Sample records for equilibrium problems arising

  1. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D


    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  2. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

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    Mijanur Rahaman


    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  3. The eolian sand problems arising from desertification. (United States)

    Bofah, K K; Owusu, Y A


    Eolian (wind blown) sand constitutes a very serious problem to development in sandy desert lands and causes equally serious problems in lands that are undergoing desertification. In this paper, eolian sand movement due to bulk movement such as sand dune and ripple movement, sand drift by saltation, and sand storms by strong winds are discussed. Associated problems such as eolian sand encroachment on highways, farms, communities and industrial complexes are also discussed and workable solutions are offered. Solutions include chemical stabilization of the surface grains, fences to trap the blown sand and vegetation to prevent soil deflation. Vegetation is emphasized and recommended as the ultimate viable solution to combat desertification and eolian sand problems.

  4. Boundary Value Problems Arising in Kalman Filtering

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    Bashirov Agamirza


    Full Text Available The classic Kalman filtering equations for independent and correlated white noises are ordinary differential equations (deterministic or stochastic with the respective initial conditions. Changing the noise processes by taking them to be more realistic wide band noises or delayed white noises creates challenging partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, we are aimed to give a survey of this connection between Kalman filtering and boundary value problems, bringing them into the attention of mathematicians as well as engineers dealing with Kalman filtering and boundary value problems.

  5. Boundary Value Problems Arising in Kalman Filtering

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    Sinem Ertürk


    Full Text Available The classic Kalman filtering equations for independent and correlated white noises are ordinary differential equations (deterministic or stochastic with the respective initial conditions. Changing the noise processes by taking them to be more realistic wide band noises or delayed white noises creates challenging partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, we are aimed to give a survey of this connection between Kalman filtering and boundary value problems, bringing them into the attention of mathematicians as well as engineers dealing with Kalman filtering and boundary value problems.

  6. Psychosocial problems arising from home ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, RG; Velthuis, B; van Leyden, LW

    Objective: To study psychosocial questions and problems of patients, who are chronically dependent on artificial ventilation, and their families. Design: A total of 38 patients and family members (n = 43) were randomly selected. Several patients (n = 12) received respiratory support by nasal mask;

  7. Operator approximant problems arising from quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Philip J


    This book offers an account of a number of aspects of operator theory, mainly developed since the 1980s, whose problems have their roots in quantum theory. The research presented is in non-commutative operator approximation theory or, to use Halmos' terminology, in operator approximants. Focusing on the concept of approximants, this self-contained book is suitable for graduate courses.

  8. Approximate Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Points

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    H. Mazaheri


    Full Text Available We find a common element of the set of fixed points of a map and the set of solutions of an approximate equilibrium problem in a Hilbert space. Then, we show that one of the sequences weakly converges. Also we obtain some theorems about equilibrium problems and fixed points.

  9. A variational principle for vector equilibrium problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 111; Issue 4. A Variational Principle for Vector Equilibrium Problems. K R Kazmi. Volume 111 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 465-470. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  10. Hamiltonian approach to the magnetostatic equilibrium problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessarotto, M.; Zheng, Lin Jin [Universita di Trieste (Italy); Johnson, J.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the classical scalar-pressure magnetostatic equilibrium problem for non-symmetric configurations in the framework of a Hamiltonian approach. Requiring that the equilibrium admits locally, in a suitable subdomain, a family of nested toroidal magnetic surfaces, the Hamiltonian equations describing the magnetic flux lines in such a subdomain are obtained for general curvilinear coordinate systems. The properties of such Hamiltonian system are investigated. A representation of the magnetic field in terms of arbitrary general curvilinear coordinates is thus obtained. Its basic feature is that the magnetic field must fulfill suitable periodicity constraints to be imposed on arbitrary rational magnetic surfaces for general non-symmetric toroidal equilibria, i.e., it is quasi-symmetric. Implications for the existence of magnetostatic equilibria are pointed out. In particular, it is proven that a generalized equilibrium equation exists for such quasi-symmetric equilibria, which extends the Grad-Shafranov equation to fully three-dimensional configurations. As an application, the case is considered of quasi-helical equilibria, i.e., displaying a magnetic field magnitude depending on the poloidal ({chi}) and toroidal ({var_theta}) angles only in terms of {alpha}={chi}-N{theta} with N an arbitrary integer.

  11. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.


    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  12. Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems

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    D. H. Fang


    Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.

  13. LP Well-Posedness for Bilevel Vector Equilibrium and Optimization Problems with Equilibrium Constraints


    Khanh, Phan Quoc; Plubtieng, Somyot; Sombut, Kamonrat


    The purpose of this paper is introduce several types of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness for bilevel vector equilibrium and optimization problems with equilibrium constraints. Base on criterion and characterizations for these types of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness we argue on diameters and Kuratowski’s, Hausdorff’s, or Istrǎtescus measures of noncompactness of approximate solution sets under suitable conditions, and we prove the Levitin-Polyak well-posedness for bilevel vector equilibrium and op...

  14. Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    objective convex programming problem. The objective functions are convex and there is a single linear constraint with some upper and lower bounds. We also consider a two dimensional multivariate problem when the cost is minimized. A numerical ...

  15. A nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising in a nanostructured quantum dot (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbasali; Bahrami, Fariba


    In this paper we investigate a minimization problem related to the principal eigenvalue of the s-wave Schrödinger operator. The operator depends nonlinearly on the eigenparameter. We prove the existence of a solution for the optimization problem and the uniqueness will be addressed when the domain is a ball. The optimized solution can be applied to design new electronic and photonic devices based on the quantum dots.

  16. A reclaimer scheduling problem arising in coal stockyard management


    Angelelli, Enrico; Kalinowski, Thomas; Kapoor, Reena; Savelsbergh, Martin W. P.


    We study a number of variants of an abstract scheduling problem inspired by the scheduling of reclaimers in the stockyard of a coal export terminal. We analyze the complexity of each of the variants, providing complexity proofs for some and polynomial algorithms for others. For one, especially interesting variant, we also develop a constant factor approximation algorithm.

  17. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

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    Marco Calahorrano


    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  18. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md


    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relation...... on the changes in bilayer elastic energy associated with channel gating. We are not aware that a similar simple mechanistic explanation of a linear RE relation has been provided for a chemical reaction in a macromolecule. RE relations generally should be useful for examining how amphiphile-induced changes...

  19. An adaptive variable neighborhood search algorithm for a vehicle routing problem arising in small package shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenger, Andreas; Vigo, Daniele; Enz, Steffen; Schwind, Michael


    In this paper, we investigate a routing problem arising in the last-mile delivery of small packages. The problem, called Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Private fleet and Common carriers (MDVRPPC), is an extension of the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP) where customers can either

  20. Saddle Point Problems, Bilevel Problems, and Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraint on Complete Metric Spaces

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    Lin Lai-Jiu


    Full Text Available We apply an existence theorem of variational inclusion problem on metric spaces to study optimization problems, set-valued vector saddle point problems, bilevel problems, and mathematical programs with equilibrium constraint on metric spaces. We study these problems without any convexity and compactness assumptions. Our results are different from any existence results of these types of problems in topological vector spaces.

  1. Collinear Equilibrium Solutions of Four-body Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We discuss the equilibrium solutions of four different types of collinear four-body problems having two pairs of equal masses. Two of these four-body models are symmetric about the center-of-mass while the other two are non-symmetric.We define two mass ratios as 1 = 1/T and 2 = 2/MT, where 1 ...

  2. Municipal solid waste management problems: an applied general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelings, H.


    Keywords: Environmental policy; General equilibrium modeling; Negishi format; Waste management policies; Market distortions.

    About 40% of the entire budget spent on environmental problems in the

  3. Collinear Equilibrium Solutions of Four-body Problem Muhammad ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equilibrium solutions—celestial mechanics—four-body problem—few-body problem. 1. Introduction. The motion of systems of n-bodies under their mutual gravitational attraction has always fascinated mathematicians and astronomers which dates back to the times of. Isaac Newton. Because of the complicated nature of the ...

  4. 30th International School of Mathematics "G Stampacchia" : Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Giannessi, Franco; Maugeri, Antonino; Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models


    The volume, devoted to variational analysis and its applications, collects selected and refereed contributions, which provide an outline of the field. The meeting of the title "Equilibrium Problems and Variational Models", which was held in Erice (Sicily) in the period June 23 - July 2 2000, was the occasion of the presentation of some of these papers; other results are a consequence of a fruitful and constructive atmosphere created during the meeting. New results, which enlarge the field of application of variational analysis, are presented in the book; they deal with the vectorial analysis, time dependent variational analysis, exact penalization, high order deriva­ tives, geometric aspects, distance functions and log-quadratic proximal methodology. The new theoretical results allow one to improve in a remarkable way the study of significant problems arising from the applied sciences, as continuum model of transportation, unilateral problems, multicriteria spatial price models, network equilibrium...

  5. Hierarchical Convergence of a Double-Net Algorithm for Equilibrium Problems and Variational Inequality Problems

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    Liou Yeong-Cheng


    Full Text Available We consider the following hierarchical equilibrium problem and variational inequality problem (abbreviated as HEVP: find a point such that , for all , where , are two monotone operators and is the solution of the equilibrium problem of finding such that , for all . We note that the problem (HEVP includes some problems, for example, mathematical program and hierarchical minimization problems as special cases. For solving (HEVP, we propose a double-net algorithm which generates a net . We prove that the net hierarchically converges to the solution of (HEVP; that is, for each fixed , the net converges in norm, as , to a solution of the equilibrium problem, and as , the net converges in norm to the unique solution of (HEVP.

  6. A Predictor-Corrector Method for Solving Equilibrium Problems

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    Zong-Ke Bao


    Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a predictor-corrector method for solving nonsmooth convex equilibrium problems based on the auxiliary problem principle. In the main algorithm each stage of computation requires two proximal steps. One step serves to predict the next point; the other helps to correct the new prediction. At the same time, we present convergence analysis under perfect foresight and imperfect one. In particular, we introduce a stopping criterion which gives rise to Δ-stationary points. Moreover, we apply this algorithm for solving the particular case: variational inequalities.

  7. Existence and Stability of Solutions for Implicit Multivalued Vector Equilibrium Problems

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    Li Qiuying


    Full Text Available A class of implicit multivalued vector equilibrium problems is studied. By using the generalized Fan-Browder fixed point theorem, some existence results of solutions for the implicit multivalued vector equilibrium problems are obtained under some suitable assumptions. Moreover, a stability result of solutions for the implicit multivalued vector equilibrium problems is derived. These results extend and unify some recent results for implicit vector equilibrium problems, multivalued vector variational inequality problems, and vector variational inequality problems.

  8. Single string planning problem arising in liner shipping industries: A heuristic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Neamatian Monemi, Rahimeh; Mahey, Philippe


    We propose an efficient heuristic approach for solving instances of the Single String Planning Problem (SSPP) arising in the liner shipping industry. In the SSPP a Liner Service Provider (LSP) only revises one of its many operational strings, and it is assumed that the other strings are unchangea...

  9. Network capacity with probit-based stochastic user equilibrium problem. (United States)

    Lu, Lili; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei


    Among different stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment models, the Logit-based stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) is extensively investigated by researchers. It is constantly formulated as the low-level problem to describe the drivers' route choice behavior in bi-level problems such as network design, toll optimization et al. The Probit-based SUE model receives far less attention compared with Logit-based model albeit the assignment result is more consistent with drivers' behavior. It is well-known that due to the identical and irrelevant alternative (IIA) assumption, the Logit-based SUE model is incapable to deal with route overlapping problem and cannot account for perception variance with respect to trips. This paper aims to explore the network capacity with Probit-based traffic assignment model and investigate the differences of it is with Logit-based SUE traffic assignment models. The network capacity is formulated as a bi-level programming where the up-level program is to maximize the network capacity through optimizing input parameters (O-D multiplies and signal splits) while the low-level program is the Logit-based or Probit-based SUE problem formulated to model the drivers' route choice. A heuristic algorithm based on sensitivity analysis of SUE problem is detailed presented to solve the proposed bi-level program. Three numerical example networks are used to discuss the differences of network capacity between Logit-based SUE constraint and Probit-based SUE constraint. This study finds that while the network capacity show different results between Probit-based SUE and Logit-based SUE constraints, the variation pattern of network capacity with respect to increased level of travelers' information for general network under the two type of SUE problems is the same, and with certain level of travelers' information, both of them can achieve the same maximum network capacity.

  10. Multigrid Algorithms for the Solution of Linear Complementarity Problems Arising from Free Boundary Problems. (United States)


    BAIOCCHI. Sur un probleme a frontiere libre traduisant le filtrage de liquides a travers des milieux poreux. Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, A273( Problemes Non Lineaires . Cahier de I’IRIA, No. 12, 1974, pp. 7-138. G. CIMATTI. On a problem of the theory of lubrication governed by a variational

  11. Generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems: auxiliary principle technique and predictor-corrector methods

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    Vahid Dadashi


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is dedicated to the introduction a new class of equilibrium problems named generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems which includes the classes of hemiequilibrium problems, equilibrium-like problems, equilibrium problems, hemivariational inequalities, and variational inequalities as special cases. By utilizing the auxiliary principle technique, some new predictor-corrector iterative algorithms for solving them are suggested and analyzed. The convergence analysis of the proposed iterative methods requires either partially relaxed monotonicity or jointly pseudomonotonicity of the bifunctions involved in generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problem. Results obtained in this paper include several new and known results as special cases.

  12. Assessment of two analytical approaches in some nonlinear problems arising in engineering sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganji, D.D. [Babol (Noushiravani) University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Sadighi, A. [Babol (Noushiravani) University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Khatami, I. [Babol (Noushiravani) University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this research, two powerful analytical methods are introduced to handle nonlinear good Boussinesq, heat transfer and coupled Burgers' equations. One is the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) and the other is the variational iteration method (VIM). VIM is used to construct correction functionals using general Lagrange multipliers identified optimally via the variational theory. HPM converts a difficult problem into a simple one, which can be easily handled. The results attained in this paper confirm the idea that HPM and VIM are powerful mathematical tools and that they can be applied to a large class of linear and nonlinear problems arising in different fields of science and engineering.

  13. Assessment of two analytical approaches in some nonlinear problems arising in engineering sciences (United States)

    Ganji, D. D.; Sadighi, A.; Khatami, I.


    In this research, two powerful analytical methods are introduced to handle nonlinear good Boussinesq, heat transfer and coupled Burgers' equations. One is the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) and the other is the variational iteration method (VIM). VIM is used to construct correction functionals using general Lagrange multipliers identified optimally via the variational theory. HPM converts a difficult problem into a simple one, which can be easily handled. The results attained in this paper confirm the idea that HPM and VIM are powerful mathematical tools and that they can be applied to a large class of linear and nonlinear problems arising in different fields of science and engineering.

  14. A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles


    Berestycki, Henri; Monneau, Regis; Scheinkman, José A.


    We consider an evolution non-local free boundary problem that arises in the modelling of speculative bubbles. The solution of the model is the speculative component in the price of an asset. In the framework of viscosity solutions, we show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. We also show that the solution is convex in space, and establish several monotonicity properties of the solution and of the free boundary with respect to parameters of the problem. To study the free boundary, we...

  15. Turbulence as a Problem in Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics (United States)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Shih, Hong-Yan


    The transitional and well-developed regimes of turbulent shear flows exhibit a variety of remarkable scaling laws that are only now beginning to be systematically studied and understood. In the first part of this article, we summarize recent progress in understanding the friction factor of turbulent flows in rough pipes and quasi-two-dimensional soap films, showing how the data obey a two-parameter scaling law known as roughness-induced criticality, and exhibit power-law scaling of friction factor with Reynolds number that depends on the precise form of the nature of the turbulent cascade. These results hint at a non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation that applies to turbulent flows. The second part of this article concerns the lifetime statistics in smooth pipes around the transition, showing how the remarkable super-exponential scaling with Reynolds number reflects deep connections between large deviation theory, extreme value statistics, directed percolation and the onset of coexistence in predator-prey ecosystems. Both these phenomena reflect the way in which turbulence can be fruitfully approached as a problem in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  16. A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles. (United States)

    Berestycki, Henri; Monneau, Regis; Scheinkman, José A


    We consider an evolution non-local free boundary problem that arises in the modelling of speculative bubbles. The solution of the model is the speculative component in the price of an asset. In the framework of viscosity solutions, we show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. We also show that the solution is convex in space, and establish several monotonicity properties of the solution and of the free boundary with respect to parameters of the problem. To study the free boundary, we use, in particular, the fact that the odd part of the solution solves a more standard obstacle problem. We show that the free boundary is [Formula: see text] and describe the asymptotics of the free boundary as c, the cost of transacting the asset, goes to zero. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. A non-local free boundary problem arising in a theory of financial bubbles (United States)

    Berestycki, Henri; Monneau, Regis; Scheinkman, José A.


    We consider an evolution non-local free boundary problem that arises in the modelling of speculative bubbles. The solution of the model is the speculative component in the price of an asset. In the framework of viscosity solutions, we show the existence and uniqueness of the solution. We also show that the solution is convex in space, and establish several monotonicity properties of the solution and of the free boundary with respect to parameters of the problem. To study the free boundary, we use, in particular, the fact that the odd part of the solution solves a more standard obstacle problem. We show that the free boundary is and describe the asymptotics of the free boundary as c, the cost of transacting the asset, goes to zero. PMID:25288815

  18. A Study on Problems Arises in Practicing Fire Drill in High Rise Building in Kuala Lumpur

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    Zahari N.F.


    Full Text Available Fire drill is one of the steps taken to mitigate the risk trapped in a building during outbreak of fire. Hence, it is very important for every building to practice fire drill, especially high-rise building. Referring to Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia(BOMBA, high-rise building had a higher risk compared to other type of buildings. However, there might be problems arise to practice fire drill especially in high-rise building. This research intends to study on fire drill procedure and identify any possible common problems arises when practicing fire drill in high-rise building in Kuala Lumpur. Information was gained through regulations and guidelines associated with fire drill procedure and also parties involved in the practice. Besides, a survey is done for awareness of occupants in high-rise building on fire drill practice. For the case study, three high-rise building are selected in Kuala Lumpur based on specific criteria. Analysis for this research comprises of comparative and descriptive approach as well as statistical analysis which are documented based on case studies and questionnaire survey. The findings indicates that there is no standardized procedure in fire drill, while the most common problems that can be seen in practicing fire drill are lack of commitment among occupants, lack of information on fire drill and output on weaknesses after fire drill been practiced.

  19. Variational Iteration Method for Nonlinear Singular Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Arising in Human Physiology

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    Marwan Abukhaled


    Full Text Available The variational iteration method is applied to solve a class of nonlinear singular boundary value problems that arise in physiology. The process of the method, which produces solutions in terms of convergent series, is explained. The Lagrange multipliers needed to construct the correctional functional are found in terms of the exponential integral and Whittaker functions. The method easily overcomes the obstacle of singularities. Examples will be presented to test the method and compare it to other existing methods in order to confirm fast convergence and significant accuracy.

  20. Distribution-valued weak solutions to a parabolic problem arising in financial mathematics

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    Michael Eydenberg


    Full Text Available We study distribution-valued solutions to a parabolic problem that arises from a model of the Black-Scholes equation in option pricing. We give a minor generalization of known existence and uniqueness results for solutions in bounded domains $Omega subset mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ to give existence of solutions for certain classes of distributions $fin mathcal{D}'(Omega$. We also study growth conditions for smooth solutions of certain parabolic equations on $mathbb{R}^nimes (0,T$ that have initial values in the space of distributions.

  1. Strong convergence theorems for equilibrium problems and fixed point problems: A new iterative method, some comments and applications

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    Du Wei-Shih


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we introduce a new approach method to find a common element in the intersection of the set of the solutions of a finite family of equilibrium problems and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping in a real Hilbert space. Under appropriate conditions, some strong convergence theorems are established. The results obtained in this paper are new, and a few examples illustrating these results are given. Finally, we point out that some 'so-called' mixed equilibrium problems and generalized equilibrium problems in the literature are still usual equilibrium problems. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 47H09; 47H10, 47J25.

  2. Strong Convergence Iterative Algorithms for Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Point Problems in Banach Spaces

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    Shenghua Wang


    Full Text Available We first introduce the concept of Bregman asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings and prove that the fixed point set of this kind of mappings is closed and convex. Then we construct an iterative scheme to find a common element of the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem and the set of common fixed points of a countable family of Bregman asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces and prove strong convergence theorems. Our results extend the recent ones of some others.

  3. A problem of estimating a contingency table arising in demographic analysis. (United States)

    Swee-Hock, S


    Abstract This note deals with a special problem of estimating a contingency table arising in demographic analysis. What we require are the estimates of the numbers of births and deaths in Malaya crossclassified by state and race for the years of the Japanese occcupation, 1942-45. For many reasons this period had an adverse effect on the Chinese and Indian Communities, and hence the two-fold result of a greater reduction in the number of births and a larger increase in the number of deaths in states with a smaller proportion of Malay population. The estimates are worked out by means of a technique which takes into consideration this actual demographic situation.

  4. A New Homotopy Perturbation Scheme for Solving Singular Boundary Value Problems Arising in Various Physical Models (United States)

    Roul, Pradip; Warbhe, Ujwal


    The classical homotopy perturbation method proposed by J. H. He, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 178, 257 (1999) is useful for obtaining the approximate solutions for a wide class of nonlinear problems in terms of series with easily calculable components. However, in some cases, it has been found that this method results in slowly convergent series. To overcome the shortcoming, we present a new reliable algorithm called the domain decomposition homotopy perturbation method (DDHPM) to solve a class of singular two-point boundary value problems with Neumann and Robin-type boundary conditions arising in various physical models. Five numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of our method, including thermal explosion, oxygen-diffusion in a spherical cell and heat conduction through a solid with heat generation. A comparison is made between the proposed technique and other existing seminumerical or numerical techniques. Numerical results reveal that only two or three iterations lead to high accuracy of the solution and this newly improved technique introduces a powerful improvement for solving nonlinear singular boundary value problems (SBVPs).

  5. A Multi-Depot Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem with Delivery Options Arising in the Last Mile Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lin; Baldacci, Roberto; Vigo, Daniele; Wang, Xu


    In this paper, we introduce a new city logistics problem arising in the last mile distribution of e-commerce. The problem involves two levels of routing problems. The first requires a design of the routes for a vehicle fleet located at the depots to transport the customer demands to a subset of the

  6. Euler equations on finite-dimensional Lie coalgebras, arising in problems of mathematical physics (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskii, O. I.


    CONTENTSIntroductionChapter I. Euler equations on finite-dimensional Lie coalgebras, arising in physical problems §1. Classical investigations of the Euler equations of the rotation of an n-dimensional rigid body §2. Euler equations on Lie coalgebras, connected with the dynamics of a rigidbody around a fixed point and with the dynamics of a rigid body in an ideal incompressible fluid §3. Algebraic and Hamiltonian structure of the equations of rotation of a satellite around the mass centre §4. Physical applications of Euler equations on the direct sum of n Lie coalgebras SO(3)Chapter II. Integration of the dynamics of an arbitrary rigid body in the Newtonian gravitational field with an arbitrary quadratic potential §1. History of the problem §2. Integrability in the Liouville sense of the equations of rotation of a rigid body around a fixed mass centre in the field of remote attractive objects §3. Integrability in the Liouville sense of the equations of the translational-rotational dynamics of a rigid body in the Newtonian gravitational field with an arbitrary quadratic potential §4. The integrability of the dynamics in terms of Riemann theta-functions §5. Dynamics of a symmetric rigid body in the Newtonian gravitational field with an arbitrary quadratic potential §6. Integrable cases of equations of rotation of a rigid body in non-linear gravitational fields §7. Integrability of the n-dimensional analogue of the problem of rotation of a rigid body in the Newtonian gravitational field with an arbitrary quadratic potential §8. Lagrangian structure of the Kirchhoff equationsChapter III. General integrable problems of classical mechanics §1. Introduction and summary §2. Complete integrability of the dynamics of a C1-central configuration §3. General integrable problems of classical mechanics §4. Hidden symmetry of the inertial dynamics §5. Reductions and integrable cases of rotation of a Ck-central configuration around a fixed point in Newtonian

  7. Existence of solutions to boundary value problems arising from the fractional advection dispersion equation

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    Lingju Kong


    Full Text Available We study the existence of multiple solutions to the boundary value problem $$displaylines{ frac{d}{dt}Big(frac12{}_0D_t^{-eta}(u'(t+frac12{}_tD_T^{-eta}(u'(t Big+lambda abla F(t,u(t=0,quad tin [0,T],cr u(0=u(T=0, }$$ where $T>0$, $lambda>0$ is a parameter, $0leqeta<1$, ${}_0D_t^{-eta}$ and ${}_tD_T^{-eta}$ are, respectively, the left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals of order $eta$, $F: [0,T]imesmathbb{R}^Nomathbb{R}$ is a given function. Our interest in the above system arises from studying the steady fractional advection dispersion equation. By applying variational methods, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the above equation has at least three solutions. Our results are new even for the special case when $eta=0$. Examples are provided to illustrate the applicability of our results.

  8. Some problems arising in analysis of large-scale animal irradiation are described experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Staffeldt, E.; Tyler, S.A.


    Problems that occur in experiments designed particularly to study the effects of irradiation are described. One of the purposes of such experiments is to provide data that allow an informed judgment on estimates of the risks for man after exposue to radiation. It is no trivial matter to establish whether exposure to agents, such as radiation, increases the probability of a tumor arising de novo or whether the effect is an advancement of the time of appearance of naturally occurring tumors. In many murine tumors, the problem of establishing which of these two possibilities is the case is increased by the high natural incidence. In order to interpret the data from carcinogenesis experiments, a knowledge of the natural history of the tumor of interest is necessary. In this paper we present data that help to elucidate the biology of lung tumors in hybrid B6CF/sub 1//An1 mice. The rising incidence of many tumors late in life raises the question of whether a common systemic factor is involved. In experiments with female mice, relatively low doses of radiation may sterilize the ovary with subsequent hormonal imbalances that in turn may influence the appearance of tumors in a number of hormone-influenced tissues. We have found that radiation may increase not only the age-specific rates of tumors but also the probability of the number of different tumor types. The possibility of a lack of independence of the occurrences of different tumors complicates the data analysis. To answer some of the questions we have raised, it would be of considerable help to have data on the prevalence of tumors; however, such data usually involve serial killing which is costly. We have examined the possibility of obtaining prevalence data for lung tumors by the determination of the incidence of lung tumors in mice dying from causes other than lung tumors.

  9. A General Iterative Method of Fixed Points for Mixed Equilibrium Problems and Variational Inclusion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phayap Katchang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of finding a common element of the set of solutions for mixed equilibrium problems, the set of solutions of the variational inclusions with set-valued maximal monotone mappings and inverse-strongly monotone mappings, and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely nonexpansive mappings in the setting of Hilbert spaces. We propose a new iterative scheme for finding the common element of the above three sets. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results of the works by Zhang et al. (2008, Peng et al. (2008, Peng and Yao (2009, as well as Plubtieng and Sriprad (2009 and some well-known results in the literature.

  10. The Solution of Fourth Order Boundary Value Problem Arising out of the Beam-Column Theory Using Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kelesoglu


    Full Text Available Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to linear nonhomogeneous boundary value problem arising from the beam-column theory. The obtained results are expressed in tables and graphs. We obtain rapidly converging results to exact solution by using the ADM. This situation indicates that the method is appropriate and reliable for such problems.

  11. General stochastic variational formulation for the oligopolistic market equilibrium problem with excesses (United States)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria; Di Meglio, Guglielmo; Mauro, Paolo


    The aim of the paper is to study, in a Hilbert space setting, a general random oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of both production and demand excesses and to characterize the random Cournot-Nash equilibrium principle by means of a stochastic variational inequality. Some existence results are presented.

  12. Mixed boundary-value problems for quantum hydrodynamic models with semiconductors in thermal equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Dong


    Full Text Available We show the existence of solutions for mixed boundary-value problems that model quantum hydrodynamics in thermal equilibrium. Also we find the semi-classical limit of the solutions.

  13. Existence Results for Strong Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problem for Multivalued Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman


    Full Text Available We consider a strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in topological vector spaces. Using generalized Fan-Browder fixed point theorem (Takahashi 1976 and generalized pseudomonotonicity for multivalued mappings, we provide some existence results for strong mixed vector equilibrium problem without using KKM-Fan theorem. The results in this paper generalize, improve, extend, and unify some existence results in the literature. Some special cases are discussed and an example is constructed.

  14. Multiple Depots Vehicle Routing Problem in the Context of Total Urban Traffic Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Chen


    Full Text Available A multidepot VRP is solved in the context of total urban traffic equilibrium. Under the total traffic equilibrium, the multidepot VRP is changed to GDAP (the problem of Grouping Customers + Estimating OD Traffic + Assigning traffic and bilevel programming is used to model the problem, where the upper model determines the customers that each truck visits and adds the trucks’ trips to the initial OD (Origin/Destination trips, and the lower model assigns the OD trips to road network. Feedback between upper model and lower model is iterated through OD trips; thus total traffic equilibrium can be simulated.

  15. Time-Dependent Variational Inequality for an Oligopolistic Market Equilibrium Problem with Production and Demand Excesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Barbagallo


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the variational formulation of the oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of both production and demand excesses. In particular, we generalize a previous model in which the authors, instead, considered only the problem with production excesses, by allowing also the presence of demand excesses. First we examine the equilibrium conditions in terms of the well-known dynamic Cournot-Nash principle. Next, the equilibrium conditions will be expressed in terms of Lagrange multipliers by means of the infinite dimensional duality theory. Then, we show the equivalence between the two conditions that are both expressed by an appropriate evolutionary variational inequality. Moreover, thanks to the variational formulation, some existence and regularity results for equilibrium solutions are proved. At last, a numerical example, which illustrates the features of the problem, is provided.

  16. Optimization problems with equilibrium constraints and their numerical solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Outrata, Jiří


    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2004), s. 119-149 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075005 Grant - others:BMBF(DE) 03ZOM3ER Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : optimization problems * MPEC * MPCC Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.016, year: 2004

  17. A Note on the Right-Hand Side Identification Problem Arising in Biofluid Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Said Erdogan


    Full Text Available The inverse problem of reconstructing the right-hand side (RHS of a mixed problem for one-dimensional diffusion equation with variable space operator is considered. The well-posedness of this problem in Hölder spaces is established.

  18. A Quasi-Variational Approach for the Dynamic Oligopolistic Market Equilibrium Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Barbagallo


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the dynamic oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in the realistic case in which we allow the presence of capacity constraints and production excesses and, moreover, we assume that the production function depends not only on the time but also on the equilibrium distribution. As a consequence, we introduce the generalized dynamic Cournot-Nash principle in the elastic case and prove the equivalence between this equilibrium definition and a suitable evolutionary quasi-variational inequality. For completeness we make the analysis of existence, regularity, and sensitivity of the solution. In the end, a numerical example is provided.

  19. Evolutionary variational inequalities arising in quasistatic frictional contact problems for elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Motreanu


    normal compliance and a version of Coulomb's law of dry friction, for which we prove the existence of a weak solution. We then consider a problem of bilateral contact with Tresca's friction law and a problem involving a simplified version of Coulomb's friction law. For these two problems we prove the existence, the uniqueness and the Lipschitz continuous dependence of the weak solution with respect to the data.

  20. A numerical solution of a singular boundary value problem arising in boundary layer theory. (United States)

    Hu, Jiancheng


    In this paper, a second-order nonlinear singular boundary value problem is presented, which is equivalent to the well-known Falkner-Skan equation. And the one-dimensional third-order boundary value problem on interval [Formula: see text] is equivalently transformed into a second-order boundary value problem on finite interval [Formula: see text]. The finite difference method is utilized to solve the singular boundary value problem, in which the amount of computational effort is significantly less than the other numerical methods. The numerical solutions obtained by the finite difference method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

  1. Proxy-produced ethnographic work: what are the problems, issues, and dilemmas arising from proxy ethnography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Marie Louise; Højbjerg, Karin; Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov


    and positions arising from such a setup between the teacher/researcher and the proxy ethnographer/student are found to have implications for the ethnographies produced. This article’s main focus is to show how these relations and positions have not distorted the ethnographic work and the ethnographies but......This article addresses the implications of research-student cooperation in the production of empirical material. For the student to replace the experienced researcher and work under the researcher’s supervision, we call such work proxy-produced ethnographic work. The specific relations...... the research process. These ethnographic distortions will be generated and described within a framework drawn primarily on the work of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu....

  2. A non-standard optimal control problem arising in an economics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Zinober


    Full Text Available A recent optimal control problem in the area of economics has mathematical properties that do not fall into the standard optimal control problem formulation. In our problem the state value at the final time the state, y(T = z, is free and unknown, and additionally the Lagrangian integrand in the functional is a piecewise constant function of the unknown value y(T. This is not a standard optimal control problem and cannot be solved using Pontryagin's Minimum Principle with the standard boundary conditions at the final time. In the standard problem a free final state y(T yields a necessary boundary condition p(T = 0, where p(t is the costate. Because the integrand is a function of y(T, the new necessary condition is that y(T should be equal to a certain integral that is a continuous function of y(T. We introduce a continuous approximation of the piecewise constant integrand function by using a hyperbolic tangent approach and solve an example using a C++ shooting algorithm with Newton iteration for solving the Two Point Boundary Value Problem (TPBVP. The minimising free value y(T is calculated in an outer loop iteration using the Golden Section or Brent algorithm. Comparative nonlinear programming (NP discrete-time results are also presented.

  3. Neural network for solving Nash equilibrium problem in application of multiuser power control. (United States)

    He, Xing; Yu, Junzhi; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chuandong; Li, Chaojie


    In this paper, based on an equivalent mixed linear complementarity problem, we propose a neural network to solve multiuser power control optimization problems (MPCOP), which is modeled as the noncooperative Nash game in modern digital subscriber line (DSL). If the channel crosstalk coefficients matrix is positive semidefinite, it is shown that the proposed neural network is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and global convergence to a Nash equilibrium, and the Nash equilibrium is unique if the channel crosstalk coefficients matrix is positive definite. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An inverse problem for a semilinear parabolic equation arising from cardiac electrophysiology (United States)

    Beretta, Elena; Cavaterra, Cecilia; Cerutti, M. Cristina; Manzoni, Andrea; Ratti, Luca


    In this paper we develop theoretical analysis and numerical reconstruction techniques for the solution of an inverse boundary value problem dealing with the nonlinear, time-dependent monodomain equation, which models the evolution of the electric potential in the myocardial tissue. The goal is the detection of an inhomogeneity \

  5. Periodic solutions of an indefinite singular equation arising from the Kepler problem on the sphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Zamora, M.


    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2018), s. 173-190 ISSN 0008-414X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : indefinite singularity * periodic solution * Kepler problem on S^1 Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2016

  6. Features of inverse problem arise from structure of a general pure Mueller matrix (United States)

    Savenkov, Sergey N.; Oberemok, Yevgen A.; Nikonov, Vladimir N.


    Changes in the state of polarization of a beam of radiation occurring without depolarization can be described by means of a pure Mueller matrix. Pure Mueller matrix can be expressed in terms of the elements of a 2x2 Jones matrix. This results in that the pure Mueller matrix has a simple and elegant structure, which is embodied by interrelations between matrix elements. All possible interrelations for the elements of a general pure Mueller matrix are derived by Hovenier (Appl. Opt., Vol.33, No.36, pp. 8318-8324, 1994). The structure of the pure Mueller matrix enables to solve the inverse problem basing not on all sixteen matrix elements but only on certain part of them. We show that four elements which are formed each of columns and rows of the pure Mueller matrix considering them individually are dependent and the inverse problem can be solved in general case basing only on the rest of twelve matrix elements.

  7. Approximate series solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology. (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kumar, Jitendra; Nelakanti, Gnaneshwar


    We introduce an efficient recursive scheme based on Adomian decomposition method (ADM) for solving nonlinear singular boundary value problems. This approach is based on a modification of the ADM; here we use all the boundary conditions to derive an integral equation before establishing the recursive scheme for the solution components. In fact, we develop the recursive scheme without any undetermined coefficients while computing the solution components. Unlike the classical ADM, the proposed method avoids solving a sequence of nonlinear algebraic or transcendental equations for the undetermined coefficients. The approximate solution is obtained in the form of series with easily calculable components. The uniqueness of the solution is discussed. The convergence and error analysis of the proposed method are also established. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed method are examined by four numerical examples.

  8. Application of spectral Lanczos decomposition method to large scale problems arising geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamarchenko, T. [Western Atlas Logging Services, Houston, TX (United States)


    This paper presents an application of Spectral Lanczos Decomposition Method (SLDM) to numerical modeling of electromagnetic diffusion and elastic waves propagation in inhomogeneous media. SLDM approximates an action of a matrix function as a linear combination of basis vectors in Krylov subspace. I applied the method to model electromagnetic fields in three-dimensions and elastic waves in two dimensions. The finite-difference approximation of the spatial part of differential operator reduces the initial boundary-value problem to a system of ordinary differential equations with respect to time. The solution to this system requires calculating exponential and sine/cosine functions of the stiffness matrices. Large scale numerical examples are in a good agreement with the theoretical error bounds and stability estimates given by Druskin, Knizhnerman, 1987.

  9. Extension of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code to free-plasma-boundary problems (United States)

    Peraza-Rodriguez, H.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; Sanchez, R.; Geiger, J.; Tribaldos, V.; Hirshman, S. P.; Cianciosa, M.


    SIESTA [Hirshman et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 062504 (2011)] is a recently developed MHD equilibrium code designed to perform fast and accurate calculations of ideal MHD equilibria for three-dimensional magnetic configurations. Since SIESTA does not assume closed magnetic surfaces, the solution can exhibit magnetic islands and stochastic regions. In its original implementation SIESTA addressed only fixed-boundary problems. That is, the shape of the plasma edge, assumed to be a magnetic surface, was kept fixed as the solution iteratively converges to equilibrium. This condition somewhat restricts the possible applications of SIESTA. In this paper, we discuss an extension that will enable SIESTA to address free-plasma-boundary problems, opening up the possibility of investigating problems in which the plasma boundary is perturbed either externally or internally. As an illustration, SIESTA is applied to a configuration of the W7-X stellarator.

  10. Modeling Portfolio Optimization Problem by Probability-Credibility Equilibrium Risk Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang


    Full Text Available This paper studies the portfolio selection problem in hybrid uncertain decision systems. Firstly the return rates are characterized by random fuzzy variables. The objective is to maximize the total expected return rate. For a random fuzzy variable, this paper defines a new equilibrium risk value (ERV with credibility level beta and probability level alpha. As a result, our portfolio problem is built as a new random fuzzy expected value (EV model subject to ERV constraint, which is referred to as EV-ERV model. Under mild assumptions, the proposed EV-ERV model is a convex programming problem. Furthermore, when the possibility distributions are triangular, trapezoidal, and normal, the EV-ERV model can be transformed into its equivalent deterministic convex programming models, which can be solved by general purpose optimization software. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed equilibrium optimization method, some numerical experiments are conducted. The computational results and comparison study demonstrate that the developed equilibrium optimization method is effective to model portfolio selection optimization problem with twofold uncertain return rates.

  11. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problems arising in city logistics (United States)

    Hemmelmayr, Vera C.; Cordeau, Jean-François; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel


    In this paper, we propose an adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-VRP) and the Location Routing Problem (LRP). The 2E-VRP arises in two-level transportation systems such as those encountered in the context of city logistics. In such systems, freight arrives at a major terminal and is shipped through intermediate satellite facilities to the final customers. The LRP can be seen as a special case of the 2E-VRP in which vehicle routing is performed only at the second level. We have developed new neighborhood search operators by exploiting the structure of the two problem classes considered and have also adapted existing operators from the literature. The operators are used in a hierarchical scheme reflecting the multi-level nature of the problem. Computational experiments conducted on several sets of instances from the literature show that our algorithm outperforms existing solution methods for the 2E-VRP and achieves excellent results on the LRP. PMID:23483764

  12. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problems arising in city logistics. (United States)

    Hemmelmayr, Vera C; Cordeau, Jean-François; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel


    In this paper, we propose an adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-VRP) and the Location Routing Problem (LRP). The 2E-VRP arises in two-level transportation systems such as those encountered in the context of city logistics. In such systems, freight arrives at a major terminal and is shipped through intermediate satellite facilities to the final customers. The LRP can be seen as a special case of the 2E-VRP in which vehicle routing is performed only at the second level. We have developed new neighborhood search operators by exploiting the structure of the two problem classes considered and have also adapted existing operators from the literature. The operators are used in a hierarchical scheme reflecting the multi-level nature of the problem. Computational experiments conducted on several sets of instances from the literature show that our algorithm outperforms existing solution methods for the 2E-VRP and achieves excellent results on the LRP.

  13. Projected regression method for solving Fredholm integral equations arising in the analytic continuation problem of quantum physics (United States)

    Arsenault, Louis-François; Neuberg, Richard; Hannah, Lauren A.; Millis, Andrew J.


    We present a supervised machine learning approach to the inversion of Fredholm integrals of the first kind as they arise, for example, in the analytic continuation problem of quantum many-body physics. The approach provides a natural regularization for the ill-conditioned inverse of the Fredholm kernel, as well as an efficient and stable treatment of constraints. The key observation is that the stability of the forward problem permits the construction of a large database of outputs for physically meaningful inputs. Applying machine learning to this database generates a regression function of controlled complexity, which returns approximate solutions for previously unseen inputs; the approximate solutions are then projected onto the subspace of functions satisfying relevant constraints. Under standard error metrics the method performs as well or better than the Maximum Entropy method for low input noise and is substantially more robust to increased input noise. We suggest that the methodology will be similarly effective for other problems involving a formally ill-conditioned inversion of an integral operator, provided that the forward problem can be efficiently solved.

  14. Algorithm based on the Thomson problem for determination of equilibrium structures of metal nanoclusters (United States)

    Arias, E.; Florez, E.; Pérez-Torres, J. F.


    A new algorithm for the determination of equilibrium structures suitable for metal nanoclusters is proposed. The algorithm performs a stochastic search of the minima associated with the nuclear potential energy function restricted to a sphere (similar to the Thomson problem), in order to guess configurations of the nuclear positions. Subsequently, the guessed configurations are further optimized driven by the total energy function using the conventional gradient descent method. This methodology is equivalent to using the valence shell electron pair repulsion model in guessing initial configurations in the traditional molecular quantum chemistry. The framework is illustrated in several clusters of increasing complexity: Cu7, Cu9, and Cu11 as benchmark systems, and Cu38 and Ni9 as novel systems. New equilibrium structures for Cu9, Cu11, Cu38, and Ni9 are reported.

  15. Existence and Linear Stability of Equilibrium Points in the Robe’s Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Singh


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the positions and linear stability of an infinitesimal body around the equilibrium points in the framework of the Robe’s circular restricted three-body problem, with assumptions that the hydrostatic equilibrium figure of the first primary is an oblate spheroid and the second primary is an oblate body as well. It is found that equilibrium point exists near the centre of the first primary. Further, there can be one more equilibrium point on the line joining the centers of both primaries. Points on the circle within the first primary are also equilibrium points under certain conditions and the existence of two out-of-plane points is also observed. The linear stability of this configuration is examined and it is found that points near the center of the first primary are conditionally stable, while the circular and out of plane equilibrium points are unstable.

  16. An algorithm for finding a common solution for a system of mixed equilibrium problem, quasi-variational inclusion problem and fixed point problem of nonexpansive semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Min


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a hybrid iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions for a system of mixed equilibrium problems, the set of common fixed points for a nonexpansive semigroup and the set of solutions of the quasi-variational inclusion problem with multi-valued maximal monotone mappings and inverse-strongly monotone mappings in a Hilbert space. Under suitable conditions, some strong convergence theorems are proved. Our results extend some recent results in the literature.

  17. Basins of attraction of equilibrium points in the planar circular restricted five-body problem (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Sanam Suraj, Md


    We numerically explore the Newton-Raphson basins of convergence, related to the libration points (which act as attractors), in the planar circular restricted five-body problem (CR5BP). The evolution of the position and the linear stability of the equilibrium points is determined, as a function of the value of the mass parameter. The attracting regions, on several types of two dimensional planes, are revealed by using the multivariate version of the classical Newton-Raphson iterative method. We perform a systematic investigation in an attempt to understand how the mass parameter affects the geometry as well as the degree of fractality of the basins of attraction. The regions of convergence are also related with the required number of iterations and also with the corresponding probability distributions.

  18. Identification and analysis of student conceptions used to solve chemical equilibrium problems (United States)

    Voska, Kirk William

    This study identified and quantified chemistry conceptions students use when solving chemical equilibrium problems requiring the application of Le Chatelier's principle, and explored the feasibility of designing a paper and pencil test for this purpose. It also demonstrated the utility of conditional probabilities to assess test quality. A 10-item pencil-and-paper, two-tier diagnostic instrument, the Test to Identify Student Conceptualizations (TISC) was developed and administered to 95 second-semester university general chemistry students after they received regular course instruction concerning equilibrium in homogeneous aqueous, heterogeneous aqueous, and homogeneous gaseous systems. The content validity of TISC was established through a review of TISC by a panel of experts; construct validity was established through semi-structured interviews and conditional probabilities. Nine students were then selected from a stratified random sample for interviews to validate TISC. The probability that TISC correctly identified an answer given by a student in an interview was p = .64, while the probability that TISC correctly identified a reason given by a student in an interview was p=.49. Each TISC item contained two parts. In the first part the student selected the correct answer to a problem from a set of four choices. In the second part students wrote reasons for their answer to the first part. TISC questions were designed to identify students' conceptions concerning the application of Le Chatelier's principle, the constancy of the equilibrium constant, K, and the effect of a catalyst. Eleven prevalent incorrect conceptions were identified. This study found students consistently selected correct answers more frequently (53% of the time) than they provided correct reasons (33% of the time). The association between student answers and respective reasons on each TISC item was quantified using conditional probabilities calculated from logistic regression coefficients. The

  19. Use of a Mobile Application to Help Students Develop Skills Needed in Solving Force Equilibrium Problems (United States)

    Yang, Eunice


    This paper discusses the use of a free mobile engineering application (app) called Autodesk® ForceEffect™ to provide students assistance with spatial visualization of forces and more practice in solving/visualizing statics problems compared to the traditional pencil-and-paper method. ForceEffect analyzes static rigid-body systems using free-body diagrams (FBDs) and provides solutions in real time. It is a cost-free software that is available for download on the Internet. The software is supported on the iOS™, Android™, and Google Chrome™ platforms. It is easy to use and the learning curve is approximately two hours using the tutorial provided within the app. The use of ForceEffect has the ability to provide students different problem modalities (textbook, real-world, and design) to help them acquire and improve on skills that are needed to solve force equilibrium problems. Although this paper focuses on the engineering mechanics statics course, the technology discussed is also relevant to the introductory physics course.

  20. Solution of a dual integral equation arising in the contact problems of elasticity theory with the full Fourier series as the right-hand side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliev Andrey


    Full Text Available A class of dual integral equations is analyzed which arises in solution of a wide range of plane and antiplane contact problems of elasticity theory for a half-plane with functionally graded coating. In particular, a similar equation arises in solution of the contact problem on indentation in the presence of tangential stresses on a surface. The solution of the dual integral equation is sought in the form of a sum of even and odd functions. It makes possible to reduce the problem to independent solution of two dual integral equations over odd and even functions. Kernel transform of these equations is approximated by a product of fractional quadratic functions. The solution of dual integral equations is constructed in approximated analytical form by the bilateral asymptotic method. The expressions obtained are asymptotically exact for small and large values of a characteristic geometrical parameter.

  1. Algorithm for Solving a Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problem with Perturbation in a Banach Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chih Yao


    Full Text Available Let B be a real Banach space with the dual space B*. Let ϕ:B→R∪{+∞} be a proper functional and let Θ:B×B→R be a bifunction. In this paper, a new concept of η-proximal mapping of ϕ with respect to Θ is introduced. The existence and Lipschitz continuity of the η-proximal mapping of ϕ with respect to Θ are proved. By using properties of the η-proximal mapping of ϕ with respect to Θ, a generalized mixed equilibrium problem with perturbation (for short, GMEPP is introduced and studied in Banach space B. An existence theorem of solutions of the GMEPP is established and a new iterative algorithm for computing approximate solutions of the GMEPP is suggested. The strong convergence criteria of the iterative sequence generated by the new algorithm are established in a uniformly smooth Banach space B, and the weak convergence criteria of the iterative sequence generated by this new algorithm are also derived in B=H a Hilbert space.

  2. Tripartite equilibrium strategy for a carbon tax setting problem in air passenger transport. (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Qiu, Rui; Tao, Zhimiao; Xie, Heping


    Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method. To solve the equivalent crisp model, a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm with entropy-Bolitzmann selection (FLC-GA with EBS) is designed as an integrated solution method. Then, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization method. Results show that the cap tax mechanism is an important part of air passenger trans'port carbon emission mitigation and thus, it should be effectively applied to air passenger transport. These results also indicate that the proposed method can provide efficient ways of mitigating carbon emissions for air passenger transport, and therefore assist decision makers in formulating relevant strategies under multiple scenarios.

  3. Problems of perturbation series in non-equilibrium quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Altherr, Tanguy


    In the standard framework of non-equilibrium quantum field theories, the pinch singularities associated to multiple products of \\delta-functions do not cancel in a perturbative expansion unless the particle distributions are those for a system in thermal and chemical equilibrium.

  4. The Adomian decomposition method for solving a moving boundary problem arising from the diffusion of oxygen in absorbing tissue. (United States)

    Bougoffa, Lazhar


    This paper begins by giving the results obtained by the Crank-Gupta method and Gupta-Banik method for the oxygen diffusion problem in absorbing tissue, and then we propose a new resolution method for this problem by the Adomian decomposition method. An approximate analytical solution is obtained, which is demonstrated to be quite accurate by comparison with the numerical and approximate solutions obtained by Crank and Gupta. The study confirms the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm for analytic approximate solutions of this problem.

  5. An Equilibrium Chance-Constrained Multiobjective Programming Model with Birandom Parameters and Its Application to Inventory Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimiao Tao


    Full Text Available An equilibrium chance-constrained multiobjective programming model with birandom parameters is proposed. A type of linear model is converted into its crisp equivalent model. Then a birandom simulation technique is developed to tackle the general birandom objective functions and birandom constraints. By embedding the birandom simulation technique, a modified genetic algorithm is designed to solve the equilibrium chance-constrained multiobjective programming model. We apply the proposed model and algorithm to a real-world inventory problem and show the effectiveness of the model and the solution method.

  6. Solutions to integro-differential parabolic problems arising in the pricing of financial options in a Levy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Florescu


    Full Text Available We study an integro-differential parabolic problem modelling a process with jumps and stochastic volatility in financial mathematics. Under suitable conditions, we prove the existence of solutions in a general domain using the method of upper and lower solutions and a diagonal argument.

  7. Composite solvers for linear saddle point problems arising from the incompressible Stokes equations with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure (United States)

    Sanan, P.; Schnepp, S. M.; May, D.; Schenk, O.


    Geophysical applications require efficient forward models for non-linear Stokes flow on high resolution spatio-temporal domains. The bottleneck in applying the forward model is solving the linearized, discretized Stokes problem which takes the form of a large, indefinite (saddle point) linear system. Due to the heterogeniety of the effective viscosity in the elliptic operator, devising effective preconditioners for saddle point problems has proven challenging and highly problem-dependent. Nevertheless, at least three approaches show promise for preconditioning these difficult systems in an algorithmically scalable way using multigrid and/or domain decomposition techniques. The first is to work with a hierarchy of coarser or smaller saddle point problems. The second is to use the Schur complement method to decouple and sequentially solve for the pressure and velocity. The third is to use the Schur decomposition to devise preconditioners for the full operator. These involve sub-solves resembling inexact versions of the sequential solve. The choice of approach and sub-methods depends crucially on the motivating physics, the discretization, and available computational resources. Here we examine the performance trade-offs for preconditioning strategies applied to idealized models of mantle convection and lithospheric dynamics, characterized by large viscosity gradients. Due to the arbitrary topological structure of the viscosity field in geodynamical simulations, we utilize low order, inf-sup stable mixed finite element spatial discretizations which are suitable when sharp viscosity variations occur in element interiors. Particular attention is paid to possibilities within the decoupled and approximate Schur complement factorization-based monolithic approaches to leverage recently-developed flexible, communication-avoiding, and communication-hiding Krylov subspace methods in combination with `heavy' smoothers, which require solutions of large per-node sub-problems, well

  8. Computing the full spectrum of large sparse palindromic quadratic eigenvalue problems arising from surface Green's function calculations (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng; Chen, Guan-Hua


    Full spectrum of a large sparse ⊤-palindromic quadratic eigenvalue problem (⊤-PQEP) is considered arguably for the first time in this article. Such a problem is posed by calculation of surface Green's functions (SGFs) of mesoscopic transistors with a tremendous non-periodic cross-section. For this problem, general purpose eigensolvers are not efficient, nor is advisable to resort to the decimation method etc. to obtain the Wiener-Hopf factorization. After reviewing some rigorous understanding of SGF calculation from the perspective of ⊤-PQEP and nonlinear matrix equation, we present our new approach to this problem. In a nutshell, the unit disk where the spectrum of interest lies is broken down adaptively into pieces small enough that they each can be locally tackled by the generalized ⊤-skew-Hamiltonian implicitly restarted shift-and-invert Arnoldi (G⊤SHIRA) algorithm with suitable shifts and other parameters, and the eigenvalues missed by this divide-and-conquer strategy can be recovered thanks to the accurate estimation provided by our newly developed scheme. Notably the novel non-equivalence deflation is proposed to avoid as much as possible duplication of nearby known eigenvalues when a new shift of G⊤SHIRA is determined. We demonstrate our new approach by calculating the SGF of a realistic nanowire whose unit cell is described by a matrix of size 4000 × 4000 at the density functional tight binding level, corresponding to a 8 × 8nm2 cross-section. We believe that quantum transport simulation of realistic nano-devices in the mesoscopic regime will greatly benefit from this work.

  9. Existence, uniqueness and regularity of a time-periodic probability density distribution arising in a sedimentation-diffusion problem (United States)

    Nitsche, Ludwig C.; Nitsche, Johannes M.; Brenner, Howard


    The sedimentation and diffusion of a nonneutrally buoyant Brownian particle in vertical fluid-filled cylinder of finite length which is instantaneously inverted at regular intervals are investigated analytically. A one-dimensional convective-diffusive equation is derived to describe the temporal and spatial evolution of the probability density; a periodicity condition is formulated; the applicability of Fredholm theory is established; and the parameter-space regions are determined within which the existence and uniqueness of solutions are guaranteed. Numerical results for sample problems are presented graphically and briefly characterized.

  10. A Hybrid Subgradient Algorithm for Finding a Common Solution of an Equilibrium Problem and a Family of Strict Pseudocontraction Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkarath Thailert


    Full Text Available We propose a new strongly convergent algorithm for finding a common point in the solution set of a class of pseudomonotone equilibrium problems and the set of common fixed points of a family of strict pseudocontraction mappings in a real Hilbert space. The strong convergence theorem of proposed algorithms is investigated without the Lipschitz condition for the bifunctions. Our results complement many known recent results in the literature.

  11. Equilibrium Points and Related Periodic Motions in the Restricted Three-Body Problem with Angular Velocity and Radiation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Perdios


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a modification of the restricted three-body problem in which the angular velocity variation is considered in the case where the primaries are sources of radiation. In particular, the existence and stability of its equilibrium points in the plane of motion of the primaries are studied. We find that this problem admits the well-known five planar equilibria of the classical problem with the difference that the corresponding collinear points may be stable depending on the parameters of the problem. For all planar equilibria, sufficient parametric conditions for their stability have been established which are used for the numerical determination of the stability regions in various parametric planes. Also, for certain values of the parameters of the problem for which the equilibrium points are stable, the short and long period families have been computed. To do so, semianalytical expressions have been found for the determination of appropriate initial conditions. Special attention has been given to the continuation of the long period family, in the case of the classical restricted three-body problem, where we show numerically that periodic orbits of the short period family, which are bifurcation points with the long period family, are connected through the characteristic curve of the long period family.

  12. Hybrid Proximal-Point Methods for Zeros of Maximal Monotone Operators, Variational Inequalities and Mixed Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriengsak Wattanawitoon


    Full Text Available We prove strong and weak convergence theorems of modified hybrid proximal-point algorithms for finding a common element of the zero point of a maximal monotone operator, the set of solutions of equilibrium problems, and the set of solution of the variational inequality operators of an inverse strongly monotone in a Banach space under different conditions. Moreover, applications to complementarity problems are given. Our results modify and improve the recently announced ones by Li and Song (2008 and many authors.

  13. Strong convergence theorems by hybrid projection methods for equilibrium problems and fixed point problems of the asymptotically quasi-ϕ-nonexpansive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong


    Full Text Available Abstract We consider a hybrid projection method for finding a common element in the fixed point set of an asymptotically quasi-ϕ-nonexpansive mapping and in the solution set of an equilibrium problem. Strong convergence theorems of common elements are established in a uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach space which has the Kadec-Klee property. 2000 Mathematics subject classification: 47H05, 47H09, 47H10, 47J25

  14. A constrained-equilibrium Monte Carlo method for quantum dots-the problem of intermixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelires, P C [Physics Department, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, 710 03 Heraclion, Crete (Greece); Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), PO Box 1527, 711 10 Heraclion, Crete (Greece)


    Islands grown during semiconductor heteroepitaxy are in a thermodynamically metastable state. Experiments show that diffusion at the surface region, including the interior of the islands, is fast enough to establish local equilibrium. I review here applications of a Monte Carlo method which takes advantage of the quasi-equilibrium nature of quantum dots and is able to address the issue of intermixing and island composition. Both Ge islands grown on the bare Si(100) surface and C-induced Ge islands grown on Si(100) precovered with C are discussed. In the bare case, the interlinking of the stress field with the composition is revealed. Both are strongly inhomogeneous. In the C-induced case, the interplay of strain and chemical effects is the dominant key factor. Islands do not contain C under any conditions of coverage and temperature.

  15. Convex Minimization with Constraints of Systems of Variational Inequalities, Mixed Equilibrium, Variational Inequality, and Fixed Point Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng


    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze one iterative algorithm by hybrid shrinking projection method for finding a solution of the minimization problem for a convex and continuously Fréchet differentiable functional, with constraints of several problems: finitely many generalized mixed equilibrium problems, finitely many variational inequalities, the general system of variational inequalities and the fixed point problem of an asymptotically strict pseudocontractive mapping in the intermediate sense in a real Hilbert space. We prove strong convergence theorem for the iterative algorithm under suitable conditions. On the other hand, we also propose another iterative algorithm by hybrid shrinking projection method for finding a fixed point of infinitely many nonexpansive mappings with the same constraints, and derive its strong convergence under mild assumptions.

  16. An Iterative Algorithm Combining Viscosity Method with Parallel Method for a Generalized Equilibrium Problem and Strict Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available We introduce a new approximation scheme combining the viscosity method with parallel method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely strict pseudocontractions. We obtain a strong convergence theorem for the sequences generated by these processes in Hilbert spaces. Based on this result, we also get some new and interesting results. The results in this paper extend and improve some well-known results in the literature.

  17. A Viscosity of Cesàro Mean Approximation Methods for a Mixed Equilibrium, Variational Inequalities, and Fixed Point Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitpeera Thanyarat


    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative method for finding a common element of the set of solutions for mixed equilibrium problem, the set of solutions of the variational inequality for a -inverse-strongly monotone mapping, and the set of fixed points of a family of finitely nonexpansive mappings in a real Hilbert space by using the viscosity and Cesàro mean approximation method. We prove that the sequence converges strongly to a common element of the above three sets under some mind conditions. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results of Kumam and Katchang (2009, Peng and Yao (2009, Shimizu and Takahashi (1997, and some authors.

  18. Generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems with set-valued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jian Wen


    Full Text Available A new mathematical model of generalized vector quasiequilibrium problem with set-valued mappings is introduced, and several existence results of a solution for the generalized vector quasiequilibrium problem with and without -condensing mapping are shown. The results in this paper extend and unify those results in the literature.

  19. Specialists and Generalists: Equilibrium Skill Acquisition Decisions in Problem-solving Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Katharine A


    Many organizations rely on the skills of innovative individuals to create value, including academic and government institutions, think tanks, and knowledge-based firms. Roughly speaking, workers in these fields can be divided into two categories: specialists, who have a deep knowledge of a single area, and generalists, who have knowledge in a wide variety of areas. In this paper, I examine an individual's choice to be a specialist or generalist. My model addresses two questions: first, under what conditions does it make sense for an individual to acquire skills in multiple areas, and second, are the decisions made by individuals optimal from an organizational perspective? I find that when problems are single-dimensional, and disciplinary boundaries are open, all workers will specialize. However, when there are barriers to working on problems in other fields, then there is a tradeoff between the depth of the specialist and the wider scope of problems the generalist has available. When problems are simple, havi...

  20. Use of a Mobile Application to Help Students Develop Skills Needed in Solving Force Equilibrium Problems (United States)

    Yang, Eunice


    This paper discusses the use of a free mobile engineering application (app) called Autodesk® ForceEffect™ to provide students assistance with spatial visualization of forces and more practice in solving/visualizing statics problems compared to the traditional pencil-and-paper method. ForceEffect analyzes static rigid-body systems using free-body…

  1. On vector equilibrium problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, to simplify matter, we adopt the following definition. DEFINITION 14. A mapping g : K ┬ K└3Y with gЕxY xЖ И 0, Vx P K is called P-maximal monotone iff, for every x P K and for every P-convex mapping 0 : K└3Y with 0ЕxЖ И 0: 0ЕyЖ └ gЕyY xЖ aP └ int PY Vy P KИAgЕxY yЖ З 0ЕyЖ aP └ int PY Vy P KX.

  2. Investigation of the Stability of Equilibrium Points in the Relativistic Restricted Three-Body Problem with Perturbations (United States)

    Nakone, Bello


    In the work by Bhatnagar and Hallan (1998), linear stability of the relativistic triangular 4 5 L and L points was studied and it was shown that these points were unstable for the whole range 1 0 2 despite the well-known fact that the non-relativistic 4 L and 5 L are stable for 0 , where 0 is the Routh critical mass ratio. The same problem was later investigated by Douskos and Perdios (2002) and Ahmed et al. (2006) and they obtained two different ranges of mass ratios in which the relativistic triangular points are linearly stable in contradiction with the result of Bhatnagar and Hallan (1998). In this thesis we reconsider and generalize the problem investigated by these authors in that perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, radiation pressure, oblateness and triaxiality factors of the primaries have been considered in our investigation. The locations of equilibrium points are obtained and their stability are analyzed by using variational method and Lyapunov's criteria. The triangular points of the relativistic three-body problem (R3BP) are studied from various aspects of perturbations such as oblateness, triaxiality and radiation pressure of the primaries as well as the small perturbations in the centrifugal and Coriolis forces. It is found that the locations of the triangular points are affected by the asphericity of the primaries, the relativistic terms and a small change in the centrifugal force. It is also found that the triangular points are stable for c 0 and unstable for 2 1 c , where c is the critical mass parameter depending on the perturbation parameters and relativistic terms. It is further found that the Coriolis force has stabilizing tendency, while the centrifugal force, radiation pressure forces, oblateness, triaxiality of the primaries and relativistic terms have destabilizing effects. The motion of an infinitesimal mass near the collinear equilibrium points when the smaller primary is a triaxial body is also studied. It is observed

  3. Equilibrium and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury


    Full Text Available We present a reduction of the termination problem for a Turing machine (in the simplified form of the Post correspondence problem to the problem of determining whether a continuous-time Markov chain presented as a set of Kappa graph-rewriting rules has an equilibrium. It follows that the problem of whether a computable CTMC is dissipative (ie does not have an equilibrium is undecidable.

  4. Metacognitive skills and students' motivation toward chemical equilibrium problem solving ability: A correlational study on students of XI IPA SMAN 2 Banjarmasin (United States)

    Muna, Khairiatul; Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Syahmani, Bakti, Iriani


    The demand for students to have metacognitive skills and problem solving ability can be seen in the core competencies of the 2013 curriculum. Metacognitive skills are the skills which affect students' success in solving problems depending on students' motivation. This explains the possibility of the relationship between metacognition and motivation in affecting students' achievement including problem solving. Due to the importance of metacognitive skills to solve problems and the possible relationship between metacognition and motivation, a study to find the relationship among the variables is necessary to conduct, particularly on chemistry problem solving. This one shot case study using quantitative method aimed to investigate the correlation between metacognitive skills and motivation toward problem solving ability focusing on chemical equilibrium. The research population was students of grade XI of majoring Science of Banjarmasin Public High Scool 2 (XI IPA SMAN 2 Banjarmasin) with the samples of 33 students obtained by using purposive sampling technique. The research data were collected using test and non-test and analyzed using multiple regression in SPSS 21. The results of this study showed that (1) the students' metacognitive skills and motivation correlated positively with coefficient of +0.450 to problem solving ability on chemical equilibrium: (2) inter-variables of students' motivation (self-efficacy, active learning strategies, science/chemistry learning value, performance goal, achievement goal, and learning environment stimulations) correlated positively to metacognitive skills with the correlation coefficients of +0.580, +0.537, +0.363, +0.241, +0.516, and +0.271, respectively. Based on the results, it is necessary for teachers to implement learning which develops students' metacognitive skills and motivation, such as learning with scientific approach. The implementation of the learning is also supposed to be complemented with the use of learning

  5. Algoritmos Heurísticos para la Solución del Problema Lineal con Restricciones de Equilibrio (Heuristic Algorithms for Solving Linear Problems with Equilibrium Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Tamayo-Vera


    Full Text Available Spanish abstract Los problemas lineales con restricciones de equilibrio son un caso particular de los modelos de optimización con restricciones de equilibrio. Debido a la complejidad que presentan, la condición de equilibrio se sustituye por condiciones necesarias obteniéndose un problema con restricciones de complementariedad (MPCC. La estructura del conjunto de soluciones factibles del MPCC obtenido es compleja ya que es la unión de poliedros. Resolver todos los problemas correspondientes a minimizar la función objetivo sobre cada uno de estos poliedros es computacionalmente costoso. El presente trabajo utiliza un enfoque heurístico para dar solución al MPCC, adaptando los algoritmos de Búsqueda Local y Recocido Simulado. Este trabajo presenta un conjunto de funciones de prueba y los resultados computacionales más significativos obtenidos. English abstract Linear equilibrium constrained programming is a special class of optimization models with equilibrium constraints. Because of the complexity of the equilibrium condition it is replaced by necessary conditions, which leads to a complementarity constrained problem (MPCC. The set of feasible solutions in a MPCC is structured as a union of polyhedrons. Solving the MPCC problem would require the minimization of the objective function on each of these polyhedrons. The computation cost of this approach is unfeasible, thus, this work presents a new approach where heuristic algorithms such as Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing are used to search for good solutions on the polyhedrons space. A new benchmark for linear equilibrium constrained optimization is introduced. The computational results achieved by the proposed heuristics on the new benchmark are presented.

  6. Activity mediated phase separation: Can we understand phase behavior of the nonequilibrium problem from an equilibrium approach? (United States)

    Trefz, Benjamin; Das, Subir K; Egorov, Sergei A; Virnau, Peter; Binder, Kurt


    We present results for structure and dynamics of mixtures of active and passive particles, from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and integral equation theory (IET) calculations, for a physically motivated model. The perfectly passive limit of the model corresponds to the phase-separating Asakura-Oosawa model for colloid-polymer mixtures in which, for the present study, the colloids are made self-propelling by introducing activity in accordance with the well known Vicsek model. Such activity facilitates phase separation further, as confirmed by our MD simulations and IET calculations. Depending upon the composition of active and passive particles, the diffusive motion of the active species can only be realized at large time scales. Despite this, we have been able to construct an equilibrium approach to obtain the structural properties of such inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. In this method, effective inter-particle potentials were constructed via IET by taking structural inputs from the MD simulations of the active system. These potentials in turn were used in passive MD simulations, results from which are observed to be in fair agreement with the original ones.

  7. Síndrome de Sensibilidad Múltiple a sustancias químicas: un problema ambiental emergente Multiple Chemical Sensitivity syndrome: an arising environmental problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marqués Marqués


    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Sensibilidad Múltiple (SSM es un conjunto de múltiples síntomas asociados producidos tras la exposición a agentes químicos a muy bajas concentraciones.Se han propuesto diferentes teorías para explicar sus causas, incluyendo alergia, efectos tóxicos y sensibilización neurobiológica. La evidencia científica es insuficiente para confirmar la relación entre las posibles causas y los síntomas. Los pacientes con SSM presentan depresión, ansiedad y trastornos somatoformes, pero no está clara la relación existente entre este síndrome y los problemas psiquiátricos.El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar de forma resumida el estado actual del conocimiento del tema.Multiple Chemical sensitivity (MCS is a syndrome in which multiple symptoms reportedly occur with low-level chemical exposure. Several theories have been advanced to explain the cause of MCS, including allergy, toxic effects and neurobiological sensitisation. There is insufficient scientific evidence to confirm a relationship between any of these possible cause and symptoms. Patients with MCS have high rates of depression, anxiety and somatoforms disorders, but it is unclear is a causal relationship or merely an association exists between MCS and psychiatric problems.The aim of these review is showed the stated of the art about the Mutiple Chemical Sensitivity

  8. Introduction to the generalized theory of non-equilibrium Cahn-Hilliard phase transitions (Thermodynamic problems in continuum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniy A. Lukashev


    Full Text Available The occurrence of convective currents and their development from regular forms with the subsequent transition to irregular turbulent currents draw attention to the fact that they are responsible for the efficiency of many technological processes of heat and mass transfer. Such technological processes are basic in the chemical, petrochemical, power, metallurgical and other industries. Convective flows arise in liquids and gases in the gravitational field in the presence of spatial inhomogeneity of the density created by the inhomogeneity of the temperature and the concentration of components arising during, for example, chemical reactions or other causes. With increasing temperature difference, the resting liquid loses its stability, which then leads to the appearance of a convective flow (Rayleigh–Bénard instability. A further increase in the temperature difference leads to an instability of the primary convective flow, and the hydrodynamic crisis leads to a heat transfer crisis. The paper reconstructs the early stage of the Rayleigh–Bénard convective instability considered as a nonequilibrium phase transition with the spinodal decomposition (diffusion separation mechanism.

  9. Effect of Perturbations in Coriolis and Centrifugal Forces on the Nonlinear Stability of Equilibrium Point in Robe's Restricted Circular Three-Body Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Hallan


    Full Text Available The effect of perturbations in Coriolis and cetrifugal forces on the nonlinear stability of the equilibrium point of the Robe's (1977 restricted circular three-body problem has been studied when the density parameter K is zero. By applying Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM theory, it has been found that the equilibrium point is stable for all mass ratios μ in the range of linear stability 8/9+(2/3((43/25ϵ1−(10/3ϵ<μ<1, where ϵ and ϵ1 are, respectively, the perturbations in Coriolis and centrifugal forces, except for five mass ratios μ1=0.93711086−1.12983217ϵ+1.50202694ϵ1, μ2 = 0.9672922−0.5542091ϵ+ 1.2443968ϵ1, μ3=0.9459503−0.70458206ϵ+ 1.28436549ϵ1, μ4=0.9660792−0.30152273ϵ + 1.11684064ϵ1, μ5=0.893981−2.37971679ϵ + 1.22385421ϵ1, where the theory is not applicable.

  10. Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics (United States)

    Öttinger, Hans Christian


    Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics fills a niche in the market by providing a comprehensive introduction to a new, emerging topic in the field. The importance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is addressed in order to fully understand how a system works, whether it is in a biological system like the brain or a system that develops plastic. In order to fully grasp the subject, the book clearly explains the physical concepts and mathematics involved, as well as presenting problems and solutions; over 200 exercises and answers are included. Engineers, scientists, and applied mathematicians can all use the book to address their problems in modelling, calculating, and understanding dynamic responses of materials.

  11. Equilibrium models and variational inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Konnov, Igor


    The concept of equilibrium plays a central role in various applied sciences, such as physics (especially, mechanics), economics, engineering, transportation, sociology, chemistry, biology and other fields. If one can formulate the equilibrium problem in the form of a mathematical model, solutions of the corresponding problem can be used for forecasting the future behavior of very complex systems and, also, for correcting the the current state of the system under control. This book presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts in economics, including several models from related sciences.- Presents a unifying look on different equilibrium concepts and also the present state of investigations in this field- Describes static and dynamic input-output models, Walras, Cassel-Wald, spatial price, auction market, oligopolistic equilibrium models, transportation and migration equilibrium models- Covers the basics of theory and solution methods both for the complementarity and variational inequality probl...

  12. Maximin equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.


    We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that

  13. Linear Generalized Nash Equilibrium Problems


    Sudermann-Merx, Nathan Georg


    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden verallgemeinerte Nash Spiele (LGNEPs) unter Linearitätsannahmen eingeführt und untersucht. Durch Ausnutzung der speziellen Struktur lassen sich theoretische und algorithmische Resultate erzielen, die weit über die Ergebnisse für allgemeine LGNEPs hinausgehen.

  14. Local Stellarator Equilibrium Model (United States)

    Hudson, Stuart R.; Hegna, Chris C.; Lewandowski, Jerome W.


    Extensive calculations of ballooning and drift waves spectrums in asymmetric toroidal configurations (e.g. stellarators) to appreciate the role of magnetic geometry and profile variations are usually are usually prohibitive as the evaluation of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium is in itself a non-trivial problem. Although simple analytical MHD model equilibria do exist for tokamak configurations, their stellarator counterparts are usually crude or very approximate. In order to make more extensive stability calculations (of both ideal ballooning and drift-type modes), a technique for generating three-dimensional magneto-static equilibria, localized to a magnetic surface, has been developed. The technique allows one to easily manipulate various 3-D shaping and profile effects on a magnetic surface avoiding the need to recompute an entire three dimensional solution of the equilibrium. The model equilibrium has been implemented into existing ideal MHD ballooning and drift wave numerical codes. Marginal ballooning stability diagrams and drift wave calculations will be reported.

  15. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Mário J


    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions.  These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This textbo...

  16. Equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Mário J


    This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...

  17. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhasan, Razieh [Science Institute, University of Iceland,Dunhaga 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)


    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P=P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  18. Existence of Resonance Stability of Triangular Equilibrium Points in Circular Case of the Planar Elliptical Restricted Three-Body Problem under the Oblate and Radiating Primaries around the Binary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Narayan


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the existence of resonance stability of the triangular equilibrium points of the planar elliptical restricted three-body problem when both the primaries are oblate spheroid as well as the source of radiation under the particular case, when e=0. We have derived Hamiltonian function describing the motion of infinitesimal mass in the neighborhood of the triangular equilibrium solutions taken as a convergent series. Hamiltonian function for the system has been derived and also expanded in powers of the generalized components of momenta. We have used canonical transformation to make the Hamiltonian function independent of true anomaly. The most interesting and distinguishable results of this study are establishing the relation for determining the range of stability at and near the resonance ω2=1/2 around the binary system.

  19. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R


    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  20. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds


    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  1. An Experimental Evaluation of Programed Instruction as One of Two Review Techniques for Two-Year College Students Concerned with Solving Acid-Base Chemical Equilibrium Problems. (United States)

    Sharon, Jared Bear

    The major purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a programed instructional unit for a first year college chemistry course. The topic of the unit was the categorization and solution of acid-base equilibria problems. The experimental programed instruction text was used by 41 students and the fifth edition of Schaum's Theory and Problems of…

  2. Methods for Solving Generalized Nash Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Qu


    Full Text Available The generalized Nash equilibrium problem (GNEP is an extension of the standard Nash equilibrium problem (NEP, in which each player's strategy set may depend on the rival player's strategies. In this paper, we present two descent type methods. The algorithms are based on a reformulation of the generalized Nash equilibrium using Nikaido-Isoda function as unconstrained optimization. We prove that our algorithms are globally convergent and the convergence analysis is not based on conditions guaranteeing that every stationary point of the optimization problem is a solution of the GNEP.

  3. Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

  4. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y


    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  5. Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.


    In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In

  6. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters. (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F


    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  7. New quasi-steady-state and partial-equilibrium methods for integrating chemically reacting systems (United States)

    Mott, David Ray


    We present new quasi-steady-state (QSS) and partial- equilibrium (PE) methods for integrating systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that arise from chemical reactions. These methods were developed for use in process-split reacting-flow simulations. The new QSS integrator is a second-order predictor- corrector method that is A-stable for linear equations. The method is accurate regardless of the timescales of the individual ODEs in the system and works well for problems typical of hydrocarbon combustion. The method has very low start-up costs, making it ideal for process- split reacting-flow simulations which require the solution of an initial-value problem in each computational cell in the flowfield for every global timestep. For problems of extreme stiffness, PE tools can be used in combination with the QSS integrator. PE methods remove the fastest reactions in the mechanism from the kinetic integration when their effects can be calculated using algebraic equilibrium constraints. Conservation constraints are used to write an ODE for the reaction's progress variable. The solution of this equation provides a new method for identifying reactions in equilibrium. A systematic method for finding a set of conserved scalars for an arbitrary group of reactions is presented, and this method is used to eliminate reactions that produce redundant equilibrium constraints. Since the equilibrium reactions must compensate for changes in the system that disturb their equilibrium, the equilibrium source terms are not forced identically to zero. Equilibrium is imposed by driving these source terms to the average value required to compensate for the perturbations caused by the other processes. Integration results for a cesium-air mechanism, a hydrogen-air mechanism, and a thermonuclear mechanism used in astrophysics are presented. One-dimensional flame and detonation results are presented for a single-step hydrogen mechanism and the thermonuclear mechanism, respectively

  8. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto


    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hui He


    Full Text Available According to an ancient Chinese algorithm, the Ying Buzu Shu, in about second century BC, known as the rule of double false position in West after 1202 AD, two trial roots are assumed to solve algebraic equations. The solution procedure can be extended to solve nonlinear differential equations by constructing an approximate solution with an unknown parameter, and the unknown parameter can be easily determined using the Ying Buzu Shu. An example in heat transfer is given to elucidate the solution procedure.

  10. Cones of Games arising from Market Entry Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.


    Market entry situations are modelled, where an entrepreneur has to decide for a collection of markets which market to enter and which not. The entrepreneur can improve his prior information by making use of a group of informants, each of them knowing the situation in one or more markets. For such a

  11. Napoleon Is in Equilibrium (United States)

    Phillips, Rob


    It has been said that the cell is the test tube of the twenty-first century. If so, the theoretical tools needed to quantitatively and predictively describe what goes on in such test tubes lag sorely behind the stunning experimental advances in biology seen in the decades since the molecular biology revolution began. Perhaps surprisingly, one of the theoretical tools that has been used with great success on problems ranging from how cells communicate with their environment and each other to the nature of the organization of proteins and lipids within the cell membrane is statistical mechanics. A knee-jerk reaction to the use of statistical mechanics in the description of cellular processes is that living organisms are so far from equilibrium that one has no business even thinking about it. But such reactions are probably too hasty given that there are many regimes in which, because of a separation of timescales, for example, such an approach can be a useful first step. In this article, we explore the power of statistical mechanical thinking in the biological setting, with special emphasis on cell signaling and regulation. We show how such models are used to make predictions and describe some recent experiments designed to test them. We also consider the limits of such models based on the relative timescales of the processes of interest.

  12. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction]. (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria


    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  13. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska


    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  14. Quantum mechanical evolution towards thermal equilibrium


    Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Winter, Andreas


    The circumstances under which a system reaches thermal equilibrium, and how to derive this from basic dynamical laws, has been a major question from the very beginning of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Despite considerable progress, it remains an open problem. Motivated by this issue, we address the more general question of equilibration. We prove, with virtually full generality, that reaching equilibrium is a universal property of quantum systems: Almost any subsystem in interacti...

  15. A variational principle for vector equilibrium problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    , closed and convex set; (Y, P ) be a real ordered topological vector space with a partial order ≤P induced by a solid, pointed, closed and convex cone P with apex at origin, thus x ≤P y ⇐⇒ y − x ∈ P ∀x,y ∈ Y. If intP denotes the topological ...

  16. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ravi


    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  17. On an Acoustic Wave Equation Arising in Non-Equilibrium Gasdynamics. Classroom Notes (United States)

    Chandran, Pallath


    The sixth-order wave equation governing the propagation of one-dimensional acoustic waves in a viscous, heat conducting gaseous medium subject to relaxation effects has been considered. It has been reduced to a system of lower order equations corresponding to the finite speeds occurring in the equation, following a method due to Whitham. The lower…

  18. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás


    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  19. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, J E


    The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t

  20. Local equilibrium in bird flocks (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene


    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  1. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.


    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  2. Quantum mechanical evolution towards thermal equilibrium. (United States)

    Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Winter, Andreas


    The circumstances under which a system reaches thermal equilibrium, and how to derive this from basic dynamical laws, has been a major question from the very beginning of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Despite considerable progress, it remains an open problem. Motivated by this issue, we address the more general question of equilibration. We prove, with virtually full generality, that reaching equilibrium is a universal property of quantum systems: almost any subsystem in interaction with a large enough bath will reach an equilibrium state and remain close to it for almost all times. We also prove several general results about other aspects of thermalization besides equilibration, for example, that the equilibrium state does not depend on the detailed microstate of the bath.

  3. Non-equilibrium stochastic dynamics in continuum: The free case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We study the problem of identification of a proper state-space for the stochastic dynamics of free particles in continuum, with their possible birth and death. In this dynamics, the motion of each separate particle is described by a fixed Markov process M on a Riemannian manifold X. The main problem arising here is a possible collapse of the system, in the sense that, though the initial configuration of particles is locally finite, there could exist a compact set in X such that, with probability one, infinitely many particles will arrive at this set at some time t>0. We assume that X has infinite volume and, for each α���1, we consider the set Θα of all infinite configurations in X for which the number of particles in a compact set is bounded by a constant times the α-th power of the volume of the set. We find quite general conditions on the process M which guarantee that the corresponding infinite particle process can start at each configuration from Θα, will never leave Θα, and has cadlag (or, even, continuous sample paths in the vague topology. We consider the following examples of applications of our results: Brownian motion on the configuration space, free Glauber dynamics on the configuration space (or a birth-and-death process in X, and free Kawasaki dynamics on the configuration space. We also show that if X=Rd, then for a wide class of starting distributions, the (non-equilibrium free Glauber dynamics is a scaling limit of (non-equilibrium free Kawasaki dynamics.

  4. Equilibrium shoreface profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G


    Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface prof...

  5. On Quantum Microcanonical Equilibrium


    Dorje C. Brody; Hook, Daniel W.; Hughston, Lane P.


    A quantum microcanonical postulate is proposed as a basis for the equilibrium properties of small quantum systems. Expressions for the corresponding density of states are derived, and are used to establish the existence of phase transitions for finite quantum systems. A grand microcanonical ensemble is introduced, which can be used to obtain new rigorous results in quantum statistical mechanics. Accepted version

  6. On quantum microcanonical equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brody, Dorje C [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Hook, Daniel W [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Hughston, Lane P [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)


    A quantum microcanonical postulate is proposed as a basis for the equilibrium properties of small quantum systems. Expressions for the corresponding density of states are derived, and are used to establish the existence of phase transitions for finite quantum systems. A grand microcanonical ensemble is introduced, which can be used to obtain new rigorous results in quantum statistical mechanics.

  7. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak. Laplace transformation was used to solve the governing ...

  8. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  9. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the ... tedious and more time saving than the classical method in the solution of the aforementioned differential equation. ... silos, pipelines, bridge arches or wind turbine towers [3]. The objective of this ...

  10. Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.


    Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and

  11. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  12. Cavernous lymphangioma arising from uterine corpus. (United States)

    Furui, Tatsuro; Imai, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Sato, Eriko; Tamaya, Teruhiko


    A rare case of giant uterine lymphangioma was experienced. A 44-year-old female noted a rapidly grown abdominal tumor and its accompanied symptoms, progressive abdominal distension, lumbago, and developed leg edema. Ultrasonography made a possible diagnosis of a huge ovarian tumor; postoperative diagnosis was cavernous lymphangioma arising from the uterus. According to the literature, lymphangioma itself is a rare tumor, and giant lymphangioma arising from uterine corpus is extremely rare. We experienced an extremely rare case of uterine lymphangioma and ultrasound tomography better imaged the tumor inside.

  13. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal, Volume 27 Series C, 2012: Mathematical Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 13 electromagnetic phenomena is highly needed. This paper studied one of these phenomena, the static equilibrium configurations of charged metallic bodies. The mathematical model of the problem that we investigate in ...

  14. Multi-period equilibrium/near-equilibrium in electricity markets based on locational marginal prices (United States)

    Garcia Bertrand, Raquel

    In this dissertation we propose an equilibrium procedure that coordinates the point of view of every market agent resulting in an equilibrium that simultaneously maximizes the independent objective of every market agent and satisfies network constraints. Therefore, the activities of the generating companies, consumers and an independent system operator are modeled: (1) The generating companies seek to maximize profits by specifying hourly step functions of productions and minimum selling prices, and bounds on productions. (2) The goals of the consumers are to maximize their economic utilities by specifying hourly step functions of demands and maximum buying prices, and bounds on demands. (3) The independent system operator then clears the market taking into account consistency conditions as well as capacity and line losses so as to achieve maximum social welfare. Then, we approach this equilibrium problem using complementarity theory in order to have the capability of imposing constraints on dual variables, i.e., on prices, such as minimum profit conditions for the generating units or maximum cost conditions for the consumers. In this way, given the form of the individual optimization problems, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions for the generating companies, the consumers and the independent system operator are both necessary and sufficient. The simultaneous solution to all these conditions constitutes a mixed linear complementarity problem. We include minimum profit constraints imposed by the units in the market equilibrium model. These constraints are added as additional constraints to the equivalent quadratic programming problem of the mixed linear complementarity problem previously described. For the sake of clarity, the proposed equilibrium or near-equilibrium is first developed for the particular case considering only one time period. Afterwards, we consider an equilibrium or near-equilibrium applied to a multi-period framework. This model embodies binary

  15. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel


    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  16. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  17. Cellular schwannoma arising from sigmoid mesocolon presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon. The tumor was diagnosed to be a case of cellular schwannoma, an exceedingly rare tumor in this location with rare presentation. Keywords: Pelvis, Retroperitoneum, Schwannoma, Sigmoid mesocolon, Torsion, Tumor ...

  18. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon. The tumor was diagnosed to be a case of cellular schwannoma, an exceedingly rare tumor in this location with rare presentation. Keywords: Pelvis, Retroperitoneum, Schwannoma, Sigmoid mesocolon, Torsion, Tumor.

  19. The geometry of structural equilibrium. (United States)

    McRobie, Allan


    Building on a long tradition from Maxwell, Rankine, Klein and others, this paper puts forward a geometrical description of structural equilibrium which contains a procedure for the graphic analysis of stress resultants within general three-dimensional frames. The method is a natural generalization of Rankine's reciprocal diagrams for three-dimensional trusses. The vertices and edges of dual abstract 4-polytopes are embedded within dual four-dimensional vector spaces, wherein the oriented area of generalized polygons give all six components (axial and shear forces with torsion and bending moments) of the stress resultants. The relevant quantities may be readily calculated using four-dimensional Clifford algebra. As well as giving access to frame analysis and design, the description resolves a number of long-standing problems with the incompleteness of Rankine's description of three-dimensional trusses. Examples are given of how the procedure may be applied to structures of engineering interest, including an outline of a two-stage procedure for addressing the equilibrium of loaded gridshell rooves.

  20. The geometry of structural equilibrium (United States)


    Building on a long tradition from Maxwell, Rankine, Klein and others, this paper puts forward a geometrical description of structural equilibrium which contains a procedure for the graphic analysis of stress resultants within general three-dimensional frames. The method is a natural generalization of Rankine’s reciprocal diagrams for three-dimensional trusses. The vertices and edges of dual abstract 4-polytopes are embedded within dual four-dimensional vector spaces, wherein the oriented area of generalized polygons give all six components (axial and shear forces with torsion and bending moments) of the stress resultants. The relevant quantities may be readily calculated using four-dimensional Clifford algebra. As well as giving access to frame analysis and design, the description resolves a number of long-standing problems with the incompleteness of Rankine’s description of three-dimensional trusses. Examples are given of how the procedure may be applied to structures of engineering interest, including an outline of a two-stage procedure for addressing the equilibrium of loaded gridshell rooves. PMID:28405361

  1. Quantum gambling based on Nash-equilibrium (United States)

    Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Yun-Long; Liu, Bi-Heng; Shadbolt, Pete; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li; O'Brien, Jeremy L.


    The problem of establishing a fair bet between spatially separated gambler and casino can only be solved in the classical regime by relying on a trusted third party. By combining Nash-equilibrium theory with quantum game theory, we show that a secure, remote, two-party game can be played using a quantum gambling machine which has no classical counterpart. Specifically, by modifying the Nash-equilibrium point we can construct games with arbitrary amount of bias, including a game that is demonstrably fair to both parties. We also report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration using linear optics.

  2. Location of collinear equilibrium points in the generalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the equations of motion in the generalised photogravitational elliptic restricted three body problem. .... For collinear equilibrium points lying on the line joining the primaries i.e. on ξ -axis, we have from equation (2) ..... On the stability of positions of equilibrium of a Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations in the.

  3. Equilibrium statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, E Atlee


    Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t

  4. Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro


    Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...

  5. Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian


    In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates

  6. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto


    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  7. Relativistic perfect fluids in local thermal equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Coll, Bartolomé; Sáez, Juan Antonio


    The inverse problem for conservative perfect fluid energy tensors provides a striking result. Namely that, in spite of its name, its historic origin or its usual conceptualization, the notion of {\\em local thermal equilibrium} for a perfect fluid is a {\\em purely hydrodynamic}, not thermodynamic, notion. This means that it may be thought, defined and detected using exclusively hydrodynamic quantities, without reference to temperature or any other thermodynamic concept, either of equilibrium or irreversible: a relativistic perfect fluid evolves in local thermal equilibrium if, and only if, its hydrodynamic variables evolve keeping a certain relation among them. This relation fixes, but only fixes, a precise fraction of the thermodynamics of the fluid, namely that relating the speed of its sound waves to the hydrodynamic variables. All thermodynamic schemes (sets of thermodynamic variables and their mutual relations) compatible with such a relation on the sole hydrodynamic variables are obtained. This hydrodyna...

  8. Sclerosing haemangioma arising within extralobar pulmonary sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmetoglu, Ali; Kosucu, Polat; Guemele, Halit Resit [Department of Radiology, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Imamoglu, Mustafa; Cay, Ali [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Reis, Abdulkadir [Department of Pathology, Farabi Hospital, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)


    Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is a rare anomaly of abnormal pulmonary tissue without any communication to the bronchial tree. Sclerosing haemangioma is a rare lung tumour, generally seen in middle-aged women. The combination of these two rare pathologies has not been previously reported. We describe the CT and CT angiographic findings of sclerosing haemangioma arising within an extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 2-year-old girl. (orig.)

  9. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising on chronic osteomyelitis. (United States)

    Foti, C; Giannelli, G; Berloco, A; Mascolo, V; Ingravallo, G; Giardina, C


    We present a case of a primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the skin (MFH) arising on chronic osteomyelitis in a 67-year-old woman. Although this condition seems to be a predisposing factor for the onset of the malignancy, MFH complicating chronic osteomyelitis is generally localized at the level of the bone tissue. In the case we report the neoplasm was primitively localized at the dermal and subcutaneous level and presented as a rapidly growing mass.

  10. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi


    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  11. Average inbreeding or equilibrium inbreeding?


    Hedrick, P. W.


    The equilibrium inbreeding is always higher than the average inbreeding. For human populations with high inbreeding levels, the inbreeding equilibrium is more than 25% higher than the average inbreeding. Assuming no initial inbreeding in the population, the equilibrium inbreeding value is closely approached in 10 generations or less. A secondary effect of this higher inbreeding level is that the equilibrium frequency of recessive detrimental alleles is somewhat lower than expected using avera...

  12. Equilibrium Arrival Times to Queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Jesper; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    a symmetric (mixed) Nash equilibrium, and show that there is at most one symmetric equilibrium. We provide a numerical method to compute this equilibrium and demonstrate by a numerical example that the social effciency can be lower than the effciency induced by a similar queueing system that serves customers...

  13. Security problems arising from the use of radioactive sources in the study of the wear in refractory linings; Les problemes de securite dans l'emploi de sources radioactives pour l'etude de l'usure de revetements refractaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G.; Hours, R.; Le Clerc, P.; Pons, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The determination of the wear in refractories is a problem to which these are at present only a few solutions, and these limited or delicate to use. That is the reason why the use of radioactive tracers contained in the refractory has met with rapid success. Unfortunately, the development of the method has been retarded by the need to limit severely the amounts of radioelement incorporated and also by the observation that diffusion of the radioactive product occurred in the refractory. As a result, the limiting amount of 1 mc/500 metric tons of cast-iron has been adopted in France, with the proviso that no single source exceeds 3 mc. Further, we have made special sources with a view to avoiding diffusion phenomena. The essential feature of these sources is that they use pyro-ceramic a non porous material having a high melting point and being, very inert chemically. In these sources, the radioelement can either be entirely encased in the pyro-ceramic or be an integral part of its composition. A comparative study of the two types of sources is actually under way. (author) [French] La determination de l'usure des refractaires est un probleme dont les solutions sont jusqu'a maintenant peu nombreuses, limitees ou delicates d'emploi. C'est pour cela que l'utilisation de traceurs radioactifs noyes dans le refractaire a connu un vif succes. Malheureusement, le developpement de la methode a ete freine par la necessite de limiter severement la teneur des radioelements incorpores aux produits metallurgiques et egalement par des constatations de diffusion dans le refractaire du produit radioactif. Par suite, la teneur limite de 1 mc/500 tonnes de fonte est maintenant adoptee en France, sans qu'une source individuelle puisse depasser 3 mc. De plus, nous avons realise des sources particulierement etudiees en vue d'eviter des phenomenes de diffusion. Le caractere essentiel de cette realisation est l'utilisation de pyrocerame, materiau non

  14. The use of beryllium as a canning material the problems arising from the brittleness of the metal and their present solution; L'utilisation du beryllium comme materiau de gaine les problemes poses par la fragilite du metal et leurs solutions actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, M.; Mallen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Beryllium has been considered as a canning material for reactors of the EL 4 type (CO{sub 2} cooled, operating at 600 C). Two cases may be envisaged: either the can is not deformable under the exterior forces, but in this case a poor ductility may be tolerated, or else, the creep resistance is not sufficiently high; the ductility should then be high at operating temperatures and also at room temperature for thermal cycling. It became rapidly obvious that ordinary beryllium had not a sufficient creep resistance and it appeared difficult to increase it for EL 4 use (5 kg/mm{sup 2}). Other non-metallurgical factors also contributed to discard this approach. The second possibility was this considered and an attempt was made to increase the ductility of the metal which was for two low. The first objection was to determine to what extent this ductility depended on the purity. It is not yet possible to say whether the brittleness at ordinary temperatures is due to some low concentration of a particular impurity. In the purest beryllium, which can be obtained by distillation vacuum fusion zone melting or a combination of these methods the critical shear stress of the two possible slip modes (0001) and (10 1-bar 0) along (11 2-bar 0) are even more different than in the less pure metal. This means that in the polycrystal, the grains which can deform are those which are favourably oriented for basal slip and the fracture mode is still a cleavage along a basal plane. Neither from a theoretical nor a practical point of view has purification led to a solution to the problem of room-temperature brittleness. The lack of ductility observed around 600 C is undoubtedly due to the presence of impurities and inclusions (oxides). The solution is to use cast metal of industrial purity (or thermally treated in order to modify the impurity distribution) and to eliminate sintering as a production process. Since, on the other hand, the intrinsic problem of the low-temperature brittleness was

  15. Prospects for narrowing bounds on Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Bjorn; Sherwood, Steven C; Bony, Sandrine; Webb, Mark J


    The concept of Earth's Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity ( ECS ) is reviewed. A particular problem in quantifying plausible bounds for ECS has been how to account for all of the diverse lines of relevant scientific evidence...

  16. Equilibrium and shot noise in mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.


    Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of noise in Mesoscopic devices, both experimentally and theoretically. Noise in solid state devices can have different origins: there is 1/f noise, which is believed to arise from fluctuations in the resistance of the sample due to the motion of impurities. On top of this contribution is a frequency independent component associated with the stochastic nature of electron transport, which will be the focus of this paper. If the sample considered is small enough that dephasing and inelastic effects can be neglected, equilibrium (thermal) and excess noise can be completely described in terms of the elastic scattering properties of the sample. As mentioned above, noise arises as a consequence of random processes governing the transport of electrons. Here, there are two sources of randomness: first, electrons incident on the sample occupy a given energy state with a probability given by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Secondly, electrons can be transmitted across the sample or reflected in the same reservoir where they came from with a probability given by the quantum mechanical transmission/reflection coefficients. Equilibrium noise refers to the case where no bias voltage is applied between the leads connected to the sample, where thermal agitation alone allows the electrons close to the Fermi level to tunnel through the sample. In general, equilibrium noise is related to the conductance of the sample via the Johnson-Nyquist formula. In the presence of a bias, in the classical regime, one expects to recover the full shot noise < {Delta}{sup 2}I >= 2I{Delta}{mu} as was observed a long time ago in vacuum diodes. In the Mesoscopic regime, however, excess noise is reduced below the shot noise level. The author introduces a more intuitive picture, where the current passing through the device is a superposition of pulses, or electron wave packets, which can be transmitted or reflected.

  17. General equilibrium without utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich


    How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known...... and the diffeomorphism of the equilibrium manifold with a Euclidean space; (2) the diffeomorphism of the set of no-trade equilibria with a Euclidean space; (3) the openness and genericity of the set of regular equilibria as a subset of the equilibrium manifold; (4) for small trade vectors, the uniqueness, regularity...... and stability of equilibrium for two version of tatonnement; (5) the pathconnectedness of the sets of stable equilibria....

  18. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natnicha Girdwichai


    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma.

  19. Thermal equilibrium of goats. (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G


    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parametrizing coarse grained models for molecular systems at equilibrium

    KAUST Repository

    Kalligiannaki, Evangelia


    Hierarchical coarse graining of atomistic molecular systems at equilibrium has been an intensive research topic over the last few decades. In this work we (a) review theoretical and numerical aspects of different parametrization methods (structural-based, force matching and relative entropy) to derive the effective interaction potential between coarse-grained particles. All methods approximate the many body potential of mean force; resulting, however, in different optimization problems. (b) We also use a reformulation of the force matching method by introducing a generalized force matching condition for the local mean force in the sense that allows the approximation of the potential of mean force under both linear and non-linear coarse graining mappings (E. Kalligiannaki, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 2015). We apply and compare these methods to: (a) a benchmark system of two isolated methane molecules; (b) methane liquid; (c) water; and (d) an alkane fluid. Differences between the effective interactions, derived from the various methods, are found that depend on the actual system under study. The results further reveal the relation of the various methods and the sensitivities that may arise in the implementation of numerical methods used in each case.

  1. Quantum Games: Mixed Strategy Nash's Equilibrium Represents Minimum Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Jiménez


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper introduces Hermite's polynomials, in the description of quantum games. Hermite's polynomials are associated with gaussian probability density. The gaussian probability density represents minimum dispersion. I introduce the concept of minimum entropy as a paradigm of both Nash's equilibrium (maximum utility MU and Hayek equilibrium (minimum entropy ME. The ME concept is related to Quantum Games. Some questions arise after carrying out this exercise: i What does Heisenberg's uncertainty principle represent in Game Theory and Time Series?, and ii What do the postulates of Quantum Mechanics indicate in Game Theory and Economics?.

  2. Spinal cord injury arising in anaesthesia practice. (United States)

    Hewson, D W; Bedforth, N M; Hardman, J G


    Spinal cord injury arising during anaesthetic practice is a rare event, but one that carries a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. We will then discuss injuries relating to patient position, spinal cord hypoperfusion and neuraxial techniques. The most serious causes of spinal cord injury - vertebral canal haematoma, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis and adhesive arachnoiditis - will be discussed in turn. For each condition, we draw attention to practical, evidence-based measures clinicians can undertake to reduce their incidence, or mitigate their severity. Finally, we will discuss transient neurological symptoms. Some cases of spinal cord injury during anaesthesia can be ascribed to anaesthesia itself, arising as a direct consequence of its conduct. The injury to a spinal nerve root by inaccurate and/or incautious needling during spinal anaesthesia is an obvious example. But in many cases, spinal cord injury during anaesthesia is not caused by, related to, or even associated with, the conduct of the anaesthetic. Surgical factors, whether direct (e.g. spinal nerve root damage due to incorrect pedicle screw placement) or indirect (e.g. cord ischaemia following aortic surgery) are responsible for a significant proportion of spinal cord injuries that occur concurrently with the delivery of regional or general anaesthesia. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang


    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  4. Ionization equilibrium of hot hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Potekhin, A Yu


    The hydrogen plasma is studied at temperatures T ~ 10^4 - 10^6 K using the free energy minimization method. A simple analytic free energy model is proposed which is accurate at densities up to 1 g/cc and yields convergent internal partition function of atoms. The occupation probability formalism is modified for solving the ionization equilibrium problem. The ionization degree and equation of state are calculated and compared with the results of other models.

  5. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon N Phillips


    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  6. Minimizing the Free Energy: A Computer Method for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium Concepts. (United States)

    Heald, Emerson F.


    Presents a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts using material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Method for the calculation of chemical equilibrium, the computer program used to solve equilibrium problems and applications of the method are also included. (HM)

  7. Health Problems at School (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Health Problems at School Page Content Article Body There is ... not have access to health care. Acute Health Problems Most illnesses and injuries that arise during school ...

  8. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization (United States)

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe


    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  9. Group Contribution Methods for Phase Equilibrium Calculations. (United States)

    Gmehling, Jürgen; Constantinescu, Dana; Schmid, Bastian


    The development and design of chemical processes are carried out by solving the balance equations of a mathematical model for sections of or the whole chemical plant with the help of process simulators. For process simulation, besides kinetic data for the chemical reaction, various pure component and mixture properties are required. Because of the great importance of separation processes for a chemical plant in particular, a reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is required. The phase equilibrium behavior can be calculated with the help of modern equations of state or g(E)-models using only binary parameters. But unfortunately, only a very small part of the experimental data for fitting the required binary model parameters is available, so very often these models cannot be applied directly. To solve this problem, powerful predictive thermodynamic models have been developed. Group contribution methods allow the prediction of the required phase equilibrium data using only a limited number of group interaction parameters. A prerequisite for fitting the required group interaction parameters is a comprehensive database. That is why for the development of powerful group contribution methods almost all published pure component properties, phase equilibrium data, excess properties, etc., were stored in computerized form in the Dortmund Data Bank. In this review, the present status, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, possible applications, and typical results of the different group contribution methods for the calculation of phase equilibria are presented.

  10. [Maximum entropy principle and population genetic equilibrium]. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Yuan, Zhi-Fa; Guo, Man-Cai; Song, Shi-De; Zhang, Quan-Qi; Bao, Zhen-Min


    A general mathematic model of population genetic equilibrium was constructed based on the maximum entropy principle. We proved that the maximum entropy probability distribution was equivalent to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. A population reached genetic equilibrium when the genotype entropy of the population reached the maximal possible value. In information theory, the entropy or the information content is used to measure the uncertainty of a system. In population genetics, we can use entropy to measure the uncertainty of the genotype of a population. The agreement of the maximum entropy principle and the hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law indicated that random crossing is an irreversible process, which increases the genotype entropy of the population, while inbreeding and selection decrease the genotype entropy of the population. In animal or plant breeding, we often use selection and/or inbreeding to decrease the entropy of a population, and use intercrossing to increase the entropy of the population. In this point of view, breeding is actually regulating the entropy of population. By applying the basic principle of informatics in population genetics, we revealed the biological significance of the genotype entropy and demonstrated that we can work over population genetic problems with the principles and methods of informatics and cybernetics.

  11. Bayesian equilibrium inference in the Minerva framework (United States)

    Svensson, Jakob; Ford, Oliver; Kwak, Sehyun; Appel, Lynton; Rahbarnia, Kian; Geiger, Joachim; Schilling, Jonathan


    The Minerva framework is a scientific modelling system based on Bayesian forward modelling and is used at a number of experiments. The structure of the framework makes it possible to combine flux function based, axisymmetric or full 3D models. A general modularity approach makes it easy to replace underlying physics models, such as the model for force balance and corresponding current distribution. We will give an overview of the different models within Minerva for inference of equilibrium field and flux surfaces, for both tokamaks and stellarators. For axisymmetric devices, three methods of increasing complexity, Gaussian process based Current Tomography (CT), an iterative Grad-Shafranov solver, and a full nonlinear Grad-Shafranov based model, will be demonstrated for the JET device. The novel nonlinear Grad-Sharanov model defines a proper posterior distribution for the equilibrium problem thus defines the space of possible equilibrium solutions, and has the capacity to include any nonlinear constraints (e.g. from models of profile diagnostics). The Bayesian approach further allows uncertainties on the equilibrium parameters to be calculated. For the W7-X stellarator, two models based on the VMEC 3D solver and a fast function parameterization approximation will be demonstrated.

  12. Beyond equilibrium climate sensitivity (United States)

    Knutti, Reto; Rugenstein, Maria A. A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.


    Equilibrium climate sensitivity characterizes the Earth's long-term global temperature response to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. It has reached almost iconic status as the single number that describes how severe climate change will be. The consensus on the 'likely' range for climate sensitivity of 1.5 °C to 4.5 °C today is the same as given by Jule Charney in 1979, but now it is based on quantitative evidence from across the climate system and throughout climate history. The quest to constrain climate sensitivity has revealed important insights into the timescales of the climate system response, natural variability and limitations in observations and climate models, but also concerns about the simple concepts underlying climate sensitivity and radiative forcing, which opens avenues to better understand and constrain the climate response to forcing. Estimates of the transient climate response are better constrained by observed warming and are more relevant for predicting warming over the next decades. Newer metrics relating global warming directly to the total emitted CO2 show that in order to keep warming to within 2 °C, future CO2 emissions have to remain strongly limited, irrespective of climate sensitivity being at the high or low end.

  13. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar (United States)


    Background Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2–3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months’ review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Conclusions This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation. PMID:22799750

  14. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar. (United States)

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J


    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  15. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Robert A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2–3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months’ review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Conclusions This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  16. Symmetric equilibrium strategies in game theoretic real option models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, J.J.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.


    This paper considers the problem of investment timing under uncertainty in a duopoly framework. When both firms want to be the first investor a coordination problem arises. Here, a method is proposed to deal with this coordination problem, involving the use of symmetric mixed strategies. The method

  17. Symmetric Equilibrium Strategies in Game Theoretical Real Option Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, J.J.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.


    This paper considers the problem of investment timing under uncertainty in a duopoly framework.When both firms want to be the first investor a coordination problem arises.Here, a method is proposed to deal with this coordination problem, involving the use of symmetric mixed strategies.The method is

  18. An equilibrium and kinetic modeling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 18, 2007 ... The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models fitted well with the equilibrium data of the process studied. ... followed the first order rate expression. Key words: Penicillin-G wastewater, Phanerochate chrysosporium, equilibrium, kinetic study. ... Ammonia-nitrogen (mg/l). 300 - 500. Total phosphate (mg/l).

  19. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven


    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  20. A Multiperiod Equilibrium Pricing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Kwak


    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium pricing model in a dynamic multiperiod stochastic framework with uncertain income. There are one tradable risky asset (stock/commodity, one nontradable underlying (temperature, and also a contingent claim (weather derivative written on the tradable risky asset and the nontradable underlying in the market. The price of the contingent claim is priced in equilibrium by optimal strategies of representative agent and market clearing condition. The risk preferences are of exponential type with a stochastic coefficient of risk aversion. Both subgame perfect strategy and naive strategy are considered and the corresponding equilibrium prices are derived. From the numerical result we examine how the equilibrium prices vary in response to changes in model parameters and highlight the importance of our equilibrium pricing principle.

  1. Evaluator Concerns Arising from Ideal Displacement. (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.

    The making of a decision implies a choice between competing alternative solutions. In a decision-making context including multiple criteria, the criteria (or their related variables) are placed in relation to each other. This provides a comparison to some fixed point or origin, reducing the problem to one which can be solved by optimization as in…

  2. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen


    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200?years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds...... are poorly understood in terms of their true physiological potential for harm, and the mechanisms by which they impact cellular and organ level function are only recently becoming clear. Emerging awareness that chronic exposures to toxins may have generational and subtle effects on the outcomes of diseases...... exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long-term effects of exposure are problems...

  3. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko


    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  4. Equilibrium Shape of Ferrofluid in the Uniform External Field (United States)


    ellipsoidal solutions in the problems of electromagnetism , can be found in the works of Stratton,3 Landau and Lifshitz,4 and Akhiezer et al.5 Fig...applied external electromagnetic fields. Even in the static regimes, they demonstrate a variety of qualitative and quantitative transformations often... problems numerically. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ellipsoidal solutions, equilibrium shapes, Maxwell stress tensor, thermodynamics, variational computational

  5. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.


    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem...

  6. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization. (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M


    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  7. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  8. Equilibrium with arbitrary market structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Birgit; Vind, Karl


    Fifty years ago Arrow [1] introduced contingent commodities and Debreu [4] observed that this reinterpretation of a commodity was enough to apply the existing general equilibrium theory to uncertainty and time. This interpretation of general equilibrium theory is the Arrow-Debreu model....... The complete market predicted by this theory is clearly unrealistic, and Radner [10] formulated and proved existence of equilibrium in a multiperiod model with incomplete markets. In this paper the Radner result is extended. Radner assumed a specific structure of markets, independence of preferences...

  9. Fast multipole preconditioners for sparse matrices arising from elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda


    Among optimal hierarchical algorithms for the computational solution of elliptic problems, the fast multipole method (FMM) stands out for its adaptability to emerging architectures, having high arithmetic intensity, tunable accuracy, and relaxable global synchronization requirements. We demonstrate that, beyond its traditional use as a solver in problems for which explicit free-space kernel representations are available, the FMM has applicability as a preconditioner in finite domain elliptic boundary value problems, by equipping it with boundary integral capability for satisfying conditions at finite boundaries and by wrapping it in a Krylov method for extensibility to more general operators. Here, we do not discuss the well developed applications of FMM to implement matrix-vector multiplications within Krylov solvers of boundary element methods. Instead, we propose using FMM for the volume-to-volume contribution of inhomogeneous Poisson-like problems, where the boundary integral is a small part of the overall computation. Our method may be used to precondition sparse matrices arising from finite difference/element discretizations, and can handle a broader range of scientific applications. It is capable of algebraic convergence rates down to the truncation error of the discretized PDE comparable to those of multigrid methods, and it offers potentially superior multicore and distributed memory scalability properties on commodity architecture supercomputers. Compared with other methods exploiting the low-rank character of off-diagonal blocks of the dense resolvent operator, FMM-preconditioned Krylov iteration may reduce the amount of communication because it is matrix-free and exploits the tree structure of FMM. We describe our tests in reproducible detail with freely available codes and outline directions for further extensibility.

  10. Equilibrium and Orientation in Cephalopods. (United States)

    Budelmann, Bernd-Ulrich


    Describes the structure of the equilibrium receptor system in cephalopods, comparing it to the vertebrate counterpart--the vestibular system. Relates the evolution of this complex system to the competition of cephalopods with fishes. (CS)

  11. Line blanketing without local thermodynamic equilibrium. II - A solar-type model in radiative equilibrium (United States)

    Anderson, Lawrence S.


    A statistical solution for the problem of non-LTE radiative transfer in the millions of atomic transitions responsible for line blanketing is proposed which takes into account the influence of scattering on the atomic populations. A multifrequency/multigray algorithm is used to analyze the thermal equilibrium. Although CO is shown to cool the upper atmosphere to a boundary temperature of 2640 K, the molecule has little influence in the region of the solar temperature minimum.

  12. Non-Equilibrium Quantum Dissipation


    Segal, Dvira; Reichman, David R.; Millis, Andrew J.


    Dissipative processes in non-equilibrium many-body systems are fundamentally different than their equilibrium counterparts. Such processes are of great importance for the understanding of relaxation in single molecule devices. As a detailed case study, we investigate here a generic spin-fermion model, where a two-level system couples to two metallic leads with different chemical potentials. We present results for the spin relaxation rate in the nonadiabatic limit for an arbitrary coupling to ...

  13. Equilibrium points in the asteroid 2001SN263 (United States)

    Santos, L. B. T.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Sanchez, D. M.


    In the present work we develop a study based on the Restricted Full Three-Body Problem (RFTBP), where we take into account the size and shape of the bodies studied. The equations of motion and their solutions are discussed for a circular coplanar orbit in order to find the equilibrium points. All the analysis made are based on the physical and orbital characteristics of the most massive bodies of the triple asteroid system 2001SN 263. A total of nine equilibrium points were found for this system. Five of these points are collinear and the other four are coplanar. Finally, an analysis of the stability conditions of these equilibrium points are investigated, and it was concluded that only the equilibrium points L 4 and L 5 are linearly stable.

  14. A Characterization of Conserved Quantities in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Romero


    Full Text Available The well-known Noether theorem in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics associates symmetries in the evolution equations of a mechanical system with conserved quantities. In this work, we extend this classical idea to problems of non-equilibrium thermodynamics formulated within the GENERIC (General Equations for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling framework. The geometric meaning of symmetry is reviewed in this formal setting and then utilized to identify possible conserved quantities and the conditions that guarantee their strict conservation. Examples are provided that demonstrate the validity of the proposed definition in the context of finite and infinite dimensional thermoelastic problems.

  15. Fixed Points in Grassmannians with Applications to Economic Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans


    In some applications of equilibrium theory, the fixed point involves not only a state and a value of a parameter in the dual of the state space, but also a particular subspace of the state space. Since the set of all subspaces of a finite-dimensional Euclidean space has a structure which does...... not allow immediate application of fixed point theorems, the problem must be reformulated using a suitable parametrization of subspaces. One such parametrization, the Plücker coordinates, is used here to prove a general equilibrium existence theorem. Applications to economic problems involving hierarchies...... of consumers or incomplete markets with real assets are outlined....

  16. Exploring the Gap between Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium and Sequential Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Bonanno


    Full Text Available In (Bonanno, 2013, a solution concept for extensive-form games, called perfect Bayesian equilibrium (PBE, was introduced and shown to be a strict refinement of subgame-perfect equilibrium; it was also shown that, in turn, sequential equilibrium (SE is a strict refinement of PBE. In (Bonanno, 2016, the notion of PBE was used to provide a characterization of SE in terms of a strengthening of the two defining components of PBE (besides sequential rationality, namely AGM consistency and Bayes consistency. In this paper we explore the gap between PBE and SE by identifying solution concepts that lie strictly between PBE and SE; these solution concepts embody a notion of “conservative” belief revision. Furthermore, we provide a method for determining if a plausibility order on the set of histories is choice measurable, which is a necessary condition for a PBE to be a SE.

  17. A comparative study of iterative solutions to linear systems arising in quantum mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Duan, Yong; Carpentieri, Bruno


    This study is mainly focused on iterative solutions with simple diagonal preconditioning to two complex-valued nonsymmetric systems of linear equations arising from a computational chemistry model problem proposed by Sherry Li of NERSC. Numerical experiments show the feasibility of iterative methods

  18. An analysis of the perceived difficulties arising during the process of integrating management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Abad


    Originality/value: Most research emphasises the benefits of integrated management systems. By analysing the difficulties that arise during the integration process, this study contributes to fill a gap in the literature on the problems associated with processes of organisational change, in our case the integration of management systems.

  19. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited. (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V


    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda


    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  1. Chemical Principles Revisited: Using the Equilibrium Concept. (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D., Ed.


    Discusses the concept of equilibrium in chemical systems, particularly in relation to predicting the position of equilibrium, predicting spontaneity of a reaction, quantitative applications of the equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium, determination of the solubility product constant, common-ion effect, and dissolution of precipitates.…

  2. The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.


    Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…

  3. Nash equilibrium with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte


    We generalize the concept of Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies for strategic form games to allow for ambiguity in the players' expectations. In contrast to other contributions, we model ambiguity by means of so-called lower probability measures or belief functions, which makes it possible...... to distinguish between a player's assessment of ambiguity and his attitude towards ambiguity. We also generalize the concept of trembling hand perfect equilibrium. Finally, we demonstrate that for certain attitudes towards ambiguity it is possible to explain cooperation in the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma...

  4. Critical dynamics a field theory approach to equilibrium and non-equilibrium scaling behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Täuber, Uwe C


    Introducing a unified framework for describing and understanding complex interacting systems common in physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, this comprehensive overview of dynamic critical phenomena covers the description of systems at thermal equilibrium, quantum systems, and non-equilibrium systems. Powerful mathematical techniques for dealing with complex dynamic systems are carefully introduced, including field-theoretic tools and the perturbative dynamical renormalization group approach, rapidly building up a mathematical toolbox of relevant skills. Heuristic and qualitative arguments outlining the essential theory behind each type of system are introduced at the start of each chapter, alongside real-world numerical and experimental data, firmly linking new mathematical techniques to their practical applications. Each chapter is supported by carefully tailored problems for solution, and comprehensive suggestions for further reading, making this an excellent introduction to critic...

  5. Game Theory-Nash Equilibrium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Game Theory - Nash Equilibrium. P G Babu. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 53- ... Author Affiliations. P G Babu1. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research Gen. A K Vaidya Marg Goregaon(East) Mumbai 400 065, India.

  6. Understanding Thermal Equilibrium through Activities (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura; Ladage, Savita; Pradhan, Hemachandra


    Thermal equilibrium is a basic concept in thermodynamics. In India, this concept is generally introduced at the first year of undergraduate education in physics and chemistry. In our earlier studies (Pathare and Pradhan 2011 "Proc. episteme-4 Int. Conf. to Review Research on Science Technology and Mathematics Education" pp 169-72) we…

  7. Equilibrium theory : A salient approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.


    Whereas the neoclassical models in General Equilibrium Theory focus on the existence of separate commodities, this thesis regards 'bundles of trade' as the unit objects of exchange. Apart from commodities and commodity bundles in the neoclassical sense, the term `bundle of trade' includes, for

  8. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik


    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  9. Risk premia in general equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual...

  10. Non-equilibrium Kondo effect in double quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M.N. E-mail:; Kikoin, K.A.; Molenkamp, L.W


    We investigate theoretically a non-equilibrium transport through a double quantum dot (DQD) in a parallel geometry. It is shown that the resonance Kondo tunneling through a parallel DQD with even occupation and singlet ground state may arise at a strong bias, which compensates the energy of singlet/triplet excitation. Using the renormalization group technique we derive scaling equations and calculate the differential conductance as a function of an auxiliary DC-bias for parallel DQD being in a regime described by SO(4) symmetry.

  11. Equilibrium points in the generalised photogravitational non-planar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We generalised the photogravitational non-planar restricted three body problem by considering the smaller primary as an oblate spheroid. With both the primaries radiating, we located the equilibrium points which lie outside the orbital plane, contrary to the classical case. Besides finding the equations of motion of the ...

  12. Stability of Triangular Equilibrium Points in the Photogravitational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We have examined the effects of oblateness up to 4 of the less massive primary and gravitational potential from a circum-binary belt on the linear stability of triangular equilibrium points in the circular restricted three-body problem, when the more massive primary emits electromagnetic radiation impinging ...

  13. Stability of Triangular Equilibrium Points in the Photogravitational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the motion of an infinitesimal mass around the triangular equilibrium points L4,5 in the elliptic restricted three-body problem when the primaries are intense emitters of radiation with further consideration that the bigger is an oblate spheroid. It is found that the motion around the triangular points is ...

  14. Equilibrium-Staged Separations Using Matlab and Mathematica (United States)

    Binous, Housam


    We show a new approach, based on the utilization of Matlab and Mathematica, for solving liquid-liquid extraction and binary distillation problems. In addition, the author shares his experience using these two softwares to teach equilibrium staged separations at the National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology. (Contains 7 figures.)

  15. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.


    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  16. Equilibrium states of a variational formulation for the Ginzburg-Landau equation (United States)

    Kulikov, A. N.; Kulikov, D. A.


    Periodic boundary value problem for one of the versions of the complex Ginzburg- Landau equation, which is commonly called the variational Ginzburg-Landau equation are studied. Questions of existence and stability in the sense of Lyapunov, and also the local bifurcations problem of spatially nonhomogeneous equilibrium states are investigated. Three types of such solutions for the given problem are indicated. The exact formulas of the solutions for the first two types are suggested. Equilibrium states of the second type are expressed through elliptic functions. The third type of equilibrium states appears as a result of bifurcations of automodel equilibrium states, i.e., solutions of the first type in the case when the stability changes. It is shown that equilibrium states of the second and third types are unstable.

  17. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.


    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  18. Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Condensation Phenomena in Tuneable 3D and 2D Bose Gases (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0009 Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases Zoran Hadzibabic THE CHANCELLOR...31-Aug-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Equilibrium and non- equilibrium condensation phenomena in tuneable 3D and 2D Bose gases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... equilibrium and non- equilibrium many-body phenomena, trapping ultracold atomic gases in different geometries including both 3 and 2 spatial dimensions

  19. On Out of Plane Equilibrium Points in Photo-Gravitational Restricted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated the out of plane equilibrium points of a passive micron size particle and their stability in the field of radiating binary stellar systems Krüger-60, RW-Monocerotis within the framework of photo-gravitational circular restricted three-body problem. We find that the out of plane equilibrium points (Li,i ...

  20. On Out of Plane Equilibrium Points in Photo-Gravitational Restricted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We have investigated the out of plane equilibrium points of a passive micron size particle and their stability in the field of radiating binary stellar systems Krüger-60, RW-Monocerotis within the framework of photo-gravitational circular restricted three-body problem. We find that the out of plane equilibrium ...

  1. Thermodynamics of the multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium under capillary pressure difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    , not for the multicomponent mixtures. The importance is emphasized on the space of the intensive variables P, T and mu (i), where the laws of capillary equilibrium have a simple geometrical interpretation. We formulate thermodynamic problems specific to such an equilibrium, and outline changes to be introduced to common...

  2. Non-equilibrium Dynamics of DNA Nanotubes (United States)

    Hariadi, Rizal Fajar

    Can the fundamental processes that underlie molecular biology be understood and simulated by DNA nanotechnology? The early development of DNA nanotechnology by Ned Seeman was driven by the desire to find a solution to the protein crystallization problem. Much of the later development of the field was also driven by envisioned applications in computing and nanofabrication. While the DNA nanotechnology community has assembled a versatile tool kit with which DNA nanostructures of considerable complexity can be assembled, the application of this tool kit to other areas of science and technology is still in its infancy. This dissertation reports on the construction of non-equilibrium DNA nanotube dynamic to probe molecular processes in the areas of hydrodynamics and cytoskeletal behavior. As the first example, we used DNA nanotubes as a molecular probe for elongational flow measurement in different micro-scale flow settings. The hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of simple geometrical objects, such as a rigid DNA nanotube, is amenable to rigorous theoretical investigation. We measured the distribution of elongational flows produced in progressively more complex settings, ranging from the vicinity of an orifice in a microfluidic chamber to within a bursting bubble of Pacific ocean water. This information can be used to constrain theories on the origin of life in which replication involves a hydrodynamically driven fission process, such as the coacervate fission proposed by Oparin. A second theme of this dissertation is the bottom-up construction of a de novo artificial cytoskeleton with DNA nanotubes. The work reported here encompasses structural, locomotion, and control aspects of non-equilibrium cytoskeletal behavior. We first measured the kinetic parameters of DNA nanotube assembly and tested the accuracy of the existing polymerization models in the literature. Toward recapitulation of non-equilibrium cytoskeletal dynamics, we coupled the polymerization of DNA

  3. Solvent Isotope-induced Equilibrium Perturbation for Isocitrate Lyase (United States)

    Quartararo, Christine E.; Hadi, Timin; Cahill, Sean M.; Blanchard, John S.


    Isocitrate lyase (ICL) catalyzes the reversible retro-aldol cleavage of isocitrate to generate glyoxylate and succinate. ICL is the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, which allows for the anaplerosis of citric acid cycle intermediates under nutrient limiting conditions. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the source of ICL for these studies, ICL is vital for the persistence phase of the bacteria’s life cycle. Solvent kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in the direction of isocitrate cleavage of D2OV = 2.0 ± 0.1 and D2O[V/Kisocitrate] = 2.2 ± 0.3 arise from the initial deprotonation of the C2 hydroxyl group of isocitrate or the protonation of the aci-acid of succinate product of the isocitrate aldol cleavage by a solvent-derived proton. This KIE suggested that an equilibrium mixture of all protiated isocitrate, glyoxylate and succinate prepared in D2O, would undergo transient changes in equilibrium concentrations as a result of the solvent KIE and solvent-derived deuterium incorporation into both succinate and isocitrate. No change in the isotopic composition of glyoxylate was expected or observed. We have directly monitored the changing concentrations of all isotopic species of all reactants and products using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Continuous monitoring of glyoxylate by 1H NMR spectroscopy shows a clear equilibrium perturbation in D2O. The final equilibrium isotopic composition of reactants in D2O revealed di-deuterated succinate, protiated glyoxylate, and mono-deuterated isocitrate, with the transient appearance and disappearance of mono-deuterated succinate. A model for the equilibrium perturbation of substrate species, and their time-dependent isotopic composition is presented. PMID:24261638

  4. Protonation Equilibrium of Linear Homopolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požar J.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a short summary of investigations dealing with protonation equilibrium of linear homopolyacids, in particularly those of high charge density. Apart from the review of experimental results which can be found in the literature, a brief description of theoretical models used in processing the dependence of protonation constants on monomer dissociation degree and ionic strength is given (cylindrical model based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, cylindrical Stern model, the models according to Ising, Högfeldt, Mandel and Katchalsky. The applicability of these models regarding the polyion charge density, electrolyte concentration and counterion type is discussed. The results of Monte Carlo simulations of protonation equilibrium are also briefly mentioned. In addition, frequently encountered errors connected with calibration of of glass electrode and the related unreliability of determined protonation constants are pointed out.

  5. Estimates of the eigenvalues of operator arising in swelling pressure model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanguzhin, Baltabek [Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling, 050010, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zhapsarbayeva, Lyailya [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    Swelling pressures from materials confined by structures can cause structural deformations and instability. Due to the complexity of interactions between expansive solid and solid-liquid equilibrium, the forces exerting on retaining structures from swelling are highly nonlinear. This work is our initial attempt to study a simplistic spectral problem based on the Euler-elastic beam theory and some simplistic swelling pressure model. In this work estimates of the eigenvalues of some initial/boundary value problem for nonlinear Euler-elastic beam equation are obtained.

  6. Nash Equilibrium in Social Media


    Salehisadaghiani, Farzad


    In this work, we investigate an application of a Nash equilibrium seeking algorithm in a social network. In a networked game each player (user) takes action in response to other players' actions in order to decrease (increase) his cost (profit) in the network. We assume that the players' cost functions are not necessarily dependent on the actions of all players. This is due to better mimicking the standard social media rules. A communication graph is defined for the game through which players...

  7. An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F


    An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a

  8. Ascending auctions and Walrasian equilibrium


    Ben-Zwi, Oren; Lavi, Ron; Newman, Ilan


    We present a family of submodular valuation classes that generalizes gross substitute. We show that Walrasian equilibrium always exist for one class in this family, and there is a natural ascending auction which finds it. We prove some new structural properties on gross-substitute auctions which, in turn, show that the known ascending auctions for this class (Gul-Stacchetti and Ausbel) are, in fact, identical. We generalize these two auctions, and provide a simple proof that they terminate in...

  9. Punctuated equilibrium comes of age (United States)

    Gould, Stephan Jay; Eldredge, Niles


    The intense controversies that surrounded the youth of punctuated equilibrium have helped it mature to a useful extension of evolutionary theory. As a complement to phyletic gradualism, its most important implications remain the recognition of stasis as a meaningful and predominant pattern within the history of species, and in the recasting of macroevolution as the differential success of certain species (and their descendants) within clades.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni


    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  11. Blacks More Prone to Colon Cancers That Arise Between Colonoscopies (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_165821.html Blacks More Prone to Colon Cancers That Arise Between Colonoscopies: Study Differences in biology ... 22, 2017 MONDAY, May 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer guidelines now recommend a colonoscopy every 10 years, ...

  12. Equilibrium statistical mechanics of lattice models

    CERN Document Server

    Lavis, David A


    Most interesting and difficult problems in equilibrium statistical mechanics concern models which exhibit phase transitions. For graduate students and more experienced researchers this book provides an invaluable reference source of approximate and exact solutions for a comprehensive range of such models. Part I contains background material on classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, together with a classification and survey of lattice models. The geometry of phase transitions is described and scaling theory is used to introduce critical exponents and scaling laws. An introduction is given to finite-size scaling, conformal invariance and Schramm—Loewner evolution. Part II contains accounts of classical mean-field methods. The parallels between Landau expansions and catastrophe theory are discussed and Ginzburg—Landau theory is introduced. The extension of mean-field theory to higher-orders is explored using the Kikuchi—Hijmans—De Boer hierarchy of approximations. In Part III the use of alge...

  13. Financial markets theory equilibrium, efficiency and information

    CERN Document Server

    Barucci, Emilio


    This work, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, presents the economic foundations of financial markets theory from a mathematically rigorous standpoint and offers a self-contained critical discussion based on empirical results. It is the only textbook on the subject to include more than two hundred exercises, with detailed solutions to selected exercises. Financial Markets Theory covers classical asset pricing theory in great detail, including utility theory, equilibrium theory, portfolio selection, mean-variance portfolio theory, CAPM, CCAPM, APT, and the Modigliani-Miller theorem. Starting from an analysis of the empirical evidence on the theory, the authors provide a discussion of the relevant literature, pointing out the main advances in classical asset pricing theory and the new approaches designed to address asset pricing puzzles and open problems (e.g., behavioral finance). Later chapters in the book contain more advanced material, including on the role of information in financial markets, non-c...

  14. Number theory arising from finite fields analytic and probabilistic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Knopfmacher, John


    ""Number Theory Arising from Finite Fields: Analytic and Probabilistic Theory"" offers a discussion of the advances and developments in the field of number theory arising from finite fields. It emphasizes mean-value theorems of multiplicative functions, the theory of additive formulations, and the normal distribution of values from additive functions. The work explores calculations from classical stages to emerging discoveries in alternative abstract prime number theorems.

  15. GPEC, a real-time capable Tokamak equilibrium code

    CERN Document Server

    Rampp, Markus; Fischer, Rainer


    A new parallel equilibrium reconstruction code for tokamak plasmas is presented. GPEC allows to compute equilibrium flux distributions sufficiently accurate to derive parameters for plasma control within 1 ms of runtime which enables real-time applications at the ASDEX Upgrade experiment (AUG) and other machines with a control cycle of at least this size. The underlying algorithms are based on the well-established offline-analysis code CLISTE, following the classical concept of iteratively solving the Grad-Shafranov equation and feeding in diagnostic signals from the experiment. The new code adopts a hybrid parallelization scheme for computing the equilibrium flux distribution and extends the fast, shared-memory-parallel Poisson solver which we have described previously by a distributed computation of the individual Poisson problems corresponding to different basis functions. The code is based entirely on open-source software components and runs on standard server hardware and software environments. The real-...

  16. Testing Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: an objective Bayesian analysis. (United States)

    Consonni, Guido; Moreno, Elías; Venturini, Sergio


    We analyze the general (multiallelic) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium problem from an objective Bayesian testing standpoint. We argue that for small or moderate sample sizes the answer is rather sensitive to the prior chosen, and this suggests to carry out a sensitivity analysis with respect to the prior. This goal is achieved through the identification of a class of priors specifically designed for this testing problem. In this paper, we consider the class of intrinsic priors under the full model, indexed by a tuning quantity, the training sample size. These priors are objective, satisfy Savage's continuity condition and have proved to behave extremely well for many statistical testing problems. We compute the posterior probability of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model for the class of intrinsic priors, assess robustness over the range of plausible answers, as well as stability of the decision in favor of either hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Access point selection game with mobile users using correlated equilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoo Sohn

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in wireless local area network (WLAN systems with multiple access points (APs is the AP selection problem. Game theory is a mathematical tool used to analyze the interactions in multiplayer systems and has been applied to various problems in wireless networks. Correlated equilibrium (CE is one of the powerful game theory solution concepts, which is more general than the Nash equilibrium for analyzing the interactions in multiplayer mixed strategy games. A game-theoretic formulation of the AP selection problem with mobile users is presented using a novel scheme based on a regret-based learning procedure. Through convergence analysis, we show that the joint actions based on the proposed algorithm achieve CE. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective in a realistic WLAN environment with user mobility and achieves maximum system throughput based on the game-theoretic formulation.

  18. The pressure equation arising in reservoir simulation. Mathematical properties, numerical methods and upscaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Bjoern Fredrik


    The main purpose of this thesis has been to analyse self-adjoint second order elliptic partial differential equations arising in reservoir simulation. It studies several mathematical and numerical problems for the pressure equation arising in models of fluid flow in porous media. The theoretical results obtained have been illustrated by a series of numerical experiments. The influence of large variations in the mobility tensor upon the solution of the pressure equation is analysed. The performance of numerical methods applied to such problems have been studied. A new upscaling technique for one-phase flow in heterogeneous reservoirs is developed. The stability of the solution of the pressure equation with respect to small perturbations of the mobility tensor is studied. The results are used to develop a new numerical method for a model of fully nonlinear water waves. 158 refs, 39 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. The Geometry of Finite Equilibrium Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely non collinear....

  20. Accelerating Multiagent Reinforcement Learning by Equilibrium Transfer. (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Gao, Yang; An, Bo


    An important approach in multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL) is equilibrium-based MARL, which adopts equilibrium solution concepts in game theory and requires agents to play equilibrium strategies at each state. However, most existing equilibrium-based MARL algorithms cannot scale due to a large number of computationally expensive equilibrium computations (e.g., computing Nash equilibria is PPAD-hard) during learning. For the first time, this paper finds that during the learning process of equilibrium-based MARL, the one-shot games corresponding to each state's successive visits often have the same or similar equilibria (for some states more than 90% of games corresponding to successive visits have similar equilibria). Inspired by this observation, this paper proposes to use equilibrium transfer to accelerate equilibrium-based MARL. The key idea of equilibrium transfer is to reuse previously computed equilibria when each agent has a small incentive to deviate. By introducing transfer loss and transfer condition, a novel framework called equilibrium transfer-based MARL is proposed. We prove that although equilibrium transfer brings transfer loss, equilibrium-based MARL algorithms can still converge to an equilibrium policy under certain assumptions. Experimental results in widely used benchmarks (e.g., grid world game, soccer game, and wall game) show that the proposed framework: 1) not only significantly accelerates equilibrium-based MARL (up to 96.7% reduction in learning time), but also achieves higher average rewards than algorithms without equilibrium transfer and 2) scales significantly better than algorithms without equilibrium transfer when the state/action space grows and the number of agents increases.

  1. The geometry of finite equilibrium sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich


    We investigate the geometry of finite datasets defined by equilibrium prices, income distributions, and total resources. We show that the equilibrium condition imposes no restrictions if total resources are collinear, a property that is robust to small perturbations. We also show that the set...... of equilibrium datasets is pathconnected when the equilibrium condition does impose restrictions on datasets, as for example when total resources are widely noncollinear....

  2. Solutions to the flow equilibrium problem in elliptic regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Galkowski, A.; Potempski, S. (Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland))


    The existence of poloidal flow transforms the elliptic Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter (GSS) equation into an EGSS system (Extended GSS) of partial differential equation and an algebraic Bernoulli's equation. The EGSS system becomes alternatively elliptic and hyperbolic as the Mach number of the poloidal flow increases with respect to the Alfven speed of the poloidal magnetic field. A computer program for solving EGSS equations in elliptic regions using the inverse method and Fourier decomposition has been prepared. The solutions in the first and second elliptic regions have been found for different plasma cross-sections, not necessarily up-down-symmetric. The solutions in different elliptic regions exhibit the significant differences in the poloidal magnetic field configuration and the shifts between magnetic axis and density axis differ in sign and magnitude. (author).

  3. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.


    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  4. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.


    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  5. Thermalization and Return to Equilibrium on Finite Quantum Lattice Systems (United States)

    Farrelly, Terry; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Cramer, Marcus


    Thermal states are the bedrock of statistical physics. Nevertheless, when and how they actually arise in closed quantum systems is not fully understood. We consider this question for systems with local Hamiltonians on finite quantum lattices. In a first step, we show that states with exponentially decaying correlations equilibrate after a quantum quench. Then, we show that the equilibrium state is locally equivalent to a thermal state, provided that the free energy of the equilibrium state is sufficiently small and the thermal state has exponentially decaying correlations. As an application, we look at a related important question: When are thermal states stable against noise? In other words, if we locally disturb a closed quantum system in a thermal state, will it return to thermal equilibrium? We rigorously show that this occurs when the correlations in the thermal state are exponentially decaying. All our results come with finite-size bounds, which are crucial for the growing field of quantum thermodynamics and other physical applications.

  6. Using Simple Quadratic Equations to Estimate Equilibrium Concentrations of an Acid (United States)

    Brilleslyper, Michael A.


    Application of quadratic equations to standard problem in chemistry like finding equilibrium concentrations of ions in an acid solution is explained. This clearly shows that pure mathematical analysis has meaningful applications in other areas as well.

  7. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part I: Equilibrium Models – Literary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała


    Originality/value: This paper presents state of the art in field of equilibrium coal gasification modeling. This article is also attempt to elaborate on the most important problems connected with thermodynamic models of coal gasification.

  8. Are the Concepts of Dynamic Equilibrium and the Thermodynamic Criteria for Spontaneity, Nonspontaneity, and Equilibrium Compatible? (United States)

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Raff, Lionel M.


    Thermodynamic spontaneity-equilibrium criteria require that in a single-reaction system, reactions in either the forward or reverse direction at equilibrium be nonspontaneous. Conversely, the concept of dynamic equilibrium holds that forward and reverse reactions both occur at equal rates at equilibrium to the extent allowed by kinetic…

  9. Existence of collateral Equilibrium without survival assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo


    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a collateral equilibrium without assuming any hypotheses on the strict positivity, be they individual initial endowments, including the ex post initial endowments, or aggregated initial endowments. Because of dropping the strict positivity of social initial endowment we fail to get an equilibrium. Instead, we get a quasi-equilibrium. Then, appealing to the concept of irreducibility (introduced by McKenzie in 1959 which is adapted to the collateral model, we show that the quasi-equilibrium is indeed a legitime equilibrium.

  10. [Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in genetic epidemiology]. (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Hu, Yonghua


    Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test is the base of genetic epidemiology. The new methods for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test involve: X chromosome-linked single nucleotide polymorphism Hardy-Weinberg test, inbreeding coefficient (F) test, an incomplete enumeration algorithm for an exact test of Hardy-Weinberg proportions with multiple alleles, and graphical tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium based on the ternary plot. It is necessary to conduct Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test in genetic epidemiology studies and adjust the associations as deviation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium occurs.

  11. The equilibrium of overpressurized polytropes (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Hersant, F.; Nasello, G.


    We investigate the impact of an external pressure on the structure of self-gravitating polytropes for axially symmetric ellipsoids and rings. The confinement of the fluid by photons is accounted for through a boundary condition on the enthalpy H. Equilibrium configurations are determined numerically from a generalized `self-consistent-field' method. The new algorithm incorporates an intraloop re-scaling operator R(H), which is essential for both convergence and getting self-normalized solutions. The main control parameter is the external-to-core enthalpy ratio. In the case of uniform rotation rate and uniform surrounding pressure, we compute the mass, the volume, the rotation rate and the maximum enthalpy. This is repeated for a few polytropic indices, n. For a given axial ratio, overpressurization globally increases all output quantities, and this is more pronounced for large n. Density profiles are flatter than in the absence of an external pressure. When the control parameter asymptotically tends to unity, the fluid converges towards the incompressible solution, whatever the index, but becomes geometrically singular. Equilibrium sequences, obtained by varying the axial ratio, are built. States of critical rotation are greatly exceeded or even disappear. The same trends are observed with differential rotation. Finally, the typical response to a photon point source is presented. Strong irradiation favours sharp edges. Applications concern star-forming regions and matter orbiting young stars and black holes.

  12. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Namiki


    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous.

  13. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail:; Yu, Dong, E-mail:; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)


    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  14. Combination of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Carrier Statistics Into an Atomistic Quantum Transport Model for Tunneling Heterojunctions (United States)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Huang, Jun Z.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard


    Tunneling hetero-junctions (THJs) usually induce confined states at the regions close to the tunnel junction which significantly affect their transport properties. Accurate numerical modeling of such effects requires combining the non-equilibrium coherent quantum transport through tunnel junction, as well as the quasi-equilibrium statistics arising from the strong scattering in the induced quantum wells. In this work, a novel atomistic model is proposed to include both effects: the strong scattering in the regions around THJ and the coherent tunneling. The new model matches reasonably well with experimental measurements of Nitride THJ and provides an efficient engineering tool for performance prediction and design of THJ based devices.

  15. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  16. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  17. Multimodal Network Equilibrium with Stochastic Travel Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meng


    Full Text Available The private car, unlike public traffic modes (e.g., subway, trolley running along dedicated track-ways, is invariably subject to various uncertainties resulting in travel time variation. A multimodal network equilibrium model is formulated that explicitly considers stochastic link capacity variability in the road network. The travel time of combined-mode trips is accumulated based on the concept of the mean excess travel time (METT which is a summation of estimated buffer time and tardy time. The problem is characterized by an equivalent VI (variational inequality formulation where the mode choice is expressed in a hierarchical logit structure. Specifically, the supernetwork theory and expansion technique are used herein to represent the multimodal transportation network, which completely represents the combined-mode trips as constituting multiple modes within a trip. The method of successive weighted average is adopted for problem solutions. The model and solution method are further applied to study the trip distribution and METT variations caused by the different levels of the road conditions. Results of numerical examples show that travelers prefer to choose the combined travel mode as road capacity decreases. Travelers with different attitudes towards risk are shown to exhibit significant differences when making travel choice decisions.

  18. Elastic Equilibrium of Porous Cosserat Media with Double Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Janjgava


    Full Text Available The static equilibrium of porous elastic materials with double porosity is considered in the case of an elastic Cosserat medium. The corresponding three-dimensional system of differential equations is derived. Detailed consideration is given to the case of plane deformation. A two-dimensional system of equations of plane deformation is written in the complex form and its general solution is represented by means of three analytic functions of a complex variable and two solutions of Helmholtz equations. The constructed general solution enables one to solve analytically a sufficiently wide class of plane boundary value problems of the elastic equilibrium of porous Cosserat media with double porosity. A concrete boundary value problem for a concentric ring is solved.

  19. Modeling equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation (United States)

    Anbar, A.; Jarzecki, A.; Spiro, T.


    Research into the stable isotope biogeochemistry of Fe and other transition metals has been driven primarily by analytical innovations which have revealed significant isotope effects in nature and the laboratory. Further development of these new isotope systems requires complementary theoretical research to guide analytical efforts. The results of the first such studies show some discrepancies with experiments. For example, Johnson et al. (2002) report an experimentally-determined 56Fe/54Fe equilibrium fractionation factor between Fe(II) and Fe(III) aquo complexes of ˜1.0025. This effect is ˜50% smaller than predicted theoretically by Schauble et al. (2001). It is important to resolve such discrepancies. Equilibrium isotope fractionation factors can be predicted from vibrational spectroscopic data of isotopically-substituted complexes, or from theoretical predictions of some or all of these frequencies obtained using force field models. The pioneering work of Schauble et al. (2001) utilized a modified Urey-Bradley force field (MUBFF) model. This approach is limiting in at least three ways: First, it is not ab initio, requiring as input some measured vibrational frequencies. Such data are not always available, or may have significant uncertainties. Second, the MUBFF does not include potentially important effects of solvent interaction. Third, because it makes certain assumptions about molecular symmetry, the MUBFF-based approach is not able to model the spectra of mixed-ligand complexes. To address these limitations, we are evaluating the use of density functional theory (DFT) as an ab initio method to predict vibrational frequencies of isotopically-substituted complexes and, hence, equilibrium fractionation factors. In a preliminary examination of the frequency shift upon isotope substitution of the bending and asymmetric stretching modes of the tetrahedral FeCl_42- complex, we find substantial differences between MUBFF and DFT predictions. Results for other Fe

  20. Thermodynamic equilibrium at heterogeneous pressure (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.


    Recent advances in metamorphic petrology point out the importance of grain-scale pressure variations in high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Pressures derived from chemical zonation using unconventional geobarometry based on equal chemical potentials fit mechanically feasible pressure variations. Here a thermodynamic equilibrium method is presented that predicts chemical zoning as a result of pressure variations by Gibbs energy minimization. Equilibrium thermodynamic prediction of the chemical zoning in the case of pressure heterogeneity is done by constraint Gibbs minimization using linear programming techniques. Compositions of phases considered in the calculation are discretized into 'pseudo-compounds' spanning the entire compositional space. Gibbs energies of these discrete compounds are generated for a given range and resolution of pressures for example derived by barometry or from mechanical model predictions. Gibbs energy minimization is subsequently performed considering all compounds of different composition and pressure. In addition to constraining the system composition a certain proportion of the system is constraint at a specified pressure. Input pressure variations need to be discretized and each discrete pressure defines an additional constraint for the minimization. The proportion of the system at each different pressure is equally distributed over the number of input pressures. For example if two input pressures P1 and P2 are specified, two constraints are added: 50 percent of the system is constraint at P1 while the remaining 50 percent is constraint at P2. The method has been tested for a set of 10 input pressures obtained by Tajčmanová et al. (2014) using their unconventional geobarometry method in a plagioclase rim around kyanite. Each input pressure is added as constraint to the minimization (1/10 percent of the system for each discrete pressure). Constraining the system composition to the average composition of the plagioclase rim

  1. Nonconvexity, Efficiency and Equilibrium in Exhaustible Resource Depletion


    Fisher, Anthony C.; Karp, Larry


    Abstract: We reconsider the problem of inefficiency and nonexistence of a competitive equilibrium in exhaustible resource markets where extraction costs are nonconvex. The existence of a backstop technology (which induces a flat portion of the industry demand curve) restores both existence and efficiency, provided that the backstop price is sufficiently low. If firms face even a small amount of uncertainty regarding their rivals' stocks, a backstop technology is sufficient to restore existenc...

  2. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology


    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  3. Osteosarcoma Arising in a S,olitary Osteochondroma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 24, 1971 ... In his patients osteo- sarcoma arose from an osteochondroma at the distal end of the femur. The complete files of the Mayo Clinic contain only 3 such cases.' Anderson et al.' reported a case of a sarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the upper tibia. There was some doubt a to the precise histology of.

  4. Primary Malignant Amelanotic Melanoma Arising From a Vitiligo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin cancer is rare in people of African origin while vitiligo occurs worldwide. The occurrence of primary malignant melanoma and vitiligo together is very rare. We present a rare case of primary malignant amelanotic melanoma arising from a depigmented patch of a patient with vitiligo. It was completely excised and followed ...

  5. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise


    BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58...

  6. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  7. Lower Limb Injuries Arising From Motorcycle Crashes | Kortor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: All the patients with lower limb injuries arising from motorcycle accidents who presented in our hospital between 1st October 2006 and 30th September 2007 were reviewed. History was obtained and detailed examination was done after resuscitation to determine the site, nature and the characteristics of injuries.

  8. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes (United States)

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.


    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  9. Marjolin's ulcer arising from cutaneous lichen planus | Olawoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between cutaneous lichen planus and Squamous cell carcinoma has been controversial. The rarity of documented cases, has led some to suggest that it may represent a chance association. Whilst there have been many reports of Marjolin's ulcer arising from oral lichen planus, reports of Squamous cell ...

  10. A rare case of Cystic artery arising from Gastroduodenal artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An uncommon anatomical variation in the origin and course of cystic artery was found during human cadaveric dissection in our laboratory. A blood vessel was seen arising from the gastroduodenal artery about 1 cm distal to its origin from the common hepatic artery. The vessel when traced towards its termination was found ...

  11. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...

  12. Equilibrium theory of heatless adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Y.N.I.; Hill, F.B.; Wong, Y.W.


    The equilibrium theory of heatless adsorption was derived for the case of isothermal removal of a single trace adsorbable component from an inert carrier. The adsorbing component obeyed a linear distribution law. A modification is made in order to render all material balances exact. The modified theory is presented and extended to the case of the two-component system in which both components are adsorbable. A survey was made of the predictions of the corrected theory. Calculations were made of the steady state performance of a single heatless adsorption stage when operating at the condition of complete removal of the trace component from the product stream. Quantities calculated included the critical purge to feed ratio, enrichments in the purge and in the blowdown gas, and overall enrichment. Operation at the critical purge to feed ratio for perfect cleanup and the shortest column length corresponds to the condition of maximum sorbent utilization, providing an upper bound on the performance of the column. The overall enrichment increases with pressure ratio and decreases with the equilibrium parameter ..beta... It is dominated by the enrichment in the purge stream for small values of ..beta... At a purge to feed ratio greater than the critical, the overall enrichment is diminished and exhibits a maximum with respect to pressure ratio. For separation factors less than unity, only modest depletion of the trace component in th product stream is found, and this depletion is relatively insensitive to pressure ratio. From transient calculations, the number of cycles required to reach steady state increases with pressure ratio.

  13. Global existence conditions for a non-local problem arising in statistical mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); I.A. Guerra; M.A. Peletier (Mark)


    textabstractWe consider the evolution of the density and temperature of athree-dimensional cloud of self-interacting particles. This phenomenon ismodelled by a parabolic equation for the density distributioncombining temperature-dependent diffusion and convection drivenby the gradient of the

  14. A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, Christine, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Brest UMR 6205 (France)


    We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.

  15. Spectral and parameter estimation problems arising in the metrology of high performance mirror surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.


    The accurate characterization of mirror surfaces requires the estimation of two-dimensional distribution functions and power spectra from trend-contaminated profile measurements. The rationale behind this, and our measurement and processing procedures, are described. The distinction between profile and area spectra is indicated, and since measurements often suggest inverse-power-law forms, a discussion of classical and fractal models of processes leading to these forms is included. 9 refs.

  16. Numerical solutions of differential Riccati Equations Arising in Optimal Control Problems for Parabolic Partial Differential Equations


    Mena Pazmiño, Hermann Segundo


    152 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 0859 Las ecuaciones diferenciales de Riccati (DREs) aparecen en muchas aplicaciones de ciencia e ingeniería, en especial en la teoría de control. Problemas de optimización gobernados por ecuaciones diferenciales parciales (EDPs) con frecuencia pueden formularse como problemas de Cauchy abstractos si además se impone un funcional de costo cuadrático se obtiene un problema linear quadratic regulador (LQR) para un sistema de dimensión infinita. L...

  17. Atypical compound nevus arising in mature cystic ovarian teratoma. (United States)

    McHugh, Jonathan B; Fullen, Douglas R


    Mature cystic ovarian teratoma (MCOT) is the most common primary ovarian tumor. Rarely, MCOT may undergo malignant transformation. Melanoma arising primarily in MCOT is a rare event. Melanocytic nevi have also rarely been reported in MCOT. A 28 year-old female presented with a palpable, 4.6 cm, right pelvic mass on physical examination. Histologically, the cystic neoplasm demonstrated epidermis with numerous pilosebaceous units and respiratory-type epithelium (endoderm) surrounded by adipose tissue and cartilage (mesoderm). A 2.0 x 1.0 cm pigmented area corresponded to a nevus with architectural and cytologic features of the so-called "dysplastic nevus," including variable-sized nests of nevomelanocytes irregularly distributed on distorted rete ridges, bridging of nests between rete ridges, fibroplasia around rete ridges, and junctional shouldering beyond the dermal nevus. The nevomelanocytes demonstrated moderate cytologic atypia. Diagnostic criteria of melanoma were not identified. Herein, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of an atypical ("dysplastic") nevus, arising in a MCOT. No features of melanoma were present and the patient is disease-free at one-year follow-up. Rarely, melanocytic nevi and melanomas arise from the ectodermal component of MCOTs. Moreover, melanomas may arise de novo or in association with a nevus. Distinction between a melanocytic nevus, as in our case, and a primary melanoma is critical for determining the patient's prognosis and need for additional therapy. As primary ovarian melanomas, like their skin counterpart, may arise from a precursor lesion, removal of a melanocytic nevus, such as this atypical nevus, could theoretically prevent melanoma transformation.

  18. Physical Equilibrium Evaluation in Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Paula da Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction: The Parkinson disease can be among the multiple causes of alterations in the physical equilibrium. Accordingly, this study has the objective to evaluate Parkinson patients' physical equilibrium. Method: Potential study in which 12 Parkinson individuals were evaluated by way of tests of static and dynamic equilibrium, dynamic posturography and vectoelectronystagmograph. To compare the dynamic posturography results a group of gauged control was used. Results: Alterations in Romberg-Barré, Unterberger and Walk tests were found. The vestibular exam revealed 06 normal cases, 04 central vestibular syndrome and 02 cases of peripheral vestibular syndrome. In the dynamic posturography, an equilibrium alteration has been verified, when compared to the control group in all Sensorial Organization Tests, in average and in the utilization of vestibular system. Conclusion: Parkinson patients present a physical equilibrium alteration. The dynamic posturography was more sensitive to detect the equilibrium alterations than vectoelectronystagmograph.

  19. Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 in Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waseem Arshad, Muhammad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas


    Equilibrium solubility of CO2 were measured in aqueous solutions of Monoethanolamine (MEA) and N,N-diethylethanolamine(DEEA). Equilibrium cells are generally used for these measurements. In this study, the equilibrium data were measured from the calorimetry. For this purpose a reaction calorimeter...... (model CPA 122 from ChemiSens AB, Sweden) was used. The advantage of this method is being the measurement of both heats of absorption and equilibrium solubility data of CO2 at the same time. The measurements were performed for 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA solutions as a function of CO2 loading at three...... different temperatures 40, 80 and 120 ºC. The measured 30 mass % MEA and 5M DEEA data were compared with the literature data obtained from different equilibrium cells which validated the use of calorimeters for equilibrium solubility measurements....

  20. Mathematical models and equilibrium in irreversible microeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly M. Tsirlin


    Full Text Available A set of equilibrium states in a system consisting of economic agents, economic reservoirs, and firms is considered. Methods of irreversible microeconomics are used. We show that direct sale/purchase leads to an equilibrium state which depends upon the coefficients of supply/demand functions. To reach the unique equilibrium state it is necessary to add either monetary exchange or an intermediate firm.

  1. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories. (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin


    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  2. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong


    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  3. Problems in Recording the Electrocardiogram. (United States)

    Webster, John G.

    The unwanted signals that arise in electrocardiography are discussed. A technical background of electrocardiography is given, along with teaching techniques that educate students of medical instrumentation to solve the problems caused by these signals. (MJH)

  4. Philicities, Fugalities, and Equilibrium Constants. (United States)

    Mayr, Herbert; Ofial, Armin R


    The mechanistic model of Organic Chemistry is based on relationships between rate and equilibrium constants. Thus, strong bases are generally considered to be good nucleophiles and poor nucleofuges. Exceptions to this rule have long been known, and the ability of iodide ions to catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, because they are good nucleophiles as well as good nucleofuges, is just a prominent example for exceptions from the general rule. In a reaction series, the Leffler-Hammond parameter α = δΔG(⧧)/δΔG° describes the fraction of the change in the Gibbs energy of reaction, which is reflected in the change of the Gibbs energy of activation. It has long been considered as a measure for the position of the transition state; thus, an α value close to 0 was associated with an early transition state, while an α value close to 1 was considered to be indicative of a late transition state. Bordwell's observation in 1969 that substituent variation in phenylnitromethanes has a larger effect on the rates of deprotonation than on the corresponding equilibrium constants (nitroalkane anomaly) triggered the breakdown of this interpretation. In the past, most systematic investigations of the relationships between rates and equilibria of organic reactions have dealt with proton transfer reactions, because only for few other reaction series complementary kinetic and thermodynamic data have been available. In this Account we report on a more general investigation of the relationships between Lewis basicities, nucleophilicities, and nucleofugalities as well as between Lewis acidities, electrophilicities, and electrofugalities. Definitions of these terms are summarized, and it is suggested to replace the hybrid terms "kinetic basicity" and "kinetic acidity" by "protophilicity" and "protofugality", respectively; in this way, the terms "acidity" and "basicity" are exclusively assigned to thermodynamic properties, while "philicity" and "fugality" refer to kinetics

  5. What Can Reinforcement Learning Teach Us About Non-Equilibrium Quantum Dynamics (United States)

    Bukov, Marin; Day, Alexandre; Sels, Dries; Weinberg, Phillip; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Mehta, Pankaj

    Equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical physics are the building blocks of modern science and technology. Yet, our understanding of thermodynamic processes away from equilibrium is largely missing. In this talk, I will reveal the potential of what artificial intelligence can teach us about the complex behaviour of non-equilibrium systems. Specifically, I will discuss the problem of finding optimal drive protocols to prepare a desired target state in quantum mechanical systems by applying ideas from Reinforcement Learning [one can think of Reinforcement Learning as the study of how an agent (e.g. a robot) can learn and perfect a given policy through interactions with an environment.]. The driving protocols learnt by our agent suggest that the non-equilibrium world features possibilities easily defying intuition based on equilibrium physics.

  6. Spinor order parameter and equilibrium states of spin s = 1 Bose systems (United States)

    Glushchenko, A. V.; Kovalevsky, M. Yu.


    The problem of classification of degenerate equilibrium states in spin s = 1 systems with the phase and magnetic symmetries simultaneously broken is considered. An assumption about the residual symmetry of degenerate equilibrium states and the transformation properties of the spinor order-parameter operator under transformations generated by additive integrals of motion yields equations that classify its equilibrium values. The anisotropic structure of the equilibrium values of the order parameter is presented in terms of the parameters of the residual symmetry generator. Based on the model with a separated condensate, the structure of the densities of the magnetic additive integrals of motion in the equilibrium state is revealed. A comparison is made with the results of existing studies on superfluid spin s = 1 systems.

  7. Partial difference equations arising from the Cauchy-Riemann equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haruki


    Full Text Available We consider some functional equations arising from the Cauchy-Riemann equations, and certain related functional equations. First we propose a new functional equation (E.1 below, over a $2$-divisible Abelian group, which is a discrete version of the Cauchy-Riemann equations, and give the general solutions of (E.1. Next we study a functional equation which is equivalent to (E.1. Further we propose and solve partial difference-differential functional equations and nonsymmetric partial difference equations which are also arising from the Cauchy--Riemann equations. [ f(x+t,y- f(x-t,y = - i [f(x,y+t- f(x,y-t].    (E.1

  8. Angiosarcoma Arising in an Ovarian Fibroma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi


    Full Text Available Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings.

  9. The analysis of macromolecular interactions by sedimentation equilibrium. (United States)

    Ghirlando, Rodolfo


    The study of macromolecular interactions by sedimentation equilibrium is a highly technical method that requires great care in both the experimental design and data analysis. The complexity of the interacting system that can be analyzed is only limited by the ability to deconvolute the exponential contributions of each of the species to the overall concentration gradient. This is achieved in part through the use of multi-signal data collection and the implementation of soft mass conservation. We illustrate the use of these constraints in SEDPHAT through the study of an A+B+B⇌AB+B⇌ABB system and highlight some of the technical challenges that arise. We show that both the multi-signal analysis and mass conservation result in a precise and robust data analysis and discuss improvements that can be obtained through the inclusion of data from other methods such as sedimentation velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The analysis of macromolecular interactions by sedimentation equilibrium (United States)

    Ghirlando, Rodolfo


    The study of macromolecular interactions by sedimentation equilibrium is a highly technical method that requires great care in both the experimental design and data analysis. The complexity of the interacting system that can be analyzed is only limited by the ability to deconvolute the exponential contributions of each of the species to the overall concentration gradient. This is achieved in part through the use of multi-signal data collection and the implementation of soft mass conservation. We illustrate the use of these constraints in SEDPHAT through the study of an A + B + B ⇌ AB + B ⇌ ABB system and highlight some of the technical challenges that arise. We show that both the multi-signal analysis and mass conservation result in a precise and robust data analysis and discuss improvements that can be obtained through the inclusion of data from other methods such as sedimentation velocity and isothermal titration calorimetry. PMID:21167941

  11. Autopsy case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saijo, Noboru; Maeda, Ken (Rumoi City General Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)); Kita, Shinichiro; Ishigaki, Seishi; Sone, Hisao


    An 80-year-old male patient was admitted complaining of abdominal mass. The mass showed a large doughnut shape in scintigraphy with /sup 67/Ga and a honeycomb appearance in abdominal echography. Continuous fever, ascitis and anuria caused the patient to be inoperable and death occurred. Postmortem examination revealed a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from pancreas. Diagnosis for the squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas was discussed in this paper.

  12. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising from the kidney (United States)

    Niwa, Naoya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Horinaga, Minoru; Hongo, Hiroshi; Ito, Yujiro; Watanabe, Takuro; Masuda, Takeshi


    Primary renal lymphoma is rare, and most are intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas of B-cell lineage, such as diffuse large B-cell or Burkitt lymphoma. We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arising from the kidney. Only a few cases of primary renal MALT lymphoma have been published. PMID:24554980

  13. Primary Osteosarcoma of the Breast Arising in an Intraductal Papilloma


    Khalefa Ali Alghofaily; Musab Hamoud Almushayqih; Muhannad Faleh Alanazi; Abdullah Abdulrahman Bin Salamah; Halldor Benediktsson


    Introduction. Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is extremely rare, and an osteosarcoma arising from an intraductal papilloma is exceptional. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old Saudi Arabian woman presented with a solid, bone-containing breast mass that was diagnosed as primary osteosarcoma of the breast on biopsy. She had a history of untreated intraductal papilloma. Treatment was completed with a modified mastectomy after excluding extramammary metastases. However, she subsequently developed ...

  14. Isolated Sessile Chondrosarcoma Arising in Osteochondroma: A Case Report


    Kalem, Mahmut; Sevimli, Reşit; Ünlü, Adem; Sağlık, Yener


    Osteochondroma of the most common benign bone tumors are from youth, mostly in the metaphyses of long bones is determined as a single mass. Causing severe pain and surgical treatment is recommended due to the risk of development chondrosarcoma. In this paper, an osteochondroma arising from the proximal humerus osteochondroma developed in the case of chondrosarcoma diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients was presented.

  15. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management. (United States)

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S


    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo


    Philips, Rebecca C.; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E; Wilkerson, Michael G.


    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic f...

  17. A short remark on the integrability of a nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation arising in mathematical biology: Compatibility analysis (United States)

    Aziz, Taha; Fatima, Aeeman; Khalique, Chaudry Masood

    An analytical approach based on the compatibility concept is employed to solve a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. The solution process makes it extremely easy to obtain a relatively accurate closed-form solution of the model. The pencil-and-paper solution procedure can be extended to other class of nonlinear problems of similar kind.

  18. Representation of discrete Steklov-Poincare operator arising in domain decomposition methods in wavelet basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemcov, A.; Matovic, M.D. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)


    This paper examines the sparse representation and preconditioning of a discrete Steklov-Poincare operator which arises in domain decomposition methods. A non-overlapping domain decomposition method is applied to a second order self-adjoint elliptic operator (Poisson equation), with homogeneous boundary conditions, as a model problem. It is shown that the discrete Steklov-Poincare operator allows sparse representation with a bounded condition number in wavelet basis if the transformation is followed by thresholding and resealing. These two steps combined enable the effective use of Krylov subspace methods as an iterative solution procedure for the system of linear equations. Finding the solution of an interface problem in domain decomposition methods, known as a Schur complement problem, has been shown to be equivalent to the discrete form of Steklov-Poincare operator. A common way to obtain Schur complement matrix is by ordering the matrix of discrete differential operator in subdomain node groups then block eliminating interface nodes. The result is a dense matrix which corresponds to the interface problem. This is equivalent to reducing the original problem to several smaller differential problems and one boundary integral equation problem for the subdomain interface.

  19. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics of non-isothermal reaction-diffusion. (United States)

    Bedeaux, D; Pagonabarraga, I; Ortiz de Zárate, J M; Sengers, J V; Kjelstrup, S


    We show how the law of mass action can be derived from a thermodynamic basis, in the presence of temperature gradients, chemical potential gradients and hydrodynamic flow. The solution gives the law of mass action for the forward and the reverse contributions to the net chemical reaction. In addition we derive the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the fluctuating contributions to the reaction rate, heat flux and mass fluxes. All these results arise without any other assumptions than those which are common in mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics; namely quasi-stationary transport across a high activation energy barrier, and local equilibrium along the reaction coordinate. Arrhenius-type behaviour of the kinetic coefficients is recovered. The thermal conductivity, Soret coefficient and diffusivity are significantly influenced by the presence of a chemical reaction. We thus demonstrate how chemical reactions can be fully reconciled with non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

  20. Modelling Thomson scattering for systems with non-equilibrium electron distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman D.A.


    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of non-equilibrium electron distributions in the analysis of Thomson scattering for a range of conditions of interest to inertial confinement fusion experiments. Firstly, a generalised one-component model based on quantum statistical theory is given in the random phase approximation (RPA. The Chihara expression for electron-ion plasmas is then adapted to include the new non-equilibrium electron physics. The theoretical scattering spectra for both diffuse and dense plasmas in which non-equilibrium electron distributions are expected to arise are considered. We find that such distributions strongly influence the spectra and are hence an important consideration for accurately determining the plasma conditions.

  1. Colin Rowe and ' Dynamic Equilibrium'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Marín


    Full Text Available AbstractIn 1944 Gyorgy Kepes published what undoubtless will be his most influential text, "The language of vision". What Kepes tried to do was a guide of grammar and syntax of vision, which allows to face art as purely sensory experience or just visual, devisted of any literary , semantic or sentimental meaning.Among all the concepts that Kepes developes in his essay perhaps the most decisive one is the so called dynamic equilibrium, which is introduced in this work for fi rst time, verbalizing something that was in the air, orbiting around the entire modern plastic but far only explained in an empirical way.Colin Rowe reverberates the recent readed kepesian ideas on his own writings Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal and Neo-'Classicism' and Modern Architecture I and II, when the author tries to highlight the founding principles of the modern movement refusing the plastic  dimension of the discipline . The article will try to expose and explain this influence.

  2. Numerical study of nonlinear singular fractional differential equations arising in biology by operational matrix of shifted Legendre polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jabari Sabeg


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new computational method for solving nonlinear singular boundary value problems of fractional order arising in biology. To this end, we apply the operational matrices of derivatives of shifted Legendre polynomials to reduce such problems to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. To demonstrate the validity and applicability of the presented method, we present some numerical examples.

  3. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei


    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  4. The Equilibrium of Life-Career Planning (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela

    Over a 100 years ago, fixed wing aircraft flight was made possible by Orville and Wilbur Wright's breakthrough invention of a three-axis control that allowed effective steering and maintenance of airplanes' equilibrium. The significance of the Wright brothers' control invention is that it facilitated recovery of lateral balance, or equilibrium, when the wind tilts the aircraft to one side or another.

  5. equilibrium approach in thederivation of differential equations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this paper, the differential equations of Mindlin plates are derived from basic principles by simultaneous satisfaction of the differential equations of equilibrium, the stress-strain laws and the strain-displacement relations for isotropic, homogenous linear elastic materials. Equilibrium method was adopted in the derivation.

  6. Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.


    Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the

  7. A Holistic Equilibrium Theory of Organization Development (United States)

    Yang, Baiyin; Zheng, Wei


    This paper proposes a holistic equilibrium theory of organizational development (OD). The theory states that there are three driving forces in organizational change and development--rationality, reality, and liberty. OD can be viewed as a planned process of change in an organization so as to establish equilibrium among these three interacting…

  8. Implementing an Equilibrium Law Teaching Sequence for Secondary School Students to Learn Chemical Equilibrium (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio


    A didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium law. In this approach, we have avoided the kinetic derivation and the thermodynamic justification of the equilibrium constant. The equilibrium constant expression is established empirically by a trial-and-error approach. Additionally, students learn to use the criterion of…

  9. On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems


    Akimoto, Takuma


    We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.

  10. A subdivision algorithm for phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Corazza


    Full Text Available Phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures have been a continuous challenge for scientists and engineers. Traditionally, this task has been performed by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations originating from isofugacity equations. The reliability and accuracy of the solutions are strongly dependent on the initial guess, especially due to the fact that the phase equilibrium problems frequently have multiple roots. This work is focused on the application of a subdivision algorithm for thermodynamic calculations at high pressures. The subdivision algorithm consists in the application of successive subdivisions at a given initial interval (rectangle of variables and a systematic test to verify the existence of roots in each subinterval. If the interval checked passes in the test, then it is retained; otherwise it is discharged. The algorithm was applied for vapor-liquid, solid-fluid and solid-vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as for phase stability calculations for binary and multicomponent systems. The results show that the proposed algorithm was capable of finding all roots of all high-pressure thermodynamic problems investigated, independent of the initial guess used.

  11. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi


    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  12. Phase equilibrium measurements on nine binary mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Giles, N.F.; Wilson, L.C. [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)


    Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on nine binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following systems at two temperatures each: (aminoethyl)piperazine + diethylenetriamine; 2-butoxyethyl acetate + 2-butoxyethanol; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methylbutane; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methyl-2-butene; methacrylonitrile + methanol; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen chloride; 2-(hexyloxy)ethanol + ethylene glycol; butane + ammonia; propionaldehyde + butane. Equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived form the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson or the NRTL activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. A large immiscibility region exists in the butane + ammonia system at 0 C. Therefore, separate vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed on this system to more precisely determine the miscibility limits and the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the two liquid phases.

  13. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization (United States)

    Anzà, F.; Vedral, V.


    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  14. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization. (United States)

    Anzà, F; Vedral, V


    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  15. Equilibrium, scale and inheritance in geomorphology (United States)

    Ahnert, Frank


    Of the many "equilibrium" terms that have been proposed, only two are needed: dynamic equilibrium in the original sense of G.K. Gilbert (1877) and steady state. The former refers to the relationship between the process components of a system, the latter to the system as a whole. The tendency towards establishing a dynamic equilibrium is inherent in all natural systems that contain negative feedbacks between processes capable of compensating each other. In geomorphology, equilibrium tendencies of the mass budget are more relevant than those of the energy budget. The validity of the equilibrium concept is discussed at several scales from a slope point to entire slopes, drainage basins and mountain ranges. The effects of eksystemic changes vary depending upon the length of the intervals between such changes in comparison to the length of the required relaxation times. This relationship also applies to the influence of inherited forms, patterns and materials that have become components of present-day systems.

  16. A non-equilibrium equation-of-motion approach to quantum transport utilizing projection operators. (United States)

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael; Ratner, Mark A


    We consider a projection operator approach to the non-equilibrium Green function equation-of-motion (PO-NEGF EOM) method. The technique resolves problems of arbitrariness in truncation of an infinite chain of EOMs and prevents violation of symmetry relations resulting from the truncation (equivalence of left- and right-sided EOMs is shown and symmetry with respect to interchange of Fermi or Bose operators before truncation is preserved). The approach, originally developed by Tserkovnikov (1999 Theor. Math. Phys. 118 85) for equilibrium systems, is reformulated to be applicable to time-dependent non-equilibrium situations. We derive a canonical form of EOMs, thus explicitly demonstrating a proper result for the non-equilibrium atomic limit in junction problems. A simple practical scheme applicable to quantum transport simulations is formulated. We perform numerical simulations within simple models and compare results of the approach to other techniques and (where available) also to exact results.

  17. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission of complex fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.R.


    Complex fragment emission (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and cross sections. The experimental emission velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and cross sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The emission velocities, angular distributions, and absolute cross sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and cross sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical emission. 143 refs., 67 figs.

  18. Modelling non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems from the speed-gradient principle. (United States)

    Khantuleva, Tatiana A; Shalymov, Dmitry S


    The application of the speed-gradient (SG) principle to the non-equilibrium distribution systems far away from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated. The options for applying the SG principle to describe the non-equilibrium transport processes in real-world environments are discussed. Investigation of a non-equilibrium system's evolution at different scale levels via the SG principle allows for a fresh look at the thermodynamics problems associated with the behaviour of the system entropy. Generalized dynamic equations for finite and infinite number of constraints are proposed. It is shown that the stationary solution to the equations, resulting from the SG principle, entirely coincides with the locally equilibrium distribution function obtained by Zubarev. A new approach to describe time evolution of systems far from equilibrium is proposed based on application of the SG principle at the intermediate scale level of the system's internal structure. The problem of the high-rate shear flow of viscous fluid near the rigid plane plate is discussed. It is shown that the SG principle allows closed mathematical models of non-equilibrium processes to be constructed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Equilibrium simulation of a small scale gasification biomass CHP plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggio, M.; Baratieri, M.; Grigiante, M. (Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, University of Trento (Italy))


    One of the most important issues, in assessing the performance of IC engines fueled with biomass synthesis gas, is to have a good evaluation of the energy content of the producer gas per unit volume; in fact, as these are volumetric machines, it can be expected that the relevant properties are those of the inflow gas air mixture. For this purpose, in the present study a multiphase thermodynamic equilibrium analysis has been carried out providing an estimate of the gas composition and the yield of char along the conversion process. The aim of the present paper is then to provide a realistic estimate of the global energy efficiency of the process, by means of a whole balance of plant simulation; therefore, the enthalpy fluxes arising from the different components have been evaluated using the chemical equilibrium analysis for the reacting stages. The performed plant analysis demonstrates how the proposed coupling of a gasification reactor with an IC gas engine presents high conversion efficiencies and seems to be particularly suitable for distributed energy production, especially in small towns situated in rural zones, where there is often available a large quantity of biomass waste. (orig.)

  20. Quantum Emulation of Extreme Non-Equilibrium Phenomena with Trapped Atoms (United States)

    Rajagopal, Shankari V.; Fujiwara, Kurt M.; Senaratne, Ruwan; Singh, Kevin; Geiger, Zachary A.; Weld, David M.


    Ultracold atomic physics experiments offer a nearly ideal context for the investigation of quantum systems far from equilibrium. We describe three related emerging directions of research into extreme non-equilibrium phenomena in atom traps: quantum emulation of ultrafast atom-light interactions, coherent phasonic spectroscopy in tunable quasicrystals, and realization of Floquet matter in strongly-driven lattice systems. We show that all three should enable quantum emulation in parameter regimes inaccessible in solid-state experiments, facilitating a complementary approach to open problems in non-equilibrium condensed matter.

  1. Stellarator expansion methods for MHD equilibrium and stability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Hender, T.C.; Garcia, L.


    Two methods for performing stellarator expansion, or average method, MHD calculations are described. The first method includes the calculation of vacuum, equilibrium, and stability, using the Greene and Johnson stellarator expansion in which the equilibrium is reduced to a 2-D problem by averaging over the geometric toroidal angle in real space coordinates. In the second method, the average is performed in a system of vacuum magnetic coordinates. Both methods are implemented to utilize realistic vacuum field information, making them applicable to configuration studies and machine design, as well as to basic research. Illustrative examples are presented to detail the sensitivities of the calculations to physical parameters and to show numerical convergence and the comparison of these methods with each other and with other methods.

  2. Inferring patterns of migration from gene frequencies under equilibrium conditions. (United States)

    Tufto, J; Engen, S; Hindar, K


    A new maximum likelihood method to simultaneously estimate the parameters of any migration pattern from gene frequencies in stochastic equilibrium is developed, based on a model of multivariate genetic drift in a subdivided population. Motivated by simulations of this process in the simplified case of two subpopulations, problems related to the nuisance parameter q, the equilibrium gene frequency, are eliminated by conditioning on the observed mean gene frequency. The covariance matrix of this conditional distribution is calculated by constructing an abstract process that mimics the behavior of the original process in the subspace of interest. The approximation holds as long as there is limited differentiation between subpopulations. The bias and variance of estimates of long-range and short-range migration in a finite stepping stone model are evaluated by fitting the model to simulated data with known values of the parameters. Possible ecological extensions of the model are discussed.

  3. Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo


    This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...

  4. Investment Irreversibility and Precautionary Savings in General Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, João

    Partial equilibrium models suggest that when uncertainty increases, agents increase savings and at the same time reduce investment in irreversible goods. This paper characterizes this problem in general equilibrium with technology shocks, additive output shocks and shocks to the marginal efficiency...... if the shocks affect the marginal efficiency of investment. For all types of shocks, when concavity of the utility function is moderate or high, the irreversibility constraint never binds and the increase in variance has a negligible impact. Persistence in the shock process induces precautionary savings rather...... of investment. Uncertainty is associated with the variance of these random variables, and irreversibility is introduced by a non negativity constraint on investment. I find that irreversibility and changes in uncertainty can be responsible for sizeable movements in aggregate consumption and investment only...

  5. An Equilibrium-Based Model of Gas Reaction and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, L.D.


    During gaseous diffusion plant operations, conditions leading to the formation of flammable gas mixtures may occasionally arise. Currently, these could consist of the evaporative coolant CFC-114 and fluorinating agents such as F2 and ClF3. Replacement of CFC-114 with a non-ozone-depleting substitute is planned. Consequently, in the future, the substitute coolant must also be considered as a potential fuel in flammable gas mixtures. Two questions of practical interest arise: (1) can a particular mixture sustain and propagate a flame if ignited, and (2) what is the maximum pressure that can be generated by the burning (and possibly exploding) gas mixture, should it ignite? Experimental data on these systems, particularly for the newer coolant candidates, are limited. To assist in answering these questions, a mathematical model was developed to serve as a tool for predicting the potential detonation pressures and for estimating the composition limits of flammability for these systems based on empirical correlations between gas mixture thermodynamics and flammability for known systems. The present model uses the thermodynamic equilibrium to determine the reaction endpoint of a reactive gas mixture and uses detonation theory to estimate an upper bound to the pressure that could be generated upon ignition. The model described and documented in this report is an extended version of related models developed in 1992 and 1999.

  6. Primary Osteosarcoma of the Breast Arising in an Intraductal Papilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalefa Ali Alghofaily


    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary osteosarcoma of the breast is extremely rare, and an osteosarcoma arising from an intraductal papilloma is exceptional. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old Saudi Arabian woman presented with a solid, bone-containing breast mass that was diagnosed as primary osteosarcoma of the breast on biopsy. She had a history of untreated intraductal papilloma. Treatment was completed with a modified mastectomy after excluding extramammary metastases. However, she subsequently developed multiple recurrent lesions at the same site. Conclusion. Primary osteogenic sarcomas of the breast are very rare. Although the main treatment is resection the optimal management remains uncertain and prognosis is poor.

  7. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, K.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Nelson, P.F.


    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Facial Cellulitis Arising from Dens Evaginatus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chen


    Full Text Available Dens evaginatus is a developmental anomaly that produces a tubercle on the occlusal surface of a tooth. It is found most frequently in the mandibular premolars. The occlusal tubercle easily causes occlusal interferences. Attrition or fracture of the tubercle can lead to pulpitis, pulp necrosis, periapical pathosis, and periapical infection. This case report illustrates the treatment of facial cellulitis arising from dens evaginatus with open apex. Calcium hydroxide was used for the apexification procedure. One year after canal obturation, radiography revealed no apical pathosis and the apical seal was evident.

  9. Foregut duplication cyst arising in the floor of mouth. (United States)

    Kong, Kelvin; Walker, Paul; Cassey, John; O'Callaghan, Stephen


    Enteric duplications are uncommon. A rare foregut duplication cyst arising in the floor of mouth is reported. Diagnosis of cystic lesion within the oral cavity was made in utero. Enteric duplications have not yet been attributed to a single embryogenesis but are likely to represent an error in migration of normal cells that rest in an abnormal position. Immediately following delivery of the neonate via an ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure, the cyst was marsupialised but required definitive surgical excision at 5 weeks of age.

  10. Local Nash equilibrium in social networks. (United States)

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M A; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong


    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures.

  11. Turing-Hopf instability in biochemical reaction networks arising from pairs of subnetworks. (United States)

    Mincheva, Maya; Roussel, Marc R


    Network conditions for Turing instability in biochemical systems with two biochemical species are well known and involve autocatalysis or self-activation. On the other hand general network conditions for potential Turing instabilities in large biochemical reaction networks are not well developed. A biochemical reaction network with any number of species where only one species moves is represented by a simple digraph and is modeled by a reaction-diffusion system with non-mass action kinetics. A graph-theoretic condition for potential Turing-Hopf instability that arises when a spatially homogeneous equilibrium loses its stability via a single pair of complex eigenvalues is obtained. This novel graph-theoretic condition is closely related to the negative cycle condition for oscillations in ordinary differential equation models and its generalizations, and requires the existence of a pair of subnetworks, each containing an even number of positive cycles. The technique is illustrated with a double-cycle Goodwin type model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mixed quantum-classical equilibrium: Surface hopping. (United States)

    Schmidt, J R; Parandekar, Priya V; Tully, John C


    We re-examine the analysis of the equilibrium limits of the fewest switches surface hopping algorithm for mixed quantum-classical dynamics. In contrast with previously reported results, we show that surface hopping does not, in general, exactly yield Boltzmann equilibrium, but that in practice the observed deviations are quite small. We also demonstrate that surface hopping does approach the exact equilibrium distribution in both the limits of small adiabatic splitting and/or strong nonadiabatic coupling. We verify these analytical results with numerical simulations for a simple two-level quantum system connected to a bath of classical particles.

  13. Binary systems from quantum cluster equilibrium theory. (United States)

    Brüssel, Marc; Perlt, Eva; Lehmann, Sebastian B C; von Domaros, Michael; Kirchner, Barbara


    An extension of the quantum cluster equilibrium theory to treat binary mixtures is introduced in this work. The necessary equations are derived and a possible implementation is presented. In addition an alternative sampling procedure using widely available experimental data for the quantum cluster equilibrium approach is suggested and tested. An illustrative example, namely, the binary mixture of water and dimethyl sulfoxide, is given to demonstrate the new approach. A basic cluster set is introduced containing the relevant cluster motifs. The populations computed by the quantum cluster equilibrium approach are compared to the experimental data. Furthermore, the excess Gibbs free energy is computed and compared to experiments as well.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar. (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A


    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  15. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma


    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  16. Trichoepithelioma Arising in an Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Suzuki


    Full Text Available Here, we report an extremely rare case of trichoepithelioma (TE—a benign epithelial tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle—arising in an ovarian mature cystic teratoma (MCT with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET findings. A 48-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital for her annual follow-up of adenomyosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left ovarian tumor with irregular-shaped septum, which was suspicious of malignancy. However, tumor marker levels were within normal range. On FDG-PET, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax of the tumor was 2.9. Laparotomy with left salpingooophorectomy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed the probability of TE, rather than basal cell carcinoma (BCC, arising in an ovarian MCT. After five years of follow-up, the patient had no sign of recurrence. The FDG-PET SUVmax was low in TE, as with other benign tumor. However, future investigation is needed to evaluate the findings of FDG-PET imaging in TE cases.

  17. Oscillations in biochemical reaction networks arising from pairs of subnetworks. (United States)

    Mincheva, Maya


    Biochemical reaction models show a variety of dynamical behaviors, such as stable steady states, multistability, and oscillations. Biochemical reaction networks with generalized mass action kinetics are represented as directed bipartite graphs with nodes for species and reactions. The bipartite graph of a biochemical reaction network usually contains at least one cycle, i.e., a sequence of nodes and directed edges which starts and ends at the same species node. Cycles can be positive or negative, and it has been shown that oscillations can arise as a result of either a positive cycle or a negative cycle. In earlier work it was shown that oscillations associated with a positive cycle can arise from subnetworks with an odd number of positive cycles. In this article we formulate a similar graph-theoretic condition, which generalizes the negative cycle condition for oscillations. This new graph-theoretic condition for oscillations involves pairs of subnetworks with an even number of positive cycles. An example of a calcium reaction network with generalized mass action kinetics is discussed in detail.

  18. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan


    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  19. An Aberrant Artery Arising From Common Hepatic Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha D. Jadhav


    Full Text Available Common hepatic artery is the branch of celiac trunk which is chief artery of the foregut. Branches of celiac trunk supply the gastrointestinal tract and its associated glands which are derived from foregut. Anatomy and variations of hepatic arterial system have become increasingly important due to increasing number of laparoscopic procedures, oncologic surgical interventions, and organ transplant cases. This case report describes a rare anatomical variation of an aberrant artery arising from common hepatic artery before the origin of gastroduodenal artery and proper hepatic artery.The aberrant artery traversed inferiorly and behind the body of the pancreas which divided into a right and left branches. The right branch ran behind the neck of the pancreas and it ended after giving few branches to head and body of pancreas. However, the left branch gave off branches to the proximal part of the jejunum. The presence of a branch arising directly from the common hepatic artery supplying the pancreas and jejunum is uncommon. Knowledge of such a rare variation is important not only for surgeons but also interventional radiologists and those studying anatomy

  20. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Miyake


    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.


    KAUST Repository

    WAKE, G. C.


    Nonlocal calculus is often overlooked in the mathematics curriculum. In this paper we present an interesting new class of nonlocal problems that arise from modelling the growth and division of cells, especially cancer cells, as they progress through the cell cycle. The cellular biomass is assumed to be unstructured in size or position, and its evolution governed by a time-dependent system of ordinary differential equations with multiple time delays. The system is linear and taken to be autonomous. As a result, it is possible to reduce its solution to that of a nonlinear matrix eigenvalue problem. This method is illustrated by considering case studies, including a model of the cell cycle developed recently by Simms, Bean and Koeber. The paper concludes by explaining how asymptotic expressions for the distribution of cells across the compartments can be determined and used to assess the impact of different chemotherapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Australian Mathematical Society.

  2. Classical and Quantum Models in Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Moment Methods and Long-Time Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Alvarez-Estrada


    Full Text Available We consider non-equilibrium open statistical systems, subject to potentials and to external “heat baths” (hb at thermal equilibrium at temperature T (either with ab initio dissipation or without it. Boltzmann’s classical equilibrium distributions generate, as Gaussian weight functions in momenta, orthogonal polynomials in momenta (the position-independent Hermite polynomialsHn’s. The moments of non-equilibrium classical distributions, implied by the Hn’s, fulfill a hierarchy: for long times, the lowest moment dominates the evolution towards thermal equilibrium, either with dissipation or without it (but under certain approximation. We revisit that hierarchy, whose solution depends on operator continued fractions. We review our generalization of that moment method to classical closed many-particle interacting systems with neither a hb nor ab initio dissipation: with initial states describing thermal equilibrium at T at large distances but non-equilibrium at finite distances, the moment method yields, approximately, irreversible thermalization of the whole system at T, for long times. Generalizations to non-equilibrium quantum interacting systems meet additional difficulties. Three of them are: (i equilibrium distributions (represented through Wigner functions are neither Gaussian in momenta nor known in closed form; (ii they may depend on dissipation; and (iii the orthogonal polynomials in momenta generated by them depend also on positions. We generalize the moment method, dealing with (i, (ii and (iii, to some non-equilibrium one-particle quantum interacting systems. Open problems are discussed briefly.

  3. A century of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (United States)

    Mayo, Oliver


    Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is the state of the genotypic frequency of two alleles of one autosomal gene locus after one discrete generation of random mating in an indefinitely large population: if the alleles are A and a with frequencies p and q(=1-p), then the equilibrium gene frequencies are simply p and q and the equilibrium genotypic frequencies for AA, Aa and aa are p2, 2pq and q2. It was independently identified in 1908 by G. H. Hardy and W. Weinberg after earlier attempts by W. E. Castle and K. Pearson. Weinberg, well known for pioneering studies of twins, made many important contributions to genetics, especially human genetics. Existence of this equilibrium provides a reference point against which the effects of selection, linkage, mutation, inbreeding and chance can be detected and estimated. Its discovery marked the initiation of population genetics.

  4. Equilibrium Molecular Interactions in Pure Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov


    Full Text Available The equilibrium molecular interactions in pure real gases are investigated based on the chemical thermodynamics principles. The parallels between clusters in real gases and chemical compounds in equilibrium media have been used to improve understanding of the real gas structure. A new approach to the equilibrium constants for the cluster fractions and new methods to compute them and their significant parameters from the experimental thermophysical data are developed. These methods have been applied to some real gases, such as Argon and Water vapors and gaseous Alkanes. It is shown that the four-particle clusters make a noticeable contribution in the thermophysical properties of the equilibrium Water vapor. It is shown also that the effective bond energy for dimers in Alkanes linearly grows with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

  5. Equilibrium Reconstruction on the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel A. Lazerson, D. Gates, D. Monticello, H. Neilson, N. Pomphrey, A. Reiman S. Sakakibara, and Y. Suzuki


    Equilibrium reconstruction is commonly applied to axisymmetric toroidal devices. Recent advances in computational power and equilibrium codes have allowed for reconstructions of three-dimensional fields in stellarators and heliotrons. We present the first reconstructions of finite beta discharges in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The plasma boundary and magnetic axis are constrained by the pressure profile from Thomson scattering. This results in a calculation of plasma beta without a-priori assumptions of the equipartition of energy between species. Saddle loop arrays place additional constraints on the equilibrium. These reconstruction utilize STELLOPT, which calls VMEC. The VMEC equilibrium code assumes good nested flux surfaces. Reconstructed magnetic fields are fed into the PIES code which relaxes this constraint allowing for the examination of the effect of islands and stochastic regions on the magnetic measurements.

  6. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we...

  7. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 678-678 ...

  8. Tanzania’s Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate


    Niko A Hobdari


    Tanzania's real effective exchange rate (REER) has depreciated sharply since end-2000, reversing the appreciation that took place in the second half of the 1990s. Single-country and panel data estimates, and the external sustainability approach, suggest that Tanzania's REER is currently modestly undervalued relative to its estimated equilibrium level. Looking forward, a modest trend appreciation of the equilibrium REER is expected, consistent with continued high GDP growth and an expected rec...

  9. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines


    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser, David


    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system ("working fluid") coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) called sometimes work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical m...

  10. The Cournot Equilibrium for n Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ioan


    Full Text Available Oligopoly is a market situation where there are a small number of bidders (at least two of a good non-substituent and a sufficient number of consumers. The paper analyses the Cournot equilibrium in both cases where each firm assumes the role of leadership and after when firms act simultaneously on market. There are obtained the equilibrium productions, maximum profits and sales price.

  11. Equilibrium gels of limited valence colloids


    Sciortino, Francesco; Zaccarelli, Emanuela


    Gels are low-packing arrested states of matter which are able to support stress. On cooling, limited valence colloidal particles form open networks stabilized by the progressive increase of the interparticle bond lifetime. These gels, named equilibrium gels, are the focus of this review article. Differently from other types of colloidal gels, equilibrium gels do not require an underlying phase separation to form. Oppositely, they form in a region of densities deprived of thermodynamic instabi...

  12. Thermodynamics and fluctuations far from equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, John


    This book deals with the formulation of the thermodynamics of chemical and other systems far from equilibrium, including connections to fluctuations. It contains applications to non-equilibrium stationary states and approaches to such states, systems with multiple stationary states, stability and equi-stability conditions, reaction diffusion systems, transport properties, and electrochemical systems. The theoretical treatment is complemented by experimental results to substantiate the formulation. Dissipation and efficiency are analyzed in autonomous and externally forced reactions, including several biochemical systems.

  13. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.


    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....

  14. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.


    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  15. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche. (United States)

    Nicenboim, J; Malkinson, G; Lupo, T; Asaf, L; Sela, Y; Mayseless, O; Gibbs-Bar, L; Senderovich, N; Hashimshony, T; Shin, M; Jerafi-Vider, A; Avraham-Davidi, I; Krupalnik, V; Hofi, R; Almog, G; Astin, J W; Golani, O; Ben-Dor, S; Crosier, P S; Herzog, W; Lawson, N D; Hanna, J H; Yanai, I; Yaniv, K


    How cells acquire their fate is a fundamental question in developmental and regenerative biology. Multipotent progenitors undergo cell-fate restriction in response to cues from the microenvironment, the nature of which is poorly understood. In the case of the lymphatic system, venous cells from the cardinal vein are thought to generate lymphatic vessels through trans-differentiation. Here we show that in zebrafish, lymphatic progenitors arise from a previously uncharacterized niche of specialized angioblasts within the cardinal vein, which also generates arterial and venous fates. We further identify Wnt5b as a novel lymphatic inductive signal and show that it also promotes the ‘angioblast-to-lymphatic’ transition in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this process is evolutionarily conserved. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of lymphatic specification, and provide the first characterization of the lymphatic inductive niche. More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor.

  16. Oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around osseointegrated dental implants. (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Askar, Mansour; Qayyum, Faisal; Wang, Hom-Lay; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid


    This literature review investigates the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) around osseointegrated dental implants (DI). Databases were searched from 1989 up to and including November 2011. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) original studies, (2) clinical studies and case reports, (3) reference lists of the relevant original and review articles, (4) intervention: occurrence of OSSC around osseointegrated DI, and (5) articles published only in English language. Fourteen studies were included. In nine studies, the dental implant patients with diagnosed OSCC had previously been exposed to cancer. In five studies, the patients presented with a history of habitual tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. OSCC is more likely to arise around osseointegrated DI in patients with a previous history of cancer. However, the role of other factors including tobacco and alcohol usage cannot be disregarded.

  17. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach


    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  18. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness]. (United States)

    Ito, Y


    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  19. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission (United States)

    Rasor, Ned S.


    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  20. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)


    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  1. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels. (United States)

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios


    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Renormalisation of out-of-equilibrium quantum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsanyi, Sz. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Reinosa, U. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91198, Palaiseau (France)


    We consider the initial value problem and its renormalisation in the framework of the two-particle-irreducible (2PI) effective action. We argue that in the case of appropriately chosen self-consistent initial conditions, the counterterms needed to renormalise the system in equilibrium are also sufficient to renormalise its time evolution. In this way we improve on Gaussian initial conditions which have the disadvantage of generically not showing a continuum limit. For a more detailed discussion see [Sz. Borsanyi and U. Reinosa, (arXiv:0809.0496)].

  3. Quantum relativistic fluid at global thermodynamic equilibrium in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Becattini, F


    We present a new approach to the problem of the thermodynamical equilibrium of a quantum relativistic fluid in a curved spacetime in the limit of small curvature. We calculate the mean value of local operators by expanding the four-temperature Killing vector field in Riemann normal coordinates about the same spacetime point and we derive corrections with respect to the flat spacetime expressions. Thereby, we clarify the origin of the terms proportional to Riemann and Ricci tensors introduced in general hydrodynamic expansion of the stress-energy tensor.

  4. Analysis of Ineffectiveness Arising in “Investor-government” Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dmytro B. Sokolovskyi; Olena V. Sokolovska


    Purpose: This article deals with the problem of forming Pareto non-optimal norms of mutual behavior of investors and government in the process of decision-making related to financing designed to reduce risks...

  5. Environmental-Economic Modelling of Novel Protein Foods: A General Equilibrium Approach


    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin


    Keywords: General equilibrium modelling, Welfare programs, Non-convexities, Novel Protein Foods, Environmental life cycle assessment.Intensive animal production systems inEurope, particularly in theNetherlands, result in a series of environmental problems mainly due to manure surplus. This thesis aims to make contributions to identifying solutions to the problems related to protein production and consumption.The first contribution concerns the theoretical modelling of environmental problems. ...

  6. Optimal response to non-equilibrium disturbances under truncated Burgers-Hopf dynamics (United States)

    Thalabard, Simon; Turkington, Bruce


    We model and compute the average response of truncated Burgers-Hopf dynamics to finite perturbations away from the Gibbs equipartition energy spectrum using a dynamical optimization framework recently conceptualized in a series of papers. Non-equilibrium averages are there approximated in terms of geodesic paths in probability space that ‘best-fit’ the Liouvillean dynamics over a family of quasi-equilibrium trial densities. By recasting the geodesic principle as an optimal control problem, we solve numerically for the non-equilibrium responses using an augmented Lagrangian, non-linear conjugate gradient descent method. For moderate perturbations, we find an excellent agreement between the optimal predictions and the direct numerical simulations of the truncated Burgers-Hopf dynamics. In this near-equilibrium regime, we argue that the optimal response theory provides an approximate yet predictive counterpart to fluctuation-dissipation identities.

  7. Subspace Methods for Eigenvalue Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik


    This thesis treats a number of aspects of subspace methods for various eigenvalue problems. Vibrations and their corresponding eigenvalues (or frequencies) arise in science, engineering, and daily life. Matrix eigenvalue problems come from a large number of areas, such as chemistry,

  8. Quadratic minimisation problems in statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, C. J.; Critchley, F.; Gower, J. C.

    We consider the problem min(x)(x - t)'A(x - t) subject to x'Bx + 2b'x = k where A is positive definite or positive semi-definite. Variants of this problem are discussed within the framework of a general unifying methodology. These include non-trivial considerations that arise when (i) A and/or B are

  9. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.


    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  10. The Problems of Diagnosis and Remediation of Dyscalculia. (United States)

    Price, Nigel; Youe, Simon


    Focuses on the problems of diagnosis and remediation of dyscalculia. Explores whether there is justification for believing that specific difficulty with mathematics arises jointly with a specific language problem, or whether a specific difficulty with mathematics can arise independently of problems with language. Uses a case study to illuminate…

  11. Analytical Treatment and Convergence of the Adomian Decomposition Method for Instability Phenomena Arising during Oil Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakanta Meher


    Full Text Available An abstract result is proved for the convergence of Adomian decomposition method for partial differential equations that model porous medium equation. Moreover, we prove that this decomposition scheme applied to a porous medium equation arising in instability phenomena in double phase flow through porous media is convergent in a suitable Hilbert space. Furthermore, this technique is utilized to find closed-form solutions for the problem under consideration.

  12. An ADER-type scheme for a class of equations arising from the water-wave theory


    Montecinos G.I.; López-Rios J.C.; Lecaros R.; Ortega J.H.; Toro E.F.


    In this work we propose a numerical strategy to solve a family of partial differential equations arising from the water-wave theory. These problems may contain four terms; a source which is an algebraic function of the solution, a convective part involving first order spatial derivatives of the solution, a diffusive part involving second order spatial derivatives and the transient part. Unlike partial differential equations of hyperbolic or parabolic type, where the transient part is the time...

  13. Unicentric Castleman's Disease Arising from an Intrapulmonary Lymph Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ota


    Full Text Available Castleman's disease is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, most often involving the mediastinum. It has 2 distinct clinical forms: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric Castleman's disease arising from an intrapulmonary lymph node is rare, and establishing a preoperative diagnosis of this disease is very difficult mainly due to a lack of specific imaging features. We report a case of intrapulmonary unicentric Castleman's disease in an asymptomatic 19-year-old male patient who was accurately diagnosed by preoperative computed tomography (CT. The mass was incidentally found on a routine chest X-ray. A subsequent dynamic CT showed a well-defined, hypervascular, soft-tissue mass with small calcifications located in the perihilar area of the right lower lung. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT angiography indicated that the mass was receiving its blood supply through a vascular network at its surface that originated from 2 right bronchial arteries. The clinical history and CT findings were consistent with a diagnosis of unicentric Castleman's disease, and we safely and successfully removed the tumor via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy. This case shows that the imaging characteristics of these rare tumors on contrast-enhanced CT combined with 3D-CT angiography can be helpful in reliably establishing a correct preoperative diagnosis.

  14. Massive odontoameloblastoma arising in the maxilla: a case report. (United States)

    Kudoh, Masanori; Harada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuriko; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa


    Odontoameloblastoma is an extremely rare mixed odontogenic tumor with both epithelial and mesenchymal components. The term odontoameloblastoma first appeared in the 1971 World Health Organization classification (Pindborg JJ., et al.) and is defined as "a neoplasm that includes odontogenic ectomesenchyme in addition to odontogenic epithelium that resembles an ameloblastoma in both structures and behavior." Because of the aggressive nature and risk of recurrence of the tumor, complete resection is essential. In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of a patient with massive odontoameloblastoma arising in the maxilla and occupying maxillary sinus. In 2013, an 11-year-old Japanese boy was referred to our department for a painless and large mass of the right maxillary region. A panoramic X-ray showed a unilocular cystic lesion in the right maxilla containing a calcified mass in the lesion associated with an impacted tooth. Computed tomography showed a cystic lesion that included calcified structures and measured 3.6×3.1×2.7 cm. In 2013, the patient underwent tumor extirpation combined with impacted tooth extraction. The histopathological diagnosis was an odontoameloblastoma. No recurrence was noted 27 months after the operation. The patient has undergone postoperative occlusal guidance and functional orthodontic treatment, and his postoperative condition is excellent. However, postoperative recurrence or malignant transformation can occur in cases of odontoameloblastoma, and close long-term follow-up will be continued for our patient.

  15. Metabolic network modularity arising from simple growth processes. (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro


    Metabolic networks consist of linked functional components, or modules. The mechanism underlying metabolic network modularity is of great interest not only to researchers of basic science but also to those in fields of engineering. Previous studies have suggested a theoretical model, which proposes that a change in the evolutionary goal (system-specific purpose) increases network modularity, and this hypothesis was supported by statistical data analysis. Nevertheless, further investigation has uncovered additional possibilities that might explain the origin of network modularity. In this work we propose an evolving network model without tuning parameters to describe metabolic networks. We demonstrate, quantitatively, that metabolic network modularity can arise from simple growth processes, independent of the change in the evolutionary goal. Our model is applicable to a wide range of organisms and appears to suggest that metabolic network modularity can be more simply determined than previously thought. Nonetheless, our proposition does not serve to contradict the previous model; it strives to provide an insight from a different angle in the ongoing efforts to understand metabolic evolution, with the hope of eventually achieving the synthetic engineering of metabolic networks.

  16. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report. (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang


    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

  17. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Arising from Barrett's Epithelium in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Tu


    Full Text Available The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE in Eastern countries is rising to match the prevalence in the West. However, a corresponding trend of BE-associated adenocarcinoma has yet to be observed in Asia. Historically, adenocarcinoma complicating BE has been considered a rare event in Taiwan. In the present report, we collected three Taiwanese cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma arising from BE. The first case was a 37-year-old man with an advanced cancer that developed on pre-existing BE after a 3-year interval without endoscopic surveillance. The second case was a 63-year-old man who presented with odynophagia and was found to have an ulcerative tumor centered on the characteristic Barrett's mucosa. The final case was a 44-year-old man who presented with gradual-onset dysphagia and weight loss, without typical reflux symptom. Our report emphasizes the need for an updated epidemiologic study to determine the incidence of BE-associated adenocarcinoma in Taiwan.

  18. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.


    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  19. Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project (United States)

    Blanc, Elisabeth


    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The project impact also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will focus on the first results obtained using three technologies during specific events as stratospheric warming, volcanic eruptions and severe weather. The benefits of using the three technologies will be discussed.

  20. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice. (United States)

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M


    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.

  1. A case of cystadenoma arising in the upper lip. (United States)

    Onda, Takeshi; Hayashi, Kamichika; Takano, Nobuo; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Shibahara, Takahiko


    Cystadenoma, a common benign tumor derived from glandular tissue, generally occurs in the appendix, ovaries, kidney, or pancreas. While rare in the oral and maxillofacial region, they do sometimes occur in the parotid or minor salivary glands. We report a case of cystadenoma arising in the upper lip region. The patient was a 37-year-old woman referred to our hospital with a painless mass on the left upper lip initially found during treatment at a local dental clinic. The medical history was non-contributory. The 7×5-mm mass was well-defined, elastic, and flexible. The surface of the mucosa appeared healthy. The mass was clinically diagnosed as a benign tumor of the left upper lip. Because the tumor was painless and slow-growing, and magnetic resonance imaging suggested that it was benign, resection was performed under local anesthesia without biopsy. Histopathologically, cystadenoma was diagnosed. No signs of recurrence or metastasis have been seen as of 24 months postoperatively and the progress of the patient has been satisfactory.

  2. Metaplastic Carcinoma with Chondroid Differentiation Arising in Microglandular Adenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Eon Kim


    Full Text Available Microglandular adenosis (MGA of the breast is a rare, benign proliferative lesion but with a significant rate of associated carcinoma. Herein, we report an unusual case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation associated with typical MGA. Histologically, MGA showed a direct transition to metaplastic carcinoma without an intervening atypical MGA or ductal carcinoma in situ component. The immunohistochemical profile of the metaplastic carcinoma was mostly similar to that of MGA. In both areas, all the epithelial cells were positive for S-100 protein, but negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2/neu, and epidermal growth factor receptor. An increase in the Ki-67 and p53 labelling index was observed from MGA to invasive carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation arising in MGA in Korea. This case supports the hypothesis that a subset of MGA may be a non-obligate morphologic precursor of breast carcinoma, especially the triple-negative subtype.

  3. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo. (United States)

    Philips, Rebecca C; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E; Wilkerson, Michael G


    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic folliculitis. Acid-fast bacilli culture identified Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. The patient was treated with a 2-month course of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily), with clinical improvement at follow up after three weeks of the antibiotic regimen. Rapidly growing mycobacteria have emerged as a cause of tattoo-associated cutaneous infection in recent years. Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult without clinical suspicion. M. fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tattoo-associated dermatologic complications.

  4. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  5. Primary Extraskeletal Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma Arising from the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Bae Geun; Han, Yoon Hee; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Su Young; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Seo, Jung Wook; Kim, Yong Hoon; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham; Joo, Mee [Inje University, School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    The CT scans showed a heterogeneously enhancing necrotic mass with numerous areas of coarse calcification, and this was located in the left side of the retroperitoneal space and involved the body and tail of the pancreas. Portal venography via the celiac axis also showed invasion of the splenic vein. It represents approximately 1% of all chondrosarcomas and it carries a poor prognosis. It can occur in extraskeletal locations and mainly in the soft tissues of the orbit, the cranial and spinal meningeal coverings and the lower limbs. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the pancreas. Only two instances of metastatic chondrosarcomas in the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report here on a case of primary mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from the pancreas in a 41-year-old man. In summary, we present here a case of primary extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma that arose from the pancreas. Radiologically, it manifested as a necrotic soft tissue mass with chondroid calcifications.

  6. Sparse gamma rhythms arising through clustering in adapting neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Kilpatrick


    Full Text Available Gamma rhythms (30-100 Hz are an extensively studied synchronous brain state responsible for a number of sensory, memory, and motor processes. Experimental evidence suggests that fast-spiking interneurons are responsible for carrying the high frequency components of the rhythm, while regular-spiking pyramidal neurons fire sparsely. We propose that a combination of spike frequency adaptation and global inhibition may be responsible for this behavior. Excitatory neurons form several clusters that fire every few cycles of the fast oscillation. This is first shown in a detailed biophysical network model and then analyzed thoroughly in an idealized model. We exploit the fact that the timescale of adaptation is much slower than that of the other variables. Singular perturbation theory is used to derive an approximate periodic solution for a single spiking unit. This is then used to predict the relationship between the number of clusters arising spontaneously in the network as it relates to the adaptation time constant. We compare this to a complementary analysis that employs a weak coupling assumption to predict the first Fourier mode to destabilize from the incoherent state of an associated phase model as the external noise is reduced. Both approaches predict the same scaling of cluster number with respect to the adaptation time constant, which is corroborated in numerical simulations of the full system. Thus, we develop several testable predictions regarding the formation and characteristics of gamma rhythms with sparsely firing excitatory neurons.

  7. Hidden geometries in networks arising from cooperative self-assembly. (United States)

    Šuvakov, Milovan; Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka


    Multilevel self-assembly involving small structured groups of nano-particles provides new routes to development of functional materials with a sophisticated architecture. Apart from the inter-particle forces, the geometrical shapes and compatibility of the building blocks are decisive factors. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of these processes is essential for the design of assemblies of desired properties. Here, we introduce a computational model for cooperative self-assembly with the simultaneous attachment of structured groups of particles, which can be described by simplexes (connected pairs, triangles, tetrahedrons and higher order cliques) to a growing network. The model incorporates geometric rules that provide suitable nesting spaces for the new group and the chemical affinity of the system to accept excess particles. For varying chemical affinity, we grow different classes of assemblies by binding the cliques of distributed sizes. Furthermore, we characterize the emergent structures by metrics of graph theory and algebraic topology of graphs, and 4-point test for the intrinsic hyperbolicity of the networks. Our results show that higher Q-connectedness of the appearing simplicial complexes can arise due to only geometric factors and that it can be efficiently modulated by changing the chemical potential and the polydispersity of the binding simplexes.

  8. Ovarian Endometrioid Borderline Tumor Arising From an Endometriotic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzlinda Hussin


    Full Text Available Endometrioid borderline tumor of the ovary is defined as a solid or cystic tumor composed of crowded glands lined by atypical endometrioid type cells and lacking destructive stromal invasion and/or confluent glandular growth. In the literature, it was reported to comprise 2-19% of endometrioid tumors and 2-10% of all borderline tumors. The prognosis for ovarian endometrioid borderline tumor is excellent including that with features of intraepithelial carcinoma or microinvasion. Recurrences and metastases are extremely rare. A 34 years old Chinese lady presented with vaginal bleeding for many months. Intraoperatively, an intact right ovarian tumor measuring 55×10×10 mm was found. Cut sectioned showed a unilocular cyst with hemorrhagic fluid content and a solid tan nodule of 15 mm in diameter was found within the wall. Microscopically, the cystic ovarian tumor showed features of the endometriotic cyst and the solid nodule arising from the cyst wall showed an adenofibromatous pattern of an endometrioid borderline tumor. She also presented with disseminated endometriosis in the omentum and pelvic peritoneum. This kind of case was rarely reported for clinical reference especially on the macroscopic and microscopic features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 58-59

  9. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry. (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter


    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  10. Computing stationary distributions in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems with Forward Flux Sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeriani, C.; Allen, R.J.; Morelli, M.J.; Frenkel, D.; ten Wolde, P.R.


    We present a method for computing stationary distributions for activated processes in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems using Forward Flux Sampling (FFS). In this method, the stationary distributions are obtained directly from the rate constant calculations for the forward and backward

  11. Equilibrium and pre-equilibrium calculations of cross-sections of (p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equilibrium and pre-equilibrium calculations of cross-sections of (, ) reactions on 89Y, 90Zr and 94Mo targets used for the production of 89Zr, 90Nb and 94Tc ... Bülent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak, Turkey; Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Osmaniye, Turkey ...

  12. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    simulator, which was then used to assess the impact of the capillary pressure on phase behavior in oil and gas production from tight reservoirs. Since capillary pressure and adsorption occur simultaneously in shale, its combined effect was studied. A model comparison for high-pressure adsorption in shale...... is presented. The adsorption data in shale is generally scarce, therefore, additional capabilities besides the accuracy were considered in the comparison. The multicomponent potential theory of adsorption yields the best results. Moreover, it shows to be useful to extrapolate adsorption data for hydrocarbons...... calculation tools for phase equilibrium in porous media with capillary pressure and adsorption effects. Analysis using these tools have shown that capillary pressure and adsorption have non-negligible effects on phase equilibrium in shale. As general tools, they can be used to calculate phase equilibrium...

  13. Module description of TOKAMAK equilibrium code MEUDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masaei; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Ozeki, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment


    The analysis of an axisymmetric MHD equilibrium serves as a foundation of TOKAMAK researches, such as a design of devices and theoretical research, the analysis of experiment result. For this reason, also in JAERI, an efficient MHD analysis code has been developed from start of TOKAMAK research. The free boundary equilibrium code ''MEUDAS'' which uses both the DCR method (Double-Cyclic-Reduction Method) and a Green's function can specify the pressure and the current distribution arbitrarily, and has been applied to the analysis of a broad physical subject as a code having rapidity and high precision. Also the MHD convergence calculation technique in ''MEUDAS'' has been built into various newly developed codes. This report explains in detail each module in ''MEUDAS'' for performing convergence calculation in solving the MHD equilibrium. (author)

  14. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David


    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.

  15. Communication: Microphase equilibrium and assembly dynamics (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Charbonneau, Patrick


    Despite many attempts, ordered equilibrium microphases have yet to be obtained in experimental colloidal suspensions. The recent computation of the equilibrium phase diagram of a microscopic, particle-based microphase former [Zhuang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 098301 (2016)] has nonetheless found such mesoscale assemblies to be thermodynamically stable. Here, we consider their equilibrium and assembly dynamics. At intermediate densities above the order-disorder transition, we identify four different dynamical regimes and the structural changes that underlie the dynamical crossovers from one disordered regime to the next. Below the order-disorder transition, we also find that periodic lamellae are the most dynamically accessible of the periodic microphases. Our analysis thus offers a comprehensive view of the dynamics of disordered microphases and a route to the assembly of periodic microphases in a putative well-controlled, experimental system.

  16. Interfaces at equilibrium: A guide to fundamentals. (United States)

    Marmur, Abraham


    The fundamentals of the thermodynamics of interfaces are reviewed and concisely presented. The discussion starts with a short review of the elements of bulk thermodynamics that are also relevant to interfaces. It continues with the interfacial thermodynamics of two-phase systems, including the definition of interfacial tension and adsorption. Finally, the interfacial thermodynamics of three-phase (wetting) systems is discussed, including the topic of non-wettable surfaces. A clear distinction is made between equilibrium conditions, in terms of minimizing energies (internal, Gibbs or Helmholtz), and equilibrium indicators, in terms of measurable, intrinsic properties (temperature, chemical potential, pressure). It is emphasized that the equilibrium indicators are the same whatever energy is minimized, if the boundary conditions are properly chosen. Also, to avoid a common confusion, a distinction is made between systems of constant volume and systems with drops of constant volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar


    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond......This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....

  18. Transmission expansion in an oligopoly considering generation investment equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, S. Saeid; Kazempour, Jalal; Seyedshenava, Seyedjalal


    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a sophisticated decision-making problem, especially in an oligopolistic electricity market in which a number of strategic (price-maker) producers compete together. A transmission system planner, who is in charge of making TEP decisions, requires considering...... the future generation investment actions. However, in such an oligopolistic market, each producer makes its own strategic generation investment decisions. This motivates the transmission system planner to consider the generation investment decision-making problem of all producers within its TEP model....... This paper proposes a tri-level TEP decision-making model to be solved by the transmission system planner, whose objective is to maximize the social welfare of the market minus the expansion costs, and whose constraints are the transmission expansion limits as well as the generation investment equilibrium...

  19. 46 CFR 42.20-12 - Conditions of equilibrium. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions of equilibrium. 42.20-12 Section 42.20-12... BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-12 Conditions of equilibrium. The following conditions of equilibrium are... stability. Through an angle of 20 degrees beyond its position of equilibrium, the vessel must meet the...

  20. Statistical equilibrium equations for trace elements in stellar atmospheres


    Kubat, Jiri


    The conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and statistical equilibrium are discussed in detail. The equations of statistical equilibrium and the supplementary equations are shown together with the expressions for radiative and collisional rates with the emphasize on the solution for trace elements.

  1. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  2. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  3. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  4. Case report 343: Neurofibroma arising in sympathetic ganglion with probable associated spinal neuroarthopathy (presumptive diagnosis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Jones, H.


    In summary, the case of a 50-year-old man with a past medical history of neurofibromatosis is presented. The patient had developed the symptoms and signs of a neurological disorder, which radiologically was localized to the L1-L2 area. Infective spondylitis was simulated, but at surgery a neurofibroma arising from the sympathetic ganglion near L1-L2 was discovered. The clinical, radiological and pathological findings were considered compatible with spinal neuroarthropathy, which has not been reported previously in neurofibromatosis. Due to inherent problems of sampling, associated with a surgical biopsy, the involvement of the L1-L2 are by neurofibromatous tissue without associated Charcot arthropathy cannot be excluded in this case as a tenable diagnosis and indeed the radiological features are consistent with such a diagnosis. (orig./SHA).

  5. Particle Sorting and Motility Out of Equilibrium (United States)

    Sandford, Cato

    The theory of equilibrium statistical physics, formulated over a century ago, provides an excellent description of physical systems which have reached a static, relaxed state. Such systems can be loosely thought of as maximally disordered, in keeping with the Second Law of Thermodynamics which states that a thermal system in equilibrium has reached a state of highest entropy. However, many entities in the world around us maintain themselves in an remarkably ordered and dynamic state, and must pay for this by producing entropy in their surroundings. Organisms, for example, convert chemical energy (food) into heat, which is then dumped into the environment, raising its entropy. Systems which produce entropy through any mechanism must be described by theories of non-equilibrium statistical physics, for which there currently exists no unified framework or ontology. Here we examine two specific cases of non-equilibrium phenomena from a theoretical perspective. First, we explore the behaviour of microscopic particles which continually dissipate energy to propel themselves through their environment. Second, we consider how devices which distinguish between different types of particles can exploit non-equilibrium processes to enhance their performance. For the case of self-propelled particles, we consider a theoretical model where the particle's propulsion force has "memory"--it is a random process whose instantaneous value depends on its past evolution. This introduces a persistence in the particle's motion, and requires the dissipation of energy into its surroundings. These particles are found to exhibit a variety of behaviours forbidden in equilibrium systems: for instance they may cluster around barriers, exert unbalanced forces, and sustain steady flows through space. We develop the understanding of these particles' dynamics through a combination of explicit calculations, approximations and numerical simulation which characterise and quantify their non-equilibrium

  6. Putting A Human Face on Equilibrium (United States)

    Glickstein, Neil


    A short biography of chemist Fritz Haber is used to personalize the abstract concepts of equilibrium chemistry for high school students in an introductory course. In addition to giving the Haber Bosch process an historic, an economic, and a scientific background the reading and subsequent discussion allows students for whom the human perspective is of paramount importance a chance to investigate the irony of balance or equilibrium in Haber's life story. Since the inclusion of the Haber biography, performance in the laboratory and on examinations for those students who are usually only partially engaged has dramatically improved.

  7. Entropy and equilibrium via games of complexity (United States)

    Topsøe, Flemming


    It is suggested that thermodynamical equilibrium equals game theoretical equilibrium. Aspects of this thesis are discussed. The philosophy is consistent with maximum entropy thinking of Jaynes, but goes one step deeper by deriving the maximum entropy principle from an underlying game theoretical principle. The games introduced are based on measures of complexity. Entropy is viewed as minimal complexity. It is demonstrated that Tsallis entropy ( q-entropy) and Kaniadakis entropy ( κ-entropy) can be obtained in this way, based on suitable complexity measures. A certain unifying effect is obtained by embedding these measures in a two-parameter family of entropy functions.

  8. Ear Problems (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  9. Movement timing and invariance arise from several geometries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bennequin


    Full Text Available Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle, instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law, and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality. No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops. Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility

  10. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik


    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  11. Obesity, the endocannabinoid system, and bias arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M McPartland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME; analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed.

  12. Movement Timing and Invariance Arise from Several Geometries (United States)

    Bennequin, Daniel; Fuchs, Ronit; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar


    Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle), instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law), and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality). No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops). Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility that the brain

  13. Dracunculiasis eradication--finishing the job before surprises arise. (United States)

    Visser, Benjamin Jelle


    Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-Saharan African countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a 25-year old campaign to rid the world of Guinea Worm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries. During the 19th and 20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much of Southern Asia and the African continent. The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by ≥99%, from the 3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in 1986 in Africa to only 1,797 cases reported in 2010 reported in only five countries (Sudan, Mali, Ethiopia, Chad and Ghana) and Asia free of the disease. This achievement is unique in its kind--the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible--and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs. Most efforts need to be taken in two countries, South Sudan (comprising 94% or 1,698 out of 1,797 of the cases reported world-wide in 2010) and Mali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outside Mali's borders. All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy. Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-equilibrium condensation of supercritical carbon dioxide in a converging-diverging nozzle (United States)

    Ameli, Alireza; Afzalifar, Ali; Turunen-Saaresti, Teemu


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising alternative as a working fluid for future energy conversion and refrigeration cycles. CO2 has low global warming potential compared to refrigerants and supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle ought to have better efficiency than today’s counter parts. However, there are several issues concerning behaviour of supercritical CO2 in aforementioned applications. One of these issues arises due to non-equilibrium condensation of CO2 for some operating conditions in supercritical compressors. This paper investigates the non-equilibrium condensation of carbon dioxide in the course of an expansion from supercritical stagnation conditions in a converging-diverging nozzle. An external look-up table was implemented, using an in-house FORTRAN code, to calculate the fluid properties in supercritical, metastable and saturated regions. This look-up table is coupled with the flow solver and the non-equilibrium condensation model is introduced to the solver using user defined expressions. Numerical results are compared with the experimental measurements. In agreement with the experiment, the distribution of Mach number in the nozzle shows that the flow becomes supersonic in upstream region near the throat where speed of sound is minimum also the equilibrium reestablishment occurs at the outlet boundary condition.

  15. Far-from-equilibrium sheared colloidal liquids: Disentangling relaxation, advection, and shear-induced diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Neil Y. C.


    Using high-speed confocal microscopy, we measure the particle positions in a colloidal suspension under large-amplitude oscillatory shear. Using the particle positions, we quantify the in situ anisotropy of the pair-correlation function, a measure of the Brownian stress. From these data we find two distinct types of responses as the system crosses over from equilibrium to far-from-equilibrium states. The first is a nonlinear amplitude saturation that arises from shear-induced advection, while the second is a linear frequency saturation due to competition between suspension relaxation and shear rate. In spite of their different underlying mechanisms, we show that all the data can be scaled onto a master curve that spans the equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium regimes, linking small-amplitude oscillatory to continuous shear. This observation illustrates a colloidal analog of the Cox-Merz rule and its microscopic underpinning. Brownian dynamics simulations show that interparticle interactions are sufficient for generating both experimentally observed saturations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  16. The efficiency of driving chemical reactions by a physical non-equilibrium is kinetically controlled. (United States)

    Göppel, Tobias; Palyulin, Vladimir V; Gerland, Ulrich


    An out-of-equilibrium physical environment can drive chemical reactions into thermodynamically unfavorable regimes. Under prebiotic conditions such a coupling between physical and chemical non-equilibria may have enabled the spontaneous emergence of primitive evolutionary processes. Here, we study the coupling efficiency within a theoretical model that is inspired by recent laboratory experiments, but focuses on generic effects arising whenever reactant and product molecules have different transport coefficients in a flow-through system. In our model, the physical non-equilibrium is represented by a drift-diffusion process, which is a valid coarse-grained description for the interplay between thermophoresis and convection, as well as for many other molecular transport processes. As a simple chemical reaction, we consider a reversible dimerization process, which is coupled to the transport process by different drift velocities for monomers and dimers. Within this minimal model, the coupling efficiency between the non-equilibrium transport process and the chemical reaction can be analyzed in all parameter regimes. The analysis shows that the efficiency depends strongly on the Damköhler number, a parameter that measures the relative timescales associated with the transport and reaction kinetics. Our model and results will be useful for a better understanding of the conditions for which non-equilibrium environments can provide a significant driving force for chemical reactions in a prebiotic setting.

  17. Shock Wave Solutions for Some Nonlinear Flow Models Arising in the Study of a Non-Newtonian Third Grade Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Aziz


    Full Text Available This study is based upon constructing a new class of closed-form shock wave solutions for some nonlinear problems arising in the study of a third grade fluid model. The Lie symmetry reduction technique has been employed to reduce the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are then solved analytically, and the shock wave solutions are constructed. The conditions on the physical parameters of the flow problems also fall out naturally in the process of the derivation of the solutions.

  18. A globally convergent matrix-free algorithm for implicit time-marching schemes arising in finite element analysis in fluids (United States)

    Johan, Zdenek; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Shakib, Farzin


    A solution procedure for solving nonlinear time-marching problems is presented. The nonsymmetric systems of equations arising from a Newton-type linearization of these time-marching problems are solved using an iterative strategy based on the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) algorithm. Matrix-free techniques leading to reduction in storage are presented. Incorporation of a linesearch algorithm in the Newton-GMRES scheme is discussed. An automatic time-increment control strategy is developed to increase the stability of the time-marching process. High-speed flow computations demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms.

  19. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander


    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Optimal control of multiplicative control systems arising from cancer therapy (United States)

    Bahrami, K.; Kim, M.


    This study deals with ways of curtailing the rapid growth of cancer cell populations. The performance functional that measures the size of the population at the terminal time as well as the control effort is devised. With use of the discrete maximum principle, the Hamiltonian for this problem is determined and the condition for optimal solutions are developed. The optimal strategy is shown to be a bang-bang control. It is shown that the optimal control for this problem must be on the vertices of an N-dimensional cube contained in the N-dimensional Euclidean space. An algorithm for obtaining a local minimum of the performance function in an orderly fashion is developed. Application of the algorithm to the design of antitumor drug and X-irradiation schedule is discussed.

  1. The contribution of several Nobel Laureates in the development of the Theory of general economic equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi


    Full Text Available Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by John R. Hicks (1939, Kenneth J.Arrow (1951 and Gerard Debreu (1954 and second frames of general equilibrium belongs to Paul A. Samuelson (1958. To highlight the contributions of these Nobel laureates in the development of the theory of general equilibrium have been selected and are presented in the paper some views, estimates and assumptions that have contributed not only in solving concrete problems, but also to the development of economic science in general. Their works represent a synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects of treatment of general equilibrium which are the starting point for further research in this field.

  2. On the Existence of Evolutionary Learning Equilibriums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masudul Alam Choudhury


    Full Text Available The usual kinds of Fixed-Point Theorems formalized on the existence of competitive equilibrium that explain much of economic theory at the core of economics can operate only on bounded and closed sets with convex mappings. But these conditions are hardly true of the real world of economic and financial complexities and perturbations. The category of learning sets explained by continuous fields of interactive, integrative and evolutionary behaviour caused by dynamic preferences at the individual and institutional and social levels cannot maintain the assumption of closed, bounded and convex sets. Thus learning sets and multi-system inter-temporal relations explained by pervasive complementarities and  participation between variables and entities, and evolution by learning, have evolutionary equilibriums. Such a study requires a new methodological approach. This paper formalizes such a methodology for evolutionary equilibriums in learning spaces. It briefly points out the universality of learning equilibriums in all mathematical structures. For a particular case though, the inter-systemic interdependence between sustainable development and ethics and economics in the specific understanding of learning domain is pointed out.

  3. Chronic dehydration affects hydroelectrolytic equilibrium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic dehydration affects hydroelectrolytic equilibrium and adrenal gland morphology in wistar rat: comparison with Gerbillus tarabuli. ... given free access to tap water); ii) dehydrated rats (n=8) given 2% NaCl solution ad libitum for 7 days and (iii) G.tarabuli (n=6) given barely seeds ad libitum without access to water.

  4. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bikkin, Halid


    This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.

  5. Considerations on the genetic equilibrium law


    Camosso, Simone


    In the first part of the paper I will present a brief review on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and its formulation in projective algebraic geometry. In the second and last part I will discuss examples and generalizations on the topic.

  6. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew


    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics…

  7. Equilibrium-torus bifurcation in nonsmooth systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubahyev, Z.T.; Mosekilde, Erik


    in the phase space. The disappearance of the equilibrium point is accompanied by the soft appearance of an unstable focus period-1 orbit surrounded by a resonant or ergodic torus. Detailed numerical calculations are supported by a theoretical investigation of the normal form map that represents the piecewise...

  8. Emergent supersymmetry in local equilibrium systems (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Liu, Hong


    Many physical processes we observe in nature involve variations of macroscopic quantities over spatial and temporal scales much larger than microscopic molecular collision scales and can be considered as in local thermal equilibrium. In this paper we show that any classical statistical system in local thermal equilibrium has an emergent supersymmetry at low energies. We use the framework of non-equilibrium effective field theory for quantum many-body systems defined on a closed time path contour and consider its classical limit. Unitarity of time evolution requires introducing anti-commuting degrees of freedom and BRST symmetry which survive in the classical limit. The local equilibrium is realized through a Z 2 dynamical KMS symmetry. We show that supersymmetry is equivalent to the combination of BRST and a specific consequence of the dynamical KMS symmetry, to which we refer as the special dynamical KMS condition. In particular, we prove a theorem stating that a system satisfying the special dynamical KMS condition is always supersymmetrizable. We discuss a number of examples explicitly, including model A for dynamical critical phenomena, a hydrodynamic theory of nonlinear diffusion, and fluctuating hydrodynamics for relativistic charged fluids.

  9. Evolution and non-equilibrium physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo


    We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...

  10. Micro Data and General Equilibrium Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Peter; Heckman, James J.


    economic models, assesses the discordance between the macromodels used in policy evaluation and the microeconomic models used to generate the empirical evidence. For concreteness, we focus on two general equilibrium models: the stochastic growth model extended to include some forms of heterogeneity...

  11. Rumor Propagation Model: An Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto C. Piqueira


    information is analogous phenomena. Here, in an analogy with the SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed epidemiological model, the ISS (Ignorant-Spreader-Stifler rumor spreading model is studied. By using concepts from the Dynamical Systems Theory, stability of equilibrium points is established, according to propagation parameters and initial conditions. Some numerical experiments are conducted in order to validate the model.

  12. An equilibrium profile model for tidal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernabeu


    Full Text Available During a full tidal cycle, the beach profile is exposed to continuously changing hydrodynamical conditions. Consequently, the profile evolves constantly to adapt to these changes. The equilibrium condition on tidal beaches is defined in terms of the relative occurrence of swash, surf zone and shoaling processes. We have assumed that the tidal beach profile is in equilibrium when the net sediment transport along a tidal cycle is zero. In this model the contribution of swash is considered negligible. A simple and easy-to-apply equilibrium profile formulation is proposed. This model is based on the assumption that surf zone processes dominate the profile morphology wherever wave breaking occurs during the tidal cycle. The obtained equilibrium profile is valid from the high tide level to the breaker point at low tide level. The tidal influence on the profile morphology is the lengthening of the surf profile. The higher the tidal range, the longer the surf profile. The model was tested against field and laboratory data, showing reasonable predictions of measured beach profiles.

  13. An equilibrium closure result for discontinuous games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.


    For games with discontinuous payoffs Simon and Zame (1990) introduced payoff indeterminacy, in the form of endogenous sharing rules, which are measurable selections of a certain payoff correspondence. Their main result concerns the existence of a mixed Nash equilibrium and an associated sharing

  14. Climate change as (dis)equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejsner, Pelle; Veldhuis, Djuke


    Despite the evident challenges posed by arctic environments past and present, and despite the widespread acknowledgement that human population histories in the Arctic have historically been quite dynamic, it is often assumed that traditional pre-colonial populations were in perfect equilibrium wi...

  15. Estimating Equilibrium Effects of Job Search Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Muller, Paul; van der Klaauw, Bas

    that the nonparticipants in the experiment regions find jobs slower after the introduction of the activation program (relative to workers in other regions). We then estimate an equilibrium search model. This model shows that a large scale role out of the activation program decreases welfare, while a standard partial...... microeconometric cost-benefit analysis would conclude the opposite....

  16. Monetary Policy Frameworks and Real Equilibrium Determinacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik


    In a simple "prototype" model of monetary policymaking, I examine the issue of real equilibrium determinacy under targeting and instrument rules. The former framework involves minimization of a loss function (under discretion or commitment), whereas the latter involves commitment to an interest...

  17. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.


    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...

  18. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When charged particles are placed on an uncharged metallic body, the charged particles redistribute themselves along the surface of the body until they reach a point or a configuration that no net tangential force is experienced on each particle. That point is referred to as electrostatic equilibrium configuration or simply as ...

  19. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  20. General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank


    General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…

  1. Does DNA have two structures in solution that coexist at equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozansky, E.D.; Sobell, H.M.; Lessen, M.


    The existence of two discrete structures for different regions of DNA at equilibrium in solution is postulated. These structures correspond to B DNA and to an inelastically deformed DNA structure, denoted ..beta.. kinked DNA. ..beta.. kinked DNA corresponds to a second order phase transition in the polymer, different regions of DNA undergoing this transition at different temperatures, and arises from a specific normal mode oscillation in DNA structure that is excited by Brownian motion of solvent molecules. It is possible that these multiply-kinked premelted regions play an important role in RNA polymerase--promoter recognition.

  2. Out-of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Photogravitational CR3BP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... around the out-of-plane equilibrium points in the circular photogravitational restricted three-body problem when the effect of radiation pressure from the smaller primary and its Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag are taken into account, and the bigger primary is modeled as an oblate spheroid. These points lie in the -plane ...

  3. Modeling the Equilibrium Bus Line Choice Behavior and Transit System Design with Oblivious Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Chuan-Lin; Huang, Hai-Jun


    ... a more realistic public transit system when considering the boundedly rational users. In the literature, user equilibrium models play an important role in the traffic assignment problems. By assuming that all road users behave in a completely rational way and seeking to minimize their own disutility, Wardrop [1] defined a state of route choice, the so-call...

  4. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben


    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulation...

  5. Equilibrium Bird Species Diversity in Atlantic Islands. (United States)

    Valente, Luis; Illera, Juan Carlos; Havenstein, Katja; Pallien, Tamara; Etienne, Rampal S; Tiedemann, Ralph


    Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]. We estimate the times at which birds colonized and speciated in the four archipelagos, including many previously unsampled endemic and non-endemic taxa and their closest continental relatives. We develop and fit a new multi-archipelago dynamic stochastic model to these data, explicitly incorporating information from 91 taxa, both extant and extinct. Remarkably, we find that all four archipelagos have independently achieved and maintained a dynamic equilibrium over millions of years. Biogeographical rates are homogeneous across archipelagos, except for the Canary Islands, which exhibit higher speciation and colonization. Our finding that the avian communities of the four Macaronesian archipelagos display an equilibrium diversity pattern indicates that a diversity plateau may be rapidly achieved on islands where rates of in situ radiation are low and extinction is high. This study reveals that equilibrium processes may be more prevalent than recently proposed, supporting MacArthur and Wilson's 50-year-old theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Will Global Public Policy Arise from Global Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Potůček


    Full Text Available The global crisis has gravely affected and continues to affect the lives of people around the planet. Some authors see it as an opportunity to change the paradigm for interpreting the problems of contemporary societies as well as the ensuing governance. In this article, I attempt to answer the question whether or to what extent public policy as a scientific discipline has helped us to explain the nature of this crisis and find our ways out of it. I conclude by proposing some desirable directions for this discipline’s further development in order to make it better capable of responding to the global challenges humanity is facing.

  7. Eletromagnetic radiation and the mechanical reactions arising from it

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, G A


    Fundamental equations of the electron theory ; transformation of the potentials ; other types of solution ; physical interpretation of the solutions obtained ; illustrative examples ; remarks on the solutions obtained and on the methods of calculating the potentials in general ; periodic motions ; on the distant field due to a moving charge ; pseudo-periodic and aperiodic motions ; on the field near the orbit of a moving charge or group ; the mechanical forces acting on electric charges in motion ; the motion of groups of electric charges ; on the Doppler effect ; on the disturbed motion of a ring of electrons ; on the field close to a point charge in motion ; the mechanical force exterted by an electron on itself ; the mechanical explanation of the electron ; the mechanics of the Lorentz electron ; problems illustrative of the motion of the Lorentz electron.

  8. Nonsymmetric systems arising in the computation of invariant tori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trummer, M.R. [Simons Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)


    We introduce two new spectral implementations for computing invariant tori. The underlying nonlinear partial differential equation although hyperbolic by nature, has periodic boundary conditions in both space and time. In our first approach we discretize the spatial variable, and find the solution via a shooting method. In our second approach, a full two-dimensional Fourier spectral discretization and Newton`s method lead to very large, sparse, nonsymmetric systems. These matrices are highly structured, but the sparsity pattern prohibits the use of direct solvers. A modified conjugate gradient type iterative solver appears to perform best for this type of problems. The two methods are applied to the van der Pol oscillator, and compared to previous algorithms. Several preconditioners are investigated.

  9. Integrated product development: Competencies meet and products arise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Stacey, Julia


    One of the most common problems in product development is to strike the right balance between being market oriented and exploiting and protecting a company's product and process competencies. Until now research has only to a small extent been engaged in the development of tools that can help food...... companies integrate different competenceareas in their product development process. In collaboration with the Danish Technical University and the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, MAPP is carrying out a project on integrated product development. The project focuses on the development and integration...... a need for increased co-operation and understanding among the various departments. This is where integrated product development comes into the picture. The idea behind integrated product development is that successful product development requires a balance between the market and the company's product...

  10. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium electron tunneling via discrete quantum states


    Deshmukh, Mandar M.; Bonet, Edgar; Pasupathy, A. N.; Ralph, D. C.


    Tunneling is measured via the quantum levels of a metal nanoparticle. We analyze quantitatively the resonance energies, widths, and amplitudes, both in the regime where only one state is accessible for tunneling and in the non-equilibrium regime when additional states are made accessible one-by-one. For tunneling through one state, our results agree with expectations for sequential tunneling, but in the non-equilibrium regime the resonances are broadened and shifted in ways that require takin...

  11. Existence of equilibrium states of hollow elastic cylinders submerged in a fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. M. Elgindi


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the existence of equilibrium states of thin-walled elastic, cylindrical shell fully or partially submerged in a fluid. This problem obviously serves as a model for many problems with engineering importance. Previous studies on the deformation of the shell have assumed that the pressure due to the fluid is uniform. This paper takes into consideration the non-uniformity of the pressure by taking into account the effect of gravity. The presence of a pressure gradient brings additional parameters to the problem which in turn lead to the consideration of several boundary value problems.

  12. Currents and Green's functions of impurities out of equilibrium: Results from inchworm quantum Monte Carlo (United States)

    Antipov, Andrey E.; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Kleinhenz, Joseph; Cohen, Guy; Gull, Emanuel


    We generalize the recently developed inchworm quantum Monte Carlo method to the full Keldysh contour with forward, backward, and equilibrium branches to describe the dynamics of strongly correlated impurity problems with time-dependent parameters. We introduce a method to compute Green's functions, spectral functions, and currents for inchworm Monte Carlo and show how systematic error assessments in real time can be obtained. We then illustrate the capabilities of the algorithm with a study of the behavior of quantum impurities after an instantaneous voltage quench from a thermal equilibrium state.

  13. Spinel cataclasites in 15445 and 72435 - Petrology and criteria for equilibrium (United States)

    Baker, M. B.; Herzberg, C. T.


    The problem of establishing the existence of equilibrium among the coexisting phases in the rock is addressed by presenting petrographic and mineral chemistry data on a new spinel cataclasite from 15445 (clast H) and data more extensive than those previously available on two clasts in 72435. Criteria useful in reconstructing the original petrology of these and other spinel cataclasites are analyzed by considering equilibrium among the different phases, that is, the mono- or polymict nature of these cataclasized samples. Finally, the role of impact processes in disturbing the equilibria is discussed.

  14. Speeding up compositional reservoir simulation through an efficient implementation of phase equilibrium calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belkadi, Abdelkrim; Yan, Wei; Moggia, Elsa


    simulation steps provide the possibility to skip stability analysis by the shadow region method in the single phase regions. The approach was implemented in the general purpose research simulator (GPRS) developed by Stanford University. GPRS is a modular, state of the art reservoir simulation and its......Compositional reservoir simulations are widely used to simulate reservoir processes with strong compositional effects, such as gas injection. The equations of state (EoS) based phase equilibrium calculation is a time consuming part in this type of simulations. The phase equilibrium problem can...

  15. Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology. (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas


    I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

  16. The general equilibrium theory as economic metatheory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Many economists show certain nonconformity relative to the excessive mathematical formalization of economics. This stems from dissatisfaction with the old debate about the lack of correspondence between mainstream theoretical models and reality. Although we do not propose to settle this debate here, this article seeks to associate the mismatch of mathematized models with the reality of the adoption of the hypothetical-deductive method as reproduced by general equilibrium. We begin by defining the main benefits of the mathematization of economics. Secondly, we address traditional criticism leveled against it. We then focus on more recent criticism from Gillies (2005 and Bresser-Pereira (2008. Finally, we attempt to associate the reproduction of the hypothetical-deductive method with a metatheoretical process triggered by Debreu's general equilibrium theory. In this respect, we appropriate the ideas of Weintraub (2002, Punzo (1991, and mainly Woo (1986 to support our hypothesis.

  17. Phase Equilibrium Investigations of Planetary Materials (United States)

    Grove, T. L.


    This grant provided funds to carry out phase equilibrium studies on the processes of chemical differentiation of the moon and the meteorite parent bodies, during their early evolutionary history. Several experimental studies examined processes that led to the formation of lunar ultramafic glasses. Phase equilibrium studies were carried out on selected low-Ti and high-Ti lunar ultramafic glass compositions to provide constraints on the depth range, temperature and processes of melt generation and/or assimilation. A second set of experiments examined the role of sulfide melts in core formation processes in the earth and terrestrial planets. The major results of each paper are discussed, and copies of the papers are attached as Appendix I.

  18. Equilibrium-Based Nonhomogeneous Anisotropic Beam Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Couturier, Philippe


    The stiffness matrix and the nodal forces associated with distributed loads are obtained for a nonhomogeneous anisotropic elastic beam element by the use of complementary energy. The element flexibility matrix is obtained by integrating the complementary-energy density corresponding to six beam...... equilibrium states, and then inverted and expanded to provide the element-stiffness matrix. Distributed element loads are represented via corresponding internal-force distributions in local equilibrium with the loads. The element formulation does not depend on assumed shape functions and can, in principle......, include any variation of cross-sectional properties and load variation, provided that these are integrated with sufficient accuracy in the process. The ability to represent variable cross-sectional properties, coupling from anisotropic materials, and distributed element loads is illustrated by numerical...

  19. Instability of quantum equilibrium in Bohm's dynamics. (United States)

    Colin, Samuel; Valentini, Antony


    We consider Bohm's second-order dynamics for arbitrary initial conditions in phase space. In principle, Bohm's dynamics allows for 'extended' non-equilibrium, with initial momenta not equal to the gradient of phase of the wave function (as well as initial positions whose distribution departs from the Born rule). We show that extended non-equilibrium does not relax in general and is in fact unstable. This is in sharp contrast with de Broglie's first-order dynamics, for which non-standard momenta are not allowed and which shows an efficient relaxation to the Born rule for positions. On this basis, we argue that, while de Broglie's dynamics is a tenable physical theory, Bohm's dynamics is not. In a world governed by Bohm's dynamics, there would be no reason to expect to see an effective quantum theory today (even approximately), in contradiction with observation.

  20. Predicting wave-induced ripple equilibrium geometry (United States)

    Robert Nelson, Timothy; Voulgaris, George; Traykovski, Peter


    A comprehensive database of existing (since 1954) field and laboratory measurements of ripple geometry is compiled and combined with newly collected field data to examine the performance of ripple equilibrium predictors. Reanalysis of this enlarged ripple geometry data set reveals that ripples formed from monochromatic waves scale differently than ripples formed from random waves for many existing ripple predictors. Our analysis indicates that ripple wavelengths from the two data sets collapse into a single scaling when the semiorbital excursion and sediment grain diameter are used as normalizing factors. Ripple steepness remains relatively constant for both regular and irregular wave conditions, and it only slightly increases for shorter ripple wavelengths. These findings allowed for the development of a new equilibrium ripple predictor suitable for application in a wide range of wave and sediment conditions.

  1. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan


    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  2. Structural Stability of Tokamak Equilibrium: Transport Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, E. R.


    A generalised theory of structural stability of differential equations is introduced and applied to the Grad-Shafranov equation. It is discussed how the formation and loss of transport barrier could be associated with the appearance/disappearance of equilibria. The equilibrium conjecture is presented: transport barriers are associated with locally diamagnetic regions in the plasma, and affected by the paramagnetism of the bootstrap current. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Ionization equilibrium of a magnetized quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Ortner, J.; Ebeling, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik


    The influence of a constant uniform magnetic field on the ionization equilibrium and the thermodynamic properties of a nondegenerate partially ionized hydrogen plasma is studied for weak and strong magnetic fields. A simple interpolation formula for an effective partition function is proposed, connecting the the low- and high-field results. Furthermore, a closed analytical approximation for the thermodynamic functions in the chemical picture and a Saha equation for weakly and strongly magnetized plasmas are presented. (orig.)

  4. Ultracold atomic quantum gases far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Berges, Juergen [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, Michael G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seco, Marcos [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    We calculate the time evolution of a far-from-equilibrium initial state of a non-relativistic ultracold Bose gas in one spatial dimension. The non-perturbative approximation scheme is based on a systematic expansion of the two-particle irreducible effective action in powers of the inverse number of field components. This yields dynamic equations which contain direct scattering, memory and off-shell effects that are not captured in mean-field theory.

  5. Ultracold atomic quantum gases far from equilibrium


    Gasenzer, T.; Berges, J.; Schmidt, M G; Seco, M.


    We calculate the time evolution of a far-from-equilibrium initial state of a non-relativistic ultracold Bose gas in one spatial dimension. The non-perturbative approximation scheme is based on a systematic expansion of the two-particle irreducible effective action in powers of the inverse number of field components. This yields dynamic equations which contain direct scattering, memory and off-shell effects that are not captured in mean-field theory.

  6. The equilibrium size distribution of rouleaux.


    Perelson, A S; Wiegel, F.W.


    Rouleaux are formed by the aggregation of red blood cells in the presence of macromolecules that bridge the membranes of adherent erythrocytes. We compute the size and degree of branching of rouleaux for macroscopic systems in thermal equilibrium in the absence of fluid flow. Using techniques from statistical mechanics, analytical expressions are derived for (a) the average number of rouleaux consisting of n cells and having m branch points; (b) the average number of cells per rouleau; (c) th...

  7. Parallelizable approximate solvers for recursions arising in preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Y. [Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)


    For the recursions used in the Modified Incomplete LU (MILU) preconditioner, namely, the incomplete decomposition, forward elimination and back substitution processes, a parallelizable approximate solver is presented. The present analysis shows that the solutions of the recursions depend only weakly on their initial conditions and may be interpreted to indicate that the inexact solution is close, in some sense, to the exact one. The method is based on a domain decomposition approach, suitable for parallel implementations with message passing architectures. It requires a fixed number of communication steps per preconditioned iteration, independently of the number of subdomains or the size of the problem. The overlapping subdomains are either cubes (suitable for mesh-connected arrays of processors) or constructed by the data-flow rule of the recursions (suitable for line-connected arrays with possibly SIMD or vector processors). Numerical examples show that, in both cases, the overhead in the number of iterations required for convergence of the preconditioned iteration is small relatively to the speed-up gained.

  8. Analytical Ultracentrifugation: Sedimentation Velocity and Sedimentation Equilibrium (United States)

    Cole, James L.; Lary, Jeffrey W.; Moody, Thomas; Laue, Thomas M.


    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a versatile and powerful method for the quantitative analysis of macromolecules in solution. AUC has broad applications for the study of biomacromolecules in a wide range of solvents and over a wide range of solute concentrations. Three optical systems are available for the analytical ultracentrifuge (absorbance, interference and fluorescence) that permit precise and selective observation of sedimentation in real time. In particular, the fluorescence system provides a new way to extend the scope of AUC to probe the behavior of biological molecules in complex mixtures and at high solute concentrations. In sedimentation velocity, the movement of solutes in high centrifugal fields is interpreted using hydrodynamic theory to define the size, shape and interactions of macromolecules. Sedimentation equilibrium is a thermodynamic method where equilibrium concentration gradients at lower centrifugal fields are analyzed to define molecule mass, assembly stoichiometry, association constants and solution nonideality. Using specialized sample cells and modern analysis software, researchers can use sedimentation velocity to determine the homogeneity of a sample and define whether it undergoes concentration-dependent association reactions. Subsequently, more thorough model-dependent analysis of velocity and equilibrium experiments can provide a detailed picture of the nature of the species present in solution and their interactions. PMID:17964931


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)


    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via

  10. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ... (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium of a self-confined elliptical plasma ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H. (CCAST (World Laboratory) P. O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 and Institute of Mechanics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, People' s Republic of China (CN)); Oakes, M.E. (Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (USA))


    A variational principle is applied to the problem of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium of a self-contained elliptical plasma ball, such as elliptical ball lightning. The principle is appropriate for an approximate solution of partial differential equations with arbitrary boundary shape. The method reduces the partial differential equation to a series of ordinary differential equations and is especially valuable for treating boundaries with nonlinear deformations. The calculations conclude that the pressure distribution and the poloidal current are more uniform in an oblate self-confined plasma ball than that of an elongated plasma ball. The ellipticity of the plasma ball is obviously restricted by its internal pressure, magnetic field, and ambient pressure. Qualitative evidence is presented for the absence of sighting of elongated ball lightning.

  12. A theoretical analysis of local thermal equilibrium in fibrous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Mingwei


    Full Text Available The internal heat exchange between each phase and the Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE scenarios in multi-phase fibrous materials are considered in this paper. Based on the two-phase heat transfer model, a criterion is proposed to evaluate the LTE condition, using derived characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the LTE situations in isothermal/adiabatic boundary cases with two different heat sources (constant heat flux and constant temperature are assessed as special transient cases to test the proposed criterion system, and the influence of such different cases on their LTE status are elucidated. In addition, it is demonstrated that even the convective boundary problems can be generally estimated using this approach. Finally, effects on LTE of the material properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity of each phase, sample porosity and pore hydraulic radius are investigated, illustrated and discussed in our study.

  13. Renormalization out of equilibrium in a superrenormalizable theory

    CERN Document Server

    Garny, Mathias


    We discuss the renormalization of the initial value problem in Nonequilibrium Quantum Field Theory within a simple, yet instructive, example and show how to obtain a renormalized time evolution for the two-point functions of a scalar field and its conjugate momentum at all times. The scheme we propose is applicable to systems that are initially far from equilibrium and compatible with non-secular approximation schemes which capture thermalization. It is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations for non-Gaussian initial states, complemented by usual vacuum counterterms. We explicitly demonstrate how various cutoff-dependent effects peculiar to nonequilibrium systems, including time-dependent divergences or initial-time singularities, are avoided by taking an initial non-Gaussian three-point vacuum correlation into account.

  14. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics. (United States)

    Townsend, Robert


    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

  15. Facilitating Change to a Problem-based Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette


    The paper presents the barriers which arise during the change process from a traditional educational system to a problem-based educational model.......The paper presents the barriers which arise during the change process from a traditional educational system to a problem-based educational model....

  16. Axisymmetric finite deformation membrane problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.W.


    Many biomechanic problems involve the analysis of finite deformation axisymmetric membranes. This paper presents the general formulation for solving a class of axisymmetric membrane problems. The material nonlinearity, as well as the geometric nonlinearity, is considered. Two methods are presented to solve these problems. The first method is solving a set of differential equilibrium equations. The governing equations are reduced to three first-order ordinary-differential equations with explicit derivatives. The second method is the Ritz method where a general potential energy functional valid for all axisymmetric deformed positions is presented. The geometric admissible functions that govern the deformed configuration are written in terms of a series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined by the minimum potential energy principle that of all geometric admissible deformed configurations, the equilibrium configuration minimizes the potential energy. Some examples are presented. A comparison between these two methods is mentioned.

  17. Identifying apparent local stable isotope equilibrium in a complex non-equilibrium system. (United States)

    He, Yuyang; Cao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jianwei; Bao, Huiming


    Although being out of equilibrium, biomolecules in organisms have the potential to approach isotope equilibrium locally because enzymatic reactions are intrinsically reversible. A rigorous approach that can describe isotope distribution among biomolecules and their apparent deviation from equilibrium state is lacking, however. Applying the concept of distance matrix in graph theory, we propose that apparent local isotope equilibrium among a subset of biomolecules can be assessed using an apparent fractionation difference (|Δα|) matrix, in which the differences between the observed isotope composition (δ') and the calculated equilibrium fractionation factor (1000lnβ) can be more rigorously evaluated than by using a previous approach for multiple biomolecules. We tested our |Δα| matrix approach by re-analyzing published data of different amino acids (AAs) in potato and in green alga. Our re-analysis shows that biosynthesis pathways could be the reason for an apparently close-to-equilibrium relationship inside AA families in potato leaves. Different biosynthesis/degradation pathways in tubers may have led to the observed isotope distribution difference between potato leaves and tubers. The analysis of data from green algae does not support the conclusion that AAs are further from equilibrium in glucose-cultured green algae than in the autotrophic ones. Application of the |Δα| matrix can help us to locate potential reversible reactions or reaction networks in a complex system such as a metabolic system. The same approach can be broadly applied to all complex systems that have multiple components, e.g. geochemical or atmospheric systems of early Earth or other planets. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Quality-Of-Service Provisioning in Decentralized Networks: A Satisfaction Equilibrium Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Perlaza, Samir M; Lasaulce, Samson; Debbah, Mérouane


    This paper introduces a particular game formulation and its corresponding notion of equilibrium, namely the satisfaction form (SF) and the satisfaction equilibrium (SE). A game in SF models the case where players are uniquely interested in the satisfaction of some individual performance constraints, instead of individual performance optimization. Under this formulation, the notion of equilibrium corresponds to the situation where all players can simultaneously satisfy their individual constraints. The notion of SE, models the problem of QoS provisioning in decentralized self-configuring networks. Here, radio devices are satisfied if they are able to provide the requested QoS. Within this framework, the concept of SE is formalized for both pure and mixed strategies considering finite sets of players and actions. In both cases, sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the SE are presented. When multiple SE exist, we introduce the idea of effort or cost of satisfaction and we propose a refinemen...

  19. Gibbs free energy and integrability of continuum models for granular media at equilibrium (United States)

    Varsakelis, C.


    In this letter, we address the problem of the integrability of a continuum model for granular media at equilibrium. By the means of a formal integrability analysis, we show that the equilibrium limit of such models can be cast into a gradient equation with zero right-hand side. In turn, this implies that the model of interest is inherently Frobenius integrable, in the absence of additional compatibility conditions. Moreover, the quantity inside the gradient is identified with the granular material's Gibbs free energy. Consequently, the integrability for the model at hand is equivalent to setting the Gibbs free energy of the granular material constant throughout the domain. In other words, integrability is equivalent to the definition of equilibrium employed in statistical physics.

  20. Scaling approach to quantum non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsev, Vladimir; Barmettler, Peter [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Demler, Eugene, E-mail: vladimir.gritsev@unifr.c [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Physics Department, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Understanding the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics of many-body systems is one of the most challenging problems in modern theoretical physics. While numerous approximate and exact solutions exist for systems in equilibrium, examples of non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body systems that allow reliable theoretical analysis are few and far between. In this paper, we discuss a broad class of time-dependent interacting systems subject to external linear and parabolic potentials, for which the many-body Schroedinger equation can be solved using a scaling transformation. We demonstrate that scaling solutions exist for both local and non-local interactions, and derive appropriate self-consistency equations. We apply this approach to several specific experimentally relevant examples of interacting bosons in one and two dimensions. As an intriguing result, we find that weakly and strongly interacting Bose gases expanding from a parabolic trap can exhibit very similar dynamics.