris with real-time PCR and an additional larval culture was performed in samples of 278 horses. A subset of 26 horses underwent multiple follow-up examinations with both methods in order to evaluate both the persistence of S. vulgaris infections and the reproducibility of each diagnostic method. The real-time PCR revealed S. vulgaris-DNA in ten of 501 investigated equine samples (1.9%). The larval culture demonstrated larvae of S. vulgaris in three of the 278 samples (1.1%). A direct comparison of the two methods was possible in 321 samples including 43 follow-up examinations with the result of 11 S. vulgaris-positive samples by real-time PCR and 4 S. vulgaris-positive samples by larval culture. The McNemar's test (p-value = 0.016) revealed a significant difference and the kappa values (0.525) showed a moderate agreement between real-time PCR and larval culture. The real-time PCR detected a significantly higher proportion of positives of S. vulgaris compared to larval culture and should thus be considered as a routine diagnostic method for the detection of S. vulgaris in equine samples.

  16. Optimization and Validation of Indirect ELISA Using Truncated TssB Protein for the Serodiagnosis of Glanders amongst Equines

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    Harisankar Singha


    Full Text Available Objective. To express truncated TssB protein of Burkholderia mallei and to evaluate its diagnostic efficacy for serological detection of glanders among equines. Materials and Methods. In an attempt to develop recombinant protein based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, N-terminal 200 amino acid sequences of B. mallei TssB protein—a type 6 secretory effector protein—were expressed in prokaryotic expression system. Diagnostic potential of recombinant TssB protein was evaluated in indirect ELISA using a panel of glanders positive (n=49, negative (n=30, and field serum samples (n=1811. Cross-reactivity of the assay was assessed with equine disease control serum and human melioidosis positive serum. Results. In comparison to CFT, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 99.7% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions. The indirect ELISA method using the truncated TssB offered safer and more rapid and efficient means of serodiagnosis of glanders in equines. These data highlight the use of TssB as potential diagnostic antigen for serological diagnosis of glanders.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections in leukemic patients with diarrhea

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    Serhat Uysal, Eylem Akdur, Varol Tunalı


    Full Text Available Objectives: Leukemic patients are at increased risk of severe infections with parasites. Moreover, intestinal parasites can lead to severe diarrhea in patients with immunosuppression. The purpose of this study is to decide intestinal parasitic infections and clinical aspects in leukemic patients. Methods: Analysis was done of all leukemic patients hospitalized between January 2007 and October 2015 retrospectively. Results: Ninety-one patients were evaluated. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in nine (9.9% patient. Cryptosporidium was the most frequently identified parasite, recovered from six specimens (6.6%, while Blastocystis (n=3 and Entamoeba (n=1 accounted for 3.3% and 1.1%, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica were detected together in one patient. Duration of diarrhea in patients with and without parasite were 16.1±9.3 and 7.9±2.9days, respectively (P=0.037. Abdominal cramps in patients with and without parasite were present in seven (77.8% and 20 (24.4% patients, respectively (P=0.002. In contrast, vomiting in patient with and without parasite were present in five (55.6% and 81 (98.8% patients, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: Parasitic infections should be considered for differential diagnosis in leukemic patients with diarrhea. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 63-66

  18. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England


    Hannah R. Lomas; Philip A. Robinson


    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain a...

  19. Eastern equine encephalitis in 9 South American camelids. (United States)

    Nolen-Walston, Rose; Bedenice, Daniela; Rodriguez, Carlos; Rushton, Steven; Bright, Amy; Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Short, Diana; Majdalany, Ron; Tewari, Deepanker; Pedersen, Douglas; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger; Del Piero, Fabio


    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne togavirus (alphavirus) that causes severe (often fatal) encephalitis in many mammalian species, but it has not been reported previously in South American camelids. South American camelids can become naturally infected with EEE virus and show encephalitic signs similar to those observed in other affected species. Nine cases (8 alpacas and 1 llama, aged 3.5 weeks to 12 years) were identified; 4 of 9 were 510 weeks old. All cases were from the East Coast of the United States and presented in late summer and fall. A retrospective study was performed to include confirmed cases of EEE in camelids in North America before 2006. Eight of nine (89%) camelids died or were euthanized in extremis, with the mean time to death of 2 days. Clinical signs were consistent with encephalitis and included fever, lethargy, ataxia, seizures, recumbency, torticollis, opisthotonus, and vestibular signs. No consistent hematologic abnormalities were identified, and cerebrospinal fluid contained an increased protein concentration in the single camelid analyzed. No successful therapy was identified. EEE was confirmed by alphavirus detection by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the central nervous system (CNS) and by serology. Findings included polioencephalitis with lymphocytic perivascular cuffing; neutrophil infiltration; gliosis; neuron satellitosis; necrosis; and edema, with intracytoplasmic alphavirus within neurons and glial cells. No virus was detected in extraneural tissues. In endemic areas, EEE should be considered a differential diagnosis for young and adult camelids with CNS disease. Brain histopathology with indirect IHC or PCR is diagnostic.

  20. Children and Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... this infection if their mother was infected during pregnancy. Several parasitic diseases occur occasionally in the United States and ... clothing. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) diseases ("helminth" means ... intestinal obstruction, anemia, and retarded growth and cognitive development. ...

  1. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the dorsal and abaxial aspects of the equine fetlock. (United States)

    Denoix, J M; Jacot, S; Bousseau, B; Perrot, P


    This paper describes normal ultrasound images of the soft tissues of the dorsal and abaxial aspects of the equine fetlock. The palmar aspect of the fetlock is not discussed because it is related to the suspensory apparatus and flexor tendon anatomy which has been previously described. Ultrasound scanning was performed with 7.5 MHz linear or 10 MHz sector probes and recorded on 7.5 cm U-matic videocassettes allowing further retrospective data analysis, computer manipulation and good image reproducibility. Sagittal, parasagittal, frontal and transverse ultrasound scans of 13 lameness free mature horses were compared to anatomically dissected leg specimens, anatomical sections and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans of isolated limbs. The results are focused on the comparison between anatomical sections and ultrasonograms performed on the legs of nonlame horses. Ultrasonography was demonstrated to be a very accurate imaging procedure for soft tissue structures at the dorsal and abaxial aspects of the equine fetlock. Under clinical conditions, a thorough knowledge of normal ultrasonographic anatomy is critical for an accurate diagnosis of fetlock soft tissue injury.

  2. Rapid detection of equine coronavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Morita, Yoshinori; Niwa, Hidekazu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi


    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of equine coronavirus (ECoV). This assay was conducted at 60 °C for 40 min. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was confirmed using several equine intestinal and respiratory pathogens in addition to ECoV. The novel assay failed to cross-react with the other pathogens tested, suggesting it is highly specific for ECoV. Using artificially synthesized ECoV RNA, the 50% detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 10(1.8)copies/reaction. This is a 50-fold greater sensitivity than conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, but a 4-fold lower sensitivity than quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Eighty-two fecal samples collected during ECoV outbreaks were analyzed. ECoV was detected in 59 samples using the RT-LAMP assay, and in 30 and 65 samples using RT-PCR or qRT-PCR assays, respectively. Although the RT-LAMP assay is less sensitive than qRT-PCR techniques, it can be performed without the need for expensive equipment. Thus, the RT-LAMP assay might be suitable for large-scale surveillance and diagnosis of ECoV infection in laboratories with limited resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathoecology of Chiribaya parasitism

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    Martinson Elizabeth


    Full Text Available The excavations of Chiribaya culture sites in the Osmore drainage of southern Peru focused on the recovery of information about prehistoric disease, including parasitism. The archaeologists excavated human, dog, guinea pig, and llama mummies. These mummies were analyzed for internal and external parasites. The results of the analysis and reconstruction of prehistoric life from the excavations allows us to interpret the pathoecology of the Chiribaya culture.

  4. 76 FR 31220 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries (United States)


    ... Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement for... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center for Import and...

  5. 76 FR 52547 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries (United States)


    ... Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... importation of horses from countries affected with contagious equine metritis. We are also delaying the... Veterinarian, Equine Imports, National Center for Import and Export, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39...

  6. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries (United States)


    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM) by incorporating an additional certification requirement . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Ellen Buck, Senior Staff Veterinarian, Equine...

  7. 9 CFR 312.3 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (United States)


    ... inspected and passed equine products. 312.3 Section 312.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... § 312.3 Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed equine products. (a) The official... § 317.2 of this subchapter to identify inspected and passed mule and other (nonhorse) equine carcasses...

  8. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  9. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India. (United States)

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R


    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  10. A review of designer anabolic steroids in equine sports. (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D


    In recent years, the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of designer steroids. These compounds are readily accessible online in 'dietary' or 'nutritional' supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry. Despite considerable focus in human sports, until recently there has been limited investigation into these compounds in equine systems. To effectively respond to the threat of designer steroids, a detailed understanding of their metabolism is needed to identify markers and metabolites arising from their misuse. A summary of the literature detailing the metabolism of these compounds in equine systems is presented with an aim to identify metabolites suitable for incorporation into screening protocols by anti-doping laboratories. The future of equine anti-doping research is likely to be guided by the incorporation of alternate testing matrices into routine screening, the improvement of in vitro technologies that can mimic in vivo equine metabolism, and the improvement of instrumentation or analytical methods that allow for the development of untargeted screening, and metabolomics approaches for use in anti-doping screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso


    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  12. Fallen stock data: An essential source of information for quantitative knowledge of equine mortality in France. (United States)

    Tapprest, J; Morignat, E; Dornier, X; Borey, M; Hendrikx, P; Ferry, B; Calavas, D; Sala, C


    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiological purposes. In France, data from rendering plants are centralised in the Fallen Stock Data Interchange database (FSDI), managed by the French Ministry of Agriculture, while individual equine data are centralised in the French equine census database, SIRE, managed by the French horse and riding institute (IFCE). To evaluate whether the combined use of the FSDI and SIRE databases can provide representative and accurate quantitative information on mortality for the French equine population and to propose enhancements of these databases to improve the quality of the resulting demographic information. Descriptive study. Mortality ratios for the French equine population were calculated per year between 2011 and 2014 and temporal variations in equine mortality modelled during the same period. Survival analyses were performed on a sample of equines traceable in both the FSDI and SIRE databases. Estimates of the annual mortality ratios varied from 3.02 to 3.40% depending on the years. Survival rates of equines 2-years-old and over differed according to breed categories with the highest median age at death for the ponies. The weekly description of mortality highlighted marked seasonality of deaths whatever the category of equines. Modelling temporal variations in equine mortality also brought to light excess mortality. Insufficient traceability of equines between the two databases. The FSDI database provided an initial approach to equine death ratios on a national scale and an original description of temporal variations in mortality. Improvement in the traceability of equines between the FSDI and SIRE databases is needed to enable their combined use, providing a representative description of equine longevity and a more detailed description of temporal variations in mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  13. Distribution of Parasitic Cestod

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    S Karimi


    Full Text Available Background: Ligulae intestinalis is a parasitic cestode, which has the economic-health importance in fishery industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this parasite in Mazandaran. The effects of habitat temperature and kind of pool (sandy-cement were considered as well. Methods: In this study, 103 fish samples were obtained in all stages; the samples (male and female were divided into 3 groups based on length of fish, temperature, origin of cultured fish, kind of pool, height from sea and sex. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out in all stages of the parasite (procercoid, plerocercoid and adult. Chi-square and Pearson's double square tests (P<0.05 were conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence and determination of reliability in six sampling areas, respectively. Results: Total rate of the parasites were 9.7% in all groups. There was significant difference between parasitism rate and height of sea level, kind of pool (maximum in sandy pools and high temperature. The multi analyses regarding to above-mentioned three criteria also indicated meaningful difference between these criteria and parasitism rate. Seasonal conditions enhance the prevalence of ligulae intestinalis. Conclusion: Flexibility in parasite's life cycle and choosing different hosts makes it challenging case in fishery industry; moreover its prevalence could be predicted according to environmental conditions so choosing the minimal at risk place for salmonids farming. Further studies are recommended for evaluating the problems in fish fertility and probable risk for infected fish consumers.

  14. How exercise influences equine joint homeostasis. (United States)

    Te Moller, Nikae C R; van Weeren, P René


    The maintenance of joint homeostasis is integral to joint health. Knowledge of the influence of exercise on joint homeostasis is not only relevant for determining sustainable levels of equine athletic training, but also for the study of early development of osteoarthritis or cartilage repair in animal models. This review provides an overview of findings derived from in vivo studies and postmortem analyses investigating exercise effects on various joint tissue components in the horse, supplemented where appropriate with data from small animal models. The concept of joint homeostasis and possible methods to quantify this are also discussed, with special attention to the potential benefits and pitfalls of biomarker analysis in synovial fluid. The main conclusion is that biomechanical loading in the form of deliberate exercise has a major influence on the delicate homeostatic balance within the tissues constituting the diarthrodial joint and on their interactions, which is crucial for proper and durable joint function. The amount and intensity of exercise can have a lasting effect on tissue characteristics in juvenile animals, but affects joint homeostasis in mature animals and can affect the delicate balance between physiologic adaptation and development of pathology. Biomarkers in synovial fluid can be helpful in assessing joint homeostasis, but their use and interpretation require caution and are often far from straightforward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FLOTAC can detect parasitic and pseudoparasitic elements in reptiles. (United States)

    Rinaldi, L; Mihalca, A D; Cirillo, R; Maurelli, M P; Montesano, M; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G


    Reptiles have increased in popularity worldwide; snakes and lizards are frequently used as pets. As a consequence of their popularity, the interest of the scientific community in these animals has increased. In order to acquire epidemiological data on the parasitic infections affecting reptiles in Italy a survey was carried out in 125 snakes and 25 lizards bred in the Campania region of southern Italy. Individual fecal samples were collected and FLOTAC was used for copromicroscopic diagnosis. Eimeriidae, oxyurids, strongylids, other gastro-intestinal nematodes and pulmonary nematodes were the most representative parasites found. Eggs of pseudoparasites (mites, oxyurids and trichurids affecting rodents) were also found. The use of FLOTAC for diagnosis of parasitic infections in reptiles has demonstrated to be a rapid and sensitive test to improve diagnosis and acquire new information on the parasitological fauna of reptiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrition-parasite interaction. (United States)

    Coop, R L; Kyriazakis, I


    The interactions between host nutrition and parasitism in ruminants are viewed within a framework that accounts for the allocation of scarce nutrient resources, such as energy and protein, between the various competing body functions of the host. These include functions that are the direct result of parasitism. Since it is proposed that the host gives priority to the reversal of the pathophysiological consequences of parasitism over other body functions, it is to be expected that improved nutrition will always lead to improved resilience. On the other hand, it is proposed that the function of growth, pregnancy and lactation are prioritised over the expression of immunity. Thus, improved nutrition may affect the degree of expression of immunity during these phases. The framework is useful at highlighting areas of future research on host/parasite/nutrition interactions. Its suggestions can account for the observations of the periparturient relaxation of immunity in reproducing females, as well as the reduction in worm burden in small ruminants supplemented with additional protein. Although developed for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants, the concepts of the framework should be applicable to the interactions of nutrition in other parasitic diseases.

  17. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

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    Morrison David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  18. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms. (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan


    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  19. Internal parasites of reptiles. (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund


    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  20. Malaria parasites: the great escape

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    Laurent Rénia


    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  1. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

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    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  2. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP) : A scale-construction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Johannes P A M; Van Dierendonck, Machteld C


    Although recognition of equine pain has been studied extensively over the past decades there is still need for improvement in objective identification of pain in horses with acute colic. This study describes scale construction and clinical applicability of the Equine Utrecht University Scale for

  3. On biomass of parasitic plants (United States)

    He, J. H.; Mo, L.-F.


    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ

  4. Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic tradeoff in plains zebra (Equus quagga) (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Turner, Wendy C.; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M.


    Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite ‘susceptibility alleles’ were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

  5. Pigment retinopathy in warmblood horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and equine motor neuron disease. (United States)

    Finno, Carrie J; Kaese, Heather J; Miller, Andrew D; Gianino, Giuliana; Divers, Thomas; Valberg, Stephanie J


    A pigment retinopathy has been reported in adult horses with equine motor neuron disease (EMND) arising from chronic α-tocopherol (α-TP) deficiency. A pigment retinopathy has not been identified in horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM) that affects genetically susceptible young horses with α-TP deficiency. The objective of this report is to describe, for the first time, a pigment retinopathy in a family of α-TP-deficient Warmbloods (WB) with clinically apparent NAD/EDM or EMND. Twenty-five WB horses from one farm underwent complete neurologic and ophthalmic examinations and serum α-TP concentrations were assessed. Two of the most severely ataxic horses were euthanized and postmortem examinations performed. Alpha-TP deficiency was widespread on this farm (22 of 25 horses). Eleven of 25 horses were clinically normal (age range 2-12 years), one had signs of EMND (6 years of age), 10 had signs of ataxia consistent with NAD/EDM (1-10 years), and two of these were postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND. A pigment retinopathy characterized by varying amounts of granular dark pigment in the tapetal retina was observed in four clinically apparent NAD/EDM horses (two postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND) and one horse with clinical signs of EMND. A pigment retinopathy can be present in young α-TP-deficient Warmblood horses with clinical signs of EMND as well as those with signs of NAD/EDM. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry. (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G


    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (P<0.001) and horse breed (P = 0.001). Injuries were more likely to occur on short journeys, whereas more severe illnesses (gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Detection of Babesia bovis carrier cattle by using polymerase chain reaction amplification of parasite DNA.


    Fahrimal, Y; Goff, W L; Jasmer, D P


    Carrier cattle infected with Babesia bovis are difficult to detect because of the low numbers of parasites that occur in peripheral blood. However, diagnosis of low-level infections with the parasite is important for evaluating the efficacies of vaccines and in transmission and epidemiological studies. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a portion of the apocytochrome b gene from the parasite and tested the ability of this method to detect carrier cattle. The target sequenc...

  8. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy (United States)

    Froeschle, Janet


    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  9. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy (United States)

    Snyder, Troy Ernest


    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  10. Contagious equine metritis in Portugal: A retrospective report of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly contagious bacterial venereal infection of equids, caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is of major international concern, causing short-term infertility in mares. Portugal has a long tradition of horse breeding and exportation and until recently was considered CEM-free. However, in ...

  11. Retrospective study of equine cases at the Veterinary Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of common diseases is important for effective disease control and management programme. This retrospective study was designed to identify the common equine diseases and clinical conditions observed at the Large Animal Clinics of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, using ...

  12. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 17, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted on Nadooshan goats of Iran, during the breeding season, to evaluate the effectiveness of flushing and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on reproductive traits. Ninety-two intact does with an average live weight of 25.11 ± 3.933 kg were randomly divided into four.

  13. A Microbiological Map of the Healthy Equine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C Ericsson

    Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.

  14. Clinical sentinel surveillance of equine West Nile fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C.; Alba-Casals, A.; García-Bocanegra, I.


    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...

  15. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa


    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mf...

  16. Magnetic resonance microscopy atlas of equine embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F; Närväinen, J; de Ruijter-Villani, M; Stout, T A E; van Weeren, P R; Brama, P


    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine embryogenesis post implantation is not well studied, and only two-dimensional illustrations are available. A thorough appreciation of the complex three-dimensional relationship between tissues and organs and their development is, however, crucial for

  17. Defocused CO2 laser on equine skin: a histological examination. (United States)

    Bergh, A; Ridderstråle, Y; Ekman, S


    No studies have been published on effects of treatment with a defocused beam carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on equine skin histology. A better understanding of this will help to define how lasers should be used, in order to reduce potential side effects. To describe the acute effects of different doses of defocused CO2 laser, ranging from therapeutic to surgical levels, on equine skin. Defocused CO2 laser was administered to the skin in the hamstrings (91 J/cm2), fetlock (137 J/cm2) and loin (450 J/cm2) areas of 13 Standardbred horses. The acute effects on skin histology were examined 90 min after the end of therapy. Mild changes with focal spongiosis and subepidermal clefts were found after 91 J/cm2 irradiation and more severe changes with diffuse subepidermal clefts after the 137 J/cm2 dose. A homogeneous eosinophilic acellular zone of dermis and destruction of adnexal structures, and significant thinning of the epidermis was observed after the 450 J/cm2 dose. The present study indicates acute dose-dependent changes in equine skin histology after laser treatment Severe tissue damage was induced using a 450 J/cm2 dose. To reduce the potential side effects of defocused CO2 laser treatment, the laser parameters must be carefully evaluated. Caution should be taken if doses higher than 91 J/cm2 (16 W, 4 min, and 42 cm2) are used in irradiation of equine skin.

  18. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases (United States)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje


    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  19. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, R.; Lappin, D.F.; Dixon, P.M.; Buijs, M.J.; Zaura, E.; Crielaard, W.; O'Donnell, L.; Bennett, D.; Brandt, B.W.; Riggio, M.P.


    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative

  20. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale


    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  1. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK. (United States)

    Chapman, G E; Archer, D; Torr, S; Solomon, T; Baylis, M


    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder: Case studies. ... EAT interventions could provide a suitable alternative approach for children on this spectrum who experience impairments in low muscle tone, repetitive motor movements, poor motor planning, postural ...

  3. Automated parasite faecal egg counting using fluorescence labelling, smartphone image capture and computational image analysis. (United States)

    Slusarewicz, Paul; Pagano, Stefanie; Mills, Christopher; Popa, Gabriel; Chow, K Martin; Mendenhall, Michael; Rodgers, David W; Nielsen, Martin K


    Intestinal parasites are a concern in veterinary medicine worldwide and for human health in the developing world. Infections are identified by microscopic visualisation of parasite eggs in faeces, which is time-consuming, requires technical expertise and is impractical for use on-site. For these reasons, recommendations for parasite surveillance are not widely adopted and parasite control is based on administration of rote prophylactic treatments with anthelmintic drugs. This approach is known to promote anthelmintic resistance, so there is a pronounced need for a convenient egg counting assay to promote good clinical practice. Using a fluorescent chitin-binding protein, we show that this structural carbohydrate is present and accessible in shells of ova of strongyle, ascarid, trichurid and coccidian parasites. Furthermore, we show that a cellular smartphone can be used as an inexpensive device to image fluorescent eggs and, by harnessing the computational power of the phone, to perform image analysis to count the eggs. Strongyle egg counts generated by the smartphone system had a significant linear correlation with manual McMaster counts (R(2)=0.98), but with a significantly lower coefficient of variation (P=0.0177). Furthermore, the system was capable of differentiating equine strongyle and ascarid eggs similar to the McMaster method, but with significantly lower coefficients of variation (Psmartphones as relatively sophisticated, inexpensive and portable medical diagnostic devices. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western Algeria in 2011. (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Hue, E; Fortier, C; Morilland, E; Legrand, L; Hans, A; Pronost, S


    An episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western Algeria (Tiaret province) between February and March 2011, affecting a large population of horses. Nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. The prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). One, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swabs of 90 of 100 horses (90%) and the detection rate of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) were 2%, 14%, 90% and 75%, respectively. Equine influenza virus and equine arteritis virus were not detected in any samples. Among the 90 infected horses, 70 were co-infected with EHV-2 and EHV-5 and 14 others were co-infected with EHV-4, EHV-2 and EHV-5. The present study shows a positivity rate of 97.3% for EHV-5 in young horses aged <3years; a finding which decreased with age. Viral load of EHV-5 was significantly higher in <3years whereas no effect of age was observed with EHV-2. The study shows that equine herpesviruses 1, 2, 4 and 5 are endemic in horse populations from Algeria as detected for the first time by qPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance analysis of software for identification of intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa P. Gomes


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Intestinal parasites are among the most frequent diagnoses worldwide. An accurate clinical diagnosis of human parasitic infections depends on laboratory confirmation for specific differentiation of the infectious agent.Objectives:To create technological solutions to help parasitological diagnosis, through construction and use of specific software.Material and method:From the images obtained from the sediment, the software compares the morphometry, area, perimeter and circularity, and uses the information on specific morphological and staining characteristics of parasites and allows the potential identification of parasites.RESULTS:Our results demonstrate satisfactory performance, from a total of 204 images analyzed, 81.86% had the parasite correctly identified by the computer system, and 18.13% could not be identified, due to the large amount of fecal debris in the sample evaluated.Discussion:Currently the techniques used in Parasitology area are predominantly manual, probably being affected by variables, such as attention and experience of the professional. Therefore, the use of computerization in this sector can improve the performance of parasitological analysis.Conclusions:This work contributes to the computerization of healthcare area, and benefits both health professionals and their patients, in addition to provide a more efficient, accurate and secure diagnosis.

  6. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection. (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E


    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.

  7. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia. (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R


    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  8. Detection of parasites in children with chronic diarrhea. (United States)

    Maçin, Salih; Kaya, Filiz; Çağdaş, Deniz; Hizarcioglu-Gulsen, Hayriye; Saltik-Temizel, Inci Nur; Tezcan, İlhan; Demir, Hülya; Ergüven, Sibel; Akyön, Yakut


    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea and clarify the importance of these parasitic pathogens in such cases. A total of 60 pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea between June 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled in the study. Out of 60 stool samples, five were positive for Giardia lamblia, two, Dientamoeba fragilis, and one, Blastocystis hominis. One stool sample was positive for Entamoeba hartmanni and B. hominis, another one was positive for G. lamblia and B. hominis, another, G. lamblia and E. hartmanni and one sample was positive for Enterobius vermicularis, D. fragilis and B. hominis together. Parasitic infection, which decreases quality of life and increases susceptibility to other infections, should not be neglected, particularly in patients with chronic diarrhea. Accurate diagnosis decreases morbidity and mortality in patients with parasite infection. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Parasitic leiomyoma: A case report with literature review. (United States)

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, Fahmi H; A H, Dahat; J Habibullah, Imad; M Rauf, Goran


    Parasitic leiomyoma is an extremely rare variant of uterine leiomyoma occurring outside uterus. The aim of this study is to report a case of parasitic leiomyoma with brief literature report. A 46-yearo-old lady presented with upper abdominal heaviness and swelling of about 6year duration. associated with nausea, shortness of breath and palpitation. There was large well defined, mobile, hard mass in epigastric area measuring about 12×10cm. Abdominal ultrasound showed well defined, solid, 94×76mm, mass in the epigastric region. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed round homogenous opacity at the epigastric region with features consistent with benign lesion. Laparotomy was done, histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of parasitic leiomyoma. Parasitic leiomyoma is an extremely rare subtype of uterine leiomyoma, presents with vague symptoms, diagnosed by ultrasound and managed by complete resection. Previous uterine procedures have been implicated in its etiology. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Obateru


    Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS individuals was high, and its association with CD4+ T cell count was demonstrated. Routine screening for parasitic infestations at diagnosis is indicated to reduce the burden of the disease.

  11. Quality of equine veterinary care. Part 2: Client satisfaction in equine top sports medicine in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, J.B.A.; Waaijer, P.G.; Maree, J.T.M.; Weeren, van P.R.; Barneveld, A.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate systematically the quality of equine veterinary top sports medicine in The Netherlands and the degree to which the expectations in the field are met. Focus was on structure, process and outcome of care. The structure of care is generally satisfactory but there

  12. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth


    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...

  13. Parasitic infections in travelers and immigrants: part I protozoa. (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Perez-Molina, Jose A; López-Vélez, Rogelio


    The growth in international commerce, travel and migration contribute to the global emergence of certain parasitic infections. Importation of vectors and food products may contribute to the emergence of protozoan infections in nonendemic countries. Infections such as malaria are potentially fatal, especially in nonimmune patients, and outcome depends largely on timely diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis/management of imported parasitic infections may be complex especially as some patients may have underlying immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV infection. Major challenges concern the development of improved diagnostic techniques, safer/more effective drug therapies and identification of biological markers of progression and response to treatment. Imported parasitic diseases which may be transmitted vertically or through blood transfusion/organ donation could become a public health priority in the near future. Climate change may affect arthropod distribution and facilitate the spread of protozoan vector-borne diseases. The first part of this review focuses on protozoan infections in travelers and immigrants.

  14. Ocular dirofilariasis: Ophthalmic implication of climate change on vector-borne parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Boss, M.D.


    Conclusions and importance: With increasing global temperatures, ocular dirofilariasis is being introduced in more northern climates and should be included in the differential diagnosis in areas previously isolated from these vector-borne parasites.

  15. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases


    Shelton, Andrew A.


    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  16. Prevalence of Malaria Parasites in Hospitals of Portharcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted between March and July, 2010 in Portharcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The method of diagnosis utilised by the hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories was thick and thin method and malaria parasite was identified using standard criteria. In all the zones of the study, high ...

  17. Molecular diagnosis in clinical parasitology: when and why? (United States)

    Wong, Samson S Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Chau, Sandy; Poon, Rosana W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung


    Microscopic detection and morphological identification of parasites from clinical specimens are the gold standards for the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections. The limitations of such diagnostic assays include insufficient sensitivity and operator dependence. Immunoassays for parasitic antigens are not available for most parasitic infections and have not significantly improved the sensitivity of laboratory detection. Advances in molecular detection by nucleic acid amplification may improve the detection in asymptomatic infections with low parasitic burden. Rapidly accumulating genomic data on parasites allow the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers directed towards multi-copy gene targets, such as the ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, which further improve the sensitivity. Parasitic cell or its free circulating parasitic DNA can be shed from parasites into blood and excreta which may allow its detection without the whole parasite being present within the portion of clinical sample used for DNA extraction. Multiplex nucleic acid amplification technology allows the simultaneous detection of many parasitic species within a single clinical specimen. In addition to improved sensitivity, nucleic acid amplification with sequencing can help to differentiate different parasitic species at different stages with similar morphology, detect and speciate parasites from fixed histopathological sections and identify anti-parasitic drug resistance. The use of consensus primer and PCR sequencing may even help to identify novel parasitic species. The key limitation of molecular detection is the technological expertise and expense which are usually lacking in the field setting at highly endemic areas. However, such tests can be useful for screening important parasitic infections in asymptomatic patients, donors or recipients coming from endemic areas in the settings of transfusion service or tertiary institutions with transplantation service. Such tests can also


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada


    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  19. Detection of equine herpesvirus in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and comparison of three sampling techniques. (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Steven R; Pusterla, Nicola; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Brault, Stephanie A; Maggs, David J


    To determine the role of equine herpesvirus (EHV) in idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis in horses and to determine whether sample collection method affects detection of EHV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Twelve horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six horses without signs of ophthalmic disease. Conjunctival swabs, corneal scrapings, and conjunctival biopsies were collected from 18 horses: 12 clinical cases with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six euthanized controls. In horses with both eyes involved, the samples were taken from the eye judged to be more severely affected. Samples were tested with qPCR for EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA. Quantity of EHV DNA and viral replicative activity were compared between the two populations and among the different sampling techniques; relative sensitivities of the sampling techniques were determined. Prevalence of EHV DNA as assessed by qPCR did not differ significantly between control horses and those with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Sampling by conjunctival swab was more likely to yield viral DNA as assessed by qPCR than was conjunctival biopsy. EHV-1 and EHV-4 DNA were not detected in either normal or IKC-affected horses; EHV-2 DNA was detected in two of 12 affected horses but not in normal horses. EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in ophthalmically normal horses and horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Because EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in control horses and in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis, qPCR was not useful for the etiological diagnosis of equine keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival swabs were significantly better at obtaining viral DNA samples than conjunctival biopsy in horses in which EHV-5 DNA was found. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. [Diagnosis of human toxocarosis]. (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A; Huapaya, Pedro E; Jiménez, Susana


    Human toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Toxocara species, the roundworms from dogs and cats. Larval migration through different soft tissues in the human generates several clinical entities in the patient, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, and neurotoxocarosis. Definitive diagnosis by histopathological methods is very difficult or almost impossible and, nowadays, the diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of hematological and immunological tests which finally help to confirm the clinical suspicion of the illness. The purpose of this paper was to update the available knowledge on the use of different tools for both the diagnosis and following up of human toxocarosis.

  1. Synovial distribution of ?systemically? administered acetylsalicylic acid in the isolated perfused equine distal limb


    Friebe, Maren; Schumacher, Stephan; Stahl, Jessica; Kietzmann, Manfred


    Background This study investigated synovial concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) in the equine fetlock joint following systemic administration of ASA. Salicylates were chosen because SA is the only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for which threshold levels exist for plasma and urine in equine sports. To avoid animal experiments, the study was conducted using an ex vivo model of the isolated perfused equine distal limb in combination with plas...

  2. The effects of equine rhinovirus, influenza virus and herpesvirus infection on tracheal clearance rate in horses.


    Willoughby, R; Ecker, G.; McKee, S; Riddolls, L; Vernaillen, C; Dubovi, E; Lein, D; Mahony, J B; Chernesky, M; Nagy, E.


    The response of horses exposed to three common respiratory viruses was studied by measuring tracheal mucociliary clearance rates in the trachea. Tracheal clearance rates (TCR) were determined before, during illness and following recovery in horses exposed to equine rhinovirus (ERhV-2), equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus (EHV-4) by means of lateral scintigraphs made following an injection of technetium-99m sulphide colloid into the tracheal lumen. In six horses exposed to ERhV...

  3. Diagnostic challenges and the unwritten stories of dog and cat parasites. (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico


    Is it still possible to discover new parasites of dogs and cats? Do we really know enough about them? To what extent do limitations in the diagnosis of dog and cat parasites represent an obstacle for a deeper understanding of their biology? Diagnosis in parasitology has a profound impact on animal health and welfare and, in some cases, public health. Although, over the last few years, advances in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases have largely paralleled knowledge of their biology, gaps in the diagnosis of cat and dog parasites still exist. For instance, difficulties in obtaining samples for research purposes (due to ethical issues or to the invasive nature of the sampling procedures), inappropriate sample storage and poor sensitivity of the commonly used techniques, may represent major obstacles in diagnosing parasitic diseases. Other hurdles are often associated with the biology of parasites (e.g., the intermittent presence in blood of tick-borne pathogens) or, simply, through the fact that some parasites of pets are largely ignored by the scientific community. This article provides key examples of parasites of dogs and cats, which are currently considered of minor importance, also because of the limitations in their diagnosis. Among them, new or, in some cases, previously "misdiagnosed parasites" with overlapping morphological features, biology or ecology, represent a major challenge when trying to correctly diagnose "unknown parasites" (for which only occasional reports are available). Further research is needed in order to provide the scientific community with more reliable, cost-effective diagnostic tools, which ultimately, will assist our understanding of some mis- or less-diagnosed parasitoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke


    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  5. Rapid detection of equine influenza virus H3N8 subtype by insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay using the POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer. (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tiwari, Ashish; Skillman, Ashley; Nam, Bora; Chambers, Thomas M; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Yang, Pai-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas


    Equine influenza (EI) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of equids. Currently, equine influenza virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 continues to be the most important respiratory pathogen of horses in many countries around the world. The need to achieve a rapid diagnosis and to implement effective quarantine and movement restrictions is critical in controlling the spread of EIV. In this study, a novel, inexpensive and user-friendly assay based on an insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) method on the POCKIT™, a field-deployable device, was described and validated for point-of-need detection of EIV-H3N8 in clinical samples. The newly established iiRT-PCR assay targeting the EIV HA3 gene was evaluated for its sensitivity using in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA, as well as ten-fold serial dilutions of RNA extracted from the prototype H3N8 strain A/equine/Miami/1/63. Inclusivity and exclusivity panels were tested for specificity evaluation. Published real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the NP and HA3 genes were used as the reference standards for comparison of RNA extracted from field strains and from nasal swab samples collected from experimentally infected horses, respectively. Limit of detection with a 95% probability (LoD95%) was estimated to be 11copies of IVT RNA. Clinical sensitivity analysis using RNA prepared from serial dilutions of a prototype EIV (Miami 1/63/H3N8) showed that the iiRT-PCR assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than the rRT-PCR assay targeting the NP gene of EIV subtype H3N8. The iiRT-PCR assay identified accurately fifteen EIV H3N8 strains and two canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 strains, and did not cross-react with H6N2, H7N7, H1N1 subtypes or any other equine respiratory viral pathogens. Finally, 100% agreement was found between the iiRT-PCR assay and the universal influenza virus type A rRT-PCR assay in detecting the EIV A/equine/Kentucky/7/07 strain in 56 nasal swab samples collected from experimentally inoculated

  6. Bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral myositis. (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F


    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyomyositis, psoas abscess, Staphylococcus aureus myositis, group A streptococcal necrotizing myositis, group B streptococcal myositis, clostridial gas gangrene, and nonclostridial myositis. Fungal myositis is rare and usually occurs among immunocompromised hosts. Parasitic myositis is most commonly a result of trichinosis or cystericercosis, but other protozoa or helminths may be involved. A parasitic cause of myositis is suggested by the travel history and presence of eosinophilia. Viruses may cause diffuse muscle involvement with clinical manifestations, such as benign acute myositis (most commonly due to influenza virus), pleurodynia (coxsackievirus B), acute rhabdomyolysis, or an immune-mediated polymyositis. The diagnosis of myositis is suggested by the clinical picture and radiologic imaging, and the etiologic agent is confirmed by microbiologic or serologic testing. Therapy is based on the clinical presentation and the underlying pathogen.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Lawsonia intracellularis Strain E40504, Isolated from a Horse Diagnosed with Equine Proliferative Enteropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirajkar Nandita S; Kelley Molly R; Gebhart Connie J


    ABSTRACT Reported herein is the draft genome sequence of equine-origin Lawsonia intracellularis strain E40504, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiological agent of equine proliferative enteropathy...

  8. A high throughput screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine and human urine and equine plasma. (United States)

    Steel, Rohan; Timms, Mark; Levina, Vita; Vine, John


    The Dermorphins are a family of peptides that act as potent agonists of the opioid μ receptor. Originally identified as a seven amino acid peptide on the skin of the South American Phyllomedusa frog, peptide chemists have since developed a large number of Dermorphin variants, many with superior opioid activity to the original peptide. Dermorphins are unique among the peptide opioid agonists as they appear to have a limited ability to cross the blood brain barrier, producing effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is this ability of Dermorphins to provide central anaesthesia after intravenous or subcutaneous administration that allows their use as analogues of the opioid class of drugs. Recently, illicit use of the Dermorphin peptide in the racing industry has shown the need for an analytical method to control the use of these peptides. We present a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry screen for 17 Dermorphin peptides in equine urine and plasma with limits of detection down to 5 pg/mL. The peptide extraction technique is also suitable for use in human urine. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination (United States)

    Paillot, Romain


    Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination. PMID:26344892

  10. [Phenotypic characterization of equine Dermatophilus congolensis field isolates]. (United States)

    Krüger, B; Siesenop, U; Böhm, K H


    In 1993 and 1994 a highly increased occurrence of equine dermatophilosis was observed, and a study was initiated to determine phenotypic heterogeneity among 120 clinical isolates using biochemistry, antibiotic resistance profiles, membrane protein profiles and Western blotting. The biochemical examinations contained 1% equine serum in medium. Moreover, the API ZYM-test from bioMérieux was used. The biochemical reactions were suited to identify Dermatophilus congolensis but did not allow a differentiation among the various isolates. Antibiotic resistance in one or more isolates was observed against polymyxin B, enrofloxacin, oxacillin, neomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol. All isolates were sensitive penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, lincomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, bacitracin and ceftiofur. The evaluation of silver-stained and immuno-stained membrane protein profiles showed minor differences among several isolates. In total, all isolates appeared to be closely related and the minor differences observed did not correlate with the geographic origin of the respective isolates.

  11. Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Emerging Trauma-Informed Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Walker Buck


    Full Text Available Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP has emerged as a promising, evidence-based intervention for the treatment of trauma and stressor-related disorders. This experiential therapy offers an option for clients whose traumatic experiences render traditional talk therapies ineffective. Initial research on the most robust model of EAP, developed by the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA, indicates strong, positive effects for children, adolescents and adults who have experienced trauma. EAGALA was designed to allow for rigorous evaluation of efficacy, a clear theoretical base, standardized implementation, and ongoing training for practitioners. As the primary providers of mental and behavioral health services in the United States, social workers are keenly aware of the need for a portfolio of treatment methods to manage the increasing demand for services. EAP has emerged as an important addition to this portfolio, providing options for some the most vulnerable client populations.

  12. Babesiosis in equines in Pakistan: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Rashid


    Full Text Available Equine babesiosis is a tick-borne haematological disease of equidae that can affect acutely, subacutely and chronically. The disease is manifested by intermittent fever, anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. The authors describe the clinical, haematological and therapeutic aspects of babesiosis in equines at two units in Kotley and at two units in Jehlum of the Remount Veterinary and Farms Corps (RVFC. Animals on these units showed the signs of illness. On clinical examination, intermittent temperature, increased respiratory rate, anaemia, lacrimation, conjunctivitis and pale mucous membranes were observed. Haematological examination revealed a decrease in red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration, accompanied by an increase in total white blood cell count. Cases of babesiosis in horses were successfully treated with imidocarb dipropionate at a dose rate of 4 mg/kg body weight, administered intramuscularly four times at 72 h intervals, together with supportive therapy.

  13. Complete genome analysis of equine coronavirus isolated in Japan. (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Satoshi; Kanno, Toru; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi


    Equine coronavirus has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in the United States and Japan. Only one complete genome sequence (NC99 isolated in the US) had been reported for this pathogenic RNA virus. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three equine coronaviruses isolated in 2009 and 2012 in Japan. The genome sequences of Tokachi09, Obihiro12-1 and Obihiro12-2 were 30,782, 30,916 and 30,916 nucleotides in length, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly (A) tails. All three isolates were genetically similar to NC99 (98.2-98.7%), but deletions and insertions were observed in the genes nsp3 of ORF1a, NS2 and p4.7.

  14. Trichinella spiralis: Adaptation and parasitism


    Zarlenga, Dante; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka


    Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspec...

  15. [Blastocystis hominis- parasites or commensals? ]. (United States)

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha, Natalia; Szymański, Sławomir


    Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a cosmopolitan pro- tozoa which parasitizes the human large intestine. This parasite had been considered to be commensal of the large intestine for a long time, because even an intense invasion may be asymptomatic. However, this species is now being regarded as a parasitic organism. In this paper the latest data concerning the epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of B. hominis invasion have been cited and discussed.

  16. Glial cells aneuploid from culture of equine neonatal spinal cord


    Maia, Leandro [UNESP; Mota, Ligia Souza Lima de Oliveira da [UNESP; Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz Landrim e [UNESP; Amorim, Renée Laufer [UNESP; Vita, Bruna de [UNESP; Moraes, Carolina Nogueira de [UNESP; Amorim, Rogério Martins [UNESP


    The aim of this communication is to report the occurrence of glia cells aneuploid obtained from the culture of spinal cord of a newborn horse. Cells were maintained in culture until the sixth passage characterized by imunocytochemistry technique prior to cytogenetic analysis. Karyotype analysis showed loss or gain of one or more chromosomes in glial cells analyzed, when compared with the normal karyotype for equine specie. The occurrence of aneuploidy may be considered a normal finding in you...

  17. Regenerative Therapies for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Preliminary Study


    Sarah Broeckx; Marieke Zimmerman; Sara Crocetti; Marc Suls; Tom Mariën; Stephen J Ferguson; Koen Chiers; Luc Duchateau; Alfredo Franco-Obregón; Karin Wuertz; Spaas, Jan H.


    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injecte...

  18. Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. (United States)

    Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Stack, J Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N


    Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites.

  19. Evolution of Equine Influenza Virus in Vaccinated Horses (United States)

    Murcia, Pablo R.; Baillie, Gregory J.; Stack, J. Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.


    Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites. PMID:23388708

  20. West nile virus and equine encephalitis viruses: new perspectives. (United States)

    Long, Maureen T


    Mosquito-borne diseases affect horses worldwide. Mosquito-borne diseases generally cause encephalomyelitis in the horse and can be difficult to diagnose antemortem. In addition to general disease, and diagnostic and treatment aspects, this review article summarizes the latest information on these diseases, covering approximately the past 5 years, with a focus on new equine disease encroachments, diagnostic and vaccination aspects, and possible therapeutics on the horizon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Variations in the properties of equine chorionic gonadotropin. (United States)

    Papkoff, H


    The objectives of this paper are to review the chemical and biological properties of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, PMSG) isolated from the serum. Comparisons are made with eCG isolated from endometrial cups, trophoblast cell culture medium, and low titer serum. The results show that eCG can vary, depending on the source, in both chemical and biological (LH and FSH activity) properties.

  2. Equine pythiosis: Report of 28 cases from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jun Watanabe


    Full Text Available Pythiosis is a granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Pythium insidiosum, a microorganism belonging to the Stramenopila Kingdom and the Oomycetes Class. The pathogen is commonly found in water environments, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Twenty eight cases of equine pythiosis were presented at the Large Animal Surgery Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Brazil in six years. Among the 28 animals, 13 presented distal lesions on the limbs, with four being immediately euthanized and seven dying due to loss of body condition leading to cachexia. The horses presented with one or more wounds in the body, distributed as follows: limbs (13 distal, four proximal, abdominal region (7, thoracic region (1, pectoral region (1, lumbar region (1, nasal region (1 and prepuce (1. The diagnosis was made by the association of the macroscopic aspects of the lesions with the histopathology, isolation of the pathogen and/or nested-PCR. Treatments included surgical removal of the lesion (16, potassium iodide 67 mg kg-1 PO sid (23, intravenous regional perfusion with 50 mg of amphotericin B (6 and immunotherapy (8. Pythiosis is a disease that develops quickly, but its diagnosis is time-consuming; therefore, establishing an early treatment with special attention to the involvement of distal regions of the limbs is important.

  3. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steketee, Richard W


    .... Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development...

  4. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A


    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  5. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow


    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  6. The equine oocyte: factors affecting meiotic and developmental competence. (United States)

    Hinrichs, Katrin


    There is currently much interest in assisted reproduction techniques in the horse, however, many aspects of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo development in the horse differ from those in other species. Because of the close attachment of the equine oocyte to the follicle wall, scraping of the follicle is the most effective method for oocyte recovery. A notable feature of equine oocytes is that those with expanded cumuli (Ex oocytes), which originate from atretic follicles, have higher meiotic competence (ability to mature to metaphase II in vitro) than do oocytes with compact cumuli (Cp oocytes). Cp oocytes originate in viable follicles but are largely juvenile. Recovery and culture of equine oocytes immediately after slaughter yields a higher maturation rate than that obtained from oocytes after ovary storage; this is related to damage to chromatin in Cp oocytes during storage. In contrast, developmental competence (rate of blastocyst development in vitro) is higher in oocytes recovered from the ovary after a delay. The optimum duration of maturation varies based on cumulus morphology and time of recovery from the ovary, but there is no difference in developmental competence between Ex and Cp oocytes. Because standard in vitro fertilization is not repeatable in the horse, oocyte transfer (surgical transfer of oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated mares) has been developed to allow fertilization of isolated oocytes. Fertilization in vitro may be achieved using intracytoplasmic sperm injection; culture of injected oocytes in a medium with high glucose can yield over 30% blastocyst development. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Equine-Facilitated Therapy and Trauma: Current Knowledge, Future Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlys Staudt


    Full Text Available Equine-facilitated therapy (EFT is a relatively new treatment for trauma and PTSD. EFT as well as animal assisted interventions in general have been introduced and implemented in mental health treatment for children and adults, though the research in support of these interventions has not kept up with practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the use of EFT for clients suffering from trauma/PTSD. Studies were included if PTSD/trauma was assessed and/or was measured as an outcome. A search of relevant databases resulted in nine peer-reviewed studies that met criteria. Studies are summarized and implications for future research are discussed. In general, findings suggest that EFT is a promising intervention for trauma/PTSD. Recommendations include a call for more research that includes veterans as well as for research that explicates the mechanisms by which EFT may be effective.      Key words: trauma, PTSD, equine, equine therapy

  8. Comparison of platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates. (United States)

    O'Shea, Caitlin M; Werre, Stephen R; Dahlgren, Linda A


    (1) To compare the performance of 4 platelet counting technologies in equine platelet concentrates and (2) to evaluate the ability of the Magellan platelet rich plasma (PRP) system to concentrate equine platelets. Experimental study to assess method agreement. Adult mixed breed horses (n = 32). Acid citrate dextrose-A anti-coagulated whole blood was collected and PRP produced using the Magellan system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Platelets were quantified using 4 counting methods: optical scatter (Advia 2120), impedance (CellDyn 3700), hand counting, and fluorescent antibody flow cytometry. Platelet concentrations were compared using Passing and Bablok regression analyses and mixed model ANOVA. Significance was set at P CellDyn 3700. Systematic and proportional biases were observed between these 2 automated methods when analyzed by regression analysis of the larger sample size. No bias (systematic or proportional) was observed among any of the other counting methods. Despite the bias detected between the 2 automated systems, there were no significant differences on average among the 4 counting methods evaluated, based on the ANOVA. The Magellan system consistently generated high platelet concentrations as well as higher than expected WBC concentrations. The Magellan system delivered desirably high platelet concentrations; however, WBC concentrations may be unacceptably high for some orthopedic applications. All 4 platelet counting methods tested were equivalent on average and therefore suitable for quantifying platelets in equine PRP used for clinical applications. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically (United States)

    Antikas, Theo G.


    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  10. Molecular and immunohistochemical distinction of equine sarcoid from schwannoma. (United States)

    Bogaert, L; Heerden, M Van; Cock, H E V De; Martens, A; Chiers, K


    Ten equine skin tumors that had been classified as schwannomas on routine histological examination were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for bovine papillomavirus DNA. All 10 were positive for bovine papillomavirus 1 or 2, and all 10 were immunohistochemically negative for S-100 protein and strongly positive for vimentin. Nine tumors were moderately positive for laminin and 8, for smooth muscle actin. Five tumors were variably and weakly positive for type IV collagen. The lack of S-100 protein expression made Schwann cells an unlikely cell of origin, as opposed to peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which typically express S-100 protein, at least in some neoplastic cells. The immunohistochemical reactivity is consistent with myofibroblastic origin of the neoplastic cells, although smooth muscle cell or pericyte origin cannot be ruled out. These tumors represent an atypical form of equine sarcoid. Polymerase chain reaction for bovine papillomavirus and S-100 immunohistochemistry are strongly recommended for all equine skin tumors with histological characteristics typical of schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

  11. A scientific background for skeletal muscle conditioning in equine practice. (United States)

    Rivero, J-L L


    The main goal of any conditioning programme in athletic horses is to improve performance by inducing physiological changes within the animal's body. Equine skeletal muscles have a considerable potential to adapt during training and these adaptations have important physiological implications that influence stamina, strength and speed. Although there is an extensive specialized literature in this regard, scientific based muscle conditioning methods have not been introduced sufficiently in the equine sport practice. After a brief synopsis of both equine muscle exercise physiology and muscular adaptations to training, including their physiological significance, this review focuses on specific training programmes that induce muscular adaptations in athletic horses. The article addresses the following principal question: what kind of stimuli for what kind of muscular adaptations? The experimental data are discussed separately for racehorses (thoroughbreds, trotters and endurance horses) and sport horses (dressage, show jumpers and carriage). Finally, published results about the influence of relevant training parameters (such as intensity, duration and type of exercise) on muscular responses are discussed, as well as those concerning overtraining and detraining. The article closes with some concluding remarks on importance of their application in practice.

  12. Dermatological and morphological findings in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Oliveira-Filho, José P; Pantoja, José Carlos F; Moreira, José C L; Conceição, Lissandro G; Borges, Alexandre S


    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting quarter horses (QHs); affected horses exhibit characteristic skin abnormalities related to abnormal collagen biosynthesis. To characterize the thickness and morphological abnormalities of the skin of HERDA-affected horses and to determine the interobserver agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of histopathological examination of skin biopsies from horses with HERDA. Six affected QHs, confirmed by DNA testing, from a research herd and five unaffected QHs from a stud farm. The skin thickness in 25 distinct body regions was measured on both sides in all affected and unaffected horses. Histopathological and ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies was performed. The average skin thickness in all of the evaluated regions was thinner in the affected horses. A statistically significant difference between skin thickness of the affected and unaffected animals was observed only when the average magnitude of difference was ≥38.7% (P = 0.038). The interobserver agreement for the histopathological evaluation was fair to substantial. The histopathological sensitivity for the diagnosis of HERDA was dependent on the evaluator and ranged from 73 to 88%, whereas the specificity was affected by the region sampled and ranged from 35 to 75%. Despite the regional pattern of the cutaneous signs, skin with decreased thickness was not regionally distributed in the HERDA-affected horses. Histopathological evaluation is informative but not conclusive for establishing the diagnosis. Samples of skin from the neck, croup or back are useful for diagnosis of HERDA. However, the final diagnosis must be confirmed using molecular testing. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Trichinella spiralis: Adaptation and parasitism. (United States)

    Zarlenga, Dante; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka


    Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and adaptation in nematodes; however, data is now coming available to investigate adaptation, host switching and parasitism at the genomic level. Herein we compare proteomic data from the clade I parasite, Trichinella spiralis with data from Brugia malayi (clade III), Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita (clade IV), and free-living nematodes belonging to the genera Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus (clade V). We explore changes in protein family birth/death and expansion/reduction over the course of metazoan evolution using Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as outgroups for the phylum Nematoda. We further examine relationships between these changes and the ability and/or result of nematodes adapting to their environments. Data are consistent with gene loss occurring in conjunction with nematode specialization resulting from parasitic worms acclimating to well-defined, environmental niches. We observed evidence for independent, lateral gene transfer events involving conserved genes that may have played a role in the evolution of nematode parasitism. In general, parasitic nematodes gained proteins through duplication and lateral gene transfer, and lost proteins through random mutation and deletions. Data suggest independent acquisition rather than ancestral inheritance among the Nematoda followed by selective gene loss over evolutionary time. Data also show that parasitism and adaptation affected a broad range of proteins

  14. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson. (United States)

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  15. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia H.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl


    To study the equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with focus on the duration of the corneal disease, medical treatment, season of presentation, clinical appearance, and the degree of corneal vascularization.......To study the equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with focus on the duration of the corneal disease, medical treatment, season of presentation, clinical appearance, and the degree of corneal vascularization....

  16. "Many Secrets Are Told around Horses": An Ethnographic Study of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy (United States)

    Van Tiem, Jennifer


    This dissertation presents an ethnography of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) based on nine months of fieldwork at "Equine Healers," a non-profit organization in central Colorado that specialized in various therapeutic modalities associated with EAP. In bridging scholarly work around animals, a literature suffused with the notion of…

  17. Determination of equine deep digital flexor muscle volume based on distances between anatomical landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Lamers, A A H; van der Kolk, J H; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D


    In equine medicine the use of Botox® is experimental. Dosages are determined from human treatment-protocols and limited numbers of equine studies. Determination of target-muscle volume can be helpful to extrapolate human dosages. The aim of the study was to calculate a formula enabling the

  18. Leadership Changes Announced At Equine Medical Center Fregin To Retire, White Interim Director


    Douglas, Jeffrey S.


    Nathaniel White has been named Interim Director of the Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center in Leesburg. White, who assumed leadership responsibilities for the equine clinical and research center on April 1, succeeds G. Frederick Fregin, the center's founding director.

  19. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak. (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K


    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  20. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine


    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article

  1. Parasitic Cowbirds have increased immunity to West Nile and other mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses (United States)

    Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.


    The rapid geographic spread of West Nile Virus [WNV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus] across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies of avian species to delineate competent reservoir hosts critical for viral amplification. Striking taxonomic differences in avian susceptibility have been noted, offering the opportunity to strategically select species on the basis of life history traits to examine aspects of pathogen virulence or host immunity. We hypothesized that avian brood parasites would show increased resistance to pathogens compared to related taxa, because they have been exposed in their evolutionary history to a wide array of infectious organisms from their different parenting species. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a generalist brood parasite that parasitizes 200+ North American species. Elevated exposure to other species? parasites may have created an unusual degree of pathogen resistance. We compared the relative susceptibility of adult cowbirds to three closely-related non-parasitic species, Red-winged blackbirds, Tricolored blackbirds and Brewer?s blackbirds, to invading NY99 strain of WNV that is highly virulent for many passeriform birds. Previously we had experimentally infected these species with two North American mosquitoborne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus [WEEV, Togaviridae, Alphavirus] and St. Louis encephalitis virus [SLEV, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus]. Our results showed that cowbirds exhibited significantly lower viremia responses against all three viruses as well as after co-infection with both WEEV and WNV than did the three related, non-parasitic species. These data supported our hypothesis and indicated that cowbirds were more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses.

  2. Integrated parasite management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi


    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target...... communities at risk through mass drug administration. However, we argue that treatment alone will not reduce the risk from eating infected fish and that sustainable effective control must adopt an integrated FZT control approach based on education, infrastructure improvements, and management practices...... that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms....

  3. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas


    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  4. Adipose tissue as mesenchymal stem cells source in equine tendinitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando de Mattos Carvalho


    Full Text Available Tendinitis is an important high-relapse-rate disease, which compromises equine performance and may result in early athletic life end to affected animals. Many therapies have been set to treat equine tendinitis; however, just few result in improved relapse rates, quality of extracellular matrix (ECM and increased biomechanical resistance of the treated tissue. Due to advances in the regenerative medicine, promising results were initially obtained through the implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC derived from the bone marrow in the equine tendon injury. Since then, many studies have been using MSCs from different sources for therapeutic means in equine. The adipose tissue has appeared as feasible MSC source. There are promising results involving equine tendinitis therapy using mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (AdMSCs.

  5. Effects of weather and landscape on the equine West Nile virus infection risk in Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Wang


    Full Text Available The West Nile virus (WNv continues to be a public health concern in North America. Dry weather appears to increase human WNv infection risks, but it is uncertain whether dry weather conditions exert similar effects on the corresponding equine WNv infection. This study assessed the effects of precipitation of the previous year and land cover diversity on the equine WNv risk of Mississippi, USA, at the county level in the year 2002 using Bayesian hierarchical models. The risk estimated for 2002 was found to be inversely related to annual precipitation of the preceding year. Equine WNv risks were lower with greater land cover diversity probably due to the diluting effects of biodiversity. Correlation between the equine and human WNv risks was positive but relatively low. Dry weather conditions of the previous year might reduce mosquito competitors and predators and subsequently increase mosquito abundances and equine WNv risks in agricultural areas with low biodiversity.

  6. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S


    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

  7. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii). (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua


    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  8. Identification and genetic characterization of hepacivirus and pegivirus in commercial equine serum products in China. (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Huang, Ji; Yang, Qiliang; Xu, Haibin; Wu, Peixin; Fu, Cheng; Li, Shoujun


    Equine hepacivirus (EqHV), equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV) are three novel equine viruses in the family Flaviviridae. EqHV and EPgV have been identified to circulate in the equine population worldwide, whereas TDAV has not been detected in equines since the first reported case. To date, no studies have focused on investigating EqHV, EPgV and TDAV in commercial equine sera or equine blood products in China. Considering the potential threat of EqHV, EPgV and TDAV to biosecurity and considering their possible influences on research results, equine sera for cell culture propagation and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were purchased from different companies in China and investigated for EqHV, EPgV and TDAV in this study. By performing nested PCR or two rounds of PCR targeting the viral NS3 gene, four serum samples were confirmed to be EqHV-, EPgV-, or TDAV-RNA positive; all of the PMSG samples were negative for these three viruses. Subsequent sequencing results indicated that the serum samples contained multiple viral variants of EqHV, EPgV or TDAV, and a genetic analysis based on the partial NS3 gene of the three equine viruses was performed. Our study is the first to confirm the presence of EqHV, EPgV and TDAV in equine sera for cell culture propagation that is commercially available in China and provides the first demonstration of the presence of TDAV in China.

  9. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 11, 2009 ... psoriasiform rash reminiscent of psoriasis. Diagnosis will be assisted ... Disinfect clothes and bed linen ... Psoriasiform rash of Norwegian scabies. ..... bug. O ccasion ally con tami- n ated blo o d. T setse fl y. (G lossin a). T rop.

  10. On the Development of Gastrointestinal Parasitism in Bovine Yearlings (United States)

    Smith, H. J.


    A comparative study on the development of Osteragia Ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Nematodirus helvetianus in 15-month-old yearlings and three-month-old calves demonstrated that yearlings have considerably greater resistance to gastrointestinal parasitism than calves. This was manifested by the establishment of smaller worm burdens, marked stunting of worms and a markedly lower worm egg output in the yearlings. The characteristic marked rise in egg counts observed in calves a few weeks after exposure to a heavy gastro-intestinal parasite infection did not occur in the yearlings. It was concluded that fecal examinations have a limited usefulness as a reliable aid to diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasitism in older cattle. ImagesFig. 3. PMID:4249092


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald E. Burgess


    .... Particular progress has occurred in areas such as cultivation of protozoan parasites, immunobiology of protozoan parasitic diseases, the biochemistry of protozoa and molecular genetics of these organisms...

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tlamcani


    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  13. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization. (United States)

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming


    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Further investigation of exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis in wild and feral animals captured on horse properties with equine proliferative enteropathy. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; Gebhart, Connie


    This study investigated the exposure to Lawsonia intracellularis in wild birds, mice, rabbits, raccoons, coyotes and squirrels, and feral cats and pigs on 10 farms with confirmed equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). Serum samples from all resident foals (417 samples) as well as fecal (461) and serum (106) samples from wild and feral animals were collected for serological and molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. A total of three cats from two farms, three mice from two farms and eight cottontail rabbits from one farm had evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. These animals may be an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as a potential reservoir/amplifier host. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among children of farm workers in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yentur Doni


    The study revealed that health education programmes for farm workers and farmers should be improved to increase awareness about living and working conditions, in order to control intestinal parasites. However, early diagnosis and treatment services for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.

  16. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid. (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn


    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.

  17. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. (United States)

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A


    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Seroconversion in horses vaccinated with inactivated equine influenza vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini


    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of the bivalent equine influenza vaccines (types A/Eq1 and A/Eq2 plain, or adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, produced at the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated on horses sera taken before and after immunization by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI and single radial haemolysis (SRH tests. Seroconversion curves were established through weekly evaluations demonstrating good immunogenicity of both vaccines. Better humoral antibody titers were obtained with adjuvanted vaccine compared with the plain one, as showed by both methods used

  19. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2


    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  20. Equine-Facilitated Therapy and Trauma: Current Knowledge, Future Needs


    Marlys Staudt; Donna Cherry


    Equine-facilitated therapy (EFT) is a relatively new treatment for trauma and PTSD. EFT as well as animal assisted interventions in general have been introduced and implemented in mental health treatment for children and adults, though the research in support of these interventions has not kept up with practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the use of EFT for clients suffering from trauma/PTSD. Studies were included if PTSD/trauma was assessed and/or was measured as an outcome. A ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of equine native MSC populations. (United States)

    Esteves, Cristina L; Sheldrake, Tara A; Mesquita, Simone P; Pesántez, Juan J; Menghini, Timothy; Dawson, Lucy; Péault, Bruno; Donadeu, F Xavier


    In contrast to humans in which mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapies are still largely in the clinical trial phase, MSCs have been used therapeutically in horses for over 15 years, thus constituting a valuable preclinical model for humans. In human tissues, MSCs have been shown to originate from perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells, which are identified by the presence of the cell surface markers CD146 and CD34, respectively. In contrast, the origin of MSCs in equine tissues has not been established, preventing the isolation and culture of defined cell populations in that species. Moreover, a comparison between perivascular CD146(+) and CD34(+) cell populations has not been performed in any species. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify adventitial cells (CD34(+)) and pericytes (CD146(+)) and to determine their localization in relation to MSCs in equine tissues. Isolation of CD34(+) (CD34(+)/CD146(-)/CD144(-)/CD45(-)) and CD146(+) (CD146(+)/CD34(-)/CD144(-)/CD45(-)) cell fractions from equine adipose tissue was achieved by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The isolated cell fractions were cultured and analyzed for the expression of MSC markers, using qPCR and flow cytometry, and for the ability to undergo trilineage differentiation. Angiogenic properties were analyzed in vivo using a chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Both CD34(+) and CD146(+) cells displayed typical MSC features, namely growth in uncoated tissue culture dishes, clonal growth when seeded at low density, expression of typical MSC markers, and multipotency shown by the capacity for trilineage differentiation. Of note, CD146(+) cells were distinctly angiogenic compared with CD34(+) and non-sorted cells (conventional MSCs), demonstrated by the induction of blood vessels in a CAM assay, expression of elevated levels of VEGFA and ANGPT1, and association with vascular networks in cocultures with endothelial cells, indicating that CD146(+) cells maintain a pericyte



    Vuoristo, Sara


    This paper has been written to create a functional and beautiful piece of a product to fill a gap in-between equine professionals and their wellbeing, ergonomics and a better level of quality at work. This work consists of background theory and field work design discussions. The last part is a prototype in its real size. The product resulting from this process is a platform for people who work with horses. Especially musculoskeletal therapists need to be able to stand high enough to m...

  3. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar

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    A Achra


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  4. Fasciolopsiasis: Endemic focus of a neglected parasitic disease in Bihar. (United States)

    Achra, A; Prakash, P; Shankar, R


    To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.

  5. [Screening of parasitic diseases in the asymptomatic immigrant population]. (United States)

    Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena


    Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Pets and Parasites. (United States)

    Juckett, G


    Which parasites can be transmitted by household cats and dogs? Certainly a variety of potentially dangerous helminths and protozoa can be transmitted to humans from pets but, for the most part, very special conditions must be present before this occurs. Small children, pregnant women and immunocompromised persons are three groups at greater potential risk than the general population. Infants and toddlers may contract visceral or cutaneous larva migrans, tapeworm infections and, rarely, other helminths or protozoa. Pregnant women and their offspring are at special risk for toxoplasmosis. Immunocompromised persons (including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) are susceptible to multiple infections but especially to cryptosporidiosis, an underdiagnosed zoonosis present in contaminated water supplies. Other zoonotic infections (Echinococcosis, Dirofilariasis) rarely appear in the general population but, when they do occur, pose very real diagnostic challenges. The risk of disease transmission from pets can be minimized by taking a few simple precautions such as avoiding fecal-oral contact, not emptying the cat's litterbox if pregnant, washing hands carefully after handling pets, worming pets regularly and supervising toddler-pet interactions. In most cases, the psychologic benefits of pet ownership appear to outweigh the reducible risks of disease transmission.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani


    Full Text Available Filariasis atau kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan karena infeksi cacing filaria yang hidup disaluran dan kelenjar getah bening (limfe serta menyebabkan gejala akut, kronis. Filariasis mulai dikenal di Indonesia tahun 1889 sejak Haga dan Van Eecke menemukan kasus pembesaran scrotum di Jakarta. Penyakit tersebut dapat menular kepada orang lain dengan perantara gigitan nyamuk. Seluruh wilayah Indonesia berpotensi untuk terjangkitnya penyakit tersebut, hal ini mengingat cacing sebagai penyebabnya dan nyamuk penularnya tersebar luas. Keadaan ini didukung oleh kerusakan lingkungan, seperti banjir, penebangan hutan dan lainnya yang memperluas tempat berkembangbiaknya nyamuk. Meskipun filariasis tidak mematikan secara langsung, dengan adanya demam dan bisul-bisul (abses yang hilang timbul, dan gejala menahun berupa pembesaran/elefantiasis yang merupakan cacat menetap akan sangat mengganggu. Secara ekonomis keadaan tersebut sangat merugikan, karena mengurangi produktivitas masyarakat, serta diperlukan biaya pengobatan dan perawatan yang tidak mudah dan tidak murah.Di Indonesia filariasis limfatik di sebabkan oleh tiga spesies cacing filaria yaitu Brugia malayi,B.timori dan Wuchereria bancrofti, yang terbagi lagi menjadi 6 tipe secara epidemiologi.Tiap parasit mempunyai siklus hidup yang kompleks dan infeksi pada manusia tidak akan berhasil kecuali jika terjadi pemaparan larva infektif untuk waktu yang lama. Setelah terjadi pemaparan, dibutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun sebelum timbulnya perubahan patologis yang nyata pada manusia. Periodisitas dalam sirkulasi setiap mikrofilaria akan berbeda, tergantung dari spesiesnya.

  8. Parasites in pet reptiles

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    Mavri Urška


    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  9. Parasites in pet reptiles. (United States)

    Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Lindtner-Knific, Renata; Vlahović, Ksenija; Mavri, Urška; Dovč, Alenka


    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  10. Development and application of a quantitative PCR assay to study equine herpesvirus 5 invasion and replication in equine tissues in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Zarski, Lila M; High, Emily A; Nelli, Rahul K; Bolin, Steven R; Williams, Kurt J; Hussey, Gisela


    Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on EHV-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to measure EHV-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. Furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study EHV-5 pathogenesis at the respiratory tract. PCR primers and a probe were designed to target gene E11 of the EHV-5 genome. Sensitivity and repeatability were established, and specificity was verified by testing multiple isolates of EHV-5, as well as DNA from other equine herpesviruses. Four-week old fully differentiated (mature), newly seeded (immature) primary equine respiratory epithelial cell (ERECs), and equine dermal cell cultures were inoculated with EHV-5 and the cells and supernatants collected daily for 14days. Blood lymphocytes and nasal swabs were collected from horses experimentally infected with equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). The qPCR assay detected EHV-5 at stable concentrations throughout 14days in inoculated mature EREC and equine dermal cell cultures (peaking at 202 and 5861 viral genomes per 10(6) cellular β actin, respectively). EHV-5 copies detected in the immature EREC cultures increased over 14days and reached levels greater than 10,000 viral genomes per 10(6) cellular β actin. Moreover, EHV-5 was detected in the lymphocytes of 76% of horses and in the nasal swabs of 84% of horses experimentally infected with EHV-1 pre-inoculation with EHV-1. Post-inoculation with EHV-1, EHV-5 was detected in lymphocytes of 52% of horses while EHV-5 levels in nasal swabs were not significantly different from pre-inoculation levels. In conclusion, qPCR was a reliable technique to investigate viral load in in vivo and in vitro samples, and EHV-5 replication in equine epithelial

  11. Clinical consequences of PCR based diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsman, Lucas H; Monkelbaan, Jan F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344499383; Kusters, Johannes G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074307428


    The implementation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based diagnostics of intestinal protozoa have led to higher sensitivity and (subtype) specificity, more convenient sampling and the possibility for high-throughput screening. An increasing number of clinical laboratories use PCR for routine

  12. New enzymatic assay, parasite lactate dehydrogenase in diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected individuals staying out of malaria endemic region (controls group 1), the nonparasitaemic and parasitaemic non- symptomatic healthy individuals living in endemic region {both field study group 2}, the non-parasitaemic and parasitaemic ...

  13. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever). (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D


    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Half a century of equine reproduction research and application: A veterinary tour de force. (United States)

    Allen, W R; Wilsher, S


    Over the past 50 years, per season pregnancy rate in Thoroughbred mares have risen from 70 to >90% and foaling rates from 55 to >80%. Some of the significant pharmacological treatments and diagnostic methods which have driven this marked improvement in breeding efficiency are reviewed. They include the application of artificial lighting to hasten the onset of ovulatory oestrous cyclicity in early Spring, rapid steroid hormone assays to aid in determining the stage and normality of the mare's cycle, prostaglandin analogues, synthetic progestagens and Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogues to better control and manipulate her cycle to good effect, transrectal ultrasound scanning to monitor follicle growth, endometrial architecture and ovulation and to allow accurate, early pregnancy diagnosis thereby enabling successful ablation of one of twin conceptuses. Also, flexible videoendoscopy to monitor physiological and pathological changes in the uterine endometrium and rigid laparoscopy to apply prostaglandin to the oviducts to dislodge and clear suspected blockages of them to restore fertility. The outbreak of Contagious Equine Metritis in Newmarket in the spring of 1977 and the swabbing-related changes to mare and stallion management, plus the improved veterinary hygiene methods, which followed are also recounted. The past half century has witnessed many technical and therapeutic advances that have enhanced tremendously the diagnostic and treatment capabilities of studfarm veterinary surgeons. They, in turn, have improved greatly the efficiency of breeding Thoroughbreds and other types of horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Surgical Management of Penile and Preputial Neoplasms in Equine with Special Reference to Partial Phallectomy

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    Awad Rizk


    Full Text Available Penile and preputial neoplasia in horses occurs infrequently and represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present study was carried out on a total number of 21 equids (14 stallions and 7 donkeys suffered from different penile and preputial neoplasia. Diagnosis of neoplasms was based up on history of the case, clinical examination as well as histopathological evaluation. Animals with penile and preputial neoplasms were underwent local excision and partial phallectomy with a slightly modified version of the techniques described by William’s. The diagnosed neoplasms were penile and preputial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; ; sarcoid (; a-fibrosarcoma; and a melanoma. Local excision was curative in all cases except 5 stallions with SCCs. These stallions had extensive damage of the glans penis, free part of the penis and the inner lamina of the internal fold of the prepuce, and they underwent a partial phallectomy with successful outcome. Follow-up information was obtained by visit and telephone inquiries. In conclusion, penile and preputial neoplasms are commonly encountered in elderly male horses and SCCs are the most common type affecting male external genitalia. Partial phallectomy is effective for management of equine neoplasia if they are confined to the glans and body of the penis and there is no proximal spread or involvement to regional lymph nodes.

  16. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses (VEEV) in Argentina: Serological Evidence of Human Infection (United States)

    Pisano, María Belén; Oria, Griselda; Beskow, Geraldine; Aguilar, Javier; Konigheim, Brenda; Cacace, María Luisa; Aguirre, Luis; Stein, Marina; Contigiani, Marta Silvia


    Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) are responsible for human diseases in the Americas, producing severe or mild illness with symptoms indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases. For this reason, many cases remain without certain diagnosis. Seroprevalence studies for VEEV subtypes IAB, ID, IF (Mosso das Pedras virus; MDPV), IV (Pixuna virus; PIXV) and VI (Rio Negro virus; RNV) were conducted in persons from Northern provinces of Argentina: Salta, Chaco and Corrientes, using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). RNV was detected in all studied provinces. Chaco presented the highest prevalence of this virus (14.1%). Antibodies against VEEV IAB and -for the first time- against MDPV and PIXV were also detected in Chaco province. In Corrientes, seroprevalence against RNV was 1.3% in the pediatric population, indicating recent infections. In Salta, this was the first investigation of VEEV members, and antibodies against RNV and PIXV were detected. These results provide evidence of circulation of many VEE viruses in Northern Argentina, showing that surveillance of these infectious agents should be intensified. PMID:24349588

  17. Equine encephalosis in Thoroughbred foals on a South African stud farm

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    John D. Grewar


    Full Text Available Thoroughbred foal body temperature data were collected from shortly after birth until shortly after weaning during the 2007/2008 season on a stud farm in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Equine encephalosis (EE caused by EE virus (EEV serotype 4 (EEV-4 occurred in the foal group during the first autumn after their birth (March and April 2008. A descriptive study was undertaken to provide data on the EEV maternal antibody status, the association between pyrexia and EEV infection, and the incidence of infection amongst the foals prior to and during the episode. This included the frequent capturing of foal body temperature data and regular collection of serum and whole blood during pyretic episodes. Infection by EEV was determined using both virological and serological methods. A high EE incidence of at least 94% occurred amongst the foal cohort, despite the fact that 37% of foals had previously shown maternal antibody to EEV-4. Pyrexia in foals was not directly associated with EE infection and 41% of infected foals showed no detectable pyretic episode. Information obtained from this EE episode showed the high incidence of EEV infection in foals during the first autumn after their birth. Monitoring foal body temperature can alert farmers to outbreaks of infectious disease, such as EE. These results are relevant to the epidemiology of EE and facilitate greater understanding of it as a differential diagnosis of African horse sickness (AHS, given that EE and AHS have similar epidemiologic profiles.

  18. Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV in Argentina: serological evidence of human infection.

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    María Belén Pisano

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV are responsible for human diseases in the Americas, producing severe or mild illness with symptoms indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases. For this reason, many cases remain without certain diagnosis. Seroprevalence studies for VEEV subtypes IAB, ID, IF (Mosso das Pedras virus; MDPV, IV (Pixuna virus; PIXV and VI (Rio Negro virus; RNV were conducted in persons from Northern provinces of Argentina: Salta, Chaco and Corrientes, using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT. RNV was detected in all studied provinces. Chaco presented the highest prevalence of this virus (14.1%. Antibodies against VEEV IAB and -for the first time- against MDPV and PIXV were also detected in Chaco province. In Corrientes, seroprevalence against RNV was 1.3% in the pediatric population, indicating recent infections. In Salta, this was the first investigation of VEEV members, and antibodies against RNV and PIXV were detected. These results provide evidence of circulation of many VEE viruses in Northern Argentina, showing that surveillance of these infectious agents should be intensified.

  19. A retrospective study on equine herpesvirus type-1 associated myeloencephalopathy in France (2008-2011). (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Leblond, Agnes; Tritz, Pierre; Martinelle, Ludovic; Pronost, Stéphane; Saegerman, Claude


    Diagnosis of equine herpesvirus-1 associated myeloencephalopathy (EHM) can be troublesome, but early recognition and knowledge of risk factors are essential for prevention and control. The objectives for this study are to (1) describe EHM in France, (2) improve clinical recognition, (3) identify risk factors. Through epidemiosurveillance of acute neurological cases (all considered to be potentially infectious cases) in France (2008-2011), 26 EHM cases were identified and 29 EHM negative control cases. EHM cases were described and compared to controls with univariate, multivariate and classification and regression tree analysis. EHM cases had a 46% fatality rate and were frequently isolated cases. Most showed ataxia, paresis and a cauda equina syndrome, yet presence of other neurological signs was variable. Statistical analysis identified the following variables to be significantly associated to EHM compared to controls: introduction of a new horse to the herd, cauda equina syndrome, larger herd size, saddle horses and month of occurrence. The presence of many isolated cases, and less typical and variable clinical presentations emphasize the difficulty in diagnosing EHM. Nevertheless, history and clinical examination of acute neurological cases can be valuable in recognizing EHM early as well in order to select those cases that need further laboratory testing and infection control measures. Moreover, with a different study format and geographic location, risk factors were found to be similar to previous studies, therefore strengthening their significance to the spread of EHM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tetanus in the equine species: a retrospective study of 31 cases. (United States)

    van Galen, G; Delguste, C; Sandersen, C; Verwilghen, D; Grulke, S; Amory, H


    Few studies exist about factors affecting the outcome of horses with tetanus. 31 equids (30 horses and 1 donkey) with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus admitted to the Equine Clinic of the University of Liege between 1991 and 2006. The cases were divided into two groups according to the outcome (survivors and non-survivors). The clinical data of survivors and non-survivors were compared using an ANOVA (continuous data) or a Fisher's test (discrete data). The survival rate was 32%. Most animals were 5 years or younger, and none had been appropriately vaccinated. The non-survivors were significantly younger than the survivors. The development of dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency was observed significantly more in the non-survivors than in the survivors. The timing of tetanus antitoxin administration (either immediately after the onset of suggestive signs or after a delay) was not different between the two groups. The time between the occurrence of a wound and the first signs ranged from 2 days to 2 months and was not significantly different between groups. All non-survivors died within 8 days of the first signs. This study suggests that young animals are affected more often and more severely by tetanus than older animals. Dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency can be considered as indicators of a poor prognosis in equids suffering from tetanus.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of equine head disorders: 84 cases (2000-2013). (United States)

    Manso-Díaz, Gabriel; Dyson, Sue J; Dennis, Ruth; García-López, José M; Biggi, Marianna; García-Real, M Isabel; San Román, Fidel; Taeymans, Olivier


    The equine head is an anatomically complex area, therefore advanced tomographic imaging techniques, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are often required for diagnosis and treatment planning. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics for a large sample of horses with head disorders. Horses imaged over a period of 13 years were recruited. Eighty-four horses met the inclusion criteria, having neurological (n = 65), sinonasal (n = 14), and soft tissue (n = 5) disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging accurately depicted the anatomy and allowed identification of the primary lesion and associated changes. There were good correlations between MRI findings and intraoperative or postmortem results. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the exact localization of the lesions, their size, and relation to surrounding structures. However, in the neurological group, there were 45 horses with no MRI abnormalities, 29 of which had a history of recurrent seizures, related to cryptogenic epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging was otherwise a valuable diagnostic tool, and can be used for studying a broad range of head disorders using either low-field or high-field magnets. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Assessment of fallen equine data in France and their usefulness for epidemiological investigations. (United States)

    Tapprest, Jackie; Borey, Marion; Dornier, Xavier; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ferry, Bénédicte; Sala, Carole


    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiology purposes. Several European projects based on the exploitation of data from rendering plants have been developed to improve livestock surveillance. Similar data are available for equines in France but have never been studied to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of the French Ministry of Agriculture's Fallen Stock Data Interchange (FSDI) database to provide quantitative mortality information on the French equine population. The quality of FSDI equine data from 2011 to 2014 was assessed using complementary data registered in the French equine census database, SIRE. Despite a perfectible quality, the FSDI database proved to be a valuable source for studying the basal patterns of mortality over time in the French equine population as illustrated by the spatial representation of the number of deaths. However, improvements in the FSDI database are needed, in particular regarding the registration of animal identification numbers, in order to detail equine mortality for epidemiology purposes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of unannotated equine transcripts identified by mRNA sequencing.

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    Stephen J Coleman

    Full Text Available Sequencing of equine mRNA (RNA-seq identified 428 putative transcripts which do not map to any previously annotated or predicted horse genes. Most of these encode the equine homologs of known protein-coding genes described in other species, yet the potential exists to identify novel and perhaps equine-specific gene structures. A set of 36 transcripts were prioritized for further study by filtering for levels of expression (depth of RNA-seq read coverage, distance from annotated features in the equine genome, the number of putative exons, and patterns of gene expression between tissues. From these, four were selected for further investigation based on predicted open reading frames of greater than or equal to 50 amino acids and lack of detectable homology to known genes across species. Sanger sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons from additional equine samples confirmed expression and structural annotation of each transcript. Functional predictions were made by conserved domain searches. A single transcript, expressed in the cerebellum, contains a putative kruppel-associated box (KRAB domain, suggesting a potential function associated with zinc finger proteins and transcriptional regulation. Overall levels of conserved synteny and sequence conservation across a 1MB region surrounding each transcript were approximately 73% compared to the human, canine, and bovine genomes; however, the four loci display some areas of low conservation and sequence inversion in regions that immediately flank these previously unannotated equine transcripts. Taken together, the evidence suggests that these four transcripts are likely to be equine-specific.

  4. The Equine PeptideAtlas: a resource for developing proteomics-based veterinary research. (United States)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette A; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W; Moritz, Robert L; Bendixen, Emøke


    Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem MS analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides. The current release comprises 24 131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2% at the peptide level and 1.4% at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic data mining resource. The advantages of the Equine PeptideAtlas are demonstrated by examples of mining the contents for information on potential and well-known equine acute phase proteins, which have extensive general interest in the veterinary clinic. The extracted information will support further analyses, and emphasizes the value of the Equine PeptideAtlas as a resource for the design of targeted quantitative proteomic studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Equine luteinizing hormone possesses follicle-stimulating hormone activity in hypophysectomized female rats. (United States)

    Moudgal, N R; Papkoff, H


    The ability of equine luteinizing hormone (eLH) to promote follicular growth and maturation in hypophysectomized rats has been assessed. A single injection of equine LH has been shown to promote the growth of a large number of antral and preovulatory follicles. In addition, equine LH markedly increased serum estrogen levels and uterine weight. Furthermore, equine LH, like equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; PMSG) was able to significantly enhance the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into ovarian DNA, an activity shown to be specific to hormones having follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activity. Equine LH treated with an FSH antibody immunoaffinity column to remove any possible contamination still exhibited the above activity, demonstrating that the FSH activity is intrinsic to the eLH molecule. Equine LH has also been shown to be capable of inducing LH receptors in granulosa cells of ovaries of hypophysectomized rats, an activity specific to FSH-like hormones. From the doses required of eLH and the degree of response observed, it is concluded, however, that eLH in the hypophysectomized rat is less active than eCG as an FSH.

  6. Autism: Diagnosis (United States)

    ... What is Autism? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living ... What is Autism? Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living ...

  7. Overdispersion In Marine Fish Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. J. G. Lester


    A modification of Taylor's Power law was used to compare the degree of overdispersion in frequency distributions from 38 datasets of marine parasites, data that had originally been collected for fish...

  8. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases. (United States)

    Steketee, Richard W


    In the developing world, young women, pregnant women, and their infants and children frequently experience a cycle where undernutrition (macronutrient and micronutrient) and repeated infection, including parasitic infections, lead to adverse consequences that can continue from one generation to the next. Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development. In somewhat more limited or focal geographic settings, other parasitic diseases (e.g., schistosomiasis, filariasis) contribute similarly to this cycle. It is undoubtedly much better to enter a pregnancy free of infection and nutritionally replete than the various alternatives. Existing intervention strategies for micronutrient support and for the control of common parasitic infections before or during pregnancy, particularly malaria and intestinal helminths, should be followed. However, further research to identify barriers and priority approaches to achieving this goal remain very important in resource-poor settings where targeted public health efforts are required.

  9. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Can host density attenuate parasitism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magalhães, L; Freitas, R; Dairain, A; De Montaudouin, X

    .... Considering that these parasites infect cockles through filtration activity, our first hypothesis was that high host density will have a dilution effect so that infection intensity decreases with host density...

  11. Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania, Plasmodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Schistosoma. Cancer-associated antigens Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), melanoma-associated antigen, the MHC molecule HLA-B7.

  12. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy. (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M


    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  13. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E F Evison

    Full Text Available Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris, as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  14. Vector salivation and parasite transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. C. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains substances that counteract the host's hemostatic and inflammatory reactions, allowing the arthropod to locate blood and keep it flowing during the blood meal. Parasites may manipulate this system in order to achieve increased transmission, both to vertebrate and to invertebrate hosts. Additionally, salivary pharmacological substances may locally immunosupress the delivery site, allowing initial colonization of the vertebrate host by the parasite.

  15. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833436


    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  16. Parasitic worms and inflammatory disease. (United States)

    Cooke, Anne


    Parasitic worms have evolved strategies to manipulate the host immune system, some of which may lead to a reduction in inflammation. Characterisation of the ways in which these organisms mediate an anti-inflammatory response and identification of parasite-derived molecules involved in immune modulation paves the way to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of inflammatory disease. This review highlights recent findings in this field of research in the context of a broader overview. Some parasites and parasite derived products inhibit inflammatory responses through effects on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Considerable progress has been made in identifying parasite derived molecules, the ways in which they interact with the immune system and how they mediate immunomodulation. There is great interest in the potential usefulness of parasite-mediated immunomodulation for the treatment and prevention of a range of inflammatory disorders. Much remains to be resolved regarding characterisation of potential helminth-derived biomodulators, timing and dose of exposure to the agents as well as characterisation of the modes of action so that synthetic analogues that mimic the effects can be generated.

  17. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.


    Lameness is the most commonly reported health problem in horses, and lameness investigations which include local anaesthetic injections are routinely performed by equine practitioners. Through this process, bacteria can enter the tissues perforated by the needle and may cause local infections...... the antimicrobial activity of the local anaesthetics bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against 40 equine clinical bacterial isolates of the Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal...... also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  18. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone (United States)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  19. Examination of the depth of the equine hard palate. (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca Gay; Lowder, Michael


    Equine behavioral problems and loss of optimum performance have been associated with musculoskeletal injury and, more recently, dental disease. Injuries to a horse's tongue and bars of the mandible due to bitting have been documented. However, another point of contact of the bit, the hard palate, has thus far been virtually ignored. The objective of the study was to determine if there was a significant range associated with the depth of the equine hard palate and if this range was associated with a certain breed, age, or sex of the horse. Oral examinations were performed on 52 horses and a measurement of the hard palate was taken. The study group was comprised of 27 mares, 24 geldings and 1 stallion. They were further divided into the age groups: 3-5 years (3), > 5-10 years (18), > 10-15 years (19), and > 15 years (12). Lastly, the groups were divided into the following breed categories: Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, and Other. Analyses revealed that palate depth has a broad range that is not associated with any breed, age, or sex. Normal reference ranges were established for the data and suggests that the hard palate should be considered and measured when choosing a bit. Further research is necessary to determine which bits are best suited for each palate depth.

  20. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho


    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  1. Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment. (United States)

    Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M


    Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug contamination of the equine racetrack environment: a preliminary examination. (United States)

    Barker, S A


    Advances in analytical technology now make it feasible to detect and confirm exceptionally low concentrations (pg to fg/mL) of drugs and their metabolites in equine biological fluids. These new capabilities complicate the regulatory interpretation of drug positives and bring into question the fair application of medication rules. Such approaches and policies are further complicated by the possibility that drug positives may arise from contamination of the equine environment on the backstretch of the race track. This manuscript provides data demonstrating that the general environment of the backstretch in which horses live is contaminated with therapeutic drugs and drugs of human origin. The major contaminants are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, phenylbutazone and naproxen, present in the soil in stalls, on stall surfaces, in the dust that circulates and in the lagoon waters that accumulate on the backstretch. The presence of caffeine and cotinine suggest other possible vectors for contamination by humans. Concentrations of these compounds as well as their frequency of occurrence are provided.

  3. Chaetomiaceae Fungi, Novel Pathogens of Equine Neurotropic Phaeohyphomycosis. (United States)

    Plumlee, Quinci; Meason-Smith, Courtney; Dieterly, Alexandra; Gomez, Gabriel; Porter, Brian F; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline


    Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques. Seven cases were evaluated by histopathology. Panfungal PCR targeting the ribosomal RNA large subunit coding region and the noncoding internal transcribed spacer-2 region was performed on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of affected brain, and the resulting sequences were queried against published fungal genomes. Affected animals ranged from 8 to 22 years of age and presented with neurologic signs. Macroscopic lesions within affected brains included multifocal hemorrhage, focal swelling of the thalamus with red and yellow discoloration, and focal cerebral malacia. Major histologic findings included multifocal discrete foci of necrosis, neutrophilic to granulomatous inflammation, vasculitis, and intralesional fungal hyphae variably affecting the cerebrum, thalamus, and brainstem. DNA sequences in 4 cases showed > 98% homology with species within the Chaetomiaceae family, including Acrophialophora fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Chaetomium strumarium. Histomorphologically, Chaetomiaceae fungi were 7 to 10 μm wide, septate, parallel walled, and nonpigmented, with dichotomous branching in affected horses. This case series is the first report of equine mycotic encephalitis caused by members of the Chaetomiaceae family, previously reported as rare emerging pathogens in humans.

  4. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo


    Full Text Available Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions of Sivas, Turkey. (United States)

    Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil


    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.

  6. The evaluation of a nucleoprotein ELISA for the detection of equine influenza antibodies and the differentiation of infected from vaccinated horses (DIVA). (United States)

    Galvin, Pamela; Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann


    Antibodies against equine influenza virus (EIV) are traditionally quantified by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or single radial haemolysis (SRH). To evaluate an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against influenza nucleoprotein in the diagnosis and surveillance of equine influenza (EI). The ELISA was compared with the SRH and HI tests. Serial serum samples from 203 naturally and 14 experimentally infected horses, from 60 weanlings following primary vaccination with five different vaccines (two whole inactivated vaccines, two ISCOM-based subunit vaccines and a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine) and from 44 adult horses following annual booster vaccination with six different vaccines were analysed. Fewer seroconversions were detected in clinical samples by ELISA than by SRH or HI but ELISA was more sensitive than SRH in naïve foals post-experimental infection. The ELISA did not detect the antibody response to vaccination with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine confirming the usefulness of the combination of this kit and vaccine to differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated horses, that is, DIVA. No DIVA capacity was evident with the other vaccines. The results suggest that this ELISA is a useful supplementary test for the diagnosis of EI although less sensitive than HI or SRH. It is an appropriate test for EI surveillance in a naïve population and may be combined with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine but not with other commercially available subunit vaccines, in a DIVA strategy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Fibroid in the buttock: an unexpected diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keogh, Ciaran F.; Gee, Richard; Munk, Peter L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 899 West 12th Ave, V5Z 1M9, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Torreggiani, William C. [Department of Radiology, Tallaght General Hospital, Tallaght, Co. Dublin (Ireland); O' Connell, John X. [Department of Pathology, Surrey Memorial Hospital, 13750 96th Avenue, V3V 1Z2, Surrey, BC (Canada)


    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are very common lesions with well-described imaging features. We present an unusual case of a fibroid which presented in the buttock with atypical clinical and imaging features in a woman who had had a previous hysterectomy. Despite extensive imaging and biopsies, the diagnosis was not suspected until pathological evaluation of the resected mass. The differential diagnosis for such a lesion, and the imaging and pathological features of fibroids, including atypical and parasitic leiomyomas, are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview. (United States)

    Molyneux, David H


    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  9. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  10. Occurrence of equine coital exanthema in pastured draft horses and isolation of equine herpesvirus 3 from progenital lesions. (United States)

    Seki, Yoshihisa; Seimiya, Yukio M; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Kumagai, Shin-Ichi; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Nishimori, Tomoko; Ishihara, Ryoko


    During the period from 2001 to the following year, progenital diseases had been epidemic among the draft stallions and mares pastured together in Iwate Prefecture, the northeastern district of Japan. A stallion and 8 of 31 mares were affected in 2001, and 1 of 2 stallions and 10 of 36 mares in 2002. The clinical symptoms consisted of the formation of papules, pustules, ulcers and scabs on the progenital skin and mucosa in stallions and mares. In 2002, Equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV3) was isolated from 2 mares and the glycoprotein G gene of the virus detected from a stallion and 4 mares by polymerase chain reaction. Serum neutralizing tests showed that 12 of 38 horses, 10 clinically and 2 subclinically affected, changed to be positive for the EHV3 antibody. The results suggest that the horses were affected with equine coital exanthema (ECE) through coitus. Five mares with the antibody at the pre-pastured period may have been the possible origins of EHV3 infection in 2002, although the exact origin in 2001 remains unknown. The artificial insemination was performed for the prevention of ECE spreading through coitus on the pasture in 2003. There was no epidemic of the disease in 31 mares, although 3 mares with the antibody at the pre-pastured period showed the significant increase in the titers during the pastured period.

  11. Equine herpesvirus-1 infection disrupts interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) signaling pathways in equine endothelial cells. (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M


    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. EHV-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and EHM in horses. Like other herpesviruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion including suppression of type-I interferon (IFN) production in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Previously we have shown that the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1 inhibits type-I IFN production in EECs and this is mediated by a viral late gene product. But the mechanism of inhibition was not known. Here we show that T953 strain infection of EECs induced degradation of endogenous IRF-3 protein. This in turn interfered with the activation of IRF-3 signaling pathways. EHV-1 infection caused the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that inhibition of type-I IFN production is probably due to interference in IRF-3 and not NF-κB signal transduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ex vivo generation of mature equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (United States)

    Cavatorta, Derek J; Erb, Hollis N; Flaminio, M Julia B F


    Dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells specialized in antigen detection and presentation. They perform an essential role in initiating and guiding the immune response, the direction of which largely depends upon the activation state of the DCs. The objective of this study was to generate mature equine monocyte-derived DCs and, in doing so, to develop a method for measuring the activation state of these cells. Equine DCs were stimulated with UV-inactivated Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the activation status was measured by analyzing cell surface marker expression, cytokine production, and endocytic capacity. Comparisons for each parameter measured were performed between macrophages, non-stimulated DCs and stimulated DCs. Equine monocyte-derived DCs may be distinguished from macrophages based on cell surface expression of MHC class II (pendocytosis of FITC-dextran (pmeasure DC activation state will facilitate future investigations of equine DC function.

  13. Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009. (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Iamamoto, Keila; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Achkar, Samira Maria; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Ono, Ekaterina Durymanova; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Carnieli, Pedro; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Macedo, Carla Isabel


    Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.

  14. Management of Equine production and its environmental impact: the case of settlements in Buenos Aires (Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Vaccaroa


    Full Text Available Equine production in Buenos Aires (Argentina is 512847 heads. The equine production management is an important factor for the minimization of environmental effects. This management includes the implementation of good practices. The aim of this paper is to characterize the equine production paddocks in Buenos Aires in terms of their management, and to evaluate the possible environmental impact they may generate. Sixteen paddocks have been characterized according to the sources of water supply, quantity and depth of the wells, breed, productive system, type and management of beds, type of feed, feeding practices, supplementation, other ration components and management. These are the first studies on environmental effects of equine production in Argentine.

  15. Eating disorders and equine therapy: a nurse's perspective on connecting through the recovery process. (United States)

    Dezutti, Joyce E


    Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites (United States)

    Alva, Alicia; Cangalaya, Carla; Quiliano, Miguel; Krebs, Casey; Gilman, Robert H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko


    Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica with a high

  17. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alva

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica

  18. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)......The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection causes modulation of inflammatory and immune response genes in mouse brain


    Sharma, Anuj; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Puri, Raj K; Maheshwari, Radha K


    Abstract Background Neurovirulent Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) causes lethal encephalitis in equines and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. VEEV is highly infectious when transmitted by aerosol and has been developed as a bio-warfare agent, making it an important pathogen to study from a military and civilian standpoint. Molecular mechanisms of VEE pathogenesis are poorly understood. To study these, the gene expression profile of VEEV infected mouse brains was investigated...

  20. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses. (United States)

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D


    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved isolation protocol for equine cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Betts, Dean H.


      BACKGROUND AIMS: A robust methodology for the isolation of cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSCs) from fresh umbilical cord blood has not been reported in any species. The objective of this study was to improve the isolation procedure for equine CB-MSCs. METHODS: Pre......Cyte-EQ medium is superior to Ficoll-Paque PREMIUM density medium for the isolation of putative equine CB MSC and that MSC-qualified FBS may improve the isolation efficiency....

  2. Claudin-1, -2, -4, and -5: comparison of expression levels and distribution in equine tissues


    Lee, Bonn; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Dong Oh; Ahn, Changhwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae


    Claudins, which are known as transmembrane proteins play an essential role in tight junctions (TJs) to form physical barriers and regulate paracellular transportation. To understand equine diseases, it is helpful to measure the tissue-specific expression of TJs in horses. Major equine diseases such as colic and West Nile cause damage to TJs. In this study, the expression level and distribution of claudin-1, -2, -4, and -5 in eight tissues were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemi...

  3. Study of equine articular biomechanics by tribometry and inverse dynamic analysis


    Noble, Prisca


    In locomotor biomechanics, three groups of constraints are usually encountered : pressure, traction and torsion (Kamina, 2005). In supra-maximal conditions, all of these contraints would be responsible for some disease of equine locomotor systems (Radin et al., 1972 ; Radin, 1983 ; Smith et al., 2002). In order to understand better the constraints in the equine locomotor dynamics, some investigations have been carried out. Moreover, some measurement methods, based on the mechanics of...

  4. Multimodality scoring of chondral injuries in the equine fetlock joint ex vivo


    Sarin Jaakko Kalevi; Brommer Harold; Argüelles David; Puhakka Pia Henriikka; Inkinen Satu Irene; Afara Isaac Oluwaseun; Saarakkala Simo; Töyräs Juha


    Objective We investigate the potential of a prototype multimodality arthroscope, combining ultrasound, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and arthroscopic indentation device, for assessing cartilage lesions, and compare the reliability of this approach with conventional arthroscopic scoring ex vivo. Design Areas of interest (AIs, N = 43) were selected from equine fetlock joints (N = 5). Blind-coded AIs were independently scored by two equine surgeons employing International Cartilag...

  5. Heel effects on joint contact force components in the equine digit : a sensitivity analysis


    Noble, Prisca; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Caudron, Isabelle; Lejeune, Pascal; Collin, Bernard; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Serteyn, Didier


    Reasons for performing study: Whereas the effect of heel configuration on the tension of the suspensory apparatus is well documented in the literature, there are few reports of joint contact force components in the equine distal forelimb. Objectives: To improve understanding of the effect of heel configuration on equine digit joint loading, a sensitivity analysis was performed to compare the effect of a raised heel on joint contact force components in the coffin and fetlock joints during ...

  6. A pendulum test as a tool to evaluate viscous friction parameters in the equine fetlock joint


    Noble, Prisca; Lumay, Geoffroy; Coninx, Marc; Collin, Bernard; Magnée, Adrien; LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline; Denoix; Serteyn, Didier


    An equine fetlock joint pendulum test was studied and the influence of post mortem time and intra-articular lipid solvent on the viscous frictional response examined. Fresh equine digits (group 1, n=6 controls; group 2, n=6 lipid solvent) were mounted on a pendulum tribometer. Assuming that pendular joint damping could be modelled by a harmonic oscillator fluid damping (HOFD), damping time (τ), viscous damping coefficient (c) and friction coefficient (μ) were monitored for 5h under experiment...

  7. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)


    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis


    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  8. Analysis of serotypes and electropherotypes of equine rotaviruses isolated in the United States.


    Hardy, M E; Woode, G N; Xu, Z.C.; Williams, J D; Conner, M E; Dwyer, R. M.; Powell, D.G.


    Equine group A rotaviruses isolated over a 10-year period in New York State, New Jersey, Kentucky, and Texas were compared serotypically and electropherotypically. All isolates were determined to be serotype 3 by reaction with hyperimmune antiserum to the serotype 3 H-2 strain of equine rotavirus. All displayed RNA electrophoretic migration patterns related to that of the H-2 strain but distinct from that of serotype 5 strain H-1. A serologic survey of 184 mares in Kentucky, which was done to...

  9. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T


    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  10. Parasitism, the diversity of life, and paleoparasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araújo


    Full Text Available The parasite-host-environment system is dynamic, with several points of equilibrium. This makes it difficult to trace the thresholds between benefit and damage, and therefore, the definitions of commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis become worthless. Therefore, the same concept of parasitism may encompass commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis. Parasitism is essential for life. Life emerged as a consequence of parasitism at the molecular level, and intracellular parasitism created evolutive events that allowed species to diversify. An ecological and evolutive approach to the study of parasitism is presented here. Studies of the origin and evolution of parasitism have new perspectives with the development of molecular paleoparasitology, by which ancient parasite and host genomes can be recovered from disappeared populations. Molecular paleoparasitology points to host-parasite co-evolutive mechanisms of evolution traceable through genome retrospective studies.

  11. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion. (United States)

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F


    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  12. [Museum diagnosis]. (United States)

    Lozano-Alcázar, Jaim


    In Mexico among physicians it is common to use the term "bus diagnosis" to mean one that can be done only by looking someone, thanks to knowledge, experience and a bit of imagination. Ophthalmologists are able to do specialty diagnosis in some pictures of famous painters, thus "museum diagnosis." An aesthetic and historical research conducted for years provided the material. We present herein some examples of portraits made by Sharaku, Georg Groz, Il Bronzino, De la Tour, Vermeer, Rembrandt, Reynolds, Remedios Varo, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Ingres and others. The "museum diagnosis" enhances interest and aesthetic pleasure. Art could be useful as a tool for teaching clinical ophthalmology.

  13. Neurobiology of plant parasitic nematodes. (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, R J


    The regulatory constraints imposed on use of chemical control agents in agriculture are rendering crops increasingly vulnerable to plant parasitic nematodes. Thus, it is important that new control strategies which meet requirements for low toxicity to non-target species, vertebrates and the environment are pursued. This would be greatly facilitated by an improved understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of these nematodes, but to date, these microscopic species of the Phylum Nematoda have attracted little attention in this regard. In this review, the current information available for neurotransmitters and neuromodulator in the plant parasitic nematodes is discussed in the context of the more extensive literature for other species in the phylum, most notably Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum. Areas of commonality and distinctiveness in terms of neurotransmitter profile and function between these species are highlighted with a view to improving understanding of to what extent, and with what level of confidence, this information may be extrapolated to the plant parasitic nematodes.

  14. Parasites and chronic renal failure. (United States)

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein


    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These infections can be more hostile and life threatening in susceptible individuals than in the normal people. In these patients some parasitic infections such as blastocystiosis, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis have been reported to be more prevalent. This review aimed to give an overview about parasitic infections in patients with renal disorders.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of the Equine Influenza Virus A/Equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7 Isolated in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobey Karamendin


    Full Text Available A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7 which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe. The absence of antibodies to this subtype EI virus (EIV in recent research confirms its disappearance as of the 1990s when the antibodies were last found in unvaccinated horses.

  16. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions. (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J


    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (PYoung's modulus in all culture media (Pmaterial characteristics tested, polydioxanone showed the least variation across the incubation period in each culture medium. The duration of incubation and the type of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

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    Partap S. Narwal


    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  18. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

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    Rakesh Kumar


    Full Text Available The importance of horse (Equus caballus to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.

  19. Detection of West Nile Virus and other common equine viruses in three locations from the Leeward Islands, West Indies. (United States)

    Bolfa, Pompei; Jeon, Isaac; Loftis, Amanda; Leslie, Teresa; Marchi, Silvia; Sithole, Fortune; Beck, Cecile; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Zientara, Stephan; Hans, Aymeric; Issel, Charles J


    Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study. We used 180 equine serum samples, 140 from horses and 40 from donkeys in St. Kitts, Nevis, and Sint Eustatius, collected between 2006 and 2015 that were tested with ELISA kits and virus neutralization (for WNV and EVA). Combining ELISA with virus neutralization testing, 25 (13.8%) equine sera were WNV positive (a mixture of indigenous and imported equines) and 3 sera (1.6%) showed doubtful results. For EHV-1, 41 equines (23.7%), mean age 6.7 years, were seropositive. For EHV-4, 138 equines were found seropositive (82.8%), mean age 6.3 years. For EI, 49 equines (27.2%), mean age 7.5 years, were seropositive on ELISA, some previously vaccinated horses. No antibodies against EAV were found on virus neutralization testing, although one animal (0.6%), was EAV positive on ELISA. All samples were EIAV negative. The seroprevalence for EHV-1 and EHV-4 is similar to other parts of the world. For the first time in the study location serologic evidence of antibodies against WNV and EI is reported. This was found in both indigenous and imported animals, highlighting the need for developing proper surveillance plans based on complementary methods of virus detection. Further studies will be needed to define the prevalence, rates of transmission, characterize local virus strains, and study their impact on these populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

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    Angela N. Spurgeon


    Full Text Available Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100. The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship.

  1. The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff


    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease...... and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited. A continuous search for novel substances, which are highly effective against the parasites and harmless for the fish is ongoing. These compounds should be environmentally friendly and cost...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of equine solar penetration wounds. (United States)

    del Junco, Carolina I Urraca; Mair, Tim S; Powell, Sarah E; Milner, Peter I; Font, Alex F; Schwarz, Tobias; Weaver, Martin P


    The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features, signalment, clinical history and outcome of 55 horses with a penetrating sole injury were evaluated. Our aim was to describe MR imaging findings within the hoof capsule, assess the utility of the technique and give recommendations for the optimal MR imaging protocol to evaluate such injuries. Data from five equine hospitals were analyzed retrospectively. The tract was more likely to be visualized in animals scanned within the first week postinjury. There was no significant predisposition based on breed, age, or gender. T2*W transverse sequences were the most useful for assessment of solar penetrations due to their orientation perpendicular to the deep digital flexor tendon, the reduced scanning time, and the T2* capability of enhancing magnetic susceptibility caused by hemorrhage.

  3. Expression of serum amyloid a in equine wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Jacobsen, Stine; Berg, Lise Charlotte


    higher (P wounds healing with EGT formation than in body and limb wounds with normal healing. In body wounds and limb wounds with normal healing SAA expression was very low, in EGT SAA expression levels varied from low to very high. CONCLUSIONS SAA is a major equine acute phase protein......OBJECTIVES Aberrant wound healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) occurs frequently in horses and may affect their athletic career and quality of life. The objective of the study was to determine mRNA expression levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) in normal and aberrant wound...... healing in horses. METHODS Experimental wounds were made in six horses on both metatarsi and on regio brachii. One limb was bandaged to provoke formation of EGT. Biopsies were collected on day 21 and were divided in three groups: body wounds (regio brachii), unbandaged limb wounds (normal healing...

  4. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James


    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  5. Eastern equine encephalitis: an emerging arboviral disease threat, Maine, 2009. (United States)

    Gibney, Katherine B; Robinson, Sara; Mutebi, John-Paul; Hoenig, Donald E; Bernier, Brian J; Webber, Lori; Lubelczyk, Charles; Nett, Randall J; Fischer, Marc


    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is one of the most severe arboviral encephalitides in North America. Before 2009, limited nonhuman EEE virus activity had been reported in Maine, all from the southernmost area of the state. No human case has been reported in a Maine resident. We review all EEE virus activity reported to Maine Centers for Disease Control in 2009 and describe current testing practices for possible human EEE cases. In 2009, fatal cases of EEE were identified in 15 horses, 1 llama, and 3 flocks of pheasants in Maine, with activity extending into the central part of the state. Although no human EEE cases were identified, diagnostic testing practices of most meningitis and encephalitis cases were inadequate to exclude EEE. Work to better define the expanding range of EEE virus in Maine is warranted, along with education of healthcare providers regarding appropriate testing for this serious disease.

  6. Advances in the treatment of diseased equine cheek teeth. (United States)

    Tremaine, Henry


    The last decade has seen a number of studies that have illuminated our knowledge of hypsodont dental disease and re-examined some of the traditionally performed practices. In addition there has been a major interest in routine preventative dentistry and non-traumatic treatments. These have highlighted some potential risks of the use of modern tools when applied to traditional techniques. This has also led to a reflective review of equine dentistry with the emphasis on attempting to preserve and salvage dental and periodontal tissues, with minimal trauma. In addition, precise imaging and instrumentation have facilitated minimally invasive techniques in conscious sedated horses, and there is renewed interest in comparative dentistry leading to trials with restorative techniques that are practiced in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Equine histoplasmosis: treatment trial in cart horses in Central Ethiopia. (United States)

    Hadush, Birhanu; Ameni, Gobena; Medhin, Girmay


    Therapeutic effects of Sodium Iodide (NaI), Potassium Iodide (KI), ground berries of "Endod" (Phytolacca dodecandra) and Penstrip were evaluated on 70 cases of equine hitoplasmosis (EH). Response to each treatment was assessed using clinical examination of the lesions. Statistically significant difference (P = 0.0036) in therapeutic effect was observed among the different remedies. Cases treated either with a combination of NaI and Penstrip (F = 6.34, P = 0.004) or "Endod" and Penstrip (F = 3.64, P = 0.031) demonstrated significant response. The difference in response to treatment between early and advanced cases of EH was statistically significant (t = 2.22, P = 0.0148).

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma in equine prepuce with vertebral invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo George Mungai Chacur


    Full Text Available The squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates in the epidermal layer skin from the differentiation of keratinocytes. It has high incidence in dogs, cats, horses and cattle. Horses often occur in mucocutaneous junctions, areas like penis and foreskin are the most affected. The incidence is higher in castrated equines with more than 16 years old. This case describes a castrated crossbred horse, actually with 7 years old. The animal presented a mass in foreskin region with evolution of three months. Diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by aspirative cytology and biopsy. Surgical tumor mass excision was chosen as treatment. Two months after surgery there was local recurrence of tumor. Euthanasia was performed and a necropsy later in which was found the tumor invaded the adjacent musculature extending from the spine in sacral region between vertebres S1 and S2.

  9. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections. (United States)

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M


    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  10. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows


    M.H. Boma; G. Bilkei


    In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911): the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 1722 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG) and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG). On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI). Gro...

  11. Vitrification of early-stage bovine and equine embryos. (United States)

    Campos-Chillòn, L F; Suh, T K; Barcelo-Fimbres, M; Seidel, G E; Carnevale, E M


    The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine an optimal method and stage of development for vitrification of bovine zygotes or early embryos; and (2) use the optimal procedure for bovine embryos to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of early embryos. Initially, bovine embryos produced by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) were frozen and vitrified in 0.25mL straws with minimal success. A subsequent experiment was done using two vitrification methods and super open pulled straws (OPS) with 1- or 8-cell bovine embryos. In Method 1 (EG-O), embryos were exposed to 1.5M ethylene glycol (EG) for 5min, 7M ethylene glycol and 0.6M galactose for 30s, loaded in an OPS, and plunged into liquid nitrogen. In Method 2 (EG-DMSO), embryos were exposed to 1.1M ethylene glycol and 1.1M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 3min, 2.5M ethylene glycol, 2.5M DMSO and 0.5M galactose for 30s, and loaded and plunged as for EG-O. Cryoprotectants were removed after warming in three steps. One- and eight-cell bovine embryos were cultured for 7 and 4.5 d, respectively, after warming, and control embryos were cultured without vitrification. Cleavage rates of 1-cell embryos were similar (P>0.05) for vitrified and control embryos, although the blastocyst rates for EG-O and control embryos were similar and higher (Pvitrification and warming. In summary, a successful method was established for vitrification of early-stage bovine embryos, and this method was used to establish equine pregnancies after vitrification and warming of 2- to 8-cell embryos produced by ICSI.

  12. Regenerative Therapies for Equine Degenerative Joint Disease: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo


    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  13. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Capomaccio

    Full Text Available The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases, as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise

  14. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Wuertz, Karin; Spaas, Jan H


    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment.

  15. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broeckx

    Full Text Available Degenerative joint disease (DJD is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1 PRP; 2 MSCs; 3 MSCs and PRP; or 4 chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1, 12 weeks (T2, 6 months (T3 and 12 months (T4 post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment.

  16. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates. (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo


    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee


    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  18. Fish immunity to scuticociliate parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzon de Haro, M.C.; Leiro, J.M.; Lamas, J.


    Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs,

  19. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica, three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of 306 stool samples examined, 62.75% were detected as positive at least for one of the protozoan parasite studied. Species specific ...

  20. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Travel/Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir International ... The Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis ...

  1. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.


    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  2. Modelling the growth of parasitic plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yann Hautier; Andy Hector; Eva Vojtech; Drew Purves; Lindsay A. Turnbull


    ...% compared with unparasitized controls. We present and test a simple model of the host-parasite interaction in which parasite growth rate is a function of host growth rate that offers a new explanation for why hemiparasitic plants reduce...

  3. 4 Parasitism of Plutella xylostella.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    C, respectively, and relative humidity ranged from 31% to 62%, with an ... Dead host larvae were dissected daily to determine whether they were parasitized or not. Thus, parasitism was obtained from both rearing and dissections of hosts ...

  4. One Health: parasites and beyond. (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Betson, Martha


    The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high-profile medical and zoonotic pathogens such as Plasmodium, veterinary pathogens of wild and captive animals and many of the agents which cause neglected tropical diseases, stretching to parasites which infect plants and other parasites (e.g. Kikuchi et al. 2011; Hotez et al. 2014; Blake et al. 2015; Hemingway, 2015; Meekums et al. 2015; Sandlund et al. 2015). The breadth of parasitology has been matched by the variety of ways in which parasites are studied, drawing upon biological, chemical, molecular, epidemiological and other expertise. Despite such breadth bridging between disciplines has commonly been problematic, regardless of extensive encouragement from government agencies, peer audiences and funding bodies promoting multidisciplinary research. Now, progress in understanding and collaboration can benefit from establishment of the One Health concept (Zinsstag et al. 2012; Stark et al. 2015). One Health draws upon biological, environmental, medical, veterinary and social science disciplines in order to improve human, animal and environmental health, although it remains tantalizingly difficult to engage many relevant parties. For infectious diseases traditional divides have been exacerbated as the importance of wildlife reservoirs, climate change, food production systems and socio-economic diversity have been recognized but often not addressed in a multidisciplinary manner. In response the 2015 Autumn Symposium organized by the British Society for Parasitology (BSP; https

  5. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep. (United States)

    Taylor, M A


    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  6. Cryopreservation of Equine Embryos and First Report of a Native Colombian Breed Born by Transfer of an Equine Vitrified Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Nathalie Martínez


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report on the success of a cryopreservation procedure of equine embryos to achieve a viable pregnancy. Equine embryos were collected on day 6-6.5 (<300 μm, n = 24 and subjected to two cryopreservation techniques: group 1 (n = 12, vitrified, exposing them to a VS1 (Gli [1.4 M] 5 min, VS2 (Gli [1.4 M] + EG [3.6 M] and VS3 (Gli [3.4M] + EG [4.6 M] 1 min solution. They were packed in 0.25 ml straws and immersed in liquid nitrogen; group 2 (n = 12, slow freezing: exposed to a freezing solution (1.8 M EG + 0.1 M sucrose for 10 minutes, packed into 0.25 ml straws, brought to the embryos freezer, exposed to a freezing curve and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Following defrosting, cryoprotectants were removed from the 24 embryos in one step; they were submerged in culture medium DMEM/F12 + 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS and incubated under controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 5% N2, 90% O2 for 48 h. Embryonic development was evaluated in 75% of the vitrified embryos (n = 4; 20% of the embryos were subjected to slow freezing (n = 1. No significant difference was observed in the groups regarding embryonic development, but a greater survival tendency on the vitrified embryos was noted. Also, one of these vitrified embryos was transferred to a receiver, achieving a viable pregnancy and the birth of a living foal.

  7. Independent origins of parasitism in Animalia


    Weinstein, Sara B.; Armand M Kuris


    Nearly half of all animals may have a parasitic lifestyle, yet the number of transitions to parasitism and their potential for species diversification remain unresolved. Based on a comprehensive survey of the animal kingdom, we find that parasitism has independently evolved at least 223 times in just 15 phyla, with the majority of identified independent parasitic groups occurring in the Arthropoda, at or below the level of Family. Metazoan parasitology is dominated by the study of helminthes;...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Usenko


    Full Text Available Giardiasis is one of the most common parasitic invasions. Parasitizing the intestine, Giardia disrupt the structure and function of the small intestine, leading to recurrent or persistent clinical manifestations, as a rule, combining pain, dyspeptic and asthenoneurotic symptoms. Signs are similar to those of other variants of the pathology of gastroduodenal zone, intestine, biliary passages that makes clinical diagnosis almost impossible. A rational use of available diagnostic tests, as well as a strict adherence to the approved recommendations for giardiasis treatment in children allows to avoid the disease overdiagnosis and to increase therapy efficiency. 

  9. Top of the Most Dangerous Food Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zaslavskaya


    Full Text Available According to the rating of the risk of infection by food parasites, which was published the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food Agriculture Organisation in 2014, cryptosporidiosis is on the 5th place. It is a parasitic protozoan disease, belongs to the genus Cryptosporidium type Apicomplexa. About 20 species of Cryptosporidium are revealed and known now. The incubation period of cryptosporidiosis lasts from 4 to 14 days. The main and most typical clinical manifestation of the disease — a profuse watery diarrhea, as well as clinically possible cryptosporidiosis of the biliary tract and broncho-pulmonary (respiratory cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis diagnosis is based on laboratory studies of faeces (in vivo and pathological material (posthumously, taking into account epizootic, clinical and postmortem data. Causal treatment is not developed. But it is possible to control the diarrhea caused by this infection. Specific preventive management of cryptosporidiosis is not developed. Personal hygiene measures are necessary. The 6th most dangerous food parasitosis is Entamoeba histolytica. This intestinal protozoa disease is characterized by ulcerative lesions of the colon, chronic protracted course with the risk of the formation of abscesses in the liver and various organs. The causative agent of ame­biasis — Entamoeba histolytica — belongs to the genus Entamoeba, family Entamoebidae, the simplest type — Protozoa. According to the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee (1970, there are three clinical forms of amebiasis: intestinal, extra-intestinal and skin. Diagnostic microscopy of the native smears of fresh feces in saline solution and smears stained with Lugol’s solution is carried out. In the presence of clinical signs of intestinal amebiasis and negative results of parasitological studies, serological tests are used based on the detection of specific antibodies against Entamoeba. There are several groups of drugs for

  10. Anthropogenics: human influence on global and genetic homogenization of parasite populations. (United States)

    Zarlenga, Dante S; Hoberg, Eric; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe


    The distribution, abundance, and diversity of life on Earth have been greatly shaped by human activities. This includes the geographic expansion of parasites; however, measuring the extent to which humans have influenced the dissemination and population structure of parasites has been challenging. In-depth comparisons among parasite populations extending to landscape-level processes affecting disease emergence have remained elusive. New research methods have enhanced our capacity to discern human impact, where the tools of population genetics and molecular epidemiology have begun to shed light on our historical and ongoing influence. Only since the 1990s have parasitologists coupled morphological diagnosis, long considered the basis of surveillance and biodiversity studies, with state-of-the-art tools enabling variation to be examined among, and within, parasite populations. Prior to this time, populations were characterized only by phenotypic attributes such as virulence, infectivity, host range, and geographical location. The advent of genetic/molecular methodologies (multilocus allozyme electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-DNA [PCR-DNA] fragments analysis, DNA sequencing, DNA microsatellites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, etc.) have transformed our abilities to reveal variation among, and within, populations at local, regional, landscape, and global scales, and thereby enhanced our understanding of the biosphere. Numerous factors can affect population structure among parasites, e.g., evolutionary and ecological history, mode of reproduction and transmission, host dispersal, and life-cycle complexity. Although such influences can vary considerably among parasite taxa, anthropogenic factors are demonstrably perturbing parasite fauna. Minimal genetic structure among many geographically distinct (isolated) populations is a hallmark of human activity, hastened by geographic introductions, environmental perturbation, and global warming. Accelerating

  11. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Hechinger, R.F.; Johnson, P.T.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Preston, D.L.; Reise, K.; Zander, C.D.; Poulin, R.


    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with

  12. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance. (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza


    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  13. Sensitivity of Haemoproteus columbae , Avian Parasite to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds Columbidae livia (Pigeons) were screened for malaria parasite by microbiological technique using Giemsa Staining Technique. The slides we examined for the presence of plasmodium parasite (Parasitaemia Value). Results indicated the presence of malaria parasites namely Haemoproteus columbae in three ...

  14. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 nematode taxa. Twenty of these parasites are known parasites of humans. We also found that as much as 73% of all infected samples were infected ...

  15. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis (African Common Toad) in Anyigba were investigated. A total of 120 specimens were examined for helminth parasites, 113(94.17%) toads were infected, while 7(5.8%) were uninfected. Helminth parasites recovered were 1576, comprising of 1 Cestode: ...

  16. Long-term follow-up of Norwegian horses affected with acquired equine polyneuropathy. (United States)

    Hanche-Olsen, S; Kielland, C; Ihler, C F; Hultin Jäderlund, K


    Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP), a neurological disease clinically characterised by knuckling of metatarsophalangeal joints, has been described in numerous Nordic horses during the last 20 years. Although clinical recovery has been reported, large-scale data on long-term follow-up of survivors have been lacking. To describe long-term survival of AEP affected horses registered in Norway, with a focus on athletic performance and possible residual clinical signs connected to the disease. A retrospective cohort study. The study includes 143 horses recorded with AEP in Norway from 2000 to 2012, with the follow-up period continuing until 2015. Participating owners of survivors completed a standardised questionnaire, providing information on disease and convalescence, management, performance-level and possible residual clinical signs. To investigate the follow-up of survivors, we performed 2 multivariable linear regression models. The follow-up time of survivors was 1.0-14.5 years (median 5.3, interquartile range 2.5-7.2). Fifty-seven horses survived and all but 3 horses returned to previous or higher level of performance. However, possible disease-related residual clinical signs were reported in 14/57 horses. Forty-nine of the survivors were in athletic use at time of contact. The majority of survivors were categorised with low severity-grades at time of diagnosis and the initial grade was significantly associated with time to resumed training. Only 3 horses had experienced relapse/new attack during the follow-up period. Athletic performance was judged by owners, which renders a possible source of bias. Although AEP is a potential fatal disease, most survivors will recover and return to minimum previous level of athletic performance. Some horses display residual clinical signs, but often without negative effect on performance and relapse of disease is rare. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis (United States)

    Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.


    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

  18. The effect of equine recombinant growth hormone on second intention wound healing in horses. (United States)

    Dart, Andrew J; Cries, Lucile; Jeffcott, Leo B; Hodgson, David R; Rose, Reuben J


    To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of recombinant equine growth hormone on healing of full thickness skin wounds on equine limbs. Experimental. Nine Standardbred horses. In study 1, standardized full thickness skin wounds (2.5 x 2.5 cm) were made over the dorsomedial aspect of the mid-cannon bone of 1 forelimb and 1 hindlimb in 9 horses. Wounds were bandaged without treatment (control subjects) and videorecorded twice weekly until healed. Then, in study 2, similar wounds were created on the opposite limbs; 6 horses were administered intramuscular recombinant equine growth hormone (10 microg/kg daily for 7 days, then 20 microg/kg daily for 49 days), and 3 horses (control subjects) were administered equivalent volumes of sterile water. Wounds were videorecorded twice weekly until healed. Wound healing variables were measured from the videorecordings using a computer software package and analyzed as a randomized complete block design factorial analysis of variance; significance was set at P wounds in study 1 and the control wounds in study 2. In recombinant equine growth hormone-treated horses, wounds retracted more during treatment and contracted faster after treatment stopped when compared with wounds from untreated horses. No other treatment effects were detected. Recombinant equine growth hormone seemingly increases wound retraction. After treatment ceases, wound contraction increases. Intramuscular administration of recombinant equine growth hormone (10 microg/kg daily for 7 days, then 20 microg/kg daily for 49 days) does not appear to have any beneficial clinical effect on healing of equine limb wounds. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  19. Misoprostol Inhibits Equine Neutrophil Adhesion, Migration, and Respiratory Burst in an In Vitro Model of Inflammation. (United States)

    Martin, Emily Medlin; Till, Rebecca Louise; Sheats, Mary Katherine; Jones, Samuel L


    In many equine inflammatory disease states, neutrophil activities, such as adhesion, migration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production become dysregulated. Dysregulated neutrophil activation causes tissue damage in horses with asthma, colitis, laminitis, and gastric glandular disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not adequately inhibit neutrophil inflammatory functions and can lead to dangerous adverse effects. Therefore, novel therapies that target mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated tissue damage are needed. One potential neutrophil-targeting therapeutic is the PGE1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is a gastroprotectant that induces intracellular formation of the secondary messenger molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP), which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils. Misoprostol is currently used in horses to treat NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injury; however, its effects on equine neutrophils have not been determined. We hypothesized that treatment of equine neutrophils with misoprostol would inhibit equine neutrophil adhesion, migration, and ROS production, in vitro. We tested this hypothesis using isolated equine peripheral blood neutrophils collected from 12 healthy adult teaching/research horses of mixed breed and gender. The effect of misoprostol treatment on adhesion, migration, and respiratory burst of equine neutrophils was evaluated via fluorescence-based adhesion and chemotaxis assays, and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Neutrophils were pretreated with varying concentrations of misoprostol, vehicle, or appropriate functional inhibitory controls prior to stimulation with LTB4, CXCL8, PAF, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or immune complex (IC). This study revealed that misoprostol pretreatment significantly inhibited LTB4-induced adhesion, LTB4-, CXCL8-, and PAF-induced chemotaxis, and LPS-, IC-, and PMA-induced ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. This data indicate that misoprostol-targeting of

  20. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  1. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: clinical markers in presumptive diagnosis. (United States)

    Diniz, João Luiz Cioglia Pereira; Costa, Manoel Otávio da Rocha; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch


    Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (ML) can lead to serious sequela; however, early diagnosis can prevent complications. To evaluate clinical markers for the early diagnosis of ML. A series study of 21 cases of ML, which were evaluated through clinical interview, nasal endoscopy, biopsy and the Montenegro test. A skin scar and previous diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported in 8(38%) patients, and 13(62%) of them denied having had previous CL and had no scar. Nasal/oral symptom onset until the ML diagnosis varied from 5 months to 20 years, mean value of 6 years. In the Montenegro test, the average size of the papule was 14.5 mm, which did not correlate with disease duration (p=0.87). The nose was the most often involved site and the extension of the injured mucosa did not correlate with disease duration. The parasite was found in 2 (9.52%) biopsy specimens. ML diagnosis was late. Finding the parasite in the mucosa, cutaneous scar and/or previous diagnosis of CL were not clinical markers for ML. ML diagnosis must be based on the Montenegro test, chronic nasal and/or oral discharge and histological findings ruling out other granulomatous diseases.

  2. Rotating-crystal Malaria Diagnosis: Pre-clinical validation

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Agnes; Prohle, Zsofia; Fulop, Gergely; Zelles, Tivadar; Forsyth, Wasan; Hill, Danika; Schofield, Louis; Mueller, Ivo; Karl, Stephan; Kezsmarki, Istvan


    Improving the efficiency of malaria diagnosis is one of the main goals of current malaria research. We have recently developed a magneto-optical (MO) method which allows high-sensitivity detection of malaria pigment (hemozoin) crystals via their magnetically induced rotation in blood. Here, we validate this technique on laboratory derived blood samples infected with \\textit{Plasmodium falciparum}. Using two parasite cultures, the first containing mostly ring stages and the second corresponding to the end of the parasite life cycle, we demonstrate that our novel method can detect parasite densities as low as $\\sim$40 and $\\sim$10\\,parasites per microliter of blood for ring and schizont stage parasites, respectively. This detection limit exceeds the performance of rapid diagnostic tests and competes with the threshold achievable by light microscopic observation of blood smears. Our method can be performed with as little as 50\\,microliter of capillary blood and is sensitive to the presence of hemozoin micro-crys...

  3. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the Equine K+ channel KV11.1 (Ether à Go-Go-related/KCNH2 gene) and the regulatory subunit KCNE2 from equine myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Thomsen, Kirsten Brolin; Olander, Emma Rie


    and conventional PCR on mRNA purified from equine myocardial tissue. Equine KV11.1 and KCNE2 cDNA had a high homology to human genes (93 and 88%, respectively). Equine and human KV11.1 and KV11.1/KCNE2 were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and investigated by two-electrode voltage-clamp. Equine KV11.1 currents...... were larger compared to human KV11.1, and the voltage dependence of activation was shifted to more negative values with V1/2 = -14.2±1.1 mV and -17.3±0.7, respectively. The onset of inactivation was slower for equine KV11.1 compared to the human homolog. These differences in kinetics may account...... for the larger amplitude of the equine current. Furthermore, the equine KV11.1 channel was susceptible to pharmacological block with terfenadine. The physiological importance of KV11.1 was investigated in equine right ventricular wedge preparations. Terfenadine prolonged action potential duration and the effect...

  4. Postcolonial Ecologies of Parasite and Host: Making Parasitism Cosmopolitan. (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick


    The interest of F. Macfarlane Burnet in host-parasite interactions grew through the 1920s and 1930s, culminating in his book, Biological Aspects of Infectious Disease (1940), often regarded as the founding text of disease ecology. Our knowledge of the influences on Burnet's ecological thinking is still incomplete. Burnet later attributed much of his conceptual development to his reading of British theoretical biology, especially the work of Julian Huxley and Charles Elton, and regretted he did not study Theobald Smith's Parasitism and Disease (1934) until after he had formulated his ideas. Scholars also have adduced Burnet's fascination with natural history and the clinical and public health demands on his research effort, among other influences. I want to consider here additional contributions to Burnet's ecological thinking, focusing on his intellectual milieu, placing his research in a settler society with exceptional expertise in environmental studies and pest management. In part, an ''ecological turn'' in Australian science in the 1930s, derived to a degree from British colonial scientific investments, shaped Burnet's conceptual development. This raises the question of whether we might characterize, in postcolonial fashion, disease ecology, and other studies of parasitism, as successful settler colonial or dominion science.

  5. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad A.; Azeem, Farrukh; Li, Hongjie; Bohlmann, Holger


    Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  6. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali


    Full Text Available Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  7. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal


    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  8. Inhibitory effect of allicin on the growth of Babesia and Theileria equi parasites. (United States)

    Salama, Akram Ahmed; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Mousa, Ahmed; El-Sify, Ahmed; Allaam, Mahmoud; Zaghawa, Ahmed; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo


    Allicin is an active ingredient of garlic that has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal activity. However, the inhibitory effects of allicin on Babesia parasites have not yet been examined. In the present study, allicin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equine Babesia parasites and the in vivo growth of Babesia microti in a mouse model. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia caballi, or Theileria equi was inhibited by allicin in a dose-dependent manner and had IC50 values of 818, 675, 470, and 742 μM, respectively. Moreover, allicin significantly inhibited (P allicin for 5 days significantly (P allicin with diminazene aceturate, growth inhibitory assays were performed in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, combinations of diminazene aceturate with allicin synergistically potentiated its inhibitory effects in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that allicin might be beneficial for the treatment of babesiosis, particularly when used in combination with diminazene aceturate.

  9. Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism? (United States)

    Leung, Tommy L F


    Parasites are common in many ecosystems, yet because of their nature, they do not fossilise readily and are very rare in the geological record. This makes it challenging to study the evolutionary transition that led to the evolution of parasitism in different taxa. Most studies on the evolution of parasites are based on phylogenies of extant species that were constructed based on morphological and molecular data, but they give us an incomplete picture and offer little information on many important details of parasite-host interactions. The lack of fossil parasites also means we know very little about the roles that parasites played in ecosystems of the past even though it is known that parasites have significant influences on many ecosystems. The goal of this review is to bring attention to known fossils of parasites and parasitism, and provide a conceptual framework for how research on fossil parasites can develop in the future. Despite their rarity, there are some fossil parasites which have been described from different geological eras. These fossils include the free-living stage of parasites, parasites which became fossilised with their hosts, parasite eggs and propagules in coprolites, and traces of pathology inflicted by parasites on the host's body. Judging from the fossil record, while there were some parasite-host relationships which no longer exist in the present day, many parasite taxa which are known from the fossil record seem to have remained relatively unchanged in their general morphology and their patterns of host association over tens or even hundreds of millions of years. It also appears that major evolutionary and ecological transitions throughout the history of life on Earth coincided with the appearance of certain parasite taxa, as the appearance of new host groups also provided new niches for potential parasites. As such, fossil parasites can provide additional data regarding the ecology of their extinct hosts, since many parasites have

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Coyle


    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments.

  11. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M. [ZAUM — Center of Allergy and Environment, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Str. 29, 80802 München (Germany); Thormann, W. [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 35, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Zielinski, J. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leeb, T. [Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Bremgartenstr. 109, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Mevissen, M. [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Schmitz, A., E-mail: [Division Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Bern, Laenggassstr. 124, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  12. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL) (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol


    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  13. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic... (United States)


    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...

  14. Equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division of the Gambia: A study of veterinary gate-clinic consultation records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.


    The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Burkholderia mallei Obtained from Nasal Swabs of Glanderous Equines in India. (United States)

    Singha, Harisankar; Malik, Praveen; Saini, Sheetal; Khurana, Sandip K; Elschner, Mandy C; Mertens, Katja; Barth, Stefanie A; Tripathi, Bhupendra N; Singh, Raj K


    Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative coccobacillus which causes glanders-a fatal disease of equines that may occasionally be transmitted to humans. Several cases of outbreaks have been reported from India since 2006. This paper presents draft genome sequences of two B. mallei strains isolated from equines affected by glanders in India. Copyright © 2017 Singha et al.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gaíva E Silva


    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  17. Claudin-1, -2, -4, and -5: comparison of expression levels and distribution in equine tissues. (United States)

    Lee, Bonn; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Dong Oh; Ahn, Changhwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae


    Claudins, which are known as transmembrane proteins play an essential role in tight junctions (TJs) to form physical barriers and regulate paracellular transportation. To understand equine diseases, it is helpful to measure the tissue-specific expression of TJs in horses. Major equine diseases such as colic and West Nile cause damage to TJs. In this study, the expression level and distribution of claudin-1, -2, -4, and -5 in eight tissues were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry methods. Claudin-1 was primarily identified in the lung, duodenum, and uterus, claudin-2 was evenly observed in equine tissues, claudin-4 was abundantly detected in the liver, kidney and uterus, and claudin-5 was strongly expressed in the lung, duodenum, ovary, and uterus, as determined by Western blotting method. The localization of equine claudins was observed by immunohistochemistry methods. These findings provide knowledge regarding the expression patterns and localization of equine claudins, as well as valuable information to understand tight junction-related diseases according to tissue specificity and function of claudins in horses.


    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura


    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  19. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep


    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  20. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms]. (United States)

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N


    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet.