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Sample records for equilibrated ordinary chondrites

  1. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

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    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  2. Determination of trapping parameters of the high temperature thermoluminescence peak in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akridge, Jannette M.C.; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W.G.

    2001-01-01

    Most meteorites exhibit thermoluminescence (TL) that can be used to constrain their recent thermal and irradiation history, but quantitative conclusions require a knowledge of the detailed TL peak structure of the TL glow curve. We have determined TL peak parameters for the high temperature portion of the glow curve for six ordinary chondrites: Chicora (LL6); Innisfree (L5); Lost City (H5); Paragould (LL6); Pribram (H5); and Tilden (L6). The saturation dose for all these meteorites is approximately 3600 Gy. Published procedures were used to determine the number and temperatures of peaks in the high temperature (>570 K) portion of the glow curve and peak fitting was used to estimate TL trap parameters for each peak. These data were then tested and adjusted, if necessary, by comparing calculated decay results with TL glow curves for samples heated at ∼420 K for various times. We find evidence for four TL peaks in the high temperature portion of the glow curve, where trapping parameters vary slightly from meteorite to meteorite. For the Lost City meteorite, the TL peak temperatures (K), activation energies (E, eV), and Arrhenius factors (s, x 10 -9 s -1 ) are: 325, 1.26, 4.8; 360, 1.33, 3.88; 401, 1.44, 5.8; and 455, 1.5, 2.25, respectively. These data could be used to estimate dose rates for meteorites; however, the albedo values required for the calculation are not yet sufficiently known. However, terrestrial ages, or surface exposure ages, for meteorite finds from hot deserts like those in Australia or North Africa, can be estimated from these data

  3. Determination of trapping parameters of the high temperature thermoluminescence peak in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

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    Akridge, Jannette M.C.; Benoit, Paul H. E-mail: pbenoit@comp.uark.edu; Sears, Derek W.G

    2001-02-01

    Most meteorites exhibit thermoluminescence (TL) that can be used to constrain their recent thermal and irradiation history, but quantitative conclusions require a knowledge of the detailed TL peak structure of the TL glow curve. We have determined TL peak parameters for the high temperature portion of the glow curve for six ordinary chondrites: Chicora (LL6); Innisfree (L5); Lost City (H5); Paragould (LL6); Pribram (H5); and Tilden (L6). The saturation dose for all these meteorites is approximately 3600 Gy. Published procedures were used to determine the number and temperatures of peaks in the high temperature (>570 K) portion of the glow curve and peak fitting was used to estimate TL trap parameters for each peak. These data were then tested and adjusted, if necessary, by comparing calculated decay results with TL glow curves for samples heated at {approx}420 K for various times. We find evidence for four TL peaks in the high temperature portion of the glow curve, where trapping parameters vary slightly from meteorite to meteorite. For the Lost City meteorite, the TL peak temperatures (K), activation energies (E, eV), and Arrhenius factors (s, x 10{sup -9} s{sup -1}) are: 325, 1.26, 4.8; 360, 1.33, 3.88; 401, 1.44, 5.8; and 455, 1.5, 2.25, respectively. These data could be used to estimate dose rates for meteorites; however, the albedo values required for the calculation are not yet sufficiently known. However, terrestrial ages, or surface exposure ages, for meteorite finds from hot deserts like those in Australia or North Africa, can be estimated from these data.

  4. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

  5. Selective Disparity of Ordinary Chondritic Precursors in Micrometeorite Flux

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    Rudraswami, N. G.; Fernandes, D.; Naik, A. K.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.

    2018-01-01

    All known extraterrestrial dust (micrometeoroids) entering the Earth’s atmosphere is anticipated to have a significant contribution from ordinary chondritic precursors, as seen in meteorites, but this is an apparent contradiction that needs to be addressed. Ordinary chondrites represent a minor contribution to the overall meteor influx compared to carbonaceous chondrites, which are largely dominated by CI and/or CM chondrites. However, the near-Earth asteroid population presents a scenario with sufficient scope for generation of dust-sized debris from ordinary chondritic sources. The bulk chemical composition of 3255 micrometeorites (MMs) collected from Antarctica and deep-sea sediments has shown Mg/Si largely dominated by carbonaceous chondrites, and less than 10% having ordinary chondritic precursors. The chemical ablation model is combined with different initial chondritic compositions (CI, CV, L, LL, H), and the results clearly indicate that high-density (≥2.8 g cm‑3) precursors, such as CV and ordinary chondrites in the size range 100–700 μm and zenith angle 0°–70°, ablate at much faster rates and lose their identity even before reaching the Earth’s surface and hence are under-represented in our collections. Moreover, their ability to survive as MMs remains grim for high-velocity micrometeoroids (>16 km s‑1). The elemental ratio for CV and ordinary chondrites are also similar to each other irrespective of the difference in the initial chemical composition. In conclusion, MMs belonging to ordinary chondritic precursors’ concentrations may not be insignificant in thermosphere, as they are found on Earth’s surface.

  6. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

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    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  7. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

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    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

  8. Multiple and fast: The accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

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    Vernazza, P.; Barge, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Hiroi, T.; Birlan, M.; Ricci, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ∼200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ∼10 5 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

  9. Ordinary Chondrites Viewed as Reassembled 'Splash Ejecta'

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    Sanders, I. S.

    1995-09-01

    A case has already been made favouring chondrites as re-assembled "splash ejecta" following low velocity collisions between molten planetesimals[1]. Here I briefly review this hypothesis, then develop further arguments in its support. The scenario envisaged may be summarized as follows. Planetesimals grew to radii greater than 30 km in less than 1 Ma after the formation of CAIs, and they were heated rapidly by the decay of 26Al. By 2 Ma each planetesimal had a molten interior insulated by a cool, dusty carapace. Low velocity collisions at this stage released enormous, turbulent, expanding clouds of incandescent spray mixed with dust and solid grains from the carapace. The cloud constituted a rather special, transient nebular environment; as it cooled the melt droplets became chondrules. Much of the cloud's contents re-assembled under gravity onto the surface of the hot, residual planetesimal and the accumulated debris became re-heated and metamorphosed. Collisions recurred over the few million years that relative velocities remained low and planetesimals remained molten. Thus, the cumulative debris contained many recycled and broken chondrules. This scenario is apparently reconcilable with chondrule cooling rates, the preservation of clasts of "planetary" rock in chondrites, the retention of volatiles in chondrules, the preservation of solar chemistry and more than a dozen other features. Is it reasonable to claim that 30 km radius bodies existed by 1 Ma, and were substantially molten by 2 Ma? Cameron[2] argued that CAIs were saved from drifting into the sun by their incorporation, soon after formation, into planetesimals whose mass was sufficient to hold them in orbits, decoupled from the drag of nebular gas. Wetherill's models [3] show that many bodies >100 km radius may have formed on a timescale of 10^5 years. In these terms, the proposed 30 km by 1 Ma is quite conservative. Regarding 26Al heating, the remarkably constant initial ratio of 26Al/27Al (5 x 10

  10. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy

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    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

    2014-01-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

  11. Textural variability of ordinary chondrite chondrules: Implications of their formation

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    Zinovieva, N. G.; Mitreikina, O. B.; Granovsky, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe examination of the Raguli H3-4, Saratov L3, and Fucbin L5-6 ordinary chondrites and the analysis of preexisted data on other meteorites have shown that the variety of textural types of chondrules depends on the chemical composition of the chondrules. The comparison of bulk-rock chemistries of the chondrules by major components demonstrates that they apparently fall, like basic-ultrabasic rock, into groups of dunitic and pyroxenitic composition. This separation is further validated by the character of zoning in chondrules of the intermediate, peridotitic type. The effect is vividly demonstrated by the 'chondrule-in-chondrule' structure.

  12. Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity.

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    McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J

    1998-04-17

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most CAIs formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona CAI is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all CAI minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.

  13. Shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites: impact modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreau, J.; Kohout, Tomáš; Wünnemann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, Special volume (2016), s. 285-285 ISSN 0367-5211. [ Nordic Geological Winter Meeting /32./. 13.01.2016-15.01.2016, Helsinki] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : impact, shock * reflectance spectra * chondrite * meteorite * Chelyabinsk Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.geologinenseura.fi/bulletin/Special_Volume_1_2016/BGSF-NGWM2016_Abstract_Volume.pdf

  14. Redox effects in ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

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    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of reflectance spectra to mean ferrous iron content and olivine and pyroxene proportion enhancements in the course of metamorphic oxidation is presently used to examine whether metamorphically-induced ranges in mineralogy, and corresponding spectral parameters, may explain the observed variations in S-asteroid rotational spectra. The predicted spectral variations within any one chondrite class are, however, insufficient to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra, and predicted spectral-range slopes have a sign opposite to the rotational measurements. Metamorphic oxidation is found unable to account for S-asteroid rotational spectra.

  15. Nanodiamonds and silicate minerals in ordinary chondrites as determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy

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    Saikia, Bhaskar J.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnarao; Borah, Rashmi R.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the Raman spectroscopic study of silicate and carbonaceous minerals in three ordinary chondrites with the aim to improve our understanding the impact process including the peak metamorphic pressures present in carbon-bearing ordinary chondites. The characteristic Raman vibrational peaks of olivines, pyroxenes, and plagioclase have been determined on three ordinary chondrites from India, Dergaon (H5), Mahadevpur (H4/5), and Kamargaon (L6). The Raman spectra of these meteorite samples show the presence of nanodiamonds at 1334-1345 cm-1 and 1591-1619 cm-1. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of Raman peaks for Mahadevpur and Dergaon reflect the nature of shock metamorphism in these meteorites. The frequency shift in Raman spectra might be because of shock effects during the formation of the diamond/graphite grains.

  16. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for /sup 26/Al heating of small planets

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    Hutcheon, I D; Hutchison, R

    1989-01-19

    We report the first observation of radiogenic /sup 26/Mg in non-refractory meteoritic material, a plagio-clase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite. The inferred initial abundance of /sup 26/Al is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well insulated bodies of chondritic composition. We conclude that planetary accretion and differentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half life of /sup 26/Al and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, /sup 26/Al heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets.

  17. Evidence from the Semarkona ordinary chondrite for 26Al heating of small planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheon, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    We report the first observation of radiogenic 26 Mg in non-refractory meteoritic material, a plagio-clase-bearing, olivine-pyroxene clast chondrule in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite. The inferred initial abundance of 26 Al is sufficient to produce incipient melting in well insulated bodies of chondritic composition. We conclude that planetary accretion and differentiation must have begun on a timescale comparable to the half life of 26 Al and that, even if widespread melting did not occur, 26 Al heating played a significant role in thermal metamorphism on small planets. (author)

  18. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

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    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  19. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

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    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  20. Deformation of Ordinary Chondrite Under Very Reducing Conditons: Implications for Liquid Metal Compositions, HSE Partitioning and Enstatite Chondrites

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    Rushmer, T.; Corgne, A.

    2008-12-01

    One important method in which to gain insight into metallic liquid compositions and their ability to control HSE (highly siderophile element) distribution is through experimentation. Deformation experiments can additionally provide information into mechanisms and chemical consequences of dynamic liquid metal segregation under a variety of conditions. We report results on metallic liquid HSE compositions and their distribution from a set of deformation experiments on a natural H6 ordinary chondrite, performed under very reducing conditions and a series of phase equilibria experiments focused on HSE partitioning between Si-rich and S-rich Fe molten alloys. The deformation experiments were conducted at temperatures between 925°C and 950°C, at 1.3 GPa confining pressure with a strain rate of 10-4/s. Major element analyses of both silicate and metal phases show that they are considerably reduced and the typically lithophile elements are behaving like siderophiles. Fe-Ni-Si compositions are found in the shear zones produced during the deformation experiment. Metallic compositions also include (Mg,Fe,Ca)S, Fe-Ni-Si, FeP, and Fe-Ni-S quench metal. Silicate phases include forsterite (Fo92-96) and enstatite (En98). Highly siderophile element (HSE) concentrations have been measured in the sulphide ((Fe,Mg,Ca)S) and metal (Fe- Ni-Si) phases by LA-ICPMS and compared with results from an earlier set of experiments on the same material but which were not performed under reducing conditions. The partitioning of the PGE is modified by the changing conditions with elements such as Ir and Os having higher DMetal/Sulphide values under reducing conditions. Partitioning experiments between molten FeS and Ni-, Si-bearing molten Fe were performed at 1.5-5.0 GPa and 1500-1750° to further investigate this observation. The starting material is synthetic, doped with a range of trace and HSE elements. The results confirm the preference of the HSE for the metallic phase with DMetal

  1. Striking Graphite Bearing Clasts Found in Two Ordinary Chondrite Samples; NWA6169 and NWA8330

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    Johnson, Jessica M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Chan, Queenie; Kring, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorites play an integral role in understanding the history of the solar system. Not only can they contain some of the oldest material found in the solar system they also can contain material that is unique. Many lithologies are only found as foreign clasts within distinctly different host meteorites. In this investigation two foreign clasts within the meteorites, NWA6169 and NWA8330 were studied. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the mineralogy and petrography of the clasts within the samples. From there an identification and possible origin were to be inferred. NWA6169 is an unclassified ordinary chondrite that has a presumed petrologic type of L3. NWA8330 is a classified ordinary chondrite that has a petrologic type of LL3. Both meteorites were found to contain clasts that were similar; both modally were comprised of about 5% acicular graphite. Through SEM and Raman Spectroscopy it was found that they contained olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe-Ni sulfides, graphite, and metals. They were found to portray an igneous texture with relationships that suggest concurrent growth. Analytical microprobe results for NWA6169 revealed mineral compositions of Fa31-34, Fs23-83, and Ab7-85. For NWA8330 these were Fa28-32, Fs10-24, and Ab4-83. Only one similar material has been reported, in the L3 chondrite Krymka (Semenenko & Girich, 1995). The clast they described exhibited similar mineralogies including the unusual graphite. Krymka data displayed compositional values of Fa28.5-35.0 and Fs9-25.9. These ranges are fairly similar to that of NWA6169 and NWA8330. These samples may all be melt clasts, probably of impact origin. Two possibilities are (1) impact of a C-type asteroid onto the L chondrite parent asteroid, and (2) a piece of proto-earth ejected from the moon-forming collision event. These possibilities present abundant questions, and can be tested. The measurement of oxygen isotope compositions from the clasts should reveal the original source of the

  2. VNIR Reflectance and MIR Emissivity Spectra of Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites Under Simulated Asteroid Surface Conditions

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    Gemma, M.; Shirley, K.; Glotch, T. D.; Ebel, D. S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent missions have revealed much about the nature of many Near-Earth asteroids, including the NEAR-Shoemaker target 433 Eros and Hayabusa target 25142 Itokawa. Both asteroids appear to have mineralogy consistent with ordinary chondrite meteorites. Laboratory spectral analysis of well-constrained meteorite samples can be employed as a reference tool to characterize and constrain data from current and future asteroid studies. A sample set of ordinary chondrite meteorites was chosen from the collection at the American Museum of Natural History. Six meteorites, spanning groups H, L, and LL, were prepared at four different size fractions (25-63 μm, 63-90 μm, 90-125 μm, 125-250 μm) in an attempt to mimic regolith known to exist on asteroids such as 433 Eros and 25142 Itokawa. At the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University, spectra of the ordinary chondrite material were measured under simulated asteroid surface conditions ( 10-6 mbar, 150 K chamber temperature, low intensity illumination). The samples were used in two experiments: one measuring visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra at a series of temperatures, and the other measuring mid-infrared (MIR) emissivity spectra. The emissivity measurements require accurate simulation of the thermal environment within asteroid regolith, achieved by inducing a thermal gradient within the sample that results in a surface brightness temperature around 323 K (similar to the surface of 25142 Itokawa). Mid-IR emissivity spectra were collected for each sample at a surface temperature of 323 K, and reflectance spectra were collected in increments of 10 K, over the range 283 K to 373 K. Preliminary VNIR spectra show spreads similar to those seen in Hinrichs and Lucey (2002). Preliminary MIR emissivity spectra suggest that under asteroid surface conditions, the position of the Christiansen feature shifts to shorter wavelengths and emissivity is lower in the Reststrahlen bands when compared to

  3. Terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the lewis cliff stranding area, East Antarctica

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    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Alderliesten, C.; van der Borg, K.

    1999-07-01

    We determined terrestrial ages of ordinary chondrites from the Lewis Cliff stranding area, East Antarctica, on the basis of the concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be (t1/2 = 1.51 Ma), 26Al (t1/2 = 0.705 Ma) and 36Cl (t1/2 = 0.301 Ma). After an initial 26Al -ray survey of 91 meteorites suggested that many have terrestrial ages larger than 0.1 Ma, we selected 62 meteorites for 10Be and 26Al measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and measured 36Cl in twelve of those. Low terrestrial ages (Ma) were found for about 60% of the meteorites, whereas all others have ages between 0.1 and 0.5 Ma, except for one exceptional age of >2 Ma (Welten et al., 1997). Our major conclusions are: (1) The Lewis Cliff H-chondrites show similar ages as those from the Allan Hills Ice-fields, but the L-chondrites are about a factor of two younger than those from Allan Hills, which indicates that Lewis Cliff is a younger stranding area. (2) The terrestrial age distributions at different parts of the Lewis Cliff stranding area generally agree with simple meteorite concentration models, although differences in weathering rate may also play a role. (3) We confirm that meteorites with natural thermoluminescence (TL) levels >80 krad are associated with low terrestrial ages (Benoit et al., 1992), but conclude that natural TL levels <80 krad can not be used to calculate the terrestrial age of a meteorite. Natural TL levels do seem useful to estimate relative terrestrial ages of large groups of meteorites and to determine differences in surface exposure age of paired meteorite fragments. (4) Of the 62 meteorites measured with AMS, 31 were assigned to eleven different pairing groups, mainly on the basis of their cosmogenic nuclide record. The meteorites are estimated to represent between 42 and 52 distinct falls.

  4. An {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer study of the ordinary chondrite meteorite Lynch 001

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    Elewa, Nancy N., E-mail: nancy.elewa@student.unsw.edu.au; Cadogan, J. M. [The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2017-11-15

    The Lynch 001 meteorite was found in the Nullarbor Plain region of Western Australia in 1977. This meteorite is classified as an ordinary chondrite of the petrologic group L5/6 that has undergone ‘minor to moderate’ terrestrial weathering. Here, we characterize the Fe-bearing phases in this chondrite using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy carried out over the temperature range 13 K to room temperature (295 K). The paramagnetic doublets of olivine, pyroxene and a superparamagnetic ferric phase dominate the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum. On the basis of the room temperature quadrupole splitting of the olivine component, we estimate its composition to be Fa {sub 30(5)}. Besides the paramagnetic ferric component, accounting for ∼15 % of the spectral area at room temperature, magnetically ordered ferric phases were also detected. The total relative proportion of the Fe {sup 3+} components allows us to estimate the terrestrial age of Lynch 001 to be 6,500 ± 1,500 yr, consistent with the value of 6,700 ± 1,300 yr determined by {sup 14}C dating.

  5. The cali meteorite fell: A new H/L ordinary chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.M.T.; Llorca, J.; Rubin, A.E.; Grossman, J.N.; Sears, D.W.G.; Naranjo, M.; Bretzius, S.; Tapia, M.; Sepulveda, M.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The fall of the Cali meteorite took place on 6 July 2007 at 16 h 32 ?? 1 min local time (21 h 32 ?? 1 min UTC). A daylight fireball was witnessed by hundreds of people in the Cauca Valley in Colombia from which 10 meteorite samples with a total mass of 478 g were recovered near 3??24.3'N, 76??30.6'W. The fireball trajectory and radiant have been reconstructed with moderate accuracy. From the computed radiant and from considering various plausible velocities, we obtained a range of orbital solutions that suggest that the Cali progenitor meteoroid probably originated in the main asteroid belt. Based on petrography, mineral chemistry, magnetic susceptibility, fhermoluminescence, and bulk chemistry, the Cali meteorite is classified as an H/L4 ordinary chondrite breccia.

  6. Spinel-Bearing, Al-Rich Chrondrules in the Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrite NWA7402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Cato, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Several Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) have been discovered in the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite NWA7402. Two of these three ARCs are spinel-bearing. Here we have characterized these unusual chondrules with respect to their mineralogy and bulk compositions. These objects will be targets for future O and Mg isotope analysis. NWA7402 is clearly unequilibrated, with wide ranges of olivine compositions in chondrules (Fo99-Fo70, excluding rims). Chromium-oxide contents in olivine, and Raman organic spectral parameters support the classification of this meteorite as petrologic type 3.1 [1]. NWA7402 is similar to, and could be paired with NWA5717, in that they both possess light and dark lithologies.

  7. Trace elements in primitive meteorites—VII Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    2007-02-01

    We report RNAA results for Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Rb, Cs, Se, Ag, Te, Zn, In, Bi, Tl and Cd (in increasing order of metamorphic mobility) in 22 Antarctic unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC). This brings to 38 the number of UOC for which data for highly volatile elements are known. For elements of lesser mobility (Co to Se, omitting Cs) overall variability in UOC are low, relative standard deviations (one sigma) being no more than a factor of two. For Ag, Te and Zn, relative standard deviations are 2-4×, while for Cs and the four most volatile elements, the variabilities are 8-110×. Elemental abundances do not vary with chemical type (H, L and LL) nor with UOC subtype (3.0-3.9). Contents of all elements reach levels up to, even exceeding, cosmic and all but Cd and the two alkalis, seem unaffected by post-accretionary processes. Contents of highly volatile elements are consistent with the idea that source regions producing contemporary falls and older Antarctic UOC differed in thermal histories. The presence or absence of carbide magnetite assemblages (CMA) generally accords with high or low Cd contents, respectively. This relationship accords with the prior suggestion that CMA formed by alteration of Fe-Ni metal by C-O-H-containing fluids at temperatures indicate that they were subsequently destroyed as metamorphic intensity increased. The high, often supercosmic, Rb and Cs levels in UOC may result from their high solubility in liquid water signalling their redistribution by C-O-H-containing fluid while in the liquid water field. Because of its uniquely high mobility, Cd could have been enriched by the C-O-H fluids and should have been lost from parent regions during later, higher temperature anhydrous metamorphism at temperatures in the 500-600 °C range.

  8. Examination of Multiple Lithologies Within the Primitive Ordinary Chondrite NWA 5717

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M. J.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa 5717 is a primitive (subtype 3.05) ungrouped ordinary chondrite which contains two apparently distinct lithologies. In large cut meteorite slabs, the darker of these, lithology A, looks to host the second, much lighter in color, lithology B (upper left, Fig. 1). The nature of the boundary between the two is uncertain, ranging from abrupt to gradational and not always following particle boundaries. The distinction between the lithologies, beyond the obvious color differences, has been supported by a discrepancy in oxygen isotopes and an incongruity in the magnesium contents of chondrule olivine. Here, quantitative textural analysis and mineralogical methods have been used to investigate the two apparent lithologies within NWA 5717. Olivine grains contained in a thin section from NWA 7402, thought to be paired to 5717, were also measured to re-examine the distinct compositional range among the light and dark areas. Procedure: Particles from a high-resolution mosaic image of a roughly 13x15cm slice of NWA 5717 were traced in Adobe Photoshop. Due to the large size of the sample, visually representative regions of each lithology were chosen to be analyzed. The resulting layers of digitized particles were imported into ImageJ, which was used to measure their area, along with the axes, the angle from horizontal, and the centroid coordinates of ellipses fitted to each particle following the approach. Resulting 2D pixel areas were converted to spherical diameters employing the unfolding algorithm, which outputs a 3D particle size distribution based on digitized 2D size frequency data. Spatstat was used to create kernel density plots of the centroid coordinates for each region. X-ray compositional maps, microprobe analyses, and Mossbauer spectroscopy was conducted on a thin section of NWA 7402, tentatively paired to NWA 5717.

  9. Young asteroid mixing revealed in ordinary chondrites: The case of NWA 5764, a polymict LL breccia with L clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattacceca, Jérome; Krzesińska, Agata M.; Marrocchi, Yves; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Lenssen, Rob

    2017-11-01

    Polymict chondritic breccias—rocks composed of fragments originating from different chondritic parent bodies—are of particular interest because they give insights into the mixing of asteroids in the main asteroid belt (occurrence, encounter velocity, transfer time). We describe Northwest Africa (NWA) 5764, a brecciated LL6 chondrite that contains a >16 cm3 L4 clast. The L clast was incorporated in the breccia through a nondestructive, low-velocity impact. Identical cosmic-ray exposure ages of the L clast and the LL host (36.6 ± 5.8 Myr), suggest a short transfer time of the L meteoroid to the LL parent body of 0.1 ± 8.1 Myr, if that meteoroid was no larger than a few meters. NWA 5764 (together with St. Mesmin, Dimmitt, and Glanerbrug) shows that effective mixing is possible between ordinary chondrite parent bodies. In NWA 5764 this mixing occurred after the peak of thermal metamorphism on the LL parent body, i.e., at least several tens of Myr after the formation of the solar system. The U,Th-He ages of the L clast and LL host, identical at about 2.9 Ga, might date the final assembly of the breccia, indicating relatively young mixing in the main asteroid belt as previously evidenced in St. Mesmin.

  10. An 57Fe Mössbauer study of three Australian L5 ordinary-chondrite meteorites: dating Kinclaven–001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadogan, J. M.; Rebbouh, L.; Mills, J. V. J.; Bland, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Three L5-type ordinary chondrite meteorites recovered from the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia were studied by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy: Kinclaven–001, Camel Donga–007 and Gunnadorah–002. The relative amounts of the various Fe-bearing phases including the primary minerals (Olivine, Pyroxene, Troilite and Fe-Ni metal) and the ferric alteration products (Goethite, Maghemite/Magnetite) were obtained to determine the percentage of iron converted to Fe 3 +  by weathering processes. These data allow us to estimate the terrestrial age of Kinclaven–001 at 1,700 ± 1,300 yrs

  11. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of the ordinary chondrites and their significance for parent body stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, J.; Schultz, L.

    1981-01-01

    Improved exposure ages are derived for 201 H, 203 L, and 38 LL chondrites in an effort to understand the characteristics of the chondrite parent body. The Ne-21 exposure ages were calculated from literature values taking into account shielding differences, a trapped component and radiogenic He. The exposure age distributions show clear peaks at 4.5 and 20 million years for the H chondrites, while the Ls and LLs appear more as a continuous series of intermediate peaks which may be modeled by at least six peaks between 1 and 35 million years in the case of L chondrites. The observations that every petrological type occurs in each large peak and contain solar wind gases suggest that the parent bodies have been fragmented and reassembled into a megabreccia. The H meteorites are proposed to represent the surface layer of a body with a substantial, active regolith as indicated by the relatively high abundances of solar gases. The L chondrites, on the other hand, are attributed to a parent body that was fragmented by collision about 500 million years ago.

  12. Metal-silicate fractionation in the surface dust layers of accreting planetesimals: Implications for the formation of ordinary chondrites and the nature of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoxiong; Akridge, Glen; Sears, Derek W. G.

    Some of the most primitive solar system materials available for study in the laboratory are the ordinary chondrites, the largest meteorite class. The size and distribution of the chondrules (silicate beads) and metal, which leads to the definition of the H, L, and LL classes, suggest sorting before or during aggregation. We suggest that meteorite parent bodies (probably asteroids) had thick dusty surfaces during their early evolution that were easily mobilized by gases evolving from their interiors. Density and size sorting would have occurred in the surface layers as the upward drag forces of the gases (mainly water) acted against the downward force of gravity. The process is analogous to the industrially important process of fluidization and sorting in pyroclastic volcanics. We calculate that gas flow velocities and gas fluxes for the regolith of an asteroid-sized object heated by the impact of accreting objects or by 26Al would have been sufficient for fluidization. It can also explain, quantitatively in some cases, the observed metal-silicate sorting of ordinary chondrites, which has long been ascribed to processes occurring in the primordial solar nebula. Formation of the chondrites in the thick dynamic regolith is consistent with the major properties of chondritic meteorites (i.e., redox state, petrologic type, cooling rate, matrix abundance). These ideas have implications for the nature of asteroid surfaces and the virtual lack of asteroids with ordinary chondrite-like surfaces.

  13. Studying Antarctic Ordinary Chondrite (OC) and Miller Range (MIL) Nakhlite Meteorites to Assess Carbonate Formation on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael Ellis

    Carbonates are found in meteorites collected from Antarctica. The stable isotope composition of these carbonates records their formation environment on either Earth or Mars. The first research objective of this dissertation is to characterize the delta18O and delta 13C values of terrestrial carbonates formed on Ordinary Chondrites (OCs) collected in regions near known martian meteorites. The second objective is to characterize the delta18O and delta13C values of martian carbonates from Nakhlites collected from the Miller Range (MIL). The third objective is to assess environmental changes on Mars since the Noachian period. The OCs selected had no pre-terrestrial carbonates so any carbonates detected are presumed terrestrial in origin. The study methodology is stepped extraction of CO2 created from phosphoric acid reaction with meteorite carbonate. Stable isotope results show that two distinct terrestrial carbonate species (Ca-rich and Fe/Mg-rich) formed in Antarctica on OCs from a thin-film of meltwater containing dissolved CO2. Carbon isotope data suggests the terrestrial carbonates formed in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 delta 13C = -7.5‰ at >15°C. The wide variation in delta 18O suggests the carbonates did not form in equilibrium with meteoric water alone, but possibly formed from an exchange of oxygen isotopes in both water and dissolved CO2. Antarctica provides a model for carbonate formation in a low water/rock ratio, near 0°C environment like modern Mars. Nakhlite parent basalt formed on Mars 1.3 billion years ago and the meteorites were ejected by a single impact approximately 11 million years ago. They traveled thru space before eventually falling to the Earth surface 10,000-40,000 years ago. Nakhlite samples for this research were all collected from the Miller Range (MIL) in Antarctica. The Nakhlite stable isotope results show two carbonate species (Ca-rich and Fe/Mg-rich) with a range of delta18O values that are similar to the terrestrial OC

  14. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  15. Comparison of Nickel XANES Spectra and Elemental Maps from a Ureilite, a LL3.8 Ordinary Chondrite, Two Carbonaceous Chondrites and Two Large Cluster IDPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel in the extraterrestrial world is commonly found in both Fe-Ni sulfide and Fe-Ni met-al forms [1] and in the pure metal state in the interior of iron meteorites where it is not easily oxidized. Ni is also found in olivine, pyroxene and glasses and in some melts the partitioning of Ni between the olivines and glass is controlled by the amount of S in the melt [2]. Its most common valence state is Ni(2+) but Ni also occurs as Ni(0), Ni(+), and Ni(3+) and rarely as Ni(2-), Ni(1-) and Ni(4+) [3]. It's valence state in olivines is Ni(2+) in octa-hedral coordination on the M1 site and rarely on the M2 site.[4]. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorp-tion near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well established and can be used to determine not only va-lence states but also coordination sites [5]. We report here Ni XANES spectroscopy and elemental maps collected from 2 carbonaceous chondrites, 2 large clus-ter IDPs, 1 ureilite and 1 LL3 orginary chondrite.Using XANES it may be possible to find a common trait in the large cluster IDPs that will also be found in mete-orite samples.

  16. Modification of REE distribution of ordinary chondrites from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) hot deserts: Insights into the chemical weathering of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed; D'Orazio, Massimo; Rochette, Pierre; Valenzuela, Millarca; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Mirnejad, Hassan; Sutter, Brad; Hutzler, Aurore; Aboulahris, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) during hot desert weathering of meteorites is investigated. Ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Atacama (Chile) and Lut (Iran) deserts show different variations in REE composition during this process. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data reveal that hot desert OCs tend to show elevated light REE concentrations, relative to OC falls. Chondrites from Atacama are by far the most enriched in REEs and this enrichment is not necessarily related to their degree of weathering. Positive Ce anomaly of fresh chondrites from Atacama and the successive formation of a negative Ce anomaly with the addition of trivalent REEs are similar to the process reported from Antarctic eucrites. In addition to REEs, Sr and Ba also show different concentrations when comparing OCs from different hot deserts. The stability of Atacama surfaces and the associated old terrestrial ages of meteorites from this region give the samples the necessary time to interact with the terrestrial environment and to be chemically modified. Higher REE contents and LREE-enriched composition are evidence of contamination by terrestrial soil. Despite their low degrees of weathering, special care must be taken into account while working on the REE composition of Atacama meteorites for cosmochemistry applications. In contrast, chondrites from the Lut desert show lower degrees of REE modification, despite significant weathering signed by Sr content. This is explained by the relatively rapid weathering rate of the meteorites occurring in the Lut desert, which hampers the penetration of terrestrial material by forming voluminous Fe oxide/oxyhydroxides shortly after the meteorite fall.

  17. Shock-darkening in ordinary chondrites: Determination of the pressure-temperature conditions by shock physics mesoscale modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreau, J.; Kohout, Tomáš; Wünnemann, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 11 (2017), s. 2375-2390 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : chondrites * pressure-temperature conditions * astrophysics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  18. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  19. Weathering of ordinary chondrites from the Atacama Desert, Chile, by Mössbauer spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Avillez, Roberto R.; Valenzuela, Millarca; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe; Scorzelli, Rosa B.

    2013-03-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as DCA. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable localities with semiarid, arid, and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the DCA of San Juan and Pampa de Mejillones, located, respectively, in the Central Depression and the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification, and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan and the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was complemented by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results allow a clear differentiation of the rate of weathering in meteorite samples collected from the San Juan versus the Pampa de Mejillones areas of the Atacama Desert.

  20. Mössbauer parameters of ordinary chondrites influenced by the fit accuracy of the troilite component: an example of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimova, A. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Klencsár, Z. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences (Hungary); Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@gmail.com; Petrova, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z. [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The influence of the fit accuracy of the troilite component in the Mössbauer spectra of ordinary chondrites on the parameters obtained for other spectral components was evaluated using the Mössbauer spectrum of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with light lithology as a typical example. It was shown that with respect to the application of a usual sextet component where quadrupole interaction is taken into account in the first-order perturbation limit, substantial improvement of the spectrum fit can be achieved either by using the full Hamiltonian description of the troilite component or by its formal approximation with the superposition of three symmetric doublet components. Parameter values obtained for the main spectral components related to olivine and pyroxene were not sensitive to the fit of troilite component while parameters of the minor spectral components depended on the way of troilite component fitting.

  1. Room temperature 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy of ordinary chondrites from the Atacama Desert (Chile): constraining the weathering processes on desert meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, M.; Abdu, Y.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Duttine, M.; Morata, D.; Munayco, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the weathering products of 21 meteorites found in the Atacama Desert (Chile) using room temperature 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS). The meteorites are weathered ordinary chondrites (OCs) with unknown terrestrial ages and include the three chemical groups (H, L, and LL). We obtained the percentage of all the Fe-bearing phases for the primary minerals: olivine, pyroxene, troilite and Fe-Ni metal, and for the ferric alteration products (composed of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ component and the magnetically ordered Fe 3+ components) which gives the percentage of oxidation of the samples. From the Moessbauer absorption areas of these oxides, the terrestrial oxidation of the Atacama OC was found in the range from ∼5% to ∼60%. The amount of silicates as well as the opaques decreases at a constant rate with increasing oxidation level.

  2. Chemical and oxygen isotopic properties of ordinary chondrites (H5, L6) from Oman: Signs of isotopic equilibrium during thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Nasir, Sobhi J.; Jabeen, Iffat; Al Rawas, Ahmed; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2017-10-01

    Mean bulk chemical data of recently found H5 and L6 ordinary chondrites from the deserts of Oman generally reflect isochemical features which are consistent with the progressive thermal metamorphism of a common, unequilibrated starting material. Relative differences in abundances range from 0.5-10% in REE (Eu = 14%), 6-13% in siderophile elements (Co = 48%), and >10% in lithophile elements (exceptions are Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, U = >30%) between H5 and L6 groups. These differences may have accounted for variable temperature conditions during metamorphism on their parent bodies. The CI/Mg-normalized mean abundances of refractory lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Sm, Yb, Lu, V) show no resolvable differences between H5 and L6 suggesting that both groups have experienced the same fractionation. The REE diagram shows subtle enrichment in LREE with a flat HREE pattern. Furthermore, overall mean REE abundances are 0.6 × CI with enriched La abundance ( 0.9 × CI) in both groups. Precise oxygen isotope compositions demonstrate the attainment of isotopic equilibrium by progressive thermal metamorphism following a mass-dependent isotope fractionation trend. Both groups show a slope-1/2 line on a three-isotope plot with subtle negative deviation in Δ17O associated with δ18O enrichment relative to δ17O. These deviations are interpreted as the result of liberation of water from phyllosilicates and evaporation of a fraction of the water during thermal metamorphism. The resultant isotope fractionations caused by the water loss are analogous to those occurring between silicate melt and gas phase during CAI and chondrule formation in chondrites and are controlled by cooling rates and exchange efficiency.

  3. A D- and N-15-Rich Micrometer-Sized Aggregate of Organic Matter in a Xenolithic Clast from the Zag Ordinary Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Ito, Motoo; Zolensky, Michael E.; Rahman, Zia; Suga, Hiroki; Nakato, Aiko; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Fries, Marc; Takeichi, Yasuo; Takahashi, Yoshio; hide

    2018-01-01

    The nature and origin of extraterrestrial organic matter are still under debate despite the significant progress in the analyses and experimental approaches in this field over the last five decades. Xenolithic clasts are often found in a wide variety of meteorite groups, some of which contain exotic organic matter (OM). The Zag meteorite is a thermally-metamorphosed H ordinary chondrite. It contains a primitive xenolithic clast that has been proposed to have originated from Ceres, which was accreted to the Zag host asteroid after metamorphism. The cm-sized clast contains abundant large carbon-rich (mostly organic) grains or aggregates up to 20 microns. Such large OM grains are unique among astromaterials with respect to the size. Here we report organic and isotope analyses of a large (approx.10 microns) aggregate of solid OM in the Zag clast. The X-ray micro-spectroscopic technique revealed that the OM has sp2 bonded carbon with no other functional groups nor graphitic feature (1s-sigma exciton), and thus it is distinguished from most of the OM in carbonaceous meteorites. The apparent absence of functional groups in the OM suggests that it is composed of hydrocarbon networks with less heteroatoms, and therefore the OM aggregate is similar to hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC). The OM aggregate has high D/H and 15N/14N ratios, suggesting that it originated in a very cold environment such as the interstellar medium or outer region of the solar nebula, while the OM is embedded in carbonate-bearing matrix resulting from aqueous activities. Thus the high D/H ratio must have survived the extensive late-stage aqueous processing. It is not in the case for OM in carbonaceous chondrites of which the D/H ratio was reduced by the alteration via the D-H exchange of water. It indicates that both the OM precursors and the water had high D/H ratios, similar to the water in Enceladus. Our results support the idea that the clast originated from Ceres, or at least, a

  4. Reconstruction of the Exposure Histories of 20 Allan Hills Ordinary Chondrites on the Basis of Cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, Noble Gases, and Cosmic Ray Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, U.; Knauer, M.; Michel, R.; Loeken, Th.; Schultz, L.; Dittrich-Hannen, B.; Suter, M.; Kubik, P. W.; Metzler, K.; Romstedt, J.

    1995-09-01

    Twenty ordinary chondrites from the 1988/89 meteorite search (ALH 88004, 88008, 88010, 88011, 88013, 88016 to 88021, 88026 to 88031, 88033, 88039, 88042) [1,2] were investigated for 10Be and 26Al, and for He, Ne and Ar by accelerator and rare gas mass spectrometry, respectively. Cosmic ray tracks were measured in samples of ALH 88019. Using theoretical production rates calculated by a physical model [3] the experimental data are interpreted with respect to the reconstruction of the preatmospheric exposure conditions and exposure histories of the meteoroids. Ordinary chondrites are particularly well suited to exemplify the capabilities of an interpretation of many cosmogenic nuclides measured in one sample. Model calculations of GCR production rates were performed for 10Be, 26Al, 3He, 21Ne, 22Ne and 38Ar as reported elsewhere [4,5]. For all meteorites, except for ALH 88019, the cosmogenic nuclide data can be explained by simple one stage exposure histories between 3 Ma and 44 Ma in meteoroids with radii between 5 cm and 85 cm. Exposure ages were derived from cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar on the basis of the theoretical production rates as function of3He/21Ne and 22Ne/21Ne as well as on the empirical ones proposed by Eugster [6]. The average ratios of exposure ages determined from theoretical production rates to those calculated according to Eugster [6] were 1.08+/-0.11, 1.11+/-0.25 and 1.12+/-0.17 in case of 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar, respectively. Repeated measurements of 10Be and 26Al in ALH 88019 resulted in 10.4+/-1.3 dpm/kg and 5.6+/-0.5 dpm/kg, respectively. But, the cosmogenic rare gas concentrations point to a (single stage) exposure age of 39 Ma in a meteoroid. This is in accordance with a measured cosmic ray track density in olivine of 2.8 * 10^6 cm^-2. The samples are from depths betwen 3 cm and 8 cm. Based on the track data we obtain a minimum meteoroid radius of 8 cm. The low 10Be and 26Al cannot be explained by a one stage exposure history and a long

  5. "Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs

    2013-10-01

    The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 μg g-1 (median 2500 μg g-1) as compared to 187-14140 μg g-1 in soils (median 1148 μg g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

  6. The Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites: A new grouplet with high. Delta. sup 17 O and evidence for nebular oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, M.K. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States) Brooklyn Coll., NY (United States)); Prinz, M. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)); Kojima, Hideyasu; Yanai, Keizo (National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan)); Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Carlisle Lakes, ALH85151, and Y75302 are similar ungrouped chondrites which have petrologic and bulk compositional similarities to the ordinary chondrites, but are more oxidized; and their oxygen isotopic compositions differ. They represent a new grouplet which the authors call the Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites. They have the highest {Delta}{sup 17}O values (up to 2.91) measured to date. The whole chondrites and most of their chondrules plot on the same mass fractionation line on an oxygen 3-isotope diagram. They are olivine rich (>70 vol%), essentially metal free, and most olivine is FeO rich, equilibrated at Fa{sub 38}. Rare olivine and pyroxene grains in chondrules and fragments are zoned, and these are important in discerning the history of these chondrites. The zoning does not appear to have formed during crystallization from a melt droplet chondrule, but post-dated chondrule formation. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain the zoning: (1) parent-body thermal metamorphism and (2) nebular gas-solid exchange reactions accompanied by condensation of new FeO-rich olivine, utilizing existing olivine surfaces as nucleation sites. The occurrence of steep Fe-Mg compositional gradients of core-to-rim profiles, oscillatory zoning in olivine, fayalitic rims of Fa{sub 45} that exceed instead of approach the equilibrium composition of the matrix (Fa{sub 38}), and olivine-filled veins in zoned pyroxenes are more compatible with the nebular hypothesis. The Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites may have originally been derived from an ordinary chondrite-like precursor which was later oxidized, prior to its final lithification. However, the oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole chondrites and most of their chondrules suggest that the precursor probably formed in an oxygen isotopically distinct environment.

  7. Tellurium stable isotope fractionation in chondritic meteorites and some terrestrial samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Manuela A.; Hammond, Samantha J.; Parkinson, Ian J.

    2018-02-01

    New methodologies employing a 125Te-128Te double-spike were developed and applied to obtain high precision mass-dependent tellurium stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and some terrestrial samples by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analyses of standard solutions produce Te stable isotope data with a long-term reproducibility (2SD) of 0.064‰ for δ130/125Te. Carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites display a range in δ130/125Te of 0.9‰ (0.2‰ amu-1) in their Te stable isotope signature, whereas ordinary chondrites present larger Te stable isotope fractionation, in particular for unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, with an overall variation of 6.3‰ for δ130/125Te (1.3‰ amu-1). Tellurium stable isotope variations in ordinary chondrites display no correlation with Te contents or metamorphic grade. The large Te stable isotope fractionation in ordinary chondrites is likely caused by evaporation and condensation processes during metamorphism in the meteorite parent bodies, as has been suggested for other moderately and highly volatile elements displaying similar isotope fractionation. Alternatively, they might represent a nebular signature or could have been produced during chondrule formation. Enstatite chondrites display slightly more negative δ130/125Te compared to carbonaceous chondrites and equilibrated ordinary chondrites. Small differences in the Te stable isotope composition are also present within carbonaceous chondrites and increase in the order CV-CO-CM-CI. These Te isotope variations within carbonaceous chondrites may be due to mixing of components that have distinct Te isotope signatures reflecting Te stable isotope fractionation in the early solar system or on the parent bodies and potentially small so-far unresolvable nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of up to 0.27‰. The Te stable isotope data of carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites displays a general correlation with the oxidation state and hence might

  8. Silurian Micrometeorite Flux: The Demise of the Mid-Ordovician L-Chondrite Reign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Schmitz, B.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's sedimentary record holds information about the micrometeorite flux through time, reflecting the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Around 466 Ma ago in the mid-Ordovician period the L-chondrite parent body breakup (LCPB) took place in the main asteroid belt causing a massive increase, up to two orders of magnitude, in the flux of meteorites to Earth (Schmitz, 2013). What did the meteorite flux look like after the breakup event? And when in time can we see a decrease in the fraction of L-chondritic micrometeorites? We dissolved in acids condensed, marine limestone representing the mid-Ordovician and the late Silurian about 0.5 and 40 Ma, respectively after the LCPB, and searched the residues for spinel grains from equilibrated ordinary chondrites (EC). We used 102 kg from the mid-Ordovician Komstad Limestone Formation, Killeröd quarry in Sweden, and 321 kg from the Silurian Kok Formation, Cellon section in Austria. Elemental analyses of the spinel grains were used to link the grains to different types of meteorites. In the large grain size fraction (63-355 µm) there are 4.5 EC grains/kg of rock in the mid-Ordovician sample and only 0.03 EC grains/kg in the Silurian sample. Because the two formations formed at about the same rate (a few mm per kyr) the results represent strong evidence for a major tailing off in the L-chondritic meteorite contribution by the late Silurian. The EC grains have been divided into the H, L, and LL groups based on the TiO2 content. The results show that the fraction of L chondrites compared to H and LL chondrites had declined significantly by the late Silurian. In the study of Heck et al. (2016) it was shown that ≥99% of the ordinary chondritic micrometeorites were L chondrites right after the LCPB. Our data indicate that the L-chondrite fraction had decreased to 60% by the Silurian, with the H and LL chondrites making up 30% and 10% respectively of the flux.

  9. The compositional classification of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallemeyn, G.W.; Wasson, J.T.; California Univ., Los Angeles; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1985-01-01

    Six specimens of unusual chondritic materials were analyzed by neutron activation for 30 elements in order to assess their degree of chondritic compositional pristinity and to search for evidence of genetic links to other chondrites. Five have highly recrystallized textures: the other, the Cumberland Falls chondrite, has suffered minor metamorphic recrystallization. Acapulco and Allan Hills A77081, are closely related and have subpristine compositions; they are more distantly related to Enon which has an altered composition. Udei Station appears to be a IAB meteorite even though its FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratio is slightly above the IAB field. The highly weathered meteorite Tierra Blanca is closely related to IAB but has a delta 18 O value 5 standard deviations higher than the IAB mean, and is designated ungrouped. Udei Station and Tierra Blanca have altered compositions; rare earth element patterns indicate loss of a phosphate phase. The elemental composition of the Cumberland Falls chondrite is virtually identical to that of LL chondrites, and its O-isotope composition is closely similar to those of some unequilibrated ordinary chondrites including LL Semarkona. The FeO/(FeO + MgO) ratios in its olivine are generally much lower than those in pyroxene. (author)

  10. Ordinary chondritic micrometeorites from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Rudraswami, N.G.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.

    spherule has half of the olivines reversely zoned and contain small blebs of almost pure Fe (Fig. 3E, F,G) and the other half of the olivines are normally zoned (i.e., with a Mg-rich core and a Fe-rich rim). This is reverse of the zoned olivines commonly... half of the olivines which are dusty in appearance and the rest of the olivines show normal zoning (Fig .3 F, G). The dusty olivines in this porphyritic spherule contain several large blebs of almost pure Fe (Fig. 3G). Another relict grain...

  11. Santa Lucia (2008) (L6) Chondrite, a Recent Fall: Composition, Noble Gases, Nitrogen and Cosmic Ray Exposure Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Varela, Maria Eugenia; Joron, Jean Louis

    2016-04-01

    The Santa Lucia (2008)—one the most recent Argentine meteorite fall, fell in San Juan province, Argentina, on 23 January 2008. Several masses (total ~6 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour. Chemical data [olivine (Fa24.4) and low-Ca pyroxene (En77.8 Fs20.7 Wo1.6)] indicate that Santa Luica (2008) is a member of the low iron L chondrite group, corresponding to the equilibrated petrologic type 6. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (NomCom) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin, no. 97). We report about the chemical composition of the major mineral phases, its bulk trace element abundance, its noble gas and nitrogen data. The cosmic ray exposure age based on cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar around 20 Ma is comparable to one peak of L chondrites. The radiogenic K-Ar age of 2.96 Ga, while the young U, Th-He are of 1.2 Ga indicates that Santa Lucia (2008) lost radiogenic 4He more recently. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c and absence of solar wind noble gases are consistent with irradiation in a large body. Heavy noble gases (Ar/Kr/Xe) indicated trapped gases similar to ordinary chondrites. Krypton and neon indicates irradiation in large body, implying large pre-atmospheric meteoroid.

  12. Noble gases, nitrogen, cosmic ray exposure history and mineralogy of Beni M'hira (L6) chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Nejia, Laridhi Ouazaa; Ray, Dwijesh; Naik, Sekhar

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon(Xe) and nitrogen were measured in the Beni M'hira L6 chondrite. The cosmic ray exposure age of Beni M'hira is estimated of 15.6 ± 3.7 (Ma). The radiogenic age, of around 485 ± 64 Ma, derived from 4He, and of around 504 ± 51 Ma from 40Ar, suggests an age resetting indicating the event impact. The heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr and Xe) concentrations imply that the gas is a mixture of trapped component Q and solar wind. The measured nitrogen abundance of 0.74 ppm and the isotopic signature of δ15N = 14.6‰ are within the range of ordinary chondrites. The homogeneous chemical composition of olivine (Fa:26 ± 0.25) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs:22.4 ± 0.29) suggest that the Beni M'hira meteorite is an equilibrated chondrite. This is further corroborated by strong chondrule-matrix textural integration (lack of chondrules, except a few relict clast). Shock metamorphism generally corresponds to S5 (>45 GPa), however, locally disequilibrium melting (shock-melt veins) suggests, that the peak shock metamorphism was at ∼75 GPa, 950 °C.

  13. Do L chondrites come from the Gefion family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.

    2018-05-01

    Ordinary chondrites (H, L, and LL chondrites) are the most common type of meteorites comprising 80 per cent of the meteorites that fall on Earth. The source region of these meteorites in the main asteroid belt has been a basis of considerable debate in the small bodies community. L chondrites have been proposed to come from the Gefion asteroid family, based on dynamical models. We present results from our observational campaign to verify a link between the Gefion asteroid family and L chondrite meteorites. Near-infrared spectra of Gefion family asteroids (1839) Ragazza, (2373) Immo, (2386) Nikonov, (2521) Heidi, and (3860) Plovdiv were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Spectral band parameters including band centres and the band area ratio were measured from each spectrum and used to constrain the composition of these asteroids. Based on our results, we found that some members of the Gefion family have surface composition similar to that of H chondrites, primitive achondrites, and basaltic achondrites. No evidence was found for L chondrites among the Gefion family members in our small sample study. The diversity of compositional types observed in the Gefion asteroid family suggests that the original parent body might be partially differentiated or that the three asteroids with non-ordinary chondrite compositions might be interlopers.

  14. The Thermal Properties of CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.; Opeil, C.

    2017-12-01

    The physical properties of asteroid exploration targets are fundamental parameters for developing models, planning observations, mission operations, reducing operational risk, and interpreting mission results. Until we have returned samples, meteorites represent our "ground truth" for the geological material we expect to interact with, sample, and interpret on the surfaces of asteroids. The physical properties of the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CI, C2, CM, and CR groups) are of particular interest because of their high resource potential. We have measured the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion of five CM carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison, Murray, Cold Bokkeveld, NWA 7309, Jbilet Winselwan) at low temperatures (5-300 K) to mimic the conditions in the asteroid belt. The mineralogy of these meteorites are dominated by abundant hydrous phyllosilicates, but also contain anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene found in chondrules. The thermal expansion measurements for all these CMs indicate a substantial increase in meteorite volume as temperature decreases from 230 - 210 K followed by linear contraction below 210 K. Such transitions were unexpected and are not typical for anhydrous carbonaceous chondrites or ordinary chondrites. Our thermal diffusivity results compare well with previous estimates for similar meteorites, where conductivity was derived from diffusivity measurements and modeled heat capacities; our new values are of a higher precision and cover a wider range of temperatures.

  15. Biophase equilibration times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veng-Pedersen, P; Mandema, J W; Danhof, M

    1991-09-01

    Various methods for describing how quickly a drug equilibrates at the biophase are proposed. The biophase equilibration time (BET) is the time it takes the biophase drug level to reach a given percentage (p) of its predicted steady state in a drug administration that leads to a steady-state condition. The time to reach biophase equilibrium may be defined as the BET value for p = 95, and the 50% biophase equilibration time is obtained when p = 50. Biophase equilibration profiles (BEPs), obtained by plotting p versus BET, give a dynamic representation of the approach to equilibrium and may serve as an indicator of the rate of drug delivery to the biophase. A pharmacodynamic system analysis method is proposed to determine BETs and BEPs from the biophase conduction function. The approach is demonstrated using pharmacodynamic data from the CNS effect of amobarbital evaluated by an aperiodic analysis of EEG recordings. The relevance of the BET and/or BEP principles in optimal computer-controlled drug infusion, drug design, and evaluation of targeted drug delivery is discussed. Both vascular and extravascular drug administrations are considered in the analysis.

  16. Comparative 187Re-187Os systematics of chondrites: Implications regarding early solar system processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.J.; Horan, M.F.; Morgan, J.W.; Becker, H.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 47 carbonaceous, enstatite, and ordinary chondrites are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. There are significant differences in the 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites compared with ordinary and enstatite chondrites. The average 187Re/188Os for carbonaceous chondrites is 0.392 ?? 0.015 (excluding the CK chondrite, Karoonda), compared with 0.422 ?? 0.025 and 0.421 ?? 0.013 for ordinary and enstatite chondrites (1?? standard deviations). These ratios, recast into elemental Re/Os ratios, are as follows: 0.0814 ?? 0.0031, 0.0876 ?? 0.0052 and 0.0874 ?? 0.0027 respectively. Correspondingly, the 187Os/188Os ratios of carbonaceous chondrites average 0.1262 ?? 0.0006 (excluding Karoonda), and ordinary and enstatite chondrites average 0.1283 ?? 0.0017 and 0.1281 ?? 0.0004, respectively (1?? standard deviations). The new results indicate that the Re/Os ratios of meteorites within each group are, in general, quite uniform. The minimal overlap between the isotopic compositions of ordinary and enstatite chondrites vs. carbonaceous chondrites indicates long-term differences in Re/Os for these materials, most likely reflecting chemical fractionation early in solar system history. A majority of the chondrites do not plot within analytical uncertainties of a 4.56-Ga reference isochron. Most of the deviations from the isochron are consistent with minor, relatively recent redistribution of Re and/or Os on a scale of millimeters to centimeters. Some instances of the redistribution may be attributed to terrestrial weathering; others are most likely the result of aqueous alteration or shock events on the parent body within the past 2 Ga. The 187Os/188Os ratio of Earth's primitive upper mantle has been estimated to be 0.1296 ?? 8. If this composition was set via addition of a late veneer of planetesimals after core formation, the composition suggests the veneer was dominated by materials that had Re/Os ratios most similar to ordinary and

  17. Effect of NaCrSi2O6 component on Lindsley's pyroxene thermometer: An evaluation based on strongly metamorphosed LL chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamuta, Y.; Urata, K.; Shibata, Y.; Kuwahara, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Lindsley's thermometry, a revised sequence of calculation of components is proposed for clinopyroxene, in which kosmochlor component is added. Temperatures obtained for the components calculated by the revised method are about 50 °C lower than those obtained for the components calculated by the Lindsley's original method and agree well with temperatures obtained from orthopyroxenes. Ca-partitioning between clino- and orthopyroxenes is then thought to be equilibrated in types 5 to 7 ordinary chondrites. The temperatures for Tuxtuac (LL5), Dhurmsala (LL6), NWA 2092 (LL6/7), and Dho 011 (LL7) are 767-793°, 818-835°, 872-892°, and 917-936°C, respectively, suggesting that chondrites of higher petrographic types show higher equilibrium temperatures of pyroxenes. The regression equations which relate temperature and Wo and Fs contents in the temperature-contoured pyroxene quadrilateral of 1 atm of Lindsley (1983) are also determined by the least squares method. It is possible to reproduce temperatures with an error less than 20 °C (2SE) using the regression equations.

  18. Chemical equilibration of antihyperons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, C.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid chemical equilibration of antihyperons by means of the interplay between strong annihilation on baryons and the corresponding backreactions of multi-mesonic (fusion-type) processes in the later, hadronic stage of an ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision will be discussed. Explicit rate calculations for a dynamical setup are presented. At maximum SPS energies yields of each antihyperon specie are obtained which are consistent with chemical saturated populations of T∼150-160 MeV. The proposed picture supports dynamically the popular chemical freeze-out parameters extracted within thermal models. (orig.)

  19. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. IX. C3 chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E; Higuchi, H; Ganapathy, R; Morgan, J W [Chicago Univ., Ill. (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1976-09-01

    Four C3V chondrites (Grosnaja, Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano) and three C30 chondrites (Felic, Kainsaz, and Lance) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for 17 trace elements. Both classes show a typical chondritic step pattern, reflecting loss of volatiles during chondrule formation. Elements condensing above 1300 K (U, Re, Ir, Ni) are present in essentially C1 chondrite proportions, while moderately volatile elements condensing between 1300 K and 800 K (Ge, Rb, Ag) are depleted by a factor of 0.44. However, elements condensing below 700 K (S, Cs, Bi, Tl, Br, Se, Te, In, Cd) are depleted to a still greater degree, and more so in the Ornans subclass (factor of 0.24, except Cd 0.007) than in the Vigarano subclass (factor of 0.29). This additional depletion may be due to a slight (less than 3-fold) dust-gas fractionation, by settling of dust to the median plane of the solar nebula. Among other chondrite classes, ordinary chondrites show a similar depletion, but C2 chondrites do not. Possibly the undepleted meteorites formed in one of the convection zones of the nebula predicted by Cameron and Pine, whereas the depleted meteorites formed in a quiescent region. The condensation of chalocophile elements as a function of H/sub 2/S partial pressure is discussed, in an attempt to explain the drastic difference in Cd abundance between the two subclasses. It appears that the H/sub 2/S/H/sub 2/ ratio is the key variable. C30's seem to have condensed in a region where enough metallic Fe was present to buffer the H/sub 2/S pressure, while C3V's condensed in a more oxidized region, where H/sub 2/S was in excess. Accretion temperatures, for an assumed nebular pressure of 10/sup -5/ atm, were between 415 and 430 K for C30's and less than 440 K for CeV's.

  20. Long-lived magnetism on chondrite parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Bates, Helena C.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Russell, Sara S.; Genge, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We present evidence for both early- and late-stage magnetic activity on the CV and L/LL parent bodies respectively from chondrules in Vigarano and Bjurböle. Using micro-CT scans to re-orientate chondrules to their in-situ positions, we present a new micron-scale protocol for the paleomagnetic conglomerate test. The paleomagnetic conglomerate test determines at 95% confidence, whether clasts within a conglomerate were magnetized before or after agglomeration, i.e., for a chondritic meteorite whether the chondrules carry a pre- or post-accretionary remanent magnetization. We found both meteorites passed the conglomerate test, i.e., the chondrules had randomly orientated magnetizations. Vigarano's heterogeneous magnetization is likely of shock origin, due to the 10 to 20 GPa impacts that brecciated its precursor material on the parent body and transported it to re-accrete as the Vigarano breccia. The magnetization was likely acquired during the break-up of the original body, indicating a CV parent body dynamo was active ∼9 Ma after Solar System formation. Bjurböle's magnetization is due to tetrataenite, which transformed from taenite as the parent body cooled to below 320 °C, when an ambient magnetic field imparted a remanence. We argue either the high intrinsic anisotropy of tetrataenite or brecciation on the parent body manifests as a randomly orientated distribution, and a L/LL parent body dynamo must have been active at least 80 to 140 Ma after peak metamorphism. Primitive chondrites did not originate from entirely primitive, never molten and/or differentiated parent bodies. Primitive chondrite parent bodies consisted of a differentiated interior sustaining a long-lived magnetic dynamo, encrusted by a layer of incrementally accreted primitive meteoritic material. The different ages of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies might indicate a general difference between carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite parent bodies, and/or formation location in the

  1. Insights into chondrule formation process and shock-thermal history of the Dergaon chondrite (H4-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dergaon fall represents a shock-melted H4-5 (S5 ordinary chondrite which includes at least ten textural varieties of chondrules and belongs to the high chondrule-matrix ratio type. Our study reveals that the chondrules are of diverse mineralogy with variable olivine-pyroxene ratios (Type II, igneous melt textures developed under variable cooling rates and formed through melt fractionations from two different melt reservoirs. Based on the experimental analogues, mineralogical associations and phase compositions, it is suggested that the Dergaon chondrules reflect two contrasting environments: a hot, dust-enriched and highly oxidized nebular environment through melting, without significant evaporation, and an arrested reducing environment concomitant with major evaporation loss of alkali and highly volatile trace elements. Coexistence of chlorapatite and merrillite suggests formation of the Dergaon matrix in an acidic accretionary environment. Textural integration and chemical homogenization occurred at ∼1 atmospheric pressure and a mean temperature of 765 °C mark the radiogenic thermal event. Equilibrated shock features (olivine mosaicism, diaplectic plagioclase, polycrystalline troilite due to an impact-induced thermal event reflect a shock pressure >45 GPa and temperature of 600 °C. By contrast, the local disequilibrium shock features (silicate melt veins comprising of olivine crystallites, troilite melt veins and metal droplets correspond to a shock pressure up to 75 GPa and temperature >950 °C.

  2. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track

  3. Magnesium isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Wang-Ye; Ke, Shan; Marty, Bernard; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Pourmand, Ali

    2010-07-01

    To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites, and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during planetary formation and magmatic processes, we report high-precision (±0.06‰ on δ 25Mg and ±0.07‰ on δ 26Mg, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes for (1) 47 mid-ocean ridge basalts covering global major ridge segments and spanning a broad range in latitudes, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; (2) 63 ocean island basalts from Hawaii (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and French Polynesia (Society Island and Cook-Austral chain); (3) 29 peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA; and (4) 38 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites including 9 chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CV, L, LL, H, EH and EL). Oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have similar Mg isotopic compositions, with average values of δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.05 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.07 (2SD) for global oceanic basalts ( n = 110) and δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.03 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 (2SD) for global peridotite xenoliths ( n = 29). The identical Mg isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts and peridotites suggest that equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation during partial melting of peridotite mantle and magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma is negligible. Thirty-eight chondrites have indistinguishable Mg isotopic compositions, with δ 25Mg = -0.15 ± 0.04 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06 (2SD). The constancy of Mg isotopic compositions in all major types of chondrites suggest that primary and secondary processes that affected the chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites did not significantly fractionate Mg isotopes. Collectively, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle, based on oceanic basalts and peridotites, is estimated to be -0.13 ± 0.04 for δ 25Mg and -0.25 ± 0.07 for δ 26Mg (2SD, n = 139). The Mg isotopic composition of the Earth, as represented by the mantle, is similar to chondrites

  4. Laser Ablation Experiments on the Tamdakht H5 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan M.; Stern, Eric

    2017-01-01

    High-powered lasers were used to induce ablation and to form fusion crusts in the lab on Tamdakht H5 chondrites and basalt. These ground tests were undertaken to improve our understanding, and ultimately improve our abilty to model and predict, meteoroid ablation during atmospheric entry. The infrared fiber laser at the LHMEL facilty, operated in the continuous wave (i.e. non-pulsed) mode, provided radiation surface heat flux at levels similar to meteor entry for these tests. Results are presented from the first round of testing on samples of Tamdakht H5 ordinary chondrite which were ex-posed to entry-relevant heating rates between 2 and 10 kWcm2.

  5. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Preservation of ancient impact ages on the R chondrite parent body: 40Ar/39Ar age of hornblende-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Cosca, Michael A.; Morgan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The hornblende- and biotite-bearing R chondrite LAP 04840 is a rare kind of meteorite possibly containing outer solar system water stored during metamorphism or postshock annealing deep within an asteroid. Because little is known regarding its age and origin, we determined 40Ar/39Ar ages on hornblende-rich separates of the meteorite, and obtained plateau ages of 4340(±40) to 4380(±30) Ma. These well-defined plateau ages, coupled with evidence for postshock annealing, indicate this meteorite records an ancient shock event and subsequent annealing. The age of 4340–4380 Ma (or 4.34–4.38 Ga) for this and other previously dated R chondrites is much older than most impact events recorded by ordinary chondrites and points to an ancient event or events that predated the late heavy bombardment that is recorded in so many meteorites and lunar samples.

  7. Clues to the origin of metal in Almahata Sitta EL and EH chondrites and implications for primitive E chondrite thermal histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Marian; Humayun, Munir; Bischoff, Addi

    2014-09-01

    Enstatite (E) chondrites are a group of texturally highly variable meteorites formed under strongly reducing conditions giving rise to unique mineral and chemical characteristics (e.g., high abundances of various sulfides and Si-bearing metal). In particular the abundant metal comprises a range of textures in E chondrites of different petrologic type, but available in situ siderophile trace element data on metal are limited. Nine samples of E chondrites from the recent Almahata Sitta fall [one EH3, two EL3/4, two EL6, two EL impact melt rocks (IMR), two EH IMR] were investigated in this study in addition to St. Mark's (EH5) and Grein 002 (EL4/5), with a focus on the nature of their metal constituents. Special attention was given to metal-silicate intergrowths (MSSI) that occur in many primitive E chondrites, which have been interpreted as post-accretionary asteroidal impact melts or primitive nebular condensates. This study shows that siderophile trace element systematics in E chondrite metal are independent of petrologic type of the host rock and distinct from condensation signatures. Three basic types of siderophile trace element signatures can be distinguished, indicating crystallization from a melt, thermal equilibration upon metamorphism/complete melting, and exsolution of schreibersite-perryite-sulfide. Textural and mineral-chemical constraints from EL3/4s are used to evaluate previously proposed formation processes of MSSI (impact melting vs. nebular condensation) and elucidate which other formation scenarios are feasible. It is shown that post-accretionary (in situ) impact melting or metallic melt injection forming MSSI on the thin section scale, and nebular condensation, are unlikely formation processes. This leads to the conclusion that MSSIs are pre-accretionary melt objects that were formed during melting processes prior to the accretion of the primitive E chondrites. The same can be concluded for metal nodules in the EH3 chondrite examined. The pre

  8. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 1. CI chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Mann, P.

    2011-03-01

    Existing reflectance spectra of CI chondrites (18 spectra of 3 CIs) have been augmented with new (18 spectra of 2 CIs) reflectance spectra to ascertain the spectral variability of this meteorite class and provide insights into their spectral properties as a function of grain size, composition, particle packing, and viewing geometry. Particle packing and viewing geometry effects have not previously been examined for CI chondrites. The current analysis is focused on the 0.3-2.5 μm interval, as this region is available for the largest number of CI spectra. Reflectance spectra of powdered CI1 chondrites are uniformly dark (IOM), as no other CI opaque phase appears able to produce concurrent darkening and bluing. Magnetite can also explain the presence of an absorption feature near 1 μm in some CI spectra. The most blue-sloped spectra are generally associated with the larger grain size samples. For incidence and emission angles <60°, increasing phase angle results in darker and redder spectra, particularly below ∼1 μm. At high incidence angles (60°), increasing emission angle results in brighter and redder spectra. More densely packed samples and underdense (fluffed) samples show lower overall reflectance than normally packed and flat-surface powdered samples. Some B-class asteroids exhibit selected spectral properties consistent with CI chondrites, although perfect spectral matches have not been found. Because many CI chondrite spectra exhibit absorption features that can be related to specific mineral phases, the search for CI parent bodies can fruitfully be conducted using such parameters.

  9. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  10. Equilibration Influence on Jet Energy Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Luan; Wang Enke

    2010-01-01

    With the initial conditions in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC, we investigate the consequence for parton evolution. With considering the parton equilibration, we obtain the time dependence of the opacity when the jet propagates through the QGP medium. The parton equilibration affect the jet energy loss with detailed balance evidently. Both parton energy loss from stimulated emission in the chemical non-equilibrated expanding medium and in Bjorken expanding medium are linear dependent on the propagating distance rather than square dependent in the static medium. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss.

  11. The neodymium stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth and chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-West, Alex J.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Burton, Kevin W.

    2017-12-01

    The non-chondritic neodymium (Nd) 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the silicate Earth potentially provides a key constraint on the accretion and early evolution of the Earth. Yet, it is debated whether this offset is due to the Earth being formed from material enriched in s-process Nd isotopes or results from an early differentiation process such as the segregation of a late sulfide matte during core formation, collisional erosion or a some combination of these processes. Neodymium stable isotopes are potentially sensitive to early sulfide segregation into Earth's core, a process that cannot be resolved using their radiogenic counterparts. This study presents the first comprehensive Nd stable isotope data for chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Stable Nd measurements were made using a double spike technique coupled with thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. All three of the major classes of chondritic meteorites, carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites have broadly similar isotopic compositions allowing calculation of a chondritic mean of δ146/144Nd = -0.025 ± 0.025‰ (±2 s.d.; n = 39). Enstatite chondrites yield the most uniform stable isotope composition (Δ146/144Nd = 26 ppm), with considerably more variability observed within ordinary (Δ146/144Nd = 72 ppm) and carbonaceous meteorites (Δ146/144Nd = 143 ppm). Terrestrial weathering, nucleosynthetic variations and parent body thermal metamorphism appear to have little measurable effect on δ146/144Nd in chondrites. The small variations observed between ordinary chondrite groups most likely reflect inherited compositional differences between parent bodies, with the larger variations observed in carbonaceous chondrites being linked to varying modal proportions of calcium-aluminium rich inclusions. The terrestrial samples analysed here include rocks ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition, MORB glasses and residual mantle lithologies. All of these terrestrial rocks possess a broadly similar Nd

  12. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, William

    1995-01-01

    Building on introductory calculus courses, this text provides a sound foundation in the underlying principles of ordinary differential equations. Important concepts, including uniqueness and existence theorems, are worked through in detail and the student is encouraged to develop much of the routine material themselves, thus helping to ensure a solid understanding of the fundamentals required.The wide use of exercises, problems and self-assessment questions helps to promote a deeper understanding of the material and it is developed in such a way that it lays the groundwork for further

  13. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Richard K

    1982-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

  14. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  15. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  16. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  17. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  18. Equilibrator: Modeling Chemical Equilibria with Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrator is a Microsoft Excel program for learning about chemical equilibria through modeling, similar in function to EQS4WIN, which is no longer supported and does not work well with newer Windows operating systems. Similar to EQS4WIN, Equilibrator allows the user to define a system with temperature, initial moles, and then either total…

  19. Multiscale approach to equilibrating model polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Ali Karimi-Varzaneh, Hossein; Hojdis, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present an effective and simple multiscale method for equilibrating Kremer Grest model polymer melts of varying stiffness. In our approach, we progressively equilibrate the melt structure above the tube scale, inside the tube and finally at the monomeric scale. We make use of models designed...

  20. Ordinary and extraordinary means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-25

    The Roman Catholic doctrine of ordinary and extraordinary means in patient care decisions is the subject of this essay in Gillon's series on medical ethics. He briefly traces the Church history of this doctrine, which holds that saving life is not obligatory if doing so would be excessively burdensome or disproportionate in relation to the expected benefits. The burdens and benefits are to be weighed in the context of "circumstances of persons, places, times, and cultures," and factors such as the costs and risks of undergoing a proposed treatment may be considered. Gillon also notes the disagreement among Roman Catholic commentators over whether it is ever permissible to discontinue feeding as a burdensome, extraordinary treatment. He concludes that, despite different weightings of harms and benefits, Roman Catholic and non-Catholic thinkers are in accord over the appropriate moral approach to deciding when treatment is not obligatory.

  1. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    that the Danes are encouraged to be alert to still earlier and vaguer bodily signs of potential cancer and seek care ‘in time’. With biomedical constructions such as ‘cancer awareness’ and ‘alarm symptoms of cancer’ and the retrospectively oriented definition of life before symptoms-based healthcare seeking...... and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... on a continuum between what is locally considered ordinary and extraordinary. Overall, the dissertation argues that inquiries into morality and potentiality provide valuable insights into healthcare seeking practices and the making and management of symptoms in everyday life. The dissertation is based on 18...

  2. Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Méndez, P; Lázaro-Lázaro, E; Sánchez-Díaz, L E; Ramírez-González, P E; Pérez-Ángel, G; Medina-Noyola, M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.

  3. New component of the Mezo-Madaras breccia - a microchondrule- and carbon-bearing L-related chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Levy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Microchondrules with apparent diameters 2-150 microns are found in a black carbon-bearing inclusion in Mazo-Madaras. Some are homogeneous (glassy or microcrystalline); others show two phases (mainly silica and pyroxene-rich glass). The bulk chemical composition of the inclusion is related to the host chondrite, in which silica-pyroxene chondrules are ubiquitous. Small black lumps of the same kind are dispersed in bulk Mezo-madaras. This L-related carbon-bearing material may represent a new specimen of C-rich ordinary chondrite. 13 references

  4. LEW 88180, LEW 87119, and ALH 85119: New EH6, EL7, and EL4 Enstatite Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-07-01

    % Ni and alabandite with 22% FeS, confirming its classification as the first EL4 chondrite. The LEW87119 meteorite has kamacite with 1.5% Si and 9.1% Ni, troilite with 2.9% Cr and 0.64% Ti, and alabandite with the highest FeS (49%) recorded for EL chondrites. Since the meteorite does not appear to be shocked or impact melted (it has medium-grained texture with the slightest indication of chondrules and normal metal and sulfide distribution) and the phase chemistry clearly indicates a higher equilibration temperature than the EL6 chondrites, for the time being we propose to call LEW87119 an EL7 chondrite. With the discovery in the last decade or so of a number of low-petrologic-type EH chondrites and the present discovery of EH6 and EL7 chondrites, the EH class and the EL class now appear to be comparable in their range of mineral compositions and thereby equilibration temperatures. The highest equilibration temperature for the EL chondrites is now ~700 degrees C, which is close to that of EH6 chondrite (Fig. 2). Equilibration temperatures for the EL6 chondrites are similar to those of EH4 chondrites. It may be that EH and EL classes have more similar thermal histories than previously supposed and that it is purely the textures of the two classes that are widely different and in need of further research. References: [1] Keil K. (1968) JGR, 73, 6945-6976. [2] Sears D. W. G. and Weeks K. S. (1984) Nature, 308, 257-259. [3] Skinner B. J. and Luce F. D. (1971) Amer. Min., 56, 1269-1296. [4] Zhang Y. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 310-311. [5] Weeks K. S.and Sears D. W. G. (1985) GCA, 49, 1525-1536. [6] Mason in Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter (1986, 1987, 1989, and 1990) 9(3), 10(2), 12(1,3), and 13(2,3). [7] Lin Y. T. et al. (1991) LPSC XXII, 811-812. [8] Chang Y. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII, 217-218.

  5. Equilibration and thermalization in finite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I

    2011-01-01

    Experiments with trapped atomic gases have opened novel possibilities for studying the evolution of nonequilibrium finite quantum systems, which revived the necessity of reconsidering and developing the theory of such processes. This review analyzes the basic approaches to describing the phenomena of equilibration, thermalization, and decoherence in finite quantum systems. Isolated, nonisolated, and quasi-isolated quantum systems are considered. The relations between equilibration, decoherence, and the existence of time arrow are emphasized. The possibility for the occurrence of rare events, preventing complete equilibration, are mentioned

  6. Chemical equilibration due to heavy Hagedorn states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, C; Koch-Steinheimer, P; Liu, F M; Shovkovy, I A; Stoecker, H

    2005-01-01

    A scenario of heavy resonances, called massive Hagedorn states, is proposed which exhibits a fast (t ∼ 1 fm/c) chemical equilibration of (strange) baryons and anti-baryons at the QCD critical temperature T c . For relativistic heavy ion collisions this scenario predicts that hadronization is followed by a brief expansion phase during which the equilibration rate is higher than the expansion rate, so that baryons and antibaryons reach chemical equilibrium before chemical freeze-out occurs

  7. Water and deuterium content of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Francois

    1978-01-01

    The main objective of this research thesis which deals with meteorite study, is to develop an experimental technique to measure the hydrogen isotopic rate in the case of very low quantities of hydrogen, notably in samples in which water content is hundred or thousand times less than in reported experiments, in order to study mechanisms of alteration of chondrites. The author reports an attempt to reconcile obtained results for isotopic rates as well as for water contents with those of the main existing models of chondrite formation. He proposes a detailed description of isotopic exchange mechanisms at low temperature, and shows that this mechanism is not in disagreement with literature published on chondrites

  8. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  9. Evidence favoring an internally generated dynamo in the H chondrite parent planetesimal from the Forest Vale meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzin, B. L.; Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2016-12-01

    Chondritic meteorites are traditionally assumed to originate from undifferentiated asteroids due to their unmelted texture and composition. This implies that their parent bodies should not have formed a core or generated a dynamo. However, recent measurements of the H chondrite Portales Valley (Bryson et al., this meeting) observed post-accretional remanent magnetization interpreted as a record of a core dynamo, indicating that some chondrite parent bodies were partially differentiated. However, it has been proposed that the H chondrites may have been magnetized instead by a crustal remanent field. If this crustal magnetization was imparted by an early external source, such as nebular fields or even the solar wind, then the magnetization of H chondrites may not require a core dynamo. To test this hypothesis, we measured the magnetic properties of the Forest Vale H4 ordinary chondrite. Forest Vale cooled quickly (10000 K/My) and so would have acquired magnetization that represents the bulk of the H chondrite parent body's crust during the first 10 My of the solar system. Based on alternating field and pressure demagnetization experiments of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization, we conclude that Forest Vale contains no ancient magnetization and, due to its poor intrinsic magnetic recording properties, is unable to acquire a magnetization that is stable against even weak shocks (0.2 GPa). Furthermore, we show that a crust composed of Forest-Vale-like material magnetized by the upper limit field intensities expected for the nebula and solar wind fields (50 μT and 1 μT, respectively) produces an insufficient crustal remanent field (<2.5 μT and <0.045 μT, respectively) to explain the paleointensity recorded by Portales Valley ( 10 μT). Thus, we conclude that the field that magnetization Portales Valley is unlikely to be from a crustal remanence magnetized by early external fields, favoring a partially differentiated asteroid

  10. The origin and evolution of chondrites recorded in the elemental and isotopic compositions of their macromolecular organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Fogel, M.; Yabuta, H.; Cody, G. D.

    2007-09-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter in meteorites potentially retains a unique record of synthesis and chemical/thermal modification by parent body, nebular and even presolar processes. In a survey of the elemental and isotopic compositions of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from 75 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites, we find dramatic variations within and between chondrite classes. There is no evidence that these variations correlate with the time and/or location of chondrite formation, or with any primary petrologic or bulk compositional features that are associated with nebular processes (e.g., chondrule and volatile trace element abundances). Nor is there evidence for the formation of the IOM by Fischer-Tropsch-Type synthesis in the nebula or in the parent bodies. The elemental variations are consistent with thermal maturation and/or oxidation of a common precursor. For reasons that are unclear, there are large variations in isotopic composition within and between chondrite classes that do not correlate in a simple way with elemental composition or petrologic type. Nevertheless, because of the pattern of elemental variations with petrologic type and the lack of any correlation with the primary features of the chondrite classes, at present the most likely explanation is that all IOM compositional variations are the result of parent body processing of a common precursor. If correct, the range of isotopic compositions within and between chondrite classes implies that the IOM is composed of several isotopically distinct components whose relative stability varied with parent body conditions. The most primitive IOM is found in the CR chondrites and Bells (CM2). Isotopically, the IOM from these meteorites resembles the IOM in interplanetary dust particles. Chemically, their IOM resembles the CHON particles of comet Halley. Despite the large isotopic anomalies in the IOM from these meteorites, it is uncertain whether the IOM formed in the interstellar medium or

  11. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rabenstein, Albert L

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

  12. Natural Thermoluminescence and the Terrestrial and Orbital Histories of Ordinary Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, Jannette Marie Cunningham

    The amount of stored thermoluminescence in a meteorite is a direct result of storage temperature and duration of radiation exposure. I have used these relationships to study the terrestrial and orbital histories of meteorites. The orbital history of a meteorite is investigated using the high temperature portion of the glow curve while the study of terrestrial histories requires the use of the low temperature region. The build-up and decay parameters for the high temperature region of the thermoluminescence glow-curve for Paragould, Lost City, Tilden, Chicora, Innisfree and Pribram have been determined. All of the samples reach saturation at 360 +/- 10 krad and have a RO value (the dose necessary to fill 63.2% of the total available traps) of 80 krad. There are four trap populations with average temperatures of 321 +/- 7.3°C, 367 +/- 5.8°C, 406 +/- 4.8°C, and 462 +/- 5.8°C and average E values of 1.27 +/- 0.02 eV, 1.38 +/- 0.04 eV, 1.45 +/- 0.01 eV, and 1.51 +/- 0.01 eV; and averages s values of 7.87 +/- 1.85 x 109 sec-1 , 9.89 +/- 7.30 x 109 sec-1, 5.95 +/- 1.66 x 109 sec-1, and 2.01 +/- 0.50 x 109 sec-1, respectively. Based on calculations using the above TL parameters, I argue that Pribram was exposed to a higher average dose rate in space than Lost City and Innisfree. It is also possible that Paragould and Tilden have perihelia similar to that of Pribram. If the albedo of the two meteorites is assumed to be similar to Pribram then the aphelion must have been less than 3.5 AU, but if their albedos were lower than Pribram's their aphelia could have been as much as 4.0 AU. Chicora probably had a perihelion similar to that of Lost City and Innisfree but its aphelion was probably less than that of Lost City. I have measured the natural TL in the ``drained zone'' of 15 meteorites. The data indicate that this technique could be used with greater accuracy than 36Cl to determine terrestrial ages of meteorites with ages <200 ka, after which TL equilibrium is reached. Comparison of TL build-up with terrestrial ages for a suite of Antarctic meteorites suggests that the meteorites have been exposed to temperatures of 0 to 5°C. The Allan Hills meteorites with ages <200 ka that we examined have spent a significant portion of their terrestrial history exposed on the ice surface, rather than being buried in the ice sheet.

  13. Mineralogical Composition of the Mexican Ordinary Chondrite Type Meteorite: A Raman, Infrared and XRD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.

  14. Thermal history of type-3 chondrites in the NASA antarctic collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.

    2014-07-01

    to evaluate the metamorphic grade of the objects and to assign a petrologic type along a unique petrologic scale [1-4]. This technique has been successfully applied to type 3 Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites [1], carbonaceous CV chondrites [2], and CO chondrites [3]. The interpretation of the structural order of the polyaromatic carbonaceous matter in terms of thermal history is thus reliable. Raman spectroscopy enables the determination of the degree of structural order of the polyaromatic organic matter present in the matrix of chondrites. Both falls and finds, from Antarctica [4] and elsewhere, have been analyzed. It does not require a large amount of samples and is relatively easy to implement. Raman spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the lowest petrologic types (3.0-3.2). The present NASA collection of Antarctic meteorites represents an incredible source of precious samples for our community. The present work finely characterizes the thermal history of most of the type 3 chondrites (UOCs, CVs, and COs) from that collection. At the present time, the objectives are threefold: (i) determination of reliable petrologic types indispensable for our community; (ii) identification of the most primitive type 3 chondrites (petrologic type ≤ 3.1); and (iii) identification of potential ''anomalous'' samples having experienced a slightly different thermal history. The JSC Meteorite Working Group generously allocated us with more than 150 chondrites (UOCs, CVs, and COs). The following points summarize the main results. (i) At the present time, the thermal histories of more than 100 samples have been characterized. (ii) The terrestrial weathering experienced by several chondrites (˜25 chondrites) has been too pervasive for the method to be applied. For these meteorites, as signatures of oxide minerals dominate Raman spectra of the matrix, the organic matter might have been significantly altered through oxidation. (iii) Real discrepancies with the preliminary JSC

  15. The selenium isotopic variations in chondrites are mass-dependent; Implications for sulfide formation in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, J.; König, S.; Kurzawa, T.; Yierpan, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2018-01-01

    Element transfer from the solar nebular gas to solids occurred either through direct condensation or via heterogeneous reactions between gaseous molecules and previously condensed solid matter. The precursors of altered sulfides observed in chondrites are for example attributed to reactions between gaseous hydrogen sulfide and metallic iron grains. The transfer of selenium to solids likely occurred through a similar pathway, allowing the formation of iron selenides concomitantly with sulfides. The formation rate of sulfide however remains difficult to assess. Here we investigate whether the Se isotopic composition of meteorites contributes to constrain sulfide formation during condensation stages of our solar system. We present high precision Se concentration and δ 82 / 78 Se data for 23 chondrites as well as the first δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se data for a sub-set of seven chondrites. We combine our dataset with previously published sulfur isotopic data and discuss aspects of sulfide formation for various types of chondrites. Our Se concentration data are within uncertainty to literature values and are consistent with sulfides being the dominant selenium host in chondrites. Our overall average δ 82 / 78 Se value for chondrites is - 0.21 ± 0.43 ‰ (n = 23, 2 s.d.), or - 0.14 ± 0.21 ‰ after exclusion of three weathered chondrites (n = 20, 2 s.d.). These average values are within uncertainty indistinguishable from a previously published estimate. For the first time however, we resolve distinct δ 82 / 78 Se between ordinary (- 0.14 ± 0.07 ‰, n = 9, 2 s.d.), enstatite (- 0.27 ± 0.05 ‰, n = 3, 2 s.d.) and CI carbonaceous chondrites (- 0.01 ± 0.06 ‰, n = 2, 2 s.d.). We also resolve a Se isotopic variability among CM carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we report on δ 74 / 78 Se , δ 76 / 78 Se and δ 77 / 78 Se values determined for 7 chondrites. Our data allow evaluating the mass dependency of the δ 82 / 78 Se variations. Mass

  16. The LaPaz Icefield 04840 meteorite: Mineralogy, metamorphism, and origin of an amphibole- and biotite-bearing R chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanta, M. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Dyar, M. D.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Rumble, D., III; Essene, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    The R chondrite meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 04840 is unique among metamorphosed, non-carbonaceous chondrites in containing abundant OH-bearing silicate minerals: ˜13% ferri-magnesiohornblende and ˜0.4% phlogopite by volume. Other minerals include olivine (Fo 62), orthopyroxene (En 69Fs 30Wo 1), albite (An 8Ab 90Or 2), magnetite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and apatite. Ferromagnesian minerals are rich in Fe 3+, as determined by Mössbauer spectrometry and electron microprobe chemical analyses. Fe 3+/Fe tot values are olivine ⩽5%, amphibole 80%, phlogopite 65%, and magnetite 42%. Mineral compositions are nearly constant across grains and the section, except for a small variability in amphibole compositions reflecting the edenite exchange couple ( ANa + IVAl ↔ A□ + Si). These mineral compositions, the absence of Fe-Ni metal, and the oxygen isotope data support its classification as an R (Rumuruti) chondrite. LAP 04840 is classified as petrologic grade 5, based on the chemical homogeneity of its minerals, and the presence of distinctly marked chondrules and chondrule fragments in a fine-grained crystalline matrix. The mineral assemblage of LAP 04840 allows calculation of physical and chemical conditions at the peak of its metamorphism: T = 670 ± 60 °C from a amphibole-plagioclase thermometer; PO between 250 and 500 bars as constrained by the assemblage phlogopite + orthopyroxene + olivine + feldspar and the absence of diopside; P unconstrained; f at QFM + 0.5 log units; log(f/fO)≈-5.8;log(f/fO)≈-3.3;andlog(f/f)≈-2.6. The hydrogen in LAP 04840 is very heavy, an average δD value of +3660 ± 75‰ in the magnesiohornblende. Only a few known sources of hydrogen have such high δD and are suitable sources for LAP 04840: ordinary chondrite phyllosilicates (as in the Semarkona chondrite), and insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ordinary chondrites and CR chondrites. Hydrogen from the IOM could have been released by oxidation, and then reacted with an anhydrous

  17. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection

  18. Equilibration of particles with abelian charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redlich, K.; Tounsi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We formulate the kinetic equation for time evolution and chemical equilibration of particles that carries an abelian charge. We show that dependently on the thermal conditions inside a fireball the system approaches to different chemical equilibrium limits. The role of exact conservation of quantum numbers in the kinetic description of rarely produced particles is explained. (orig.)

  19. Extraterrestrial Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z.; Botta, O.; Fogel, M.; Sephton, M.; Glavin, D.; Watson, J.; Dworkin, J.; Schwartz, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    Nucleobases in Carbonaceous Chondrites Z. Martins (1), O. Botta (2), M. L. Fogel (3), M. A. Sephton (4), D. P. Glavin (2), J. S. Watson (5), J. P. Dworkin (2), A. W. Schwartz (6) and P. Ehrenfreund (1,6). (1) Astrobiology Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands, (2) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard Center for Astrobiology, Greenbelt, MD, USA, (3) GL, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC, USA, (4) Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College, London, UK, (5) Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, UK, (6) Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. E-mail: z.martins@chem.leidenuniv.nl/Phone:+31715274440 Nucleobases are crucial compounds in terrestrial biochemistry, because they are key components of DNA and RNA. Carbonaceous meteorites have been analyzed for nucleobases by different research groups [1-5]. However, significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed, leading to the controversial about the origin of these nucleobases. In order to establish the origin of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites and to assess the plausibility of their exogenous delivery to the early Earth, we have performed formic acid extraction of samples of the Murchison meteorite [6], followed by an extensive purification procedure, analysis and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorption detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results were qualitatively consistent with previous results [3, 4], but showed significant quantitative differences. Compound specific carbon isotope values were obtained, using gas chromatography-combustion- isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A soil sample collected in the proximity of the Murchison meteorite fall site was subjected to the same extraction, purification and analysis procedure

  20. Strangeness Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; MA Yu-Gang; MA Guo-Liang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the strangeness of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density based on the and will accelerate with the change of the initial system from a chemically non-equilibrated to an equilibrated system. We also find that the calculated strangeness is very different from the one in the thermodynamic equilibrium system. This study may be helpful to understand the formation of quark-gluon plasma via a chemically non-equilibrated evolution framework.

  1. 146Sm-142Nd systematics measured in enstatite chondrites reveals a heterogeneous distribution of 142Nd in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Boyet, Maud; Rizo, Hanika; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2011-05-10

    The short-lived (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer (T(1/2) = 103 Ma) is used to constrain the early silicate evolution of planetary bodies. The composition of bulk terrestrial planets is then considered to be similar to that of primitive chondrites that represent the building blocks of rocky planets. However for many elements chondrites preserve small isotope differences. In this case it is not always clear to what extent these variations reflect the isotope heterogeneity of the protosolar nebula rather than being produced by the decay of parent isotopes. Here we present Sm-Nd isotopes data measured in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC). The EC preserve (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios that range from those of ordinary chondrites to values similar to terrestrial samples. The EC having terrestrial (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios are also characterized by small (144)Sm excesses, which is a pure p-process nuclide. The correlation between (144)Sm and (142)Nd for chondrites may indicate a heterogeneous distribution in the solar nebula of p-process matter synthesized in supernovae. However to explain the difference in (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios, 20% of the p-process contribution to (142)Nd is required, at odds with the value of 4% currently proposed in stellar models. This study highlights the necessity of obtaining high-precision (144)Sm measurements to interpret properly measured (142)Nd signatures. Another explanation could be that the chondrites sample material formed in different pulses of the lifetime of asymptotic giant branch stars. Then the isotope signature measured in SiC presolar would not represent the unique s-process signature of the material present in the solar nebula during accretion.

  2. Intensive parameters of enstatite chondrite metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Robert A.; Hess, Paul C.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    1989-01-01

    A geothermometer based on the assemblage kamacite-quartz-enstatite-oldhamite-troilite found in enstatite chondrites is described. Data obtained with the geothermometer reveal that the EL6 meteorites experienced temperatures exceeding 1000 C. These temperatures imply a metal-sulfide melting event that may have fractionated the melt from the source region.

  3. Crystallography of hornblende amphibole in LAP04840 R chondrite and implication for its metamorphic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kouhei; Mikouchi, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    LAP04840 is an unusual R chondrite that includes abundant hornblende amphibole. LAP04840 shows a texture of equilibrated chondrite composed of 59.3% olivine, 13.5% orthopyroxene, 13.3% hornblende, 6.2% plagio-clase, 6.0% Fe-Ni sulfide, and 1.7% accessory minerals. Hornblende replaces olivine and pyroxene in both chondrules and matrices, suggesting its secondary origin. All major phases in LAP04840 are homogeneous: olivine (Fa 37 ), orthopyroxene (En 70 Wo 1 ), and plagioclase (An 8 Or 2 ). Hornblende is also nearly homogeneous, but the total sum by electron microprobe analysis is 96-98 wt%, suggesting the presence of Fe 3+ and a hydroxyl group. Synchrotron Fe-XANES analysis gives a Fe 3+ /ΣFe ratio of ∼0.6 and micro-FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of a hydroxyl group. Thus, the structural formula is (Na 0.40 K 0 . 04 ) (Ca 1.46 Mn 0.02 Fe 0.06 2+ Na 0.46 ) (Al 0.08 Fe 0.43 2+ Fe 0.75 3+ Cr 0.08 Mg 3.60 ) (Si 7.02 Al 0.98 )O 22 (OH) 2 . Single crystal X-ray diffraction of LAP04840 hornblende gives the following lattice constants: a=9.7957(9) A, b=18.0788(12) A, c=5.2949(5) A, β=104.747(3)deg. The relatively short distances of [M(1)-O=2.069 A], [M(2)-O=2.081 A], and [M(3)-O=2.058 A] suggest the feasible preference of small Fe 3+ at these sites. The mineralogy and petrology of LAP04840 are consistent with its classification as an R6 chondrite. However, the presence of hornblende and biotite is quite unique among not only R chondrites but also asteroidal meteorites in general. The presence of these hydrous minerals suggests metamorphism under high pressure and an aqueous environment probably at depth in the parent body. A thermometer using hornblende and plagioclase equilibria gives T=670-690degC. Further, a barometer using Al content in hornblende gives P=∼0.1 GPa. Although these estimates bear some uncertainties, it is likely that the size of the R chondrite parent body was large enough to induce such metamorphism. (author)

  4. Particle Size Distributions in Chondritic Meteorites: Evidence for Pre-Planetesimal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Cuzzi, J. N.; McCain, K. A.; Cato, M. J.; Christoffersen, P. A.; Fisher, K. R.; Srinivasan, P.; Tait, A. W.; Olson, D. M.; Scargle, J. D.

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium-rich silicate chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are fundamental components of primitive chondritic meteorites. It has been suggested that concentration of these early-formed particles by nebular sorting processes may lead to accretion of planetesimals, the planetary bodies that represent the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In this case, the size distributions of the particles may constrain the accretion process. Here we present new particle size distribution data for Northwest Africa 5717, a primitive ordinary chondrite (ungrouped 3.05) and the well-known carbonaceous chondrite Allende (CV3). Instead of the relatively narrow size distributions obtained in previous studies (Ebel et al., 2016; Friedrich et al., 2015; Paque and Cuzzi, 1997, and references therein), we observed broad size distributions for all particle types in both meteorites. Detailed microscopic image analysis of Allende shows differences in the size distributions of chondrule subtypes, but collectively these subpopulations comprise a composite "chondrule" size distribution that is similar to the broad size distribution found for CAIs. Also, we find accretionary 'dust' rims on only a subset (approximately 15-20 percent) of the chondrules contained in Allende, which indicates that subpopulations of chondrules experienced distinct histories prior to planetary accretion. For the rimmed subset, we find positive correlation between rim thickness and chondrule size. The remarkable similarity between the size distributions of various subgroups of particles, both with and without fine grained rims, implies a common size sorting process. Chondrite classification schemes, astrophysical disk models that predict a narrow chondrule size population and/or a common localized formation event, and conventional particle analysis methods must all be critically reevaluated. We support the idea that distinct "lithologies" in NWA 5717 are nebular aggregates of

  5. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  6. Time dependent black holes and thermal equilibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We study aspects of a recently proposed exact time dependent black hole solution of IIB string theory using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The dual field theory is a thermal system in which initially a vacuum density for a non-conserved operator is turned on. We can see that in agreement with general thermal field theory expectation the system equilibrates: the expectation value of the non-conserved operator goes to zero exponentially and the entropy increases. In the field theory the process can be described quantitatively in terms of a thermofield state and exact agreement with the gravity answers is found

  7. Generalized Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi

    2014-10-01

    Existing estimation methods for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are not applicable to discrete data. The generalized ODE (GODE) model is therefore proposed and investigated for the first time. We develop the likelihood-based parameter estimation and inference methods for GODE models. We propose robust computing algorithms and rigorously investigate the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator by considering both measurement errors and numerical errors in solving ODEs. The simulation study and application of our methods to an influenza viral dynamics study suggest that the proposed methods have a superior performance in terms of accuracy over the existing ODE model estimation approach and the extended smoothing-based (ESB) method.

  8. New Ideas: Ordinary is Extraordinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the initial issue of this journal, a new challenge has been offered tothe world of sports nutrition: initiate "team oriented" research and clinical trials in order to make dynamic progress in terms of understandingand applying nutrition principals to the field of competitive sports. It is our further challenge that these teams think "outside the box" in terms of their approach to elucidating new concepts through which nutritional interventions might play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and repair, athletic performance and endurance, and mental acuity. What was once thought of as extraordinary might now be approached as ordinary, if the correct composition of "teams" were formed.

  9. Determination of elemental content in the Rumanova, Uhrovec, Vel'ke Borove, Kosice and Chelyabinsk chondrites by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaizer, J.; Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Porubčan, V.; Povinec, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2017), s. 2085-2096 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ordinary chondrite * INAA * elemental composition * distriburion patterns * rare earth elements Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  10. The solar nebula redox state as recorded by most reduced chondrules of five primitive chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.C.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1986-01-01

    Mafic minerals in the most reduced chondrules of five primitive meteorites were analyzed with an electron microprobe to determine the lower limit on their FeO contents. The accuracy obtained was +-0.01 weight percent FeO. The thermodynamic relationship between mole fraction FeSiO 3 and pO 2 of the ambient nebular gas at the time of mineral equilibration was established, and was used to infer the local O/H ratio of the nebular gas during chondrule formation. The lowest ferrosilite compositions reflected equilibration at 1500K with a gas 2-18 times more oxidizing than a gas of solar composition. Olivines in low-FeO UOC chondrules are uniformly more FeO-rich than coexisting pyroxenes. This descrepancy suggests that a significant change in the O/H ratio of the nebular gas occurred between the time of olivine and pyroxene crystallization in the region of the nebula where UOCs formed. Mineral compositions in the chondrules of two C2 chondrites studied suggest they formed in a more homogeneous region of the nebula than the UOCs. (author)

  11. The hydrogen and deuterium concentrations in chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.; Merlivat, L.

    1978-01-01

    Water and isotopic concentration of H 2 O + are reported. It shows a correlation between the water, the deuterium concentrations and the petrologic types of chondrites. The Chainpur meteorite has been divided into several mineralogical fractions and the results are reported. The results of Orgueil are also reported. The correlation shows that as the sulfate content increases, the water and deuterium contents decrease. The terrestrial contamination is discussed and possible deuterium variation models are presented

  12. Chemical and kinetic equilibrations via radiative parton transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Wortman, Warner A

    2011-01-01

    A hot and dense partonic system can be produced in the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. How it equilibrates is important for the extraction of Quark-Gluon Plasma properties. We study the chemical and kinetic equilibrations of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a radiative transport model. Thermal and Color-Glass-Condensate motivated initial conditions are used. We observe that screened parton interactions always lead to partial pressure isotropization. Different initial pressure anisotropies result in the same asymptotic evolution. Comparison of evolutions with and without radiative processes shows that chemical equilibration interacts with kinetic equilibration and radiative processes can contribute significantly to pressure isotropization.

  13. Quantum States as Ordinary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Wharton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

  14. Equivariant ordinary homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Costenoble, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, this book takes the reader to the frontiers of equivariant topology, the study of objects with specified symmetries. The discussion is motivated by reference to a list of instructive “toy” examples and calculations in what is a relatively unexplored field. The authors also provide a reading path for the first-time reader less interested in working through sophisticated machinery but still desiring a rigorous understanding of the main concepts. The subject’s classical counterparts, ordinary homology and cohomology, dating back to the work of Henri Poincaré in topology, are calculational and theoretical tools which are important in many parts of mathematics and theoretical physics, particularly in the study of manifolds. Similarly powerful tools have been lacking, however, in the context of equivariant topology. Aimed at advanced graduate students and researchers in algebraic topology and related fields, the book assumes knowledge of basic algebraic topology and group act...

  15. Elliptic flow and incomplete equilibration at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, R S; Borghini, N; Ollitrault, Jean Yves

    2005-01-01

    We argue that RHIC data, in particular those on the anisotropic flow coefficients v_2 and v_4, suggest that the matter produced in the early stages of nucleus-nucleus collisions is incompletely thermalized. We interpret the parameter (1/S)(dN/dy), where S is the transverse area of the collision zone and dN/dy the multiplicity density, as an indicator of the number of collisions per particle at the time when elliptic flow is established, and hence as a measure of the degree of equilibration. This number serves as a control parameter which can be varied experimentally by changing the system size, the centrality or the beam energy. We provide predictions for Cu-Cu collisions at RHIC as well as for Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC.

  16. Chemical equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Gerald E.; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Mannque

    2005-01-01

    In the hadronic sector of relativistic heavy ion physics, the ρ<-2π reaction is the strongest one, strong enough to equilibrate the ρ with the pions throughout the region from chemical freezeout to thermal freezeout when free-particle interactions (with no medium-dependent effects) are employed. Above the chiral restoration temperature, only ρ's and π's are present, in that the chirally restored A1 is equivalent to the ρ and the mesons have an SU(4) symmetry, with no dependence on isospin and negligible dependence on spin. In the same sense the σ and π are 'equivalent' scalars. Thus the chirally restored ρ<-2π exhaust the interspecies transitions. We evaluate this reaction at Tc and find it to be much larger than below Tc, certainly strong enough to equilibrate the chirally restored mesons just above Tc. When emitted just below Tc the mesons remain in the Tc+ε freezeout distribution, at least in the chiral limit because of the Harada-Yamawaki 'vector manifestation' that requires that mesonic coupling constants go to zero (in the chiral limit) as T goes to Tc from below. Our estimates in the chiral limit give deviations in some particle ratios from the standard scenario (of equilibrium in the hadronic sector just below Tc) of about double those indicated experimentally. This may be due to the neglect of explicit chiral symmetry breaking in our estimates. We also show that the instanton molecules present above Tc are the giant multipole vibrations found by Asakawa, Hatsuda and Nakahara and of Wetzorke et al. in lattice gauge calculations. Thus, the matter formed by RHIC can equivalently be called: chirally restored mesons, instanton molecules, or giant collective vibrations. It is a strongly interacting liquid

  17. Equilibration: Developing the Hard Core of the Piagetian Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that the status of the concept of equilibration is classified by considering Piagetian theory as a research program in the sense elaborated in 1974 by Lakatos. A pilot study was made to examine the precision and testability of equilibration in Piaget's 1977 model.(Author/RH)

  18. Preliminary Compositional Comparisons of H-Chondrite Falls to Antarctic H-Chondrite Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallemeyn, G. W.; Krot, A. N.; Rubin, A. E.

    1993-07-01

    In a series of papers [e.g., 1,2], Lipschutz and co-workers compared trace- element RNAA data from Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrites and concluded that the two populations have significantly different concentrations of several trace elements including Co, Se, and Sb. They interpreted their data as indicating that these Antarctic H chondrites form different populations than observed H falls and may have originated in separate parent bodies. Recent work by Sears and co-workers [e.g., 3] has shown that there seem to be distinct populations of Antarctic H chondrites, distinguishable on the bases of induced thermoluminescence (TL) peak temperature, metallographic cooling rate, and cosmic ray exposure age. They showed that a group of Antarctic H chondrites having abnormally high induced TL peak temperatures (>=190 degrees C) also has cosmic ray exposure ages Ma (mostly ~8 Ma) and fast metallographic cooling rates (~100 K/Ma). Another group having induced TL peak temperatures 20 Ma and slower cooling rates (~10-20 K/Ma). We studied 24 H4-6 chondrites from Victoria Land (including 12 previously analyzed by the Lipschutz group) by optical microscopy and electron microprobe. Many of the Antarctic H chondrites studied by Lipschutz and co- workers are unsuitable for proper compositional comparisons with H chondrite falls: Four are very weathered, five are extensively shocked, and two are extensively brecciated. Furthermore, at least five of the samples contain solar-wind gas (and hence are regolith breccias) [4]. These samples were rejected because of possible compositional modification by secondary processes. For our INAA study we chose a suite of relatively unweathered and unbrecciated Antarctic H chondrites (including nine from the Lipschutz set): ALHA 77294 (H5, S3); ALHA 79026 (H5, S3); ALHA 79039 (H5, S3); ALHA 80131 (H5, S3); ALHA 80132 (H5, S4); ALHA 81037 (H6, S3); EETA 79007 (H5, S4); LEW 85320 (H6, S4); LEW 85329 (H6, S3); RKPA 78002 (H5, S2); and RKPA

  19. R Raman Spectroscopy and Petrology of Antarctic CR Chondrites: Comparison with Other Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.; Yasutake, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites, abundant original Fe,Ni-metal is preserved in chrondules, but the matrix is characterized by fine-grained magnetite with phyllosilicate. This combination of reduced Fe in chrodrules with oxidized Fe and phyllosilicate in the matrix has been attributed to aqueous alteration of matrix at relatively low temperatures.

  20. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Schee, Wilke van der; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.

  1. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, Liam [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN,CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Kurkela, Aleksi [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN,CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,4036 Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul [Department of Physics, 390 UCB, University of Colorado at Boulder,Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado,Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Schee, Wilke van der [Center for Theoretical Physics, MIT,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-04-06

    We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.

  2. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  3. Accretion and Preservation of Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites as Revealed by NanoSIMS Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J.

    2008-12-01

    the matrix. In contrast to some observations of nm-scale HRTEM observations of chondritic matrices [4], organics do not seem to be associated with sulfides or sulfates. Instead, they are found intermixed with clay minerals within the matrix. We also found that a subset of organic particles in the matrices of CI, CM and CR chondrites are D rich (as previously reported by [5]). Profiles across these particles reveal that no significant isotopic exchange has occurred between these D-rich organic grains and the surrounding clays. This suggests that the isotopic composition of these grains remained unchanged during the parent body evolution, in contrast with conclusions from bulk measurements [2]. It has been previously suggested that relatively D-depleted water circulated through the parent bodies of the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites for 3 My. Known rates of water mobility through polymerized organic compounds and of D/H exchange between organic hydrogen and water lead one to predict that organic particles should have fully equilibrated with their surrounding phases in much less time than this. We speculate that this paradox might be evidence for exceptionally refractory character of H-C bonds in meteoritic IOM, or extreme D-exchange behavior of some organic moieties like radicals evidenced in IOM. [1] Pizzarello et al. (2006) in MESS II 625-651; [2] Alexander et al. (2007) GCA 71, 4380-4403 ; [3] Alpern and Benkheiri (1973) EPSL 19, 422-428; [4] Brearley and Abreu 32th LPSC; [5] Busemann et al (2006) Science 312, 727-730.

  4. Contribution of early impact events to metal-silicate separation, thermal annealing, and volatile redistribution: Evidence in the Pułtusk H chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesińska, Agata M.

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray tomographic reconstructions and petrologic studies reveal voluminous accumulations of metal in Pułtusk H chondrite. At the contact of these accumulations, the chondritic rock is enriched in troilite. The rock contains plagioclase-rich bands, with textures suggesting crystallization from melt. Unusually large phosphates are associated with the plagioclase and consist of assemblages of merrillite, and fluorapatite and chlorapatite. The metal accumulations were formed by impact melting, rapid segregation of metal-sulfide melt and the incorporation of this melt into the fractured crater basement. The impact most likely occurred in the early evolution of the H chondrite parent body, when post-impact heat overlapped with radiogenic heat. This enabled slow cooling and separation of the metallic melt into metal-rich and sulfide-rich fractions. This led to recrystallization of chondritic rock in contact with the metal accumulations and the crystallization of shock melts. Phosphorus was liberated from the metal and subsumed by the silicate shock melt, owing to oxidative conditions upon slow cooling. The melt was also a host for volatiles. Upon further cooling, phosphorus reacted with silicates leading to the formation of merrillite, while volatiles partitioned into the residual halogen-rich, dry fluid. In the late stages, the fluid altered merrillite to patchy Cl/F-apatite. The above sequence of alterations demonstrates that impact during the early evolution of chondritic parent bodies might have contributed to local metal segregation and silicate melting. In addition, postshock conditions supported secondary processes: compositional/textural equilibration, redistribution of volatiles, and fluid alterations.

  5. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  6. Rapid spatial equilibration of a particle in a box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabarba, Artur S L; Linden, Noah; Short, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    We study the equilibration behavior of a quantum particle in a one-dimensional box, with respect to a coarse-grained position measurement (whether it lies in a certain spatial window or not). We show that equilibration in this context indeed takes place and does so very rapidly, in a time comparable to the time for the initial wave packet to reach the edges of the box. We also show that, for this situation, the equilibration behavior is relatively insensitive to the precise choice of position measurements or initial condition.

  7. Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

  8. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how the Earth obtained and ultimately retained its volatiles is important for our overall understanding of large scale planetary evolution. Numerous models exist for the heterogeneous accretion of volatiles to early Earth, but accounting for all elements through accretion of typical planetary building blocks (e.g., CI chondrites) is difficult. Proto-planetary collisions resulting in the accretion of volatile-poor material under reducing conditions followed by accretion of volatile-rich material under oxidizing conditions has been suggested in such models [e.g., 1]. The heavy halogens (Cl, Br and I), a group of moderately volatile elements, are excellent tracers of planetary processing due to their low abundance and incompatible nature. Therefore characterizing halogen abundance and distribution in materials that accreted to form the planets, e.g., primitive meteorites, is crucial. One group of primitive meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC's), are amongst the most reduced materials in the solar system as evidenced by their unique mineral assemblage. Yet despite forming under ultra-reducing conditions, they are enriched in the moderately volatile elements, such as the halogens. The ECs are of particular interest owing to their oxygen isotopic composition which plots along the terrestrial fractionation line, linking them isotopically to the Earth-Moon system. These samples can thus potentially provide clues on the accretion of moderately volatile element rich material under reducing conditions, such as it may have existed during the early stages of Earth's accretion. Chlorine, Br and I concentrations in ECs were determined through step-heating small neutron-irradiated samples (0.3 to 3.3 mg) and measured by mass spectrometry using the noble gas proxy isotopes 38ArCl/Cl, 80KrBr/Br and 128XeI/I. The EH chondrites are consistently enriched in the heavy halogens (up to 330 ppm Cl, 2290 ppb Br and 180 ppb I), compared to other ordinary and carbonaceous

  9. Thermal, chemical and spectral equilibration in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almási, Gábor András, E-mail: g.almasi@gsi.de [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Wolf, György, E-mail: wolf.gyorgy@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-11-15

    We have considered the equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions at energies 1–7 A GeV using our transport model. We applied periodic boundary conditions to close the system in a box. We found that the thermal equilibration takes place in the first 20–40 fm/c whose time is comparable to the duration of a heavy ion collision. The chemical equilibration is a much slower process and the system does not equilibrate in a heavy ion collision. We have shown that in the testparticle simulation of the Boltzmann equation the mass spectra of broad resonances follow instantaneously their in-medium spectral functions as expected from the Markovian approximation to the Kadanoff–Baym equations employed via the (local) gradient expansion.

  10. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  11. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...

  12. Topological Higgs mechanism with ordinary Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda Ichiro; Yahikozawa Shigeaki.

    1989-12-01

    Topological Higgs mechanism in higher dimensions is analyzed when ordinary Higgs potential exists. It is shown that if one-form B-field becomes massive by the ordinary Higgs mechanism, another D-2 form C-field also becomes massive through topological term in addition to the topological mass generation by the topological Higgs mechanism. Moreover we investigate this mechanism in three dimensional theories, that is to say, Chern-Simons theory and more general theory. (author). 10 refs

  13. Evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies: Insights into cometary nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    It is thought that cometary samples will comprise the most primitive materials that are able to be sampled. Although parent body alteration of such samples would not necessarily detract from scientists' interest in them, the possibility exists that modification processes may have affected cometary nuclei. Inferences about the kinds of modifications that might be encountered can be drawn from data on the evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Observations suggest that, of all the classes of chondrites, these meteorites are most applicable to the study of comets. If the proportion of possible internal heat sources such as Al-26 in cometary materials are similar to those in chondrites, and if the time scale of comet accretion was fast enough to permit incorporation of live radionuclides, comets might have had early thermal histories somewhat like those of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

  14. Flavour equilibration studies of quark-gluon plasma with non-zero ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Flavour equilibration for a thermally equilibrated but chemically non- equilibrated quark-gluon plasma is presented. Flavour equilibration is studied enforcing baryon number conservation. In addition to the usual processes like single additional gluon production gg ⇌ ggg and its reverse and quark–antiquark pair ...

  15. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  16. Deuterium enrichments in chondritic macromolecular material—Implications for the origin and evolution of organics, water and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Newsome, S. D.; Fogel, M. L.; Nittler, L. R.; Busemann, H.; Cody, G. D.

    2010-08-01

    Here we report the elemental and isotopic compositions of the insoluble organic material (IOM) isolated from several previously unanalyzed meteorites, as well as the reanalyses of H isotopic compositions of some previously measured samples ( Alexander et al., 2007). The IOM in ordinary chondrites (OCs) has very large D enrichments that increase with increasing metamorphism and decreasing H/C, the most extreme δD value measured being almost 12,000‰. We propose that such large isotopic fractionations could be produced in the OC parent bodies through the loss of isotopically very light H 2 generated when Fe was oxidized by water at low temperatures (IOM of CV and CO chondrites with similar metamorphic grades and IOM H/C ratios because proportionately less water was consumed during metamorphism, and the remaining water buffered the H isotopic composition of the IOM even a H was being lost from it. Hydrogen would also have been generated during the alteration of CI, CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites. The IOM in these meteorites exhibit a considerable range in isotopic compositions, but all are enriched in D, as well as 15N, relative to terrestrial values. We explore whether these enrichments could also have been produced by the loss of H 2, but conclude that the most isotopically anomalous IOM compositions in meteorites from these groups are probably closest to their primordial values. The less isotopically anomalous IOM has probably been modified by parent body processes. The response of IOM to these processes was complex and varied, presumably reflecting differences in conditions within and between parent bodies. The D enrichments associated with H 2 generation, along with exchange between D-rich IOM and water in the parent bodies, means that it is unlikely that any chondrites retain the primordial H isotopic composition of the water ice that they accreted. The H isotopic compositions of the most water-rich chondrites, the CMs and CIs, are probably the least

  17. The Glanerbrug Breccia: Evidence for a Separate L/LL-Chondritic Parent Body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; Poorter, R. P. E.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Rubin, A. E.; Wasson, J. T.

    1992-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. On April 7, 1990, a brecciated ordinary chondrite fell through the roof of a house near Glanerbrug in the Netherlands and was shattered to pieces. The total weight of the recovered fragments was about 800 g, the largest piece weighing 135 g. This main fragment clearly shows the inhomogeneous structure of the Glanerbrug: a dark-grey breccia occasionally containing blackish inclusions, separated from a light-grey breccia by a sharp boundary. Chondrules seem to be more common in the light grey parts. On the basis of earlier electron microprobe analyses of olivines and pyroxenes the light-grey portion was classified at the high Fa-Fs end of the L-field and the dark-grey part at the high Fa-Fs end of the LL-field [1]. Since it is not likely that the L and LL chondritic fragments originated on a single parent body, two alternative explanations were suggested: (i) The light-dark structure of the Glanerbrug is a characteristic feature of regolithic breccias, which once resided on or close to the surface of its parent body [2]. This lends some support to the idea that the light portion is an exotic clast in a dark host rock or vice versa; (ii) the two lithologies represent materials of a body having compositions between L and LL tentatively designated as L/LL [3,4]. Therefore additional electron microprobe analyses (EPMA) of silicates and kamacites in combination with neutron-activation analyses (INAA) of a light and a dark fragment and a noble gas analysis of a mixed light-dark fragment were undertaken. RESULTS and DISCUSSION. The light lithology in two thin sections shows olivine compositions in the L range (24.5+-0.3% Fa) and kamacite compositions (13.0+-1.3 mg/g Co) close to the LL range, plotting in the L/LL rather than in the L field on a kamacite-Co vs. olivine-Fa diagram [3,4]. Whereas only one aberrant olivine grain (out of 50) was found in the light portion, the dark portion is less homogeneous: one thin section shows olivine and kamacite

  18. Organic thermometry for chondritic parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, G. D.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Yabuta, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Araki, T.; Ade, H.; Dera, P.; Fogel, M.; Militzer, B.; Mysen, B. O.

    2008-07-01

    A unique spectroscopic feature has been identified in a study of twenty-five different samples of meteoritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) spanning multiple chemical classes, groups, and petrologic types, using carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The intensity of this feature, a 1s - σ* exciton, appears to provide a precise measure of parent body metamorphism. The intensity of this exciton is also shown to correlate well with a large negative paramagnetic shift observed through solid state 13C NMR. Experiments reveal that upon heating primitive IOM is transformed into material that is indistinguishable from that in thermally processed chondrites, including the development of the 1s - σ* exciton. A thermo-kinetic expression is derived from the experimental data that allows the intensity of the 1s - σ* exciton to be used to estimated the effective temperature integrated over time. A good correlation is observed between the intensity of the 1s - σ* exciton and previously published microRaman spectral data. These data provide a self-consistent organic derived temperature scale for the purpose of calibrating Raman based thermometric expressions.

  19. Thermal lattice Boltzmann simulation for multispecies fluid equilibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahala, Linda; Wah, Darren; Vahala, George; Carter, Jonathan; Pavlo, Pavol

    2000-01-01

    The equilibration rate for multispecies fluids is examined using thermal lattice Boltzmann simulations. Two-dimensional free-decay simulations are performed for effects of velocity shear layer turbulence on sharp temperature profiles. In particular, parameters are so chosen that the lighter species is turbulent while the heavier species is laminar--and so its vorticity layers would simply decay and diffuse in time. With species coupling, however, there is velocity equilibration followed by the final relaxation to one large co- and one large counter-rotating vortex. The temperature equilibration proceeds on a slower time scale and is in good agreement with the theoretical order of magnitude estimate of Morse [Phys. Fluids 6, 1420 (1963)]. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. Thermal lattice Boltzmann simulation for multispecies fluid equilibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, Linda [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Wah, Darren [Department of Physics, William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Vahala, George [Department of Physics, William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Carter, Jonathan [NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 97320 (United States); Pavlo, Pavol [Institute of Plasma Physics, Czech Academy of Science, Praha 8, (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The equilibration rate for multispecies fluids is examined using thermal lattice Boltzmann simulations. Two-dimensional free-decay simulations are performed for effects of velocity shear layer turbulence on sharp temperature profiles. In particular, parameters are so chosen that the lighter species is turbulent while the heavier species is laminar--and so its vorticity layers would simply decay and diffuse in time. With species coupling, however, there is velocity equilibration followed by the final relaxation to one large co- and one large counter-rotating vortex. The temperature equilibration proceeds on a slower time scale and is in good agreement with the theoretical order of magnitude estimate of Morse [Phys. Fluids 6, 1420 (1963)]. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  1. Paleomagnetic evidence for a partially differentiated H chondrite parent planetesimal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Scholl, A.; Getzin, B. L.; Abrahams, J. N. H.; Nimmo, F.

    2016-12-01

    The texture, composition and ages of chondrites have all been used to argue that the parent bodies of these meteorites did not undergo planetary differentiation. Without a core, these planetesimals could not have generated planetary magnetic fields, hence chondrites are predicted to be unmagnetized. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying synchrotron x-ray microscopy to the metallic melt veins in the metamorphosed H chondrite breccia Portales Valley. We find that tetrataenite nanostructures in these veins are uniformly magnetized, suggesting that the H chondrite parent body generated a stable, 10 µT ancient field. We also performed alternating field (AF) demagnetization on bulk silicate-rich portions of Portales Valley, finding that both the large grain size of the metal in these subsamples and the presence of tetrataenite hinder the reliable interpretation of these measurements. Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and the metallographic cooling rate, we propose that this field inferred from x-ray microscopy was generated 100 Myr after solar system formation and lasted >5 Myr. These properties are consistent with a dynamo field generated by core solidification, implying that the H chondrite parent body was partially differentiated. This conclusion is supported by our analyses of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale, which show that H chondrite magnetization is unlikely to be a relic signature of early nebular or solar wind fields (Getzin et al., this meeting; Oran et al., this meeting). We propose that partial differentiation could result form prolonged accretion over millions of years, possibly in two stages. In this scenario, the earliest accreted material melted from the radioactive decay of abundant 26Al, forming a core and rocky achondritic mantle, while the later accreted material was less metamorphosed, forming an undifferentiated crust. We demonstrate that, with the inclusion of an insulating regolith, the thermal evolution of such a body is consistent with the measured

  2. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  3. Developing Concepts of Ordinary and Extraordinary Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Evans, E. Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether…

  4. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzer, Carl V.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  5. Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries', i.e. those not considered to be generic to ...

  6. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions

  7. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of chondritic meteorites from the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for weathering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Valenzuela, M.; Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Some terrestrial areas have climatic and geomorphologic features that favor the preservation, and therefore, accumulation of meteorites. The Atacama Desert in Chile is among the most important of such areas, known as dense collection areas. This desert is the driest on Earth, one of the most arid, uninhabitable locals with semi-arid, arid and hyper-arid conditions. The meteorites studied here were collected from within the dense collection area of San Juan at the Central Depression and Coastal Range of Atacama Desert. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis of the degree of weathering of the meteorites, through the determination of the proportions of the various Fe-bearing phases and in particular the amount of oxidized iron in the terrestrial alteration products. The abundance of ferric ions in weathered chondrites can be related to specific precursor compositions and to the level of terrestrial weathering. The aim of the study was the identification, quantification and differentiation of the weathering products in the ordinary chondrites found in the San Juan area of Atacama Desert.

  8. Early Solar System Alkali Fractionation Events Recorded by K-Ca Isotopes in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsunori, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Radiogenic ingrowth of Ca-40 due to decay of K-40 occurred early in the solar system history causing the Ca-40 abundance to vary within different early-former reservoirs. Marshall and DePaolo ] demonstrated that the K-40/Ca-40 decay system could be a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [3,4] determined 40K/40Ca ages of lunar granitic rock fragments and discussed the chemical characteristics of their source materials. Recently, Yokoyama et al. [5] showed the application of the K-40/Ca-40 chronometer for high K/Ca materials in ordinary chondrites (OCs). High-precision calcium isotopic data are needed to constrain mixing processes among early solar system materials and the time of planetesimal formation. To better constrain the solar system calcium isotopic compositions among astromaterials, we have determined the calcium isotopic compositions of OCs and an angrite. We further estimated a source K/Ca ratio for alkali-rich fragments in a chondritic breccia using the estimated solar system initial Ca-40/Ca-44.

  9. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.; Mcsween, H.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture. 104 refs

  10. Reconstructing the thermal evolution of the CK chondrite parent body using Northwest Africa 5343, the least metamorphosed CK chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, T. L.; Gross, J.; O'Hara, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) represent some of the most pristine solar system material, providing constraints on the early formation of planetesimals. The CK chondrites are the only group of CCs to exhibit the full range of thermal metamorphism (petrologic type 3 to 6). Most unequilibrated CK chondrites (CK3s) have been metamorphosed to petrologic subtype 3.8 or higher. However, homogeneity of olivine suggests that CK3 chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5343 is less metamorphosed than the other CK3s. The presence of unrecrystallized matrix indicates that it is less than petrologic type 3.7. To better assess the lower limits of metamorphism on the CK chondrite parent body, we performed a detailed analysis of matrix material in NWA 5343. Ascertaining the lower limit of metamorphism in the CK chondrites is critical when addressing the CK-CV parent body debate (e.g., one vs. two parent bodies), and will shed light onto the evolution of metamorphosed CC parent bodies. We recognize two texturally distinct regions in the matrix of NWA 5343. Both have similar mineralogies (mostly olivine with lesser pyroxene and plagioclase), but differ in grain size, shape, and porosity. The porous region of the sample is characterized by subhedral-rounded olivine grains, typically Skeletal pyroxene is also common. Original pore space is filled with a Ca-rich glass that appears to originate from an unusual vein in this region. Most interestingly, the extent of metamorphism varies within NWA 5343. Larger, anhedral olivine in the glassy region suggest that this region is more metamorphosed than the porous region. Even within the porous region there is a range of metamorphism, with small patches of granoblastic olivine intermixed with the clastic matrix. This suggests that NWA 5343 may represent a metamorphic breccia, a common occurrence in OCs and CCs of lower petrologic types, and provides insight into the evolution of the only completely metamorphosed CC parent body.

  11. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. A course in ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Randall J

    2014-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition:"A Course in Ordinary Differential Equations deserves to be on the MAA's Basic Library List … the book with its layout, is very student friendly-it is easy to read and understand; every chapter and explanations flow smoothly and coherently … the reviewer would recommend this book highly for undergraduate introductory differential equation courses." -Srabasti Dutta, College of Saint Elizabeth, MAA Online, July 2008"An important feature is that the exposition is richly accompanied by computer algebra code (equally distributed between MATLAB, Mathematica, and Maple). The major part of the book is devoted to classical theory (both for systems and higher order equations). The necessary material from linear algebra is also covered. More advanced topics include numerical methods, stability of equilibria, bifurcations, Laplace transforms, and the power series method."-EMS Newsletter, June 2007"This is a delightful textbook for a standard one-semester undergraduate course in ordinary d...

  13. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    it was distributed systematically as an almost industrially produced landscape element. Windbreaks are now regarded as a traditional element in the Danish agricultural landscape. As a landscape element it is an international phenomenon known and used in Germany, France, England etc. Originally local farming...... practices, natural conditions, techniques and national legislation in the respective countries, formed the aesthetic expression. In this respect one could speak of the impact of northern nature on the aesthetic expression of the Danish windbreaks, as well as the impact from national phenomena....... These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...

  14. Solutions manual to accompany Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  15. Signs in Architecture: Beauty in the Ordinary

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, the basics of living are described as three main elements; clothing, food, and shelter. These elements involve simple daily activities such as changing clothes in the morning, eating lunch, and sleeping at night. It may easily become a mundane topic since they are woven into our daily routines. Nevertheless, a moment in one's day may become joyful when we reconsider and play with the ordinary. The first trace of a dwelling in Japan is a pit shelter. People dug a circular ...

  16. Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Evans, E Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A; Wellman, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether (for human scenarios) parents were nearby or far away, and whether (for God scenarios) protagonists expressed desires through ordinary means (asking or hoping) or more extraordinary means (praying). Following each scenario, participants were asked whether the recipient (either the parent or God) was aware of the protagonist's desire. Children as young as 3 to 4 years old understood that both loudness and distance limit the effectiveness of human communication, reporting that humans would most likely be aware of desires when they were expressed both aloud and nearby. As well, by this age children reported that God would more often be aware of desires than would humans, but children of all ages often reported that God (like humans) would be more aware of desires expressed aloud (rather than silently). These concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication continued to be refined through middle childhood. Children's performance on standard theory-of-mind tasks and participants' religious background predicted whether they attributed awareness to God. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1986-01-01

    An understanding of carbonaceous matter in primitive extraterrestrial materials is an essential component of studies on dust evolution in the interstellar medium and the early history of the Solar System. Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) on carbonaceous material in two Chondritic Porous (CP) aggregrates is presented. The study suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may also be preserved in these materials

  18. A consequence of local equilibration and heterogeneity in glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem observed in simulations and experiments performed in various glassy materials is related to the concepts of local equilibration and heterogeneity in space. Assuming the existence of a dynamic coherence length scale up to which the system is locally equilibrated, we extend previous generalizations of the FDT relating static to dynamic quantities to the physically relevant domain where asymptotic limits of large times and sizes are not reached. The formulation relies on a simple scaling argument and thus does not have the character of a theorem. Extensive numerical simulations support this proposition. Our results quite generally apply to systems with slow dynamics, independently of the space dimensionality, the chosen dynamics or the presence of disorder

  19. Revisiting M&M with Taxes: An Alternative Equilibrating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Kopecky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modigliani and Miller present an equity-quantity shifting equilibrating process to achieve an optimal firm value in the presence of corporate taxes. However, in the era in which they derived their various propositions regarding the relation between a firm’s value and its capital structure, well-capitalized takeover specialists including private equity firms and sovereign funds did not exist, at least by today’s standards. In this paper we develop a simple arbitrage strategy, made viable by the presence of takeover firms, which presents an alternative equilibrating process to achieve the same optimal firm value. This alternative process is markedly different from that of the Modigliani and Miller theorem in terms of its predictions for debt use and restores the prospect of capital structure irrelevancy despite the existence of corporate taxes.

  20. High-pressure polymorphs in Yamato-790729 L6 chondrite and their significance for collisional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yukako; Sekine, Toshimori; Kayama, Masahiko; Miyahara, Masaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Shock pressure recorded in Yamato (Y)-790729, classified as L6 type ordinary chondrite, was evaluated based on high-pressure polymorph assemblages and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of maskelynite. The host-rock of Y-790729 consists mainly of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, metallic Fe-Ni, and iron-sulfide with minor amounts of phosphate and chromite. A shock-melt vein was observed in the hostrock. Ringwoodite, majorite, akimotoite, lingunite, tuite, and xieite occurred in and around the shock-melt vein. The shock pressure in the shock-melt vein is about 14-23 GPa based on the phase equilibrium diagrams of high-pressure polymorphs. Some plagioclase portions in the host-rock occurred as maskelynite. Sixteen different CL spectra of maskelynite portions were deconvolved using three assigned emission components (centered at 2.95, 3.26, and 3.88 eV). The intensity of emission component at 2.95 eV was selected as a calibrated barometer to estimate shock pressure, and the results indicate pressures of about 11-19 GPa. The difference in pressure between the shock-melt vein and host-rock might suggest heterogeneous shock conditions. Assuming an average shock pressure of 18 GPa, the impact velocity of the parent-body of Y-790729 is calculated to be 1.90 km s-1. The parent-body would be at least 10 km in size based on the incoherent formation mechanism of ringwoodite in Y-790729.

  1. Quantitative FT-IR Analysis for Chondritic Meteorites: Search for C_60 in Meteorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunglee Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrared absorption spectra of 9 bulk samples and 3 acid residues of meteorites were obtained in the mid-infrared region (4000 ~ 400 cm^(-1. From the known composition of meteorites studied, the possible absorption modes were investigated. Most bands of bulk samples occur in the region below 1200 cm^(-1 and they are due to metallic oxides and silicates. The spectra of each group can be distinguished by its own characteristic bands. Acid residues show very distinct features from their bulk samples, and absorption bands due to organic compounds are not evident in their spectra. Quantitative analyses for two carbonaceous (Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 and one ordinary (Carraweena L3.9 chondrites were performed for the presence of fullerene (C_60 in the meteorites. We calculated the concentration of C_60 in the acid residues by curvefitting the spectra with Gaussian functions. The upper limit of C_60 concentration in these meteorites appears to be less than an order of a few hundred ppm.

  2. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H; Frees, G; Peric, Z [Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Institute of Materials and Solid State Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1980-05-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  3. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.; Frees, G.; Peric, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  4. Interpretation of Fermion system equilibration by energy fluid motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.

    1990-01-01

    We study the equilibration of fermion system with the help of both linear and non-linear master equations which are originated from the extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation of motion. We show how the non-linear master equation for nucleon occupation number transforms into the Navier-Stokes type of one dimensional equation for non-stationary flow of a compressible and viscous fluid. Physical consequences of these equations are investigated by providing illustrative examples

  5. Were chondrites magnetized by the early solar wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Rona; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cohen, Ofer

    2018-06-01

    Chondritic meteorites have been traditionally thought to be samples of undifferentiated bodies that never experienced large-scale melting. This view has been challenged by the existence of post-accretional, unidirectional natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in CV carbonaceous chondrites. The relatively young inferred NRM age [∼10 million years (My) after solar system formation] and long duration of NRM acquisition (1-106 y) have been interpreted as evidence that the magnetizing field was that of a core dynamo within the CV parent body. This would imply that CV chondrites represent the primitive crust of a partially differentiated body. However, an alternative hypothesis is that the NRM was imparted by the early solar wind. Here we demonstrate that the solar wind scenario is unlikely due to three main factors: 1) the magnitude of the early solar wind magnetic field is estimated to be limits field amplification due to pile-up of the solar wind to less than a factor of 3.5 times that of the instantaneous solar wind field, and 3) the solar wind field likely changed over timescales orders of magnitude shorter than the timescale of NRM acquisition. Using analytical arguments, numerical simulations and astronomical observations of the present-day solar wind and magnetic fields of young stars, we show that the maximum mean field the ancient solar wind could have imparted on an undifferentiated CV parent body is <3.5 nT, which is 3-4 and 3 orders of magnitude weaker than the paleointensities recorded by the CV chondrites Allende and Kaba, respectively. Therefore, the solar wind is highly unlikely to be the source of the NRM in CV chondrites. Nevertheless, future high sensitivity paleomagnetic studies of rapidly-cooled meteorites with high magnetic recording fidelity could potentially trace the evolution of the solar wind field in time.

  6. Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejlin, V.A.; Vereshkov, G.M.; Kuksa, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production are analyzed in the model where the down singlet quark mixes with the ordinary ones. The possibility of experimental selection of h-quark effects is demonstrated

  7. Numerical analysis of systems of ordinary and stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, S S

    1997-01-01

    This text deals with numerical analysis of systems of both ordinary and stochastic differential equations. It covers numerical solution problems of the Cauchy problem for stiff ordinary differential equations (ODE) systems by Rosenbrock-type methods (RTMs).

  8. Voltage equilibration for reactive atomistic simulations of electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrio, Nicolas; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We introduce electrochemical dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom (EChemDID), a model to describe electrochemical driving force in reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The method describes the equilibration of external electrochemical potentials (voltage) within metallic structures and their effect on the self-consistent partial atomic charges used in reactive molecular dynamics. An additional variable assigned to each atom denotes the local potential in its vicinity and we use fictitious, but computationally convenient, dynamics to describe its equilibration within connected metallic structures on-the-fly during the molecular dynamics simulation. This local electrostatic potential is used to dynamically modify the atomic electronegativities used to compute partial atomic changes via charge equilibration. Validation tests show that the method provides an accurate description of the electric fields generated by the applied voltage and the driving force for electrochemical reactions. We demonstrate EChemDID via simulations of the operation of electrochemical metallization cells. The simulations predict the switching of the device between a high-resistance to a low-resistance state as a conductive metallic bridge is formed and resistive currents that can be compared with experimental measurements. In addition to applications in nanoelectronics, EChemDID could be useful to model electrochemical energy conversion devices

  9. Effect of equilibration time on Pu desorption from goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Powell, Brian A.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that strongly sorbing ions such as plutonium may become irreversibly bound to mineral surfaces over time which has implications for near- and far-field transport of Pu. Batch adsorption-desorption data were collected as a function of time and pH to study the surface stability of Pu on goethite. Pu(IV) was adsorbed to goethite over the pH range 4.2 to 6.6 for different periods of time (1, 6, 15, 34 and 116 d). Following adsorption, Pu was leached from the mineral surface with desferrioxamine B (DFOB), a complexant capable of effectively competing with the goethite surface for Pu. The amount of Pu desorbed from the goethite was found to vary as a function of the adsorption equilibration time, with less Pu removed from the goethite following longer adsorption periods. This effect was most pronounced at low pH. Logarithmic desorption distribution ratios for each adsorption equilibration time were fit to a pH-dependent model. Model slopes decreased between 1 and 116 d adsorption time, indicating that overall Pu(IV) surface stability on goethite surfaces becomes less dependent on pH with greater adsorption equilibration time. The combination of adsorption and desorption kinetic data suggest that non-redox aging processes affect Pu sorption behavior on goethite.

  10. Isotopic diversity in nebular dust: The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Average Ti isotopic patterns are derived for each class of carbonaceous chondrite from a chemically characterized suite of whole-rock samples. There is a well-resolved excess of 50 Ti in a subset of CI meteorites. Mean values of the 50 Ti excess for the four classes span a range of only 2 ε-units, with an apparent positive correlation with Al content. Previous evidence for anomalies in chondrules is augmented here by demonstrating that: (1) the more pristine Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in Efremovka show the same isotopic pattern as the typical Allende CAI; and, (2) CM and CV matrix carry 50 Ti excesses of about 2 ε-units. The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies among matrix, chondrules, and CAIs suggests a model in which all three constituents formed from precursor-assemblages in which some chemical memories were still intact; the isotopic differences reflect fractionations among the carrier phases of the different isotopic components. Chondrules formed by a mostly closed-system melting of their precursors, and thus provide a recording of the extent of nebular heterogeneity on the mg-size scale. The larger anomalies in CAIs, compared to matrix and most (but not all) chondrules, are attributed primarily to an open- rather than closed-system processing of the CAI precursors. Precursors of both FUN and normal CAIs experienced an episode of intense processing, perhaps partial melting, that created the FUN characteristics, but for normal CAIs the FUN effects were erased by subsequent isotopic equilibration and exchange

  11. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  12. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range...

  13. Ordinary Differential Equation Models for Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Anne; Dantoin, Claudia; Durrett, Rick

    2018-05-01

    Modified T cells that have been engineered to recognize the CD19 surface marker have recently been shown to be very successful at treating acute lymphocytic leukemias. Here, we explore four previous approaches that have used ordinary differential equations to model this type of therapy, compare their properties, and modify the models to address their deficiencies. Although the four models treat the workings of the immune system in slightly different ways, they all predict that adoptive immunotherapy can be successful to move a patient from the large tumor fixed point to an equilibrium with little or no tumor.

  14. The ethics of an ordinary medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Some routinely applied hospital technologies may have unintended consequences for patients and their families. The neonatal cardiorespiratory monitor, a computer-like display used to show an infant's vital functions, is one such technology that may become part of a parent's day-to-day being with his or her hospitalized child. In this phenomenological study, I explored how the monitor may mediate parental sensibilities, reshaping the contact of parent and child. This exploration speaks to understanding the relational ethics of even the seemingly most ordinary of medical technologies in clinical contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Possible impact-induced refractory-lithophile fractionations in EL chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz; Wasson, John T.

    2009-03-01

    Literature data show that refractory-lithophile elements in most chondrite groups are unfractionated relative to CI chondrites; the principal exception is the EL-chondrite group whose observed falls (all of which are type 6) are depleted in Ca and light REE. In contrast, literature data and our new INAA data on EL3 PCA 91020, EL3 MAC 88136 and EL4 Grein 002 show that some replicates of these samples have nearly flat REE patterns (unlike those of EL6 chondrites); other replicates exhibit fractionated REE patterns similar to those of EL6 chondrites. Petrographic examination shows that many EL6 (and some EL3 and EL4) chondrites are impact-melt breccias or contain impact-melted portions. We suggest that the same impact processes that formed these breccias and produced melt are responsible for the observed bulk compositional fractionations in refractory-lithophile elements, i.e., EL6 chondrites were produced from initially unequilibrated EL3 material. When large amounts of impact heat were deposited, plagioclase and/or oldhamite (CaS) (the major REE carriers in enstatite chondrites) may have been melted and then transported appreciable (>10 cm) distances. EL6 chondrites represent the residuum that is depleted in REE (particularly in LREE) and Ca. Unlike the case for EL chondrites, our new INAA data on ALH 84170, EET 87746 and SAH 97096 (all EH3) show some scatter but are consistent with the EH group having uniform refractory-lithophile abundances.

  16. A textbook on ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Shair

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a primer on the theory and applications of Ordinary Differential Equations. The style used is simple, yet thorough and rigorous. Each chapter ends with a broad set of exercises that range from the routine to the more challenging and thought-provoking. Solutions to selected exercises can be found at the end of the book. The book contains many interesting examples on topics such as electric circuits, the pendulum equation, the logistic equation, the Lotka-Volterra system, the Laplace Transform, etc., which introduce students to a number of interesting aspects of the theory and applications. The work is mainly intended for students of Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Computer Science and other areas of the natural and social sciences that use ordinary differential equations, and who have a firm grasp of Calculus and a minimal understanding of the basic concepts used in Linear Algebra. It also studies a few more advanced topics, such as Stability Theory and Boundary Value Problems, whic...

  17. Beardsley vs. Faith: Physical diversity among H5 chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbik, M.; Lang, B.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructure and some physico-mechanical properties of Beardsley and Faith, both H5 chondrites, were compared. Although the bulk sample porosities are respectively 9.1% and 14.5%, suggesting lower consolidation of Faith, the effective porosities are 5.63% and 1.79% - much higher for Beardsley. The material of Faith, characterized by vugs, vesicles and closed channels - abundant but all sized below 0.01 μm - is of higher strength than that of Beardsley, where joints, fissures, open channels and microcracks are sized from 0.1 to 10 μm. The higher elastic properties of Faith are shown by the velocity of the compressional wave of 6.66 km s -1 against that of 5.12 km s -1 for Beardsley. An example of physical diversity among chondrites to the same chemical-petrologic type is therefore demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-29

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs 'accidentally'. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells.

  19. Ultrafast equilibration of excited electrons in dynamical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhibin; Allen, Roland E

    2009-12-02

    In our density-functional-based simulations of materials responding to femtosecond-scale laser pulses, we have observed a potentially useful phenomenon: the excited electrons automatically equilibrate to a Fermi-Dirac distribution within ∼100 fs, solely because of their coupling to the nuclear motion, even though the resulting electronic temperature is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the kinetic temperature defined by the nuclear motion. Microscopic simulations like these can then provide the separate electronic and kinetic temperatures, chemical potentials, pressures, and nonhydrostatic stresses as input for studies on larger lengths and timescales.

  20. Ordinary differential equations principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumaran, A K; George, Raju K

    2017-01-01

    Written in a clear, logical and concise manner, this comprehensive resource allows students to quickly understand the key principles, techniques and applications of ordinary differential equations. Important topics including first and second order linear equations, initial value problems and qualitative theory are presented in separate chapters. The concepts of two point boundary value problems, physical models and first order partial differential equations are discussed in detail. The text uses tools of calculus and real analysis to get solutions in explicit form. While discussing first order linear systems, linear algebra techniques are used. The real-life applications are interspersed throughout the book to invoke reader's interest. The methods and tricks to solve numerous mathematical problems with sufficient derivations and explanation are provided. The proofs of theorems are explained for the benefit of the readers.

  1. From ordinary to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    This book is addressed to mathematics and physics students who want to develop an interdisciplinary view of mathematics, from the age of Riemann, Poincaré and Darboux to basic tools of modern mathematics. It enables them to acquire the sensibility necessary for the formulation and solution of difficult problems, with an emphasis on concepts, rigour and creativity. It consists of eight self-contained parts: ordinary differential equations; linear elliptic equations; calculus of variations; linear and non-linear hyperbolic equations; parabolic equations; Fuchsian functions and non-linear equations; the functional equations of number theory; pseudo-differential operators and pseudo-differential equations. The author leads readers through the original papers and introduces new concepts, with a selection of topics and examples that are of high pedagogical value.

  2. Ordinary differential equations basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, David G

    2016-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), starting from an introductory level (with no prior experience in ODEs assumed) through to a graduate-level treatment of the qualitative theory, including bifurcation theory (but not chaos). While proofs are rigorous, the exposition is reader-friendly, aiming for the informality of face-to-face interactions. A unique feature of this book is the integration of rigorous theory with numerous applications of scientific interest. Besides providing motivation, this synthesis clarifies the theory and enhances scientific literacy. Other features include: (i) a wealth of exercises at various levels, along with commentary that explains why they matter; (ii) figures with consistent color conventions to identify nullclines, periodic orbits, stable and unstable manifolds; and (iii) a dedicated website with software templates, problem solutions, and other resources supporting the text. Given its many applications, the book may be used comfortably in sc...

  3. A textbook on ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Shair

    2014-01-01

    The book is a primer of the theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. Each chapter is completed by a broad set of exercises; the reader will also find a set of solutions of selected exercises. The book contains many interesting examples as well (like the equations for the electric circuits, the pendium equation, the logistic equation, the Lotka-Volterra system, and many other) which introduce the reader to some interesting aspects of the theory and its applications. The work is mainly addressed to students of Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Statistics, Computer Sciences, with  knowledge of Calculus and Linear Algebra, and contains more advanced topics for further developments, such as Laplace transform; Stability theory and existence of solutions to Boundary Value problems. The authors are preparing a complete solutions manual, containing solutions to all the exercises published in the book. The manual will be available Summer 2014. Instructors who wish to adopt the book may request the manual by writing...

  4. Ordinary differential equations a graduate text

    CERN Document Server

    Bhamra, K S

    2015-01-01

    ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: A Graduate Text presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to ODEs for graduate and postgraduate students. The systematic organized text on differential inequalities, Gronwall's inequality, Nagumo's theorems, Osgood's criteria and applications of different equations of first order is dealt with in a greater depth. The book discusses qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Strum - Liouville problems, Green's function, integral equations, Laplace transform and is supported by a number of worked-out examples in each lesson to make the concepts clear. A lot of stress on stability theory is laid down, especially on Lyapunov and Poincare stability theory. A numerous figures in various lessons (in particular lessons dealing with stability theory) have been added to clarify the key concepts in DE theory. Nonlinear oscillation in conservative systems and Hamiltonian systems highlights basic nature of the systems considered. Perturbation techniques lesson deals in fairly d...

  5. Universal formats for nonlinear ordinary differential systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that very general nonlinear ordinary differential systems (embracing all that arise in practice) may, first, be brought down to polynomial systems (where the nonlinearities occur only as polynomials in the dependent variables) by introducing suitable new variables into the original system; second, that polynomial systems are reducible to ''Riccati systems,'' where the nonlinearities are quadratic at most; third, that Riccati systems may be brought to elemental universal formats containing purely quadratic terms with simple arrays of coefficients that are all zero or unity. The elemental systems have representations as novel types of matrix Riccati equations. Different starting systems and their associated Riccati systems differ from one another, at the final elemental level, in order and in initial data, but not in format

  6. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  7. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith.

  8. A simple headspace equilibration method for measuring dissolved methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, C; Lapham, L.L.; Pohlman, John W.; Marshall, Kristin N.; Bosman, S.; Casso, Michael; Chanton, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved methane concentrations in the ocean are close to equilibrium with the atmosphere. Because methane is only sparingly soluble in seawater, measuring it without contamination is challenging for samples collected and processed in the presence of air. Several methods for analyzing dissolved methane are described in the literature, yet none has conducted a thorough assessment of the method yield, contamination issues during collection, transport and storage, and the effect of temperature changes and preservative. Previous extraction methods transfer methane from water to gas by either a "sparge and trap" or a "headspace equilibration" technique. The gas is then analyzed for methane by gas chromatography. Here, we revisit the headspace equilibration technique and describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to measure methane in fresh and seawater, regardless of concentration. Within the range of concentrations typically found in surface seawaters (2-1000 nmol L-1), the yield of the method nears 100% of what is expected from solubility calculation following the addition of known amount of methane. In addition to being sensitive (detection limit of 0.1 ppmv, or 0.74 nmol L-1), this method requires less than 10 min per sample, and does not use highly toxic chemicals. It can be conducted with minimum materials and does not require the use of a gas chromatograph at the collection site. It can therefore be used in various remote working environments and conditions.

  9. Compartmentation and equilibration of abscisic acid in isolated Xanthium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, E.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The compartmentation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), applied (+/-)-[ 3 H]ABA, and (+/-)-trans-ABA was measured in isolated mesophyll cells of the Chicago strain of Xanthium strumarium L. The release of ABA to the medium in the presence or absence of DMSO was used to determine the equilibration of ABA in the cells. It was found that a greater percentage of the (+/-)-[ 3 H]ABA and the (+/-)-trans-ABA was released into the medium than of the endogenous ABA, indicating that applied ABA did not equilibrate with the endogenous material. Therefore, in further investigations only the compartmentation of endogenous ABA was studied. Endogenous ABA was released from Xanthium cells according to the pH gradients among the various cellular compartments. Thus, darkness, high external pH, KNO 2 , and drought-stress all increased the efflux of ABA from the cells. Efflux of ABA from the cells in the presence of 0.6 M mannitol occurred within 30 seconds, but only 8% of the endogenous material was released during the 20 minute treatment

  10. Schwarz maps of algebraic linear ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Malagón, Camilo

    2017-12-01

    A linear ordinary differential equation is called algebraic if all its solution are algebraic over its field of definition. In this paper we solve the problem of finding closed form solution to algebraic linear ordinary differential equations in terms of standard equations. Furthermore, we obtain a method to compute all algebraic linear ordinary differential equations with rational coefficients by studying their associated Schwarz map through the Picard-Vessiot Theory.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF SATISFACTION IN PERITONEAL EQUILIBRATION TEST: A STUDY ON THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE PERITONEAL EQUILIBRATION SATISFACTION SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem TOPBAŞ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study has been designed to develop an assessment tool to be used in determining the patients’ satisfaction level with the peritoneal equilibration test (PET procedure. Materials and Methods: The development and validation of the peritoneal equilibration test Satisfaction Scale (PETSS was completed in two phases. Phase I focused on instrument construction and included item development and establishment of concurrent validity. Phase II included the factor analysis and psychometric assessment of the scale. In statistical evaluation of the data descriptive statistics and non-paratmetric tests were used. Results: The first version of the scale that has 3.62 Content Validity Index value was composed of 20 items. It was found that the latest version of the scale that has 14 items explained 46% of the variance. It was found that the Cronbach alfa value of this scale, which has 0.52-0.89 coefficient of item-total correlation was 0.96. Psychometric assessment of the scale revealed that except for type of the PET application, none of the demographic and clinical characteristics effect patients level of satisfaction during the PET application. Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that PETSS was a valid and reliable scale that can be used for determining satisfaction level of patients during PET application.

  12. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, L

    1987-01-01

    Nearly 20 years ago we produced a treatise (of about the same length as this book) entitled Computing methods for scientists and engineers. It was stated that most computation is performed by workers whose mathematical training stopped somewhere short of the 'professional' level, and that some books are therefore needed which use quite simple mathematics but which nevertheless communicate the essence of the 'numerical sense' which is exhibited by the real computing experts and which is surely needed, at least to some extent, by all who use modern computers and modern numerical software. In that book we treated, at no great length, a variety of computational problems in which the material on ordinary differential equations occupied about 50 pages. At that time it was quite common to find books on numerical analysis, with a little on each topic ofthat field, whereas today we are more likely to see similarly-sized books on each major topic: for example on numerical linear algebra, numerical approximation, numeri...

  13. Robust estimation for ordinary differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Wang, L; Xu, J

    2011-12-01

    Applied scientists often like to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to model complex dynamic processes that arise in biology, engineering, medicine, and many other areas. It is interesting but challenging to estimate ODE parameters from noisy data, especially when the data have some outliers. We propose a robust method to address this problem. The dynamic process is represented with a nonparametric function, which is a linear combination of basis functions. The nonparametric function is estimated by a robust penalized smoothing method. The penalty term is defined with the parametric ODE model, which controls the roughness of the nonparametric function and maintains the fidelity of the nonparametric function to the ODE model. The basis coefficients and ODE parameters are estimated in two nested levels of optimization. The coefficient estimates are treated as an implicit function of ODE parameters, which enables one to derive the analytic gradients for optimization using the implicit function theorem. Simulation studies show that the robust method gives satisfactory estimates for the ODE parameters from noisy data with outliers. The robust method is demonstrated by estimating a predator-prey ODE model from real ecological data. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorenstein M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP are addressed and discussed.

  15. D2-H2 equilibration over γ-irradiated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Wichterlova, B.

    1987-01-01

    D 2 -H 2 equilibration was studied at 77 and 298 K over HY, AlHY, HZSM-5 and Alsub(x)Osub(y)HZSM-5 zeolites which had been γ-irradiated at 77 and/or 298 K. The exchange rate was found to be higher at the lower temperature regardless of the temperature of irradiation. Moreover, at 77 K the exchange rates were similar and more stable over the individual zeolites than at 298 K, thus indicating a common reaction path at 77 K. The exchange rate at 298 K depended on the zeolite type: it was more stable and higher over HZSM-5 than over HY, and extra-lattice Al increased both these properties on HY as well as on HZSM-5. The reaction mechanism is discussed in connection with the nature of defects generated by γ-irradiation. (author)

  16. Strangeness chemical equilibration in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann

    2007-01-01

    We study, in the dynamically evolving quark-gluon plasma (QGP) fireball formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the growth of strangeness yield toward and beyond the chemical equilibrium. We account for the contribution of the direct strangeness production and evaluate the thermal-QCD strangeness production mechanisms. The specific yield of strangeness per entropy, s/S, is the primary target variable. We explore the effect of collision impact parameter, i.e., fireball size, on kinetic strangeness chemical equilibration in QGP. Insights gained in studying the RHIC data with regard to the dynamics of the fireball are applied to the study of strangeness production at the LHC. We use these results and consider the strange hadron relative particle yields at RHIC and LHC in a systematic fashion. We consider both the dependence on s/S and the direct dependence on the participant number

  17. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical electron microscope study is presented on carbonaceous material in two chondritic porous aggregates, W7029* A and W7010* A2, from the Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection. The finding of well-ordered carbon-2H (lonsdaleite) in the two aggregates suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may be preserved in these materials. This carbon is a metastable phase resulting from hydrous pyrolysis below 300-350 0 C and may be a precursor to poorly graphitized carbons in primitive extra terrestrial materials. (UK)

  18. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  19. An accurate scheme by block method for third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems of ordinary differential equations is presented in this paper. The approach of collocation approximation is adopted in the derivation of the scheme and then the scheme is applied as simultaneous integrator to special third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. This implementation strategy is ...

  20. Monograph - The Numerical Integration of Ordinary Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T. E.

    The materials presented in this monograph are intended to be included in a course on ordinary differential equations at the upper division level in a college mathematics program. These materials provide an introduction to the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and they can be used to supplement a regular text on this…

  1. AND DEVELOPMENT OF LETTUCE ON CHERNOZEM ORDINARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gromakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is very popular in the Russian consumer market. Special conditions for its cultivation determine the need to select modern, inexpensive elements of agro-technology that promote high yields. At present biochar (bio-coal is considered as a promising organic fertilizer. Its main difference lies in the possibility of using any organic raw material in its production. In Russia, the study on the use of biochar is limited; there is no practice of applying it in the complex of agricultural techniques of various agricultural crops. In the conditions of vegetative experiment, the influence of various doses of biochar in ordinary chernozem on the growth and development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar was studied in accordance with the developed experiment scheme: control (without biochar, supplemented with 1, 2 and 5 % of biochar. In the experiment, biochar obtained from birch wood was used, by pyrolysis method in fraction of 0.5-5mm. The following observations and determinations were made: the timing of the onset of the phases of plant development, the length of the roots, the number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf, the height of plants, the diameter of the rosette, the mass of 10 plants. The use of biochar contributed to a reduction of beginning period technical ripeness in plants, particularly in variant with the addition of 2%. The increase in root length, the number of leaves of lettuce plants as compared with to control in variants with 2 and 5% of biocar has been observed. The length of the largest leaf, the height of plants and the diameter of the rosette of lettuce are characterized by a significant improvement, even in variant with 1%. Productivity of lettuce was highest in the variant with 2% of biochar applied to the soil.

  2. Ordinary differential equations introduction to the theory of ordinary differential equations in the real domain

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzweil, J

    1986-01-01

    The author, Professor Kurzweil, is one of the world's top experts in the area of ordinary differential equations - a fact fully reflected in this book. Unlike many classical texts which concentrate primarily on methods of integration of differential equations, this book pursues a modern approach: the topic is discussed in full generality which, at the same time, permits us to gain a deep insight into the theory and to develop a fruitful intuition. The basic framework of the theory is expanded by considering further important topics like stability, dependence of a solution on a parameter, Car

  3. Calcium and titanium isotopes in refractory inclusions from CM, CO, and CR chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Simon, Steven B.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that CV and CM chondrites incorporated Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with different isotopic characteristics, which may represent different snapshots in the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. To better understand how the isotopic characteristics of CAIs vary between different chondrite groups, we have studied calcium and titanium isotopes in CAIs from CM, CO, and CR chondrites. We show that all three chondrite groups contain CAIs with large anomalies in 48Ca and/or 50Ti (10s of ‰ or 100s of ε-units) as well as CAIs with no anomalies resolved beyond measurement uncertainties. Isotopically, the anomalous CO and CR chondrite CAIs resemble the platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) from CM chondrites, but they are more mineralogically complex. The new data are consistent with the well-established mutual exclusivity relationship between incorporation of 26Al and the presence of large anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. The two highly anomalous CO chondrite CAIs have correlated anomalies in 46Ti and 50Ti, while most other highly anomalous CAIs do not. This result could indicate that the reservoir with coupled 46Ti and 50Ti that was sampled by bulk meteorites and CV chondrite CAIs already existed before arrival and/or homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk. Among the studied CM chondrite CAIs are ten spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs) with known oxygen isotopic compositions. Our results show that these objects sampled a reservoir that was well-mixed in oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopes. We further show that SHIBs tend to be slightly enriched in the heavy calcium isotopes, suggesting that their formation history was different from CV chondrite CAIs.

  4. Dichotomies for generalized ordinary differential equations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, E. M.; Federson, M.; Santos, F. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we establish the theory of dichotomies for generalized ordinary differential equations, introducing the concepts of dichotomies for these equations, investigating their properties and proposing new results. We establish conditions for the existence of exponential dichotomies and bounded solutions. Using the correspondences between generalized ordinary differential equations and other equations, we translate our results to measure differential equations and impulsive differential equations. The fact that we work in the framework of generalized ordinary differential equations allows us to manage functions with many discontinuities and of unbounded variation.

  5. CM and CO chondrites: A common parent body or asteroidal neighbors? Insights from chondrule silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Davidson, Jemma

    2017-10-01

    By investigating the petrology and chemical composition of type II (FeO-rich) chondrules in the Mighei-like carbonaceous (CM) chondrites we constrain their thermal histories and relationship to the Ornans-like carbonaceous (CO) chondrites. We identified FeO-rich relict grains in type II chondrules by their Fe/Mn ratios; their presence indicates chondrule recycling among type II chondrules. The majority of relict grains in type II chondrules are FeO-poor olivine grains. Consistent with previous studies, chemical similarities between CM and CO chondrite chondrules indicate that they had similar formation conditions and that their parent bodies probably formed in a common region within the protoplanetary disk. However, important differences such as mean chondrule size and the lower abundance of FeO-poor relicts in CM chondrite type II chondrules than in CO chondrites suggest CM and CO chondrules did not form together and they likely originate from distinct parent asteroids. Despite being aqueously altered, many CM chondrites contain pre-accretionary anhydrous minerals (i.e., olivine) that are among the least thermally metamorphosed materials in chondrites according to the Cr2O3 content of their ferroan olivine. The presence of these minimally altered pre-accretionary chondrule silicates suggests that samples to be returned from aqueously altered asteroids by the Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return missions, even highly hydrated, may contain silicates that can provide information about the pre-accretionary histories and conditions of asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, respectively.

  6. Para hydrogen equilibration in the atmospheres of the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrath, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is strongly dependent on the extent to which local thermal equilibration of the ortho and para states of molecular hydrogen is achieved. Voyager IRIS data from Jupiter imply substantial departures of the para hydrogen fraction from equilibrium in the upper troposphere at low latitudes, but with values approaching equilibrium at higher latitudes. Data from Saturn are less sensitive to the orth-para ratio, but suggest para hydrogen fractions near the equilibrium value. Above approximately the 200 K temperature level, para hydrogen conversion can enhance the efficiency of convection, resulting in a substantial increase in overturning times on all of the outer planets. Currently available data cannot definitively establish the ortho-para ratios in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, but suggest values closer to local equilibrium than to the 3.1 normal ratio. Modeling of sub-millimeter wavelength measurements of these planets suggest thermal structures with frozen equilibrium lapse rates in their convective regions

  7. Equilibration of matter near the QCD critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravina, L V; Arsene, I; Nilsson, M S; Tywoniuk, K; Zabrodin, E E

    2006-01-01

    The relaxation of hot and dense nuclear matter to local equilibrium in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around 40 A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport model. Dynamical calculations performed for the central cell in the reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal statistical model. It is found that kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrations of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached for the period of 10-18 fm/c. Within this time, the matter in the cell expands almost isentropically. It is quite interesting that in the T-μ B plane the system crosses the critical point predicted by lattice QCD calculations. Similar to the cells studied at lower (AGS) and higher (SPS, RHIC) energies, the central cell at 40 A GeV possesses negative (though small) net strangeness. Several peculiarities are observed as well. These features can be attributed to the transition from baryon-dominated to meson-dominated matter, discussed recently

  8. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  9. The Mukundpura meteorite, a new fall of CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.

    2018-02-01

    Mukundpura is a new CM chondrite fell near Jaipur, Rajasthan, India on June 6, 2017 at 5:15 IST. The fall was observed by local villager. According to eyewitness, the meteorite was fragmented into several pieces once the object hit the ground. Based on petrography, mineralogy and bulk composition, Mukundpura is classified as CM2 chondrite. The chondrules are mainly similar to type I (Olivine: Fo99). Olivines are often found associated with pyroxene (Wo10-35En62-87Fs2-7) phenocryst. However, occurrences of forsteritic and fayalitic olivine (Fa58-71) as isolated mineral clast in matrix are not uncommon. Other types of chondrules include porphyritic pyroxene (En86Fs14) and barred olivine (Fa32.7±0.3) clast. Chondrules are commonly rimmed by fine-grained accretionary dust mantles. Phyllosilicates are the most dominant secondary mineral in matrix and largely associated with poorly characterised phases (PCP). FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 of PCP are 2.7 and 0.4 respectively. Other phases in matrix generally include calcite (pure CaCO3), Fe-Ni metal and sulphides. Spinel and perovskite occur occasionally as inclusions. The spherical or elliptical shaped metals (within chondrule or in isolated grains) are low-Ni type (kamacite <7.5 wt%) and resembles the solar Ni/Co ratio. However, Ni content in metal rarely exceeds 8.5 wt% (up to 23 wt%, taenite). Pyrrhotite (Fe ∼62 wt%; S ∼38 wt%) and pentlandite (Fe ∼31-33 wt%, Ni ∼28-32 wt%, S ∼33 wt%)) are the common sulphides occur as isolated grains within the matrix, however, the former is the most dominant. The bulk chemical composition of Mukundpura is largely similar to other CM type chondrite (e.g. Paris CM). Based on petrography, we infer a modest aqueous alteration stage for Mukundpura while the effect of thermal metamorphism was negligible.

  10. Maintenance of lettuce seed viability and counter-action of radiation damage by moisture equilibration-drying treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Bina; Basu, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Lettuce seeds were subjected to X- and gamma-radiation after moisture equilibration-drying or they were equilibrated with a saturated atmosphere for 24 hrs immediately after irradiation followed by drying back to the original weight. Results showed that moisture-equilibration drying treatment either before or after irradiation counteracts the adverse effects of irradiation. (M.G.B.)

  11. Maintenance of lettuce seed viability and counter-action of radiation damage by moisture equilibration-drying treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, B; Basu, R N

    1982-10-01

    Lettuce seeds were subjected to X- and gamma-radiation after moisture equilibration-drying or they were equilibrated with a saturated atmosphere for 24 hrs immediately after irradiation followed by drying back to the original weight. Results showed that moisture-equilibration drying treatment either before or after irradiation counteracts the adverse effects of irradiation. (M.G.B.). 14 refs.

  12. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples containing the chromium salt have been investigated using differential microcalorimetry, conductometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The effect of chromium on OPC hydration was evaluated by continuous observing of early hydration.

  13. The early solar system abundance of 244Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10 9 years ago, the atomic ratio of 244 Pu/ 238 U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of 244 Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs

  14. The early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10/sup 9/ years ago, the atomic ratio of /sup 244/Pu//sup 238/U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith Revealed from the Jbilet Winselwan CM Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Le, Loan; Kring, David; Cato, Michael; Fagan, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    C-class asteroids frequently exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, or a mixture of phyllosilicate-rich material along with regions where they are absent. One particularly important example appears to be asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of the Hayabusa 2 mission, although most spectra of Ryugu are featureless, suggesting a heterogeneous regolith. Here we explore an alternative cause of dehydration of regolith of C-class asteroids - impact shock melting. Impact shock melting has been proposed to ex-plain some mineralogical characteristics of CB chondrites, but has rarely been considered a major process for hydrous carbonaceous chondrites.

  16. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  17. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Recently Fallen Chondrites Mihonoseki and Tahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, M.; Honda, M.; Yabuki, S.; Takahashi, K.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: The chondrite Mihonoseki, L6, 6.38 kg, fell on December 10, 1992 [1]. The other chondrite, Tahara, fell on March 26, 1991, on the deck of car- carrier ship, M.S. Century-Highway No.1 of Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd., anchored at T-3 berth of Toyota Pier, at Toyohashi harbor, in Tahara-Center, Toyota Motor Corp., Tahara-machi, Atsumi-gun, Aichi-ken, Japan. Although the total mass is estimated to be more than 5 kg, only several fragments were recovered by crews. In fact, this was recognized by the event of Mihonoseki. Tahara was classified as H5 [2]. Gamma-Ray Counting: With whole mass of Mihonoseki, nondestructive gamma-ray countings started on December 15, 1992, using a pure Ge detector (ORTEC), 45 mm x 39 mm, horizontal type. Data collections were performed every day in the beginning and later about every week through February 3, 1993. A sample chamber was shielded with 15-cm-thick lead, 6-cm-thick iron, and 0.5-cm-thick plastic plates. For Tahara, another set (Canberra), 44 mm x 42 mm, coaxial type, was used. The 420-g fragment was mounted in the sample chamber shielded with 15-cm-thick lead, 2-cm-thick iron, 2-cm-thick copper, and 2-cm-thick plastic plates. The counting started in January 1993. The counting efficiencies for gamma rays as a function of energy, ranging between 122 keV (57Co) and 1809 keV (26Al), have been determined using three different standards. A mixed standard solution of nine-species gamma-ray emitters, QCY-44, reference time 12:00 GMT on February 1, 1993, was supplied from Amersham, England. The solution was dropped onto (1) chips of Al-foil, (2) chips of filter paper, or (3) olivine sand. Those standards were mixed thoroughly with mock materials, fine and coarse olivine sand and iron powder, and reagent KCl, standard for 40K, then filled into mock shells of Mihonoseki and Tahara, which were made of hard plastic and aluminum foil with epoxy resin, respectively. For Tahara, mocks with all three types of standards were examined for

  18. Temperature equilibration rate with Fermi-Dirac statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lowell S.; Singleton, Robert L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate analytically the electron-ion temperature equilibration rate in a fully ionized, weakly to moderately coupled plasma, using an exact treatment of the Fermi-Dirac electrons. The temperature is sufficiently high so that the quantum-mechanical Born approximation to the scattering is valid. It should be emphasized that we do not build a model of the energy exchange mechanism, but rather, we perform a systematic first principles calculation of the energy exchange. At the heart of this calculation lies the method of dimensional continuation, a technique that we borrow from quantum field theory and use in a different fashion to regulate the kinetic equations in a consistent manner. We can then perform a systematic perturbation expansion and thereby obtain a finite first-principles result to leading and next-to-leading order. Unlike model building, this systematic calculation yields an estimate of its own error and thus prescribes its domain of applicability. The calculational error is small for a weakly to moderately coupled plasma, for which our result is nearly exact. It should also be emphasized that our calculation becomes unreliable for a strongly coupled plasma, where the perturbative expansion that we employ breaks down, and one must then utilize model building and computer simulations. Besides providing different and potentially useful results, we use this calculation as an opportunity to explain the method of dimensional continuation in a pedagogical fashion. Interestingly, in the regime of relevance for many inertial confinement fusion experiments, the degeneracy corrections are comparable in size to the subleading quantum correction below the Born approximation. For consistency, we therefore present this subleading quantum-to-classical transition correction in addition to the degeneracy correction

  19. Equilibration and hydrodynamics at strong and weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schee, Wilke

    2017-11-01

    We give an updated overview of both weak and strong coupling methods to describe the approach to a plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics, a process now called hydrodynamisation. At weak coupling the very first moments after a heavy ion collision is described by the colour-glass condensate framework, but quickly thereafter the mean free path is long enough for kinetic theory to become applicable. Recent simulations indicate thermalization in a time t ∼ 40(η / s) 4 / 3 / T [L. Keegan, A. Kurkela, P. Romatschke, W. van der Schee, Y. Zhu, Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories, JHEP 04 (2016) 031. arxiv:arXiv:1512.05347, doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2016)031], with T the temperature at that time and η / s the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density. At (infinitely) strong coupling it is possible to mimic heavy ion collisions by using holography, which leads to a dual description of colliding gravitational shock waves. The plasma formed hydrodynamises within a time of 0.41/T recent extension found corrections to this result for finite values of the coupling, when η / s is bigger than the canonical value of 1/4π, which leads to t ∼ (0.41 + 1.6 (η / s - 1 / 4 π)) / T [S. Grozdanov, W. van der Schee, Coupling constant corrections in holographic heavy ion collisions, arxiv:arXiv:1610.08976]. Future improvements include the inclusion of the effects of the running coupling constant in QCD.

  20. Photon production in an expanding and chemically equilibrating gluon-enriched plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-12-01

    Photon production in a longitudinally and transversely expanding gluon plasma with initially little quark admixture is considered. Chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons is followed by rate equations. The yields of hard photons with E ≥ 2 GeV are insensitive to chemical equilibration and depend mainly on the initial thermalized state. Medium-energy photons with E ∼ 1 GeV are more frequently produced in case of faster equilibration, despite of faster cooling. For an assumed fast equilibration we follow the evolution of matter through mixed and hadron phases. The transverse momentum kick, due to transverse expansion, of photons from hadron matter is shown to be reduced for an equation of state with reduced latent heat. The photon yield in the region E > 1 GeV from deconfined matter dominates for conditions, estimated to be achieved at RHIC, in case of a weakly first-order confinement transition. (orig.)

  1. Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration on Primordial Noble Gases in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Maden, C.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed 32 CM chondrites for their noble gas contents and isotopic compositions and calculated CRE ages. Correlated effects of parent body aqueous alteration with primordial noble gas contents were detected.

  3. Comparison of FTIR Spectra of Bulk and Acid Residual Organic Matter in Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Cody, G. D.

    2013-09-01

    We compared infrared spectra of bulk meteorites and IOM. The CH_2/CH_3 ratios show some difference between bulk samples and IOM, but there is no systematic correlation with chondrite groups or petrologic type.

  4. Chemical and Isotopic Diversity of Organic Particles in Chondrites: Parent Body vs. Nebular Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM), the main organic constituent in chondrites, has been extensively studied after HF/HCl isolation techniques. Bulk isotopic compositions and elemental ratios show variations between chondrite groups, whereas they are quite homogeneous within each class [1]. Recent isotopic measurements by ion probes have revealed that IOM is heterogeneous at the sub-micron scale [2,3]. Does this heterogeneity reflect parent body evolution or reactions in the gas...

  5. A critical evaluation of multistage equilibration technique for preconcentration by ion-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Capabilities of the method of preconcentration of heavy metal ions from aqueous samples by Chelex 100 using a successive equilibration technique has been evaluated. The process of successive equilibrations may be looked upon in one of the two ways: one of equilibrating a given amount of resin with n successive aliquots so that sample size increases n-fold. Alternatively one may consider this as dividing a large-sized sample into n equal aliquots and carrying out the equilibrations with a smaller amount of resin maintaining the v/m ratio. Expressions have been derived for overall recovery, percentage recovery and decontamination factor for the successive equilibration technique. The validity of the expressions has been checked with experimental data. The values for recovery and decontamination factor have been compared with those for a single equilibration using the whole sample. Finally the factors which affect the value of recovery have been examined and their effect on the recovery has been evaluated. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 1 appendix

  6. On the Behavior of Phosphorus During the Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Chizmadia, Lysa J.

    2005-01-01

    During the earliest period of solar system formation, water played an important role in the evolution of primitive dust, both after accretion of planetesimals and possible before accretion within the protoplanetary disk. Many chondrites show evidence of variable degrees of aqueous alteration, the CM2 chondrites being among the most studied [1]. This group of chondrites is characterized by mineral assemblages of both primary and secondary alteration phases. Hence, these meteorites retain a particularly important record of the reactions that occurred between primary high temperature nebular phases and water. Studies of these chondrites can provide information on the conditions and environments of aqueous alteration and the mobility of elements during alteration. This latter question is at the core of a debate concerning the location of aqueous alteration, i.e. whether alteration occurred predominantly within a closed system after accretion (parent body alteration) or whether some degree of alteration occurred within the solar nebula or on ephemeral protoplanetary bodies prior to accretion. At the core of the parent body alteration model is the hypothesis that elemental exchange between different components, principally chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. chondrules and matrix, must have occurred. In this study, we focus on the behavior of the minor element, phosphorus. This study was stimulated by observations of the behavior of P during the earliest stages of alteration in glassy mesostasis in type II chondrules in CR chondrites and extends the preliminary observations of on Y791198 to other CM chondrites.

  7. Inverse problems in ordinary differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Llibre, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    This book is dedicated to study the inverse problem of ordinary differential equations, that is it focuses in finding all ordinary differential equations that satisfy a given set of properties. The Nambu bracket is the central tool in developing this approach. The authors start characterizing the ordinary differential equations in R^N which have a given set of partial integrals or first integrals. The results obtained are applied first to planar polynomial differential systems with a given set of such integrals, second to solve the 16th Hilbert problem restricted to generic algebraic limit cycles, third for solving the inverse problem for constrained Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanical systems, fourth for studying the integrability of a constrained rigid body. Finally the authors conclude with an analysis on nonholonomic mechanics, a generalization of the Hamiltonian principle, and the statement an solution of the inverse problem in vakonomic mechanics.

  8. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Piazza, Federico [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Paris Center for Cosmological Physics and Laboratoire APC,Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France); CPT, Aix Marseille Université,UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques,EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-06-23

    We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, “extra-ordinary”, possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the “galileids”, for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2→2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E{sup 2}, E{sup 4}, and E{sup 6}. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is “trivial' for framids (ρ+p=0), normal for solids (ρ+p>0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

  9. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  10. Equilibrating high-molecular-weight symmetric and miscible polymer blends with hierarchical back-mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkuma, Takahiro; Kremer, Kurt; Daoulas, Kostas

    2018-05-01

    Understanding properties of polymer alloys with computer simulations frequently requires equilibration of samples comprised of microscopically described long molecules. We present the extension of an efficient hierarchical backmapping strategy, initially developed for homopolymer melts, to equilibrate high-molecular-weight binary blends. These mixtures present significant interest for practical applications and fundamental polymer physics. In our approach, the blend is coarse-grained into models representing polymers as chains of soft blobs. Each blob stands for a subchain with N b microscopic monomers. A hierarchy of blob-based models with different resolution is obtained by varying N b. First the model with the largest N b is used to obtain an equilibrated blend. This configuration is sequentially fine-grained, reinserting at each step the degrees of freedom of the next in the hierarchy blob-based model. Once the blob-based description is sufficiently detailed, the microscopic monomers are reinserted. The hard excluded volume is recovered through a push-off procedure and the sample is re-equilibrated with molecular dynamics (MD), requiring relaxation on the order of the entanglement time. For the initial method development we focus on miscible blends described on microscopic level through a generic bead-spring model, which reproduces hard excluded volume, strong covalent bonds, and realistic liquid density. The blended homopolymers are symmetric with respect to molecular architecture and liquid structure. To parameterize the blob-based models and validate equilibration of backmapped samples, we obtain reference data from independent hybrid simulations combining MD and identity exchange Monte Carlo moves, taking advantage of the symmetry of the blends. The potential of the backmapping strategy is demonstrated by equilibrating blend samples with different degree of miscibility, containing 500 chains with 1000 monomers each. Equilibration is verified by comparing

  11. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  12. The radiation shielding potential of CI and CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel T.

    2017-03-01

    Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) pose a serious limit on the duration of deep space human missions. A shield composed of a bulk mass of material in which the incident particles deposit their energy is the simplest way to attenuate the radiation. The cost of bringing the sufficient mass from the Earth's surface is prohibitive. The shielding properties of asteroidal material, which is readily available in space, are investigated. Solution of Bethe's equation is implemented for incident protons and the application in composite materials and the significance of various correction terms are discussed; the density correction is implemented. The solution is benchmarked and shows good agreement with the results in literature which implement more correction terms within the energy ranges considered. The shielding properties of CI and CM asteroidal taxonomy groups and major asteroidal minerals are presented in terms of stopping force. The results show that CI and CM chondrites have better stopping properties than Aluminium. Beneficiation is discussed and is shown to have a significant effect on the stopping power.

  13. Part 1: aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph.D. Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model is found to be applicable only to highly insulating Al-26-rich planetesimals. An alternative model is presented

  14. 24 April 2018: Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, 24 April 2018 from 14.00 to 16.00, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of discus...

  15. 24 April 2018: Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Thursday, 24 April 2018 from 14.00 to 16.00, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of disc...

  16. Performance Evaluation of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nana Kwasi Peprah

    1Deparment of Geomatic Engineering, University of Mines and Technology, ... precise, accurate and can be used to execute any engineering works due to ..... and Ordinary Least Squares Methods”, Journal of Geomatics and Planning, Vol ... Technology”, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology ...

  17. Mix design proposal for structural concrete using messobo ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hessebo Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Realizing the various factors contributing to the quality of concrete, 43 trial batches of different mix designs were investigated. Based on the test results, equations were derived to relate compressive strength to w/c and to predict the 28 days compressive strength from the 7 days ...

  18. Generalized mechanics as a representation of the ordinary mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapecz, G.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the generalized mechanics of one masspoint may be interpreted as a special representation of the ordinary mechanics of a system of masspoints. The hormorphism of both representations is shown in the case of two masspoints coupled by a harmonic force. The new representation is applied in the special relativic meachanics of mass-points. (author)

  19. Comparative study of the properties of ordinary portland cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored metakaolin as alternative material to cement. It compares the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and binary concrete containing metakaolin as partial replacement of OPC. Two set of concrete samples; one with 10% Metakaolin (MK) replacing OPC by weight, and the other without ...

  20. Numerical Integration of Stiff System of Ordinary Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this work is to develop, analyse and implement a K-step Implicit Rational Runge-Kutta schemes for Integration of Stiff system of Ordinary differential Equations. Its development adopted Taylor and Binomial series expansion Techniques to generate its parameters. The analysis of its basic properties adopted ...

  1. On oscillation of second-order linear ordinary differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomtatidze, A.; Šremr, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2011), s. 69-81 ISSN 1512-0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear second-order ordinary differential equation * Kamenev theorem * oscillation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.rmi.ge/jeomj/memoirs/vol54/abs54-4.htm

  2. Radiative transitions from the psi (3095) to ordinary hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharre, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Preliminary results from the Mark II and Crystal Ball experiments on radiative transitions from the psi to ordinary hadrons are presented. In additon to the previously observed transitions to the eta, eta'(958), and f(1270), both groups observe a transition to a state which is tentatively identified as the E(1420).

  3. Insights on the Nature of Intelligence from Ordinary Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The use of "intelligence" in ordinary discourse is analyzed to glean hypotheses that may resolve the debate among psychologists regarding the nature of intelligence. Intelligence is conceived as an innate intellectual capacity, and a sharp conceptual distinction is made between intelligence and intelligent behavior. (Author/TJH)

  4. Sports for learners with physical disabilities in ordinary public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No adapted sport was offered specifically for these learners. Most learners wanted to participate in swimming. Fewer types of sports were offered in ordinary schools than in special schools. Barriers to participation included poor teacher preparation and inadequate financial support. The shortage of support from school staff, ...

  5. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

  6. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

  7. Does antimatter fall with the same acceleration as ordinary matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.; Heckel, B.R.; Stubbs, C.W.; Su, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Equivalence-principle experiments with ordinary matter probe the gravivector acceleration of antimatter in the same way as do direct measurements of antimatter in free fall and set stringent upper limits on the gravivector acceleration of antimatter predicted by certain quantum-gravity models

  8. Measurement of plant and soil water isotope composition by direct equilibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, C. M.

    1995-11-01

    Water contained in plant and soil samples can be analysed for 2H and 18O content by direct equilibration while contained within the sample matrix. Methods for this are described and compared with the commonly used azeotropic distillation of samples before isotope analysis. For δ18O, direct equilibration with CO 2 gives results in good agreement with azeotropic distillation, i.e. within 0.5%o at natural abundance. Direct equilibration is a practical method for individual twig samples containing less than 0.5 ml of water, and offers significant operator time savings compared with azeotropic distillation. Batches of up to 100 samples can be prepared in less time than required for a single azeotropic distillation, and analysis by automated continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry after equilibration for 3 days again requires a minimum of operator time. Complete equilibration of plant water with H 2 for δ2H measurement occurs only after the plant material has been heated to 100°C under vacuum. The method described here is barely precise enough for natural abundance measurements ( δ 2H ± 15‰ ) but is well suited to field tracer studies with deuterium oxide.

  9. Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Brearley, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important resource for understanding the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar system. In particular, a long-standing question concerns the role of water in the cosmochemical evolution of carbonaceous chondrites. It is well established that extensive hydration of primary nebular phases occurred in the CM and CI chondrites, but the location where this alteration occurred remains controversial. In the CM2 chondrites, hydration formed secondary phases such as serpentine, tochilinite, pentlandite, carbonate and PCP. There are several textural observations which suggest that alteration occurred before the accretion of the final CM parent asteroid, i.e. preaccretionary alteration. Conversely, there is a significant body of evidence that supports parent-body alteration. In order to test these two competing hypotheses further, we studied two CM chondrites, Y-791198 and ALH81002, two meteorites that exhibit widely differing degrees of aqueous alteration. In addition, both meteorites have primary accretionary textures, i.e. experienced minimal asteroidal brecciation. Brecciation significantly complicates the task of unraveling alteration histories, mixing components that have been altered to different degrees from different locations on the same asteroidal parent body. Alteration in Y-791198 is mostly confined to chondrule mesostases, FeNi metal and fine-grained matrix and rims. In comparison, the primary chondrule silicates in ALH81002 have undergone extensive replacement by secondary hydrous phases. This study focuses on compositional and textural relationships between chondrule mesostasis and the associated rim materials. Our hypothesis is: both these components are highly susceptible to aqueous alteration and should be sensitive recorders of the alteration process. For parent body alteration, we expect systematic coupled mineralogical and compositional changes in rims and altered mesostasis, as elemental exchange between these

  10. Ordinary differential equations with applications in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2012-01-01

    Differential equations are of basic importance in molecular biology mathematics because many biological laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of a differential equation. In this article we presented some applications of mathematical models represented by ordinary differential equations in molecular biology. The vast majority of quantitative models in cell and molecular biology are formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of concentrations of molecular species. Assuming that the diffusion in the cell is high enough to make the spatial distribution of molecules homogenous, these equations describe systems with many participating molecules of each kind. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for biological phospholipid pathway. All the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. If we reduce the size of the solution region the same small epsilon will result in a different condition number. It is clear that the solution for a smaller region is less difficult. We introduce the mathematical technique known as boundary function method for singular perturbation system. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. In general, the solutions of such equations exhibit multiscale phenomena. Singularly perturbed problems form a special class of problems containing a small parameter which may tend to zero. Many molecular biology processes can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations. Mathematical cell biology is a very active and fast growing interdisciplinary area in which mathematical concepts, techniques, and models are applied to a variety of problems in developmental medicine and bioengineering. Among the different modeling approaches, ordinary differential equations (ODE) are particularly important and have led to significant advances

  11. Collisional erosion and the non-chondritic composition of the terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Hugh St C; Palme, Herbert

    2008-11-28

    The compositional variations among the chondrites inform us about cosmochemical fractionation processes during condensation and aggregation of solid matter from the solar nebula. These fractionations include: (i) variable Mg-Si-RLE ratios (RLE: refractory lithophile element), (ii) depletions in elements more volatile than Mg, (iii) a cosmochemical metal-silicate fractionation, and (iv) variations in oxidation state. Moon- to Mars-sized planetary bodies, formed by rapid accretion of chondrite-like planetesimals in local feeding zones within 106 years, may exhibit some of these chemical variations. However, the next stage of planetary accretion is the growth of the terrestrial planets from approximately 102 embryos sourced across wide heliocentric distances, involving energetic collisions, in which material may be lost from a growing planet as well as gained. While this may result in averaging out of the 'chondritic' fractionations, it introduces two non-chondritic chemical fractionation processes: post-nebular volatilization and preferential collisional erosion. In the latter, geochemically enriched crust formed previously is preferentially lost. That post-nebular volatilization was widespread is demonstrated by the non-chondritic Mn/Na ratio in all the small, differentiated, rocky bodies for which we have basaltic samples, including the Moon and Mars. The bulk silicate Earth (BSE) has chondritic Mn/Na, but shows several other compositional features in its pattern of depletion of volatile elements suggestive of non-chondritic fractionation. The whole-Earth Fe/Mg ratio is 2.1+/-0.1, significantly greater than the solar ratio of 1.9+/-0.1, implying net collisional erosion of approximately 10 per cent silicate relative to metal during the Earth's accretion. If this collisional erosion preferentially removed differentiated crust, the assumption of chondritic ratios among all RLEs in the BSE would not be valid, with the BSE depleted in elements according to their

  12. Mid-infrared study of the molecular structure variability of insoluble organic matter from primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-03-01

    Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) found in primitive meteorites was formed in the Early Solar System and subsequently processed on the parent asteroids. The location, temporal sequence and processes of formation of this IOM are still a matter of debate. In particular, there is no consensus on the actual effect of post-accretional aqueous alteration processes on the chemical composition and structure of IOM. In the most primitive chondrites (types 1 and 2), these alterations have so far been either neglected or generically assigned to oxidation processes induced by fluid circulation. A series of IOM samples extracted from 14 chondrites with extensively documented post-accretional histories have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Aqueous alteration shows no detectable effect on the chemical composition and structure of IOM within or across chondrite classes. Indeed, the most effective post-accretional process appears to be a high-temperature short-duration heating event and concerns essentially type 2 chondrites. In any case, post-accretional processes cannot account for all the chemical and structural variations of IOM. Chondrites from the CI, CR and CM classes accreted IOM precursors with moderately variable compositions, suggesting a chemical heterogeneity of the protosolar disk. The 3.4 μm band, and possibly its overtones and combinations in the near-infrared range, appear to be tracer(s) of the chemical class and possibly of surface heating processes triggered by impacts.

  13. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite: A transmission electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.; Buseck, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite (CC) is less altered than the CI and CM chondrites and so provides a view of the mineralogy and textures resulting from the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of CCs. Matrix olivine in Lance has been partly altered to fine-grained, Fe-bearing serpentine and poorly crystalline Fe 3+ oxide, a process that required both hydration and oxidation. Serpentine occurs as discrete packets separated from the olivine surfaces by the Fe 3+ oxide. The Fe released during the dissolution of olivine was partly incorporated into the serpentine; the remainder was oxidized to form Fe 3+ oxide. Matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance matrix contain channels along their [100] and [001] directions. The formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. The alteration was pervasive but incomplete, suggesting a limited availability of fluid. A brief study of two other CO chondrites, Kainsaz and Warrenton, shows that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe 3+ oxide between olivine grains. Prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite. The alteration assemblage in Lance is only slightly different from that in Mokoia and essentially the same as that in C3 xenoliths from Murchison. Alteration products in Lance show greater similarities to CI than to CM chondrites

  14. Achieving swift equilibration of a Brownian particle using flow-fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Ayoti; Jarzynski, Christopher

    Can a system be driven to a targeted equilibrium state on a timescale that is much shorter than its natural equilibration time? In a recent experiment, the swift equilibration of an overdamped Brownian particle was achieved by use of an appropriately designed, time-dependent optical trap potential. Motivated by these results, we develop a general theoretical approach for guiding an ensemble of Brownian particles to track the instantaneous equilibrium distribution of a desired potential U (q , t) . In our approach, we use flow-fields associated with the parametric evolution of the targeted equilibrium state to construct an auxiliary potential U (q , t) , such that dynamics under the composite potential U (t) + U (t) achieves the desired evolution. Our results establish a close connection between the swift equilibration of Brownian particles, quantum shortcuts to adiabaticity, and the dissipationless driving of a classical, Hamiltonian system.

  15. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  16. Determination of equilibration kinetics of oxide electrode materials using a manometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwal, S.P.S.; Jiang, S.P.; Love, J.; Nowotny, J.; Rekas, M.

    1998-01-01

    The gas/solid equilibration kinetics for electrode oxide materials, such as (La 0.8 Sr 0.2 )MnO 3 , using a manometric method, was determined. The reaction kinetics between oxygen and the oxide material was monitored using the measurements of the P(O 2 ) changes during isothermic experiments of oxidation and reduction. The procedure of the determination will be described and relevant kinetic equations was derived. The equilibration kinetic data obtained can be used to determine the chemical diffusion coefficient. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  17. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on electron microprobe analyses of three CO chondrites, all of which are falls: Lance, Kainsaz, and Warrenton. The TEM mineralogy results of Lance chondrite show that Fe-rich matrix olivines have been altered to Fe-bearing serpentine and Fe(3+) oxide; matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe(3+) oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance's matrix contain channels along their 100-line and 001-line directions; the formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. A study of Kainsaz and Warrenton showed that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe(3+) oxide between olivine grains. It is suggested that, prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite.

  18. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of carbonaceous chondritic clasts in the LEW 85300 polymict eucrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Hewins, R. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Xiao, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed petrologic and mineralogic study of two chondritic clasts from the polymict eucrite Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85300, and performed chemical analyses by INAA and RNAA on one of these. Petrologically, the clasts are identified and are composed of dispersed aggregates, chondrules, and chondrule fragments supported by matrix. The aggregates and chondrules are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, plus some diopside. The matrix consists of fine-grained olivine, and lesser orthopyroxene and augite. Fine-grained saponite is common in the matrix. The bulk major composition of the clast studied by INAA and RNAA shows unusual abundance patterns for lithophile, siderophile and chalcophile elements but is basically chondritic. The INAA/RNAA data preclude assignment of the LEW 85300,15 clast to any commonly accepted group of carbonaceous chondrite.

  19. Assessing the Formation of Ungrouped Achondrite Northwest Africa 8186: Residue, Crystallization Product, or Recrystallized Chondrite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of primitive achondrites, metachondrites, and type 7 chondrites challenge the long held idea that all chondrites and achondrites form on separate parent bodies. These meteorites have experienced metamorphic temperatures above petrologic type 6 and have partially melted to various degrees. However, because of their isotopic and compositional similarities to both undifferentiated and differentiated groups, the provenance of these 'type 6+' meteorites remains largely unknown. CK and CV chondrites have recently been linked to a few achondrites due to their strong compositional, mineralogical, and isotopic similarities], suggesting a common origin between these meteorites. Although CVs have generally undergone low degrees of alteration near petrologic type 3, CKs have experienced a wide range of thermal alteration from petrologic type 3 to 6. Thermal evolution models on early accreting bodies predict that an early forming body can partially differentiate due to radiogenic heating, and, as a result, form radial layers of material increasing in thermal grade (types 3 to 6+) from the unmelted chondritic surface towards the differentiated core.Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is an ungrouped achondrite that provides compelling evidence for higher degrees of thermal processing and/or melting and differentiation on some CK/CV parent bodies. NWA 8186 plots on the CCAM line on a 3-oxygen isotope diagram directly with CK and CV chondrites and also plots with the CKs in regards to Cr isotopes. This meteorite is dominated by Nickel(II)Oxygen-rich olivine (less than 80%), lacks iron metal, and contains four oxide phases, indicating a high fOxygen (above FMQ) similar to the CKs. Additionally, NWA 8186 does not contain chondrules. We have further investigated the origins of NWA 8186 by examining and comparing the bulk composition of this CK-like achondrite with CK and CV chondrites, allowing us to assess the various scenarios in which NWA 8186 may have formed from

  20. Do We Already have Samples of CERES H Chondrite Haliites and the CERES-HEBE Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc D.; Messenger, S.; Steele, A.; Zolensky, M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that halite grains in the brecciated H chondrites Zag and Monahans originate from Ceres. Evidence includes mineralogy of the halites consistent with formation on a large, carbonaceous, aqueously active body close to the H chondrite parent body >4 Ga ago. Evidence also includes orbital simularities between 1 Ceres and the purported H chondrite parent body (HPB) 6 Hebe, possibly facilitating a gentle transfer between the bodies. Halite grains in the Monahans and Zag Hchondrites are exogenous to the H chondrite parent body and were transported to the HPB >4 Ga ago. Examination of minerals and carboanceous materials entrained within the halites shows that the halite parent body (HaPB) is consistent with a carbonaceous body [1]. It is probably a large body due to the variety of entrained carbonaceous materials which probably accreted from multiple sources. The halite grains contain intact, HaPB-origin, ancient fluid inclusions indicating that transfer between the HaPB and the HPB was a gentle process resulting in a ?T of 4 Ga ago. Additional dynamical factors need to be investigated. A combination of factors suggests Ceres as the HaPB. It is a carbonaceous body with suggestions of past aqueous activity [9], which is consistent with the mineral species found in H chondrite halites. Ceres is also a large body capable of accreting the range of carbonaceous materials noted [5]. It is relatively near to purported HPB Hebe, which is required to preserve halite fluid inclusions. The above evidence defines a hypothesized scenario featuring ejection of halite grains from Ceres onto Hebe. Halite was then entrained in H-chondrite near-surface breccias and ejected from Hebe for transport to Earth.

  1. High resolution TEM of chondritic carbonaceous matter: Metamorphic evolution and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël.; Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Derenne, Sylvie; Remusat, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    The insoluble carbonaceous matter from 12 chondrites (CI, CM, CO, CV, EH, and UOC), was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Besides ubiquitous nanoglobules, the insoluble organic matter from petrologic type 1 and 2 chondrites and Semarkona (LL 3.0) is composed of a highly disordered polyaromatic component. No structural differences were observed between these IOMs, in agreement with the limited thermal metamorphism they all experienced. In chondrites of petrologic type >3.0, the evolution of the IOM is controlled by the extent of thermal metamorphism. The polyaromatic layers, shorter than 1 nm in petrologic type ≤3.0 chondrites, grow up to sizes between 5 and 10 nm in petrologic type >3.6 chondrites, contributing to the increase of the degree of structural order. In addition, we find rare, but ubiquitous onion-like carbons, which may be the product of nanodiamond graphitization. The insoluble carbonaceous matter of the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH 3) is different from the other meteorites studied here. It is more heterogeneous and displays a high abundance of graphitized particles. This may be the result of a mixture between (1) the disordered carbon located in the matrix, and (2) catalytic graphitized phases associated with metal, potentially originating from partial melting events. The structural and nanostructural evolution are similar in all IOMs. This suggests that the structure of the accreted precursors and the parent body conditions of their secondary thermal modifications (temperature, duration, and pressure) were similar. The limited degree of organization of the most metamorphosed IOMs compared with terrestrial rocks submitted to similar temperature suggests that the conditions are not favorable to graphitization processes, due to the chemical nature of the precursor or the lack of confinement pressure.

  2. Network Reconstruction From High-Dimensional Ordinary Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shizhe; Shojaie, Ali; Witten, Daniela M

    2017-01-01

    We consider the task of learning a dynamical system from high-dimensional time-course data. For instance, we might wish to estimate a gene regulatory network from gene expression data measured at discrete time points. We model the dynamical system nonparametrically as a system of additive ordinary differential equations. Most existing methods for parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations estimate the derivatives from noisy observations. This is known to be challenging and inefficient. We propose a novel approach that does not involve derivative estimation. We show that the proposed method can consistently recover the true network structure even in high dimensions, and we demonstrate empirical improvement over competing approaches. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  3. A new numerical approximation of the fractal ordinary differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Jain, Sonal

    2018-02-01

    The concept of fractal medium is present in several real-world problems, for instance, in the geological formation that constitutes the well-known subsurface water called aquifers. However, attention has not been quite devoted to modeling for instance, the flow of a fluid within these media. We deem it important to remind the reader that the concept of fractal derivative is not to represent the fractal sharps but to describe the movement of the fluid within these media. Since this class of ordinary differential equations is highly complex to solve analytically, we present a novel numerical scheme that allows to solve fractal ordinary differential equations. Error analysis of the method is also presented. Application of the method and numerical approximation are presented for fractal order differential equation. The stability and the convergence of the numerical schemes are investigated in detail. Also some exact solutions of fractal order differential equations are presented and finally some numerical simulations are presented.

  4. Pb-Pb dating of individual chondrules from the CBa chondrite Gujba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollard, Jean Francois André; Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    -stage impact origin. Here, we report high-precision internal isochrons for four individual chondrules of the Gujba chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrites and evaluate the concordancy of relevant short-lived radionuclide chronometers. All four chondrules define a brief formation interval......-behaved Pb-Pb systematics of all four chondrules, a precise formation age and the concordancy of the Mn-Cr, Hf-W, and I-Xe short-lived radionuclide relative chronometers, we propose that Gujba may serve as a suitable time anchor for these systems....

  5. On radiogenic nature of xenon-X in carbonaceous and LL chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, Eh.K.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of Xe-X from the mineral fraction produced during the differential dissolution of carbonaceous and LL chondrites was investigated using literature data on the age of some meteorites and their fractions and quantities of fission 136 Xe contained in them. A graph of lg fission 136 Xe against the age of meteorites was plotted; the decay constant of a hypothetical superheavy nucleus was calculated using the graph and equaled 1x10 - 7 year - 1 . The calculations served as a forcible argument for the radiogenic nature of xenon with 136 and 134 mass in carbonaceous and LL chondrites

  6. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  7. Numerical integration of asymptotic solutions of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1989-01-01

    Classical asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations derives approximate solutions that are numerically stable. However, the analysis also leads to tedious expansions in powers of the relevant parameter for a particular problem. The expansions are replaced with integrals that can be evaluated by numerical integration. The resulting numerical solutions retain the linear independence that is the main advantage of asymptotic solutions. Examples, including the Falkner-Skan equation from laminar boundary layer theory, illustrate the method of asymptotic analysis with numerical integration.

  8. Hojman's theorem of the third-order ordinary differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Sheng, Lü; Hong-Bin, Zhang; Shu-Long, Gu

    2009-01-01

    This paper extends Hojman's conservation law to the third-order differential equation. A new conserved quantity is constructed based on the Lie group of transformation generators of the equations of motion. The generators contain variations of the time and generalized coordinates. Two independent non-trivial conserved quantities of the third-order ordinary differential equation are obtained. A simple example is presented to illustrate the applications of the results. (general)

  9. Symmetries of th-Order Approximate Stochastic Ordinary Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericks, E.; Mahomed, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Symmetries of $n$ th-order approximate stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODEs) are studied. The determining equations of these SODEs are derived in an Itô calculus context. These determining equations are not stochastic in nature. SODEs are normally used to model nature (e.g., earthquakes) or for testing the safety and reliability of models in construction engineering when looking at the impact of random perturbations.

  10. Analysis of quantile regression as alternative to ordinary least squares

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Abdullahi; Abubakar Yahaya

    2015-01-01

    In this article, an alternative to ordinary least squares (OLS) regression based on analytical solution in the Statgraphics software is considered, and this alternative is no other than quantile regression (QR) model. We also present goodness of fit statistic as well as approximate distributions of the associated test statistics for the parameters. Furthermore, we suggest a goodness of fit statistic called the least absolute deviation (LAD) coefficient of determination. The procedure is well ...

  11. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

    2008-04-01

    To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re ``Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified ``Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

  12. Neuchatel ne gardera pas le Palais de l'equilibre apres Expo.02

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "La ville de Neuchatel ne souhaite pas conserver le Palais de l'equilibre apres Expo.02. Par 24 voix contre 7, le Conseil general a rejete le plan special du Conseil communal qui proposait de transformer l'edifice en un centre de congres" (1/2 page).

  13. An open loop equilibrator for continuous monitoring of radon at the groundwater-surface water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yong Lee; Yoon Yeol Yoon; Soo Young Cho; Eunhee Lee; Sang-Ho Moon; Dong-Chan Koh; Kyoochul Ha; Yongcheol Kim; Kyung-Seok Ko

    2015-01-01

    A continuous monitoring system (CMS) using an open loop equilibrator for assessment of 222 Rn at the groundwater-surface water interface was developed and tested. For the characterization and validation of the system, three air loops (open loop, closed loop, and open bubble loop) were tested in relation to high and precise count rates, rapid response, and equilibration of radon. The water and air stream is fed to the equilibrator by an experimental setup with a commercial submersible water pump and the internal pump with built-in radon-in-air detector. Efficiency calibration of the CMS is done by simultaneous determination of a groundwater sample using liquid scintillation counting, and the RAD7 accessories RAD-H 2 O, BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The higher count rates are provided by the closed loop. However, the open loop with bubbler (open bubble loop) provides the best precision count rates, rapid response, and equilibration time. The CMS allows radon determination in discrete water samples as well as continuous water streams. (author)

  14. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 1 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Original : English This meeting was devoted to the main items summarised below: Pension Fund matters In preparation for the next meeting of TREF on 12 & 13 September, the SCC concluded its examination of two documents from the Governing Board of the Pension Fund concerning “Compensation to the Pension Fund for the reduction of the active membership” and a “Package of equilibration measures to the CERN Pension Fund”. Taking account of points raised in the discussion, it was agreed to finalise documents presenting the opinion of the CERN Management on these subjects, for distribution to TREF. Indexation of Education Grant figures in Administrative Circular no.12 The Committee took note of the amounts regarding accommodation and meals adjusted for the academic year 2005/2006, in accordance with the relevant Geneva Price Indices. (see Article below for details) Measures concerning negative leave accounts Corrective action will be taken to eliminate instances of negative accounts of compensatory ...

  15. Time-course window estimator for ordinary differential equations linear in the parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujacic, Ivan; Dattner, Itai; Gonzalez, Javier; Wit, Ernst

    In many applications obtaining ordinary differential equation descriptions of dynamic processes is scientifically important. In both, Bayesian and likelihood approaches for estimating parameters of ordinary differential equations, the speed and the convergence of the estimation procedure may

  16. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  17. A Raman Study of Carbonates and Organic Contents in Five CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Farley, C.; Cheung, J. C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonates comprise the second most abundant class of carbon-bearing phases in carbonaceous chondrites after organic matter (approximately 2 wt.%), followed by other C-bearing phases such as diamond, silicon carbide, and graphite. Therefore, understanding the abundances of carbonates and the associated organic matter provide critical insight into the genesis of major carbonaceous components in chondritic materials. Carbonates in CM chondrites mostly occur as calcite (of varying composition) and dolomite. Properly performed, Raman spectroscopy provides a non-destructive technique for characterizing meteorite mineralogy and organic chemistry. It is sensitive to many carbonaceous phases, allows the differentiation of organic from inorganic materials, and the interpretation of their spatial distribution. Here, with the use of Raman spectroscopy, we determine the structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the matrix and carbonate phases in five CM chondrites: Jbilet Winselwan, Murchison, Nogoya, Santa Cruz, and Wisconsin Range (WIS) 91600, and interpret the relative timing of carbonate precipitation and the extent of the associated alteration events.

  18. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.; David Kilcoyne, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  19. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); David Kilcoyne, A. L., E-mail: ykebukawa@ciw.edu, E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 7R0222, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  20. Exploring the Potential Formation of Organic Solids in Chondrites and Comets through Polymerization of Interstellar Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Cody, George D.

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  1. Annama H chondrite-Mineralogy, physical properties, cosmic ray exposure, and parent body history

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Haloda, J.; Halodová, P.; Meiner, M. M. M.; Maden, C.; Busemann, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Caffee, M. W.; Welten, K.C.; Hopp, J.; Trieloff, M.; Mahajan, R. R.; Naik, S.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Maksimova, A. A.; Chukin, A. V.; Semionkin, V. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Felner, I.; Petrova, E. V.; Brusnitsyna, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Yakovlev, G. A.; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Moilanen, J.; Kruglikov, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 8 (2017), s. 1525-1541 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Annama * chondrite * cosmic-ray exposure * radionuclide Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  2. Determination of delta sub(18) in water from delta sub(18) in equilibrated CO2: influence of changes in experimental parameters on the equilibration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestler, V.; Arora, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The result of an isotopic exchange reaction is expressed in terms of the isotopic abundance ratios, the fractionation factor and the atom number ratio of the reactants. The general formula is applied to the CO 2 -H 2 O system and simplified by neglecting terms small in relation to the experimental error. The influence of variations in the experimental parameters on the equilibrium is discussed. It is found that changes in temperature as well as atom number ratio will influence the equilibration process appreciably [pt

  3. A Case for Nebula Scale Mixing Between Non-Carbonaceous and Carbonaceous Chondrite Reservoirs: Testing the Grand Tack Model with Chromium Isotopic Composition of Almahata Sitta Stone 91A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, M. E.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Goodrich, C. A.; Zolensky, M.; Fioretti, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing number of Cr-O-Ti isotope studies that show solar system materials are divided into two main populations, one carbonaceous chondrite (CC)-like and the other is non-carbonaceous (NC)-like, with minimal mixing attributed to a gap opened in the protoplanetary disk due to Jupiter's formation. The Grand Tack model suggests there should be large-scale mixing between S- and C-type asteroids, an idea supported by our recent work on chondrule (Delta)17O-e54Cr isotope systematics. The Almahata Sitta (AhS) meteorite provides a unique opportunity to test the Grand Tack model. The meteorite fell to Earth in October 2008 and has been linked to the asteroid 2008 TC3 which was discovered just prior to the fall of the AhS stones. The AhS meteorite is composed of up to 700 individual pieces with approx.140 of those pieces having some geochemical and/or petrologic studies. Almahata Sitta is an anomalous polymict ureilite with other meteorite components, including enstatite, ordinary, and carbonaceous chondrites with an approximate abundance of 70% ureilites and 30% chondrites. This observation has lead to the suggestion that TC3 2008 was a loosely aggregated rubble pile-like asteroid with the non-ureilite sample clasts within the rubble-pile. Due to the loosely-aggregated nature of AhS, the object disintegrated during atmospheric entry resulting in the weakly held clasts falling predominantly as individual stones in the AhS collection area. However, recent work has identified one sample of AhS, sample 91A, which may represent two different lithologies coexisting within a single stone. The predominate lithology type in 91A appears to be that of a C2 chondrite based on mineralogy but also contains olivine, pyroxene, and albite that have ureilite-like compositions. Previous Cr isotope investigations into AhS stones are sparse and what data is available show nearly uniform isotopic composition similar to that of typical ureilites with negative e54Cr values.

  4. Martian Chemical and Isotopic Reference Standards in Earth-based Laboratories — An Invitation for Geochemical, Astrobiological, and Engineering Dialog on Considering a Weathered Chondrite for Mars Sample Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; Tait, A. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Schröder, C.; Bland, P.

    2017-12-01

    preservation than Earth rocks. iv) Compressive strengths of most ordinary chondrites are within the range of rocks being tested for the Mars 2020 drill bits, provided that sufficient size, stability, and flatness of a target can be achieved. Alternatively, the regolith collection bit could be employed for unconsolidated material.

  5. Praying "Online": The Ordinary Theology of Prayer Intentions Posted on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ap Sion, Tania; Edwards, Owen

    2012-01-01

    Astley's construct of ordinary theology takes seriously listening to the religious expression and experience of ordinary people, both churched and unchurched. One method by which this has already been achieved is through the empirical analysis of the content of ordinary people's intercessory prayer requests left in hospitals and churches. Building…

  6. Approximate analytical methods for solving ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Radhika, TSL; Rani, T Raja

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Analytical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is the first book to present all of the available approximate methods for solving ODEs, eliminating the need to wade through multiple books and articles. It covers both well-established techniques and recently developed procedures, including the classical series solution method, diverse perturbation methods, pioneering asymptotic methods, and the latest homotopy methods.The book is suitable not only for mathematicians and engineers but also for biologists, physicists, and economists. It gives a complete descripti

  7. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (L n bar, g)-spaces

  8. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

  9. The qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, Fred

    1989-01-01

    ""This is a very good book ... with many well-chosen examples and illustrations."" - American Mathematical MonthlyThis highly regarded text presents a self-contained introduction to some important aspects of modern qualitative theory for ordinary differential equations. It is accessible to any student of physical sciences, mathematics or engineering who has a good knowledge of calculus and of the elements of linear algebra. In addition, algebraic results are stated as needed; the less familiar ones are proved either in the text or in appendixes.The topics covered in the first three chapters a

  10. The great 8 MA event and the structure of the H-chondrite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The H-chondrites have been the subject of several recent controversies, including the question of whether Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites are or are not the same and whether there or is not evidence for stratigraphic layering in the original parent body. We have identified two distinct groups of H5 chondrites in the Antarctic collection. One group has induced thermoluminescence (TL) peak temperatures less than 190 C and metallographic cooling rates between S to 50 K/Myr, similar to modern falls. It also has a variety of cosmic ray exposure ages, many being greater than 107 years. The other group has TL peak temperatures greater than 190 C, metallographic cooling rates of 100 K/Myr and cosmic ray exposure ages of 8 Ma. The members of this group were generals smaller than those of the greater than 190 C group (including the mode falls) during cosmic ray exposure. Detailed study of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations of these groups indicates that they are not solely the result of pairing of a few unusual meteorites. It is likely that the greater than 190 C group was an important part of the H-chondrite flux about 1 million years ago, but has since decreased in importance relative to the less than 190 C group. In a previous work, we discussed several possible origins for the greater than 190 C group, including multiple H-chondrite parent bodies, unusual parent body structure, and creation during the 8 Ma event. In this paper, we present new data for H4 chondrites in light of these ideas.

  11. Porting Ordinary Applications to Blue Gene/Q Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, Ketan C.; Wozniak, Justin M.; Armstrong, Timothy; Katz, Daniel S.; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Zhong, Xiaoliang; Heinonen, Olle; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Wilde, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Efficiently porting ordinary applications to Blue Gene/Q supercomputers is a significant challenge. Codes are often originally developed without considering advanced architectures and related tool chains. Science needs frequently lead users to want to run large numbers of relatively small jobs (often called many-task computing, an ensemble, or a workflow), which can conflict with supercomputer configurations. In this paper, we discuss techniques developed to execute ordinary applications over leadership class supercomputers. We use the high-performance Swift parallel scripting framework and build two workflow execution techniques-sub-jobs and main-wrap. The sub-jobs technique, built on top of the IBM Blue Gene/Q resource manager Cobalt's sub-block jobs, lets users submit multiple, independent, repeated smaller jobs within a single larger resource block. The main-wrap technique is a scheme that enables C/C++ programs to be defined as functions that are wrapped by a high-performance Swift wrapper and that are invoked as a Swift script. We discuss the needs, benefits, technicalities, and current limitations of these techniques. We further discuss the real-world science enabled by these techniques and the results obtained.

  12. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaschek Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. Results The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. Conclusions The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

  13. Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, R.

    1990-11-01

    This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)

  14. Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes. Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. The construction and building materials industry has the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of selected properties (consistency, water absorbability, compressive strength and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing, depth of penetration of ordinary concretes and concretes containing fly-ashes - calcareous and siliceous ash − in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and natural aggregate with graining of 0-16 mm were used. The concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in three lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 15, 20 and 30% of the cement mass. After the tests, it was stated that the fly-ash admixture does not increase the air content in the mix, it increases the compressive strength in time and the siliceous ash improves the splitting tensile strength.

  15. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschek, Daniel; Timmer, Jens

    2012-08-14

    Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

  16. Equilibration, thermalisation, and the emergence of statistical mechanics in closed quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, Christian; Eisert, Jens

    2016-05-01

    We review selected advances in the theoretical understanding of complex quantum many-body systems with regard to emergent notions of quantum statistical mechanics. We cover topics such as equilibration and thermalisation in pure state statistical mechanics, the eigenstate thermalisation hypothesis, the equivalence of ensembles, non-equilibration dynamics following global and local quenches as well as ramps. We also address initial state independence, absence of thermalisation, and many-body localisation. We elucidate the role played by key concepts for these phenomena, such as Lieb-Robinson bounds, entanglement growth, typicality arguments, quantum maximum entropy principles and the generalised Gibbs ensembles, and quantum (non-)integrability. We put emphasis on rigorous approaches and present the most important results in a unified language.

  17. Comparison of /sup 133/Xe washout curves after bolus inhalation, perfusion, and equilibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devos, P; Demedts, M; Vandecruys, A; Cosemans, J; De Roo, M

    1978-01-01

    In 6 healthy subjects and 13 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, /sup 133/Xe washout curves after bolus inhalation, perfusion and equilibration were compared, using a gamma camera and computerized data handling. In healthy subjects the washout after equilibration was significantly slower than after the two other procedures. As this phenomenon occurred at the basal zones, it was attributed to the presence of airway closure in some units. In patients, the three washouts were significantly different from each other. This indicated the existence of intraregional inhomogeneity in ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratio. Our conclusion is that comparison of these different washout methods yields valuable information not only on absolute values of pulmonary function but also on the intraregional distribution, which cannot be obtained by other examinations.

  18. Enhanced electron/fuel-ion equilibration through impurity ions: Studies applicable to NIF and Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Simpson, R.; Parker, C.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Casey, D.; Grabowski, P.; Graziani, F.; Taitano, W.; Le, A.; Chacon, L.; Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Simakov, A.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Betti, R.; Srinivasan, B.; Mancini, R.

    2017-10-01

    In shock-driven exploding-pushers, a platform used extensively to study multi-species and kinetic effects, electrons and fuel ions are far out of equilibrium, as reflected by very different temperatures. However, impurity ions, even in small quantities, can couple effectively to the electrons, because of a Z2 dependence, and in turn, impurity ions can then strongly couple to the fuel ions. Through this mechanism, electrons and fuel-ions can equilibrate much faster than they otherwise would. This is a quantitative issue, depending upon the amount and Z of the impurity. For NIF and Omega, we consider the role of this process. Coupled non-linear equations, reflecting the temperatures of the three species, are solved for a range of conditions. Consideration is also given to ablatively driven implosions, since impurities can similarly affect the equilibration. This work was supported in part by DOE/NNSA DE-NA0002949 and DE-NA0002726.

  19. Black hole spectra in holography: Consequences for equilibration of dual gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Buchel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For a closed system to equilibrate from a given initial condition there must exist an equilibrium state with the energy equal to the initial one. Equilibrium states of a strongly coupled gauge theory with a gravitational holographic dual are represented by black holes. We study the spectrum of black holes in Pilch–Warner geometry. These black holes are holographically dual to equilibrium states of strongly coupled SU(N N=2⁎ gauge theory plasma on S3 in the planar limit. We find that there is no energy gap in the black hole spectrum. Thus, there is a priori no obstruction for equilibration of arbitrary low-energy states in the theory via a small black hole gravitational collapse. The latter is contrasted with phenomenological examples of holography with dual four-dimensional CFTs having non-equal central charges in the stress–energy tensor trace anomaly.

  20. The first component of the Palais de l'Equilibre arrives at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of CERN civil engineering; Heiner Rieder, from the company appointed by the Swiss Confederation; Thomas B chi, wood-engineer from the Charpente-Concept SA; Carlo Wyss, CERN director for accelerators, and Hervé Dessinoz, the architect, in front of the keystone of the Palais de l'Equilibre.This was given to CERN by the Swiss Confederation to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of CERN and renamed the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  1. Learning to perceive in the sensorimotor approach: Piaget's theory of equilibration interpreted dynamically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Beaton, Michael; Buhrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the "laws" of sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs). In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget's theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget's theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.

  2. Learning to perceive in the sensorimotor approach: Piaget's theory of equilibration interpreted dynamically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning to perceive faces a classical paradox: if understanding is required for perception, how can we learn to perceive something new, something we do not yet understand? According to the sensorimotor approach, perception involves mastery of regular sensorimotor co-variations that depend on the agent and the environment, also known as the ‘laws’ of sensorimotor contingencies. In this sense, perception involves enacting relevant sensorimotor skills in each situation. It is important for this proposal that such skills can be learned and refined with experience and yet up to this date, the sensorimotor approach has had no explicit theory of perceptual learning. The situation is made more complex if we acknowledge the open-ended nature of human learning. In this paper we propose Piaget’s theory of equilibration as a potential candidate to fulfill this role. This theory highlights the importance of intrinsic sensorimotor norms, in terms of the closure of sensorimotor schemes. It also explains how the equilibration of a sensorimotor organization faced with novelty or breakdowns proceeds by re-shaping pre-existing structures in coupling with dynamical regularities of the world. This way learning to perceive is guided by the equilibration of emerging forms of skillful coping with the world. We demonstrate the compatibility between Piaget’s theory and the sensorimotor approach by providing a dynamical formalization of equilibration to give an explicit micro-genetic account of sensorimotor learning and, by extension, of how we learn to perceive. This allows us to draw important lessons in the form of general principles for open-ended sensorimotor learning, including the need for an intrinsic normative evaluation by the agent itself. We also explore implications of our micro-genetic account at the personal level.

  3. Dynamical Equilibration Across a Quenched Phase Transition in a Trapped Quantum Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, I. -K.; Donadello, S.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.; Gou, S. -C.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of an equilibrium quantum state from an uncorrelated thermal one through the dynamical crossing of a phase transition is a central question of non-equilibrium many-body physics. During such crossing, the system breaks its symmetry by establishing numerous uncorrelated regions separated by spontaneously-generated defects, whose emergence obeys a universal scaling law with the quench duration. Much less is known about the ensuing re-equilibrating or "coarse-graining" stage, which ...

  4. Effect of long-term equilibration on the toxicity of molybdenum to soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; McGrath, Steve P.; Smolders, Erik; Diez Ortiz, Maria; Borgman, Eef; Verweij, Rudo A.; Buekers, Jurgen; Oorts, Koen

    2012-01-01

    To determine if long-term equilibration may alleviate molybdenum toxicity, earthworms, enchytraeids, collembolans and four plant species were exposed to three soils freshly spiked with Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O and equilibrated for 6 or 11 months in the field with free drainage. Total Mo concentrations in soil decreased by leaching, most (up to 98%) in sandy soil and less (54–62%) in silty and clayey soils. Changes in residual Mo toxicity with time were inconclusive in sandy soil. In the other two soils, toxicity of residual total Mo was significantly reduced after 11 months equilibration with a median 5.5-fold increase in ED50s. Mo fixation in soil, i.e. the decrease of soil solution Mo concentrations at equivalent residual total soil Mo, was maximally a factor of 2.1 only. This experiment shows natural attenuation of molybdate ecotoxicity under field conditions is related to leaching of excess Mo and other ions as well as to slow ageing reactions. - Highlights: ► Three molybdate-spiked soils were equilibrated for 6 and 11 months outdoors. ► Mo chronic toxicity to earthworms, enchytraeids, Collembola and four plant species was assessed. ► Mo concentrations in all soils decreased due to leaching. ► Based on actual total Mo remaining in the soil, Mo toxicity decreased by a median factor of 5.5. ► Decreased Mo toxicity was due to leaching as well as slow ageing reactions. - Natural attenuation under field conditions is more related to leaching of excess molybdate than to slow ageing reactions

  5. High yield expression and purification of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 7 (ENT7) from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girke, Christopher; Arutyunova, Elena; Syed, Maria; Traub, Michaela; Möhlmann, Torsten; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) facilitate the import of nucleosides and their analogs into cells in a bidirectional, non-concentrative manner. However, in contrast to their name, most characterized plant ENTs act in a concentrative manner. A direct characterization of any ENT protein has been hindered due to difficulties in overexpression and obtaining pure recombinant protein. The equilibrative nucleoside transporter 7 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtENT7) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to assess mechanism of substrate uptake. Recombinant protein fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was expressed in Pichia pastoris to characterize its oligomeric state by gel filtration and substrate binding by microscale thermophoresis (MST). AtENT7 expressed in X. laevis oocytes works as a classic equilibrative transporter. The expression of AtENT7-eGFP in the P. pastoris system yielded milligram amounts of pure protein that exists as stable homodimers. The concentration dependent binding of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides to the purified recombinant protein, assessed by MST, confirmed that AtENT7-eGFP is properly folded. For the first time the binding of nucleobases was observed for AtENT7. The availability of pure recombinant AtENT7 will permit detailed kinetic and structural studies of this unique member of the ENT family and, given the functional similarity to mammalian ENTs, will serve as a good model for understanding the structural basis of translocation mechanism for the family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fermi level equilibration between colloidal lead and silver particles in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henglein, A.; Holzwarth, A.; Mulvaney, P.

    1992-01-01

    Colloidal solutions of lead and silver were mixed under the exclusion of air. The equilibration of the Fermi levels in the two different types of metal particles took place over a few days at room temperature. The equilibration took place by the transfer of lead atoms from lead to silver particles until the latter carried a lead mantle of one to two monolayers. This could be concluded from the observed changes in the optical spectrum of the silver particles. The results are discussed in terms of two mechanisms: (1) Pb atom transfer following heterocoagulation of the lead and silver particles and (2) electron transfer during Brownian encounters, followed by Pb 2+ desorption from the lead particles and subsequent Pb 2+ reductor on the silver particles carrying the transferred electrons. Traces of methylviologen, MV 2+ , in the solution drastically increase the rate of equilibration; this is explained by a relay mechanism in which electrons in the lead particles are first picked up by MV 2+ and are then transferred from MV + to the silver particles. 2 refs., 4 figs

  7. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The initial equilibration of 125 I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 μg/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using 131 I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment

  8. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during vasodilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The initial equilibration of 125 I-labeled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw skin of 6 anesthetized rabbits. Papavarine (200 ug/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery of one limb with the contralateral limb as a control. There was a 1.2-fold increase in lymph flow (p 131 I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity relative to plasma was significantly greater in the vasodilated hindlimb (0.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.13 +/- 0.05; mean +/- SE; p < 0.01). Extravascular specific activity relative to plasma was greater in the vasodilated limb (0.13 +/- 0.02 vs 0.09 +/- 0.02; p < 0.05). Thus, vasodilation increased the rates at which lymph and tissue equilibrate with plasma. Also, the difference between lymph and tissue equilibration was greater in the vasodilated hindlimb

  9. LOAD EQUILIBRATION OF WORKING PLACES ARRANGED ON CONVEYORS USED FOR FOOTWEAR UPPERS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARNAGEA Florentina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there is presented how to achieve a load equilibration of workstations for a conveyor with imposed pace, in the case of manufacturing uppers for a women boots model. Equilibration of work charging is done by switching worker’s operations in order to use at full time each worker placed in the technological flow process. In the manufacruring process of shoe uppers of the considered model, there have been established the operative time and production rates per operation. Thus there has been calculated the work necessary amount Nci for accomplishing different production rates: Q=600,650, 700, 750... 900pairs/ 8 h and the necessary amount of work Nai was adopted. A technology line of manufacturing a footwear item is used at its optimum capacity when the number of work vacancy is minimum, 0.013 corresponding to a flow production of 700pairs / 8h the highest labor productivity being obtained, ie 17.5 pairs / worker • 8h. By equilibrating the work charge for each operation, it is obtained, for a daily production of 700pairs / 8h, a reduction of the number of workspaces from 40 to 36 workers and hence a labor productivity of 19.44 pairs / worker • 8h.

  10. Understanding the Organo-Carbonate Associations in Carbonaceous Chondrites with the Use of Micro-Raman Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonates can potentially provide sites for organic materials to accrue and develop into complex macromolecules. This study examines the organics associated with carbonates in carbonaceous chondrites using micron-Raman imaging.

  11. Mineralogical, crystallographic and redox features of the earliest stages of fluid alteration in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Bourdelle, Franck; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2017-07-01

    The CM chondrites represent the largest group of hydrated meteorites and span a wide range of conditions, from less altered (i.e., CM2) down to heavily altered (i.e., CM1). The Paris chondrite is considered the least altered CM and thus enables the earliest stages of aqueous alteration processes to be deciphered. Here, we report results from a nanoscale study of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris-TCIs being the emblematic secondary mineral assemblages of CM chondrites, formed from the alteration of Fe-Ni metal beads (type-I TCIs) and anhydrous silicates (type-II TCIs). We combined high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and electron diffraction tomography to characterize the crystal structure, crystal chemistry and redox state of TCIs. The data obtained are useful to reconstruct the alteration conditions of Paris and to compare them with those of other meteorites. Our results show that tochilinite in Paris is characterized by a high hydroxide layer content (n = 2.1-2.2) regardless of the silicate precursors. When examined alongside other CMs, it appears that the hydroxide layer and iron contents of tochilinites correlate with the degree of alteration experienced by the chondrites. The Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of TCIs are high: 8-15% in tochilinite, 33-60% in cronstedtite and 70-80% in hydroxides. These observations suggest that alteration of CM chondrites took place under oxidizing conditions that could have been induced by significant H2 release during serpentinization. Similar results were recently reported in CR chondrites (Le Guillou et al., 2015), suggesting that the process(es) controlling the redox state of the secondary mineral assemblages were quite similar in the CM and CR parent bodies despite the different alteration conditions. According to our mineralogical and crystallographic survey, the formation of TCIs in Paris occurred at temperatures lower than 100 °C, under neutral, slightly alkaline

  12. Revisiting 26Al-26Mg systematics of plagioclase in H4 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2014-06-01

    Zinner and Göpel found clear evidence for the former presence of 26Al in the H4 chondrites Ste. Marguerite and Forest Vale. They assumed that the 26Al-26Mg systematics of these chondrites date "metamorphic cooling of the H4 parent body." Plagioclase in these chondrites can have very high Al/Mg ratios and low Mg concentrations, making these ion probe analyses susceptible to ratio bias, which is inversely proportional to the number of counts of the denominator isotope (Ogliore et al.). Zinner and Göpel used the mean of the ratios to calculate the isotope ratios, which exacerbates this problem. We analyzed the Al/Mg ratios and Mg isotopic compositions of plagioclase grains in thin sections of Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, Beaver Creek, and Sena to evaluate the possible influence of ratio bias on the published initial 26Al/27Al ratios for these meteorites. We calculated the isotope ratios using total counts, a less biased method of calculating isotope ratios. The results from our analyses are consistent with those from Zinner and Göpel, indicating that ratio bias does not significantly affect 26Al-26Mg results for plagioclase in these chondrites. Ste. Marguerite has a clear isochron with an initial 26Al/27Al ratio indicating that it cooled to below 450 °C 5.2 ± 0.2 Myr after CAIs. The isochrons for Forest Vale and Beaver Creek also show clear evidence that 26Al was alive when they cooled, but the initial 26Al/27Al ratios are not well constrained. Sena does not show evidence that 26Al was alive when it cooled to below the Al-Mg closure temperature. Given that metallographic cooling rates for Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, and Beaver Creek are atypical (>5000 °C/Myr at 500 °C) compared with most H4s, including Sena, which have cooling rates of 10-50 °C/Myr at 500 °C (Scott et al.), we conclude that the Al-Mg systematics for Ste. Marguerite, Forest Vale, and Beaver Creek are the result of impact excavation of these chondrites and cooling at the surface of the

  13. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DMO/FEEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Microondas e Optica; Recami, Erasmo, E-mail: recami@mi.infn.i [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria

    2011-07-01

    In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

  14. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death. PMID:2319570

  15. Algorithmic Verification of Linearizability for Ordinary Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Lyakhov, Dmitry A.

    2017-07-19

    For a nonlinear ordinary differential equation solved with respect to the highest order derivative and rational in the other derivatives and in the independent variable, we devise two algorithms to check if the equation can be reduced to a linear one by a point transformation of the dependent and independent variables. The first algorithm is based on a construction of the Lie point symmetry algebra and on the computation of its derived algebra. The second algorithm exploits the differential Thomas decomposition and allows not only to test the linearizability, but also to generate a system of nonlinear partial differential equations that determines the point transformation and the coefficients of the linearized equation. The implementation of both algorithms is discussed and their application is illustrated using several examples.

  16. Cause and cure of sloppiness in ordinary differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönsing, Christian; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens

    2014-08-01

    Data-based mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks, e.g., by nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, has been successfully applied. In this context, parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis is a major task in order to assess the quality of the description of the system by the model. Recently, a broadened eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the objective function covering orders of magnitudes was observed and has been termed as sloppiness. In this work, we investigate the origin of sloppiness from structures in the sensitivity matrix arising from the properties of the model topology and the experimental design. Furthermore, we present strategies using optimal experimental design methods in order to circumvent the sloppiness issue and present nonsloppy designs for a benchmark model.

  17. Differential equations a dynamical systems approach ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, John H

    1991-01-01

    This is a corrected third printing of the first part of the text Differential Equations: A Dynamical Systems Approach written by John Hubbard and Beverly West. The authors' main emphasis in this book is on ordinary differential equations. The book is most appropriate for upper level undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, engineering, and applied mathematics, as well as the life sciences, physics and economics. Traditional courses on differential equations focus on techniques leading to solutions. Yet most differential equations do not admit solutions which can be written in elementary terms. The authors have taken the view that a differential equations defines functions; the object of the theory is to understand the behavior of these functions. The tools the authors use include qualitative and numerical methods besides the traditional analytic methods. The companion software, MacMath, is designed to bring these notions to life.

  18. KRYSI, Ordinary Differential Equations Solver with Sdirk Krylov Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarsh, A.C.; Norsett, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: KRYSI is a set of FORTRAN subroutines for solving ordinary differential equations initial value problems. It is suitable for both stiff and non-stiff systems. When solving the implicit stage equations in the stiff case, KRYSI uses a Krylov subspace iteration method called the SPIGMR (Scaled Preconditioned Incomplete Generalized Minimum Residual) method. No explicit Jacobian storage is required, except where used in pre- conditioning. A demonstration problem is included with a description of two pre-conditioners that are natural for its solution by KRYSI. 2 - Method of solution: KRYSI uses a three-stage, third-order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK) method. In the stiff case, a preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration within a (so-called) inexact Newton iteration is used to solve the system of nonlinear algebraic equations

  19. Searching fundamental information in ordinary differential equations. Nondimensionalization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, J F; Conesa, M; Alhama, I; Alhama, F; Cánovas, M

    2017-01-01

    Classical dimensional analysis and nondimensionalization are assumed to be two similar approaches in the search for dimensionless groups. Both techniques, simplify the study of many problems. The first approach does not need to know the mathematical model, being sufficient a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon involved, while the second one begins with the governing equations and reduces them to their dimensionless form by simple mathematical manipulations. In this work, a formal protocol is proposed for applying the nondimensionalization process to ordinary differential equations, linear or not, leading to dimensionless normalized equations from which the resulting dimensionless groups have two inherent properties: In one hand, they are physically interpreted as balances between counteracting quantities in the problem, and on the other hand, they are of the order of magnitude unity. The solutions provided by nondimensionalization are more precise in every case than those from dimensional analysis, as it is illustrated by the applications studied in this work.

  20. Random ordinary differential equations and their numerical solution

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to make recent results on the derivation of higher order numerical schemes for random ordinary differential equations (RODEs) available to a broader readership, and to familiarize readers with RODEs themselves as well as the closely associated theory of random dynamical systems. In addition, it demonstrates how RODEs are being used in the biological sciences, where non-Gaussian and bounded noise are often more realistic than the Gaussian white noise in stochastic differential equations (SODEs).   RODEs are used in many important applications and play a fundamental role in the theory of random dynamical systems.  They can be analyzed pathwise with deterministic calculus, but require further treatment beyond that of classical ODE theory due to the lack of smoothness in their time variable. Although classical numerical schemes for ODEs can be used pathwise for RODEs, they rarely attain their traditional order since the solutions of RODEs do not have sufficient smoothness to have Taylor ...

  1. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo

    2011-01-01

    In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

  2. VODE, Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.N.; Hindmarsh, A.C.; Byrne, G.D.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: VODE is a package of subroutines for the numerical solution of the initial-value problem for systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. The package can be used for either stiff or non-stiff systems. In the stiff case, the Jacobian matrix is treated as full or banded. An algorithm is included for saving and reusing the Jacobian matrix under certain conditions. If storage is limited, this option may be suppressed. 2 - Method of solution - VODE uses the variable-order, variable- coefficient Adams-Moulton method for non-stiff systems and the variable-order, fixed-leading-coefficient Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) method for stiff systems

  3. Cause and cure of sloppiness in ordinary differential equation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönsing, Christian; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens

    2014-08-01

    Data-based mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks, e.g., by nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, has been successfully applied. In this context, parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis is a major task in order to assess the quality of the description of the system by the model. Recently, a broadened eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the objective function covering orders of magnitudes was observed and has been termed as sloppiness. In this work, we investigate the origin of sloppiness from structures in the sensitivity matrix arising from the properties of the model topology and the experimental design. Furthermore, we present strategies using optimal experimental design methods in order to circumvent the sloppiness issue and present nonsloppy designs for a benchmark model.

  4. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  5. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  6. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1990-03-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death.

  7. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, F.; Yoon, P. H.; Qamar, A.

    2015-02-01

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

  8. On the ordinary mode instability for low beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Bashir, M. F. [Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2431 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- and Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability, first discussed by Davidson and Wu [Phys. Fluids 13, 1407 (1970)], has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. In a series of papers, Ibscher, Schlickeiser, and their colleagues [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072116 (2012); ibid. 20, 012103 (2013); ibid. 20, 042121 (2013); ibid. 21, 022110 (2014)] revisited the O mode instability and extended it to the low-beta plasma regime by considering a counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian model. However, the O-mode instability is, thus, far discussed only on the basis of the marginal stability condition rather than actual numerical solutions of the dispersion relation. The present paper revisits the O-mode instability by considering the actual complex roots. The marginal stability condition as a function of the (electron) temperature anisotropy and beta naturally emerges in such a scheme.

  9. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

  10. Stochastic Computational Approach for Complex Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Junaid Ali; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    We present an evolutionary computational approach for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NLODEs). The mathematical modeling is performed by a feed-forward artificial neural network that defines an unsupervised error. The training of these networks is achieved by a hybrid intelligent algorithm, a combination of global search with genetic algorithm and local search by pattern search technique. The applicability of this approach ranges from single order NLODEs, to systems of coupled differential equations. We illustrate the method by solving a variety of model problems and present comparisons with solutions obtained by exact methods and classical numerical methods. The solution is provided on a continuous finite time interval unlike the other numerical techniques with comparable accuracy. With the advent of neuroprocessors and digital signal processors the method becomes particularly interesting due to the expected essential gains in the execution speed. (general)

  11. Nonchaoticity of Ordinary Differential Equations Describing Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengfei; Hu Gang; Chen Runsheng

    2008-01-01

    Gene transcriptional regulation (TR) processes are often described by coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When the dimension of TR circuits is high (e.g. n ≥ 3) the motions of the corresponding ODEs may, very probably, show self-sustained oscillations and chaos. On the other hand, chaoticity may be harmful for the normal biological functions of TR processes. In this letter we numerically study the dynamics of 3-gene TR ODEs in great detail, and investigate many 4-, 5-, and 10-gene TR systems by randomly choosing figures and parameters in the conventionally accepted ranges. And we find that oscillations are very seldom and no chaotic motion is observed, even if the dimension of systems is sufficiently high (n ≥ 3). It is argued that the observation of nonchaoticity of these ODEs agrees with normal functions of actual TR processes

  12. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Hervé; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of electron irradiation on the hydrogen isotopic composition of organic precursors containing different functional groups. From an initial terrestrial composition, overall D-enrichments and differential intramolecular fractionations comparable with those measured in the Orgueil meteorite were induced. Therefore, ionizing radiation can quantitatively explain the deuteration of organics in some carbonaceous chondrites. For these meteorites, the precursors of the IOM may have had the same isotopic composition as the main water reservoirs of the inner Solar System.

  13. Mass spectrometric isotope dilution analyses of palladium, silver, cadmium and tellurium in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.

    1984-01-01

    The mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique was used to measure the elemental abundances of Pd, Ag, Cd and Te in Orgueil (C1), Ivuna (C1), Murray (C2) and Allende (C3) chondrites. The Pd abundance of 554 ppb for the Cl chondrites is almost identical to the recommended value of Anders and Ebihara (1982); that for Cd (712 ppb) is approximately 5% higher, whereas that for Ag (198 ppb) is approximately 10% lower than the recommended values. A smooth distribution for the abundances of the odd-A nuclides between 65 128 Te and 130 Te to lie approximately 30% above the r-process peak at A = 130, whereas the new value fits smoothly into the general trend. (author)

  14. Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure age of the Sulagiri chondrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant R. Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sulagiri meteorite fell in India on 12 September 2008, LL6 chondrite class is the largest among all the Indian meteorites. Isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and nitrogen in the Sulagiri meteorite and cosmic ray exposure history are discussed. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Nec ratio is consistent with irradiation in a large body. Cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Sulagiri has a 4π cosmic-ray exposure (CRE age of 27.9 ± 3.4 Ma and is a member of the peak of CRE age distribution of LL chondrites. Radiogenic 4He and 40Ar concentrations in Sulagiri yields the radiogenic ages as 2.29 and 4.56 Ga, indicating the loss of He from the meteorite. Xenon and krypton are mixture of Q and spallogenic components.

  15. Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure age of the Sulagiri chondrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakant R. Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    The Sulagiri meteorite fell in India on 12 September 2008, LL6 chondrite class is the largest among all the Indian meteorites. Isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and nitrogen in the Sulagiri meteorite and cosmic ray exposure history are discussed. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c ratio is consistent with irradiation in a large body. Cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Sulagiri has a 4πcosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age of 27.9 ± 3.4 Ma and is a member of the peak of CRE age distribution of LL chondrites. Radiogenic 4He and 40Ar concentrations in Sulagiri yields the radiogenic ages as 2.29 and 4.56 Ga, indicating the loss of He from the meteorite. Xenon and krypton are mixture of Q and spallo-genic components.

  16. Isotopic evidence for primordial molecular cloud material in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted as reflecting progressive thermal processing of in-falling (26)Al-rich molecular cloud material in the inner Solar System. The thermally unprocessed molecular cloud matter reflecting the nucleosynthetic makeup of the molecular cloud before the last......)Mg*-depleted and (54)Cr-enriched component. This composition is consistent with that expected for thermally unprocessed primordial molecular cloud material before its pollution by stellar-derived (26)Al. The (26)Mg* and (54)Cr compositions of bulk metal-rich chondrites require significant amounts (25......-50%) of primordial molecular cloud matter in their precursor material. Given that such high fractions of primordial molecular cloud material are expected to survive only in the outer Solar System, we infer that, similarly to cometary bodies, metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites are samples of planetesimals...

  17. Kinetics of bacterial potentiometric titrations: the effect of equilibration time on buffering capacity of Pantoea agglomerans suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetas, Leon; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Macdonald, Alan M; Elphick, Stephen C

    2011-07-15

    Several recent studies have made use of continuous acid-base titration data to describe the surface chemistry of bacterial cells as a basis for accurately modelling metal adsorption to bacteria and other biomaterials of potential industrial importance. These studies do not share a common protocol; rather they titrate in different pH ranges and they use different stability criteria to define equilibration time during titration. In the present study we investigate the kinetics of bacterial titrations and test the effect they have on the derivation of functional group concentrations and acidity constants. We titrated suspensions of Pantoea agglomerans by varying the equilibration time between successive titrant additions until stability of 0.1 or 0.001 mV s(-1) was attained. We show that under longer equilibration times, titration results are less reproducible and suspensions exhibit marginally higher buffering. Fluorescence images suggest that cell lysis is not responsible for these effects. Rather, high DOC values and titration reversibility hysterisis after long equilibration times suggest that variability in buffering is due to the presence of bacterial exudates, as demonstrated by titrating supernatants separated from suspensions of different equilibration times. It is recommended that an optimal equilibration time is always determined with variable stability control and preliminary reversibility titration experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of six chondritic Almahata Sitta fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, M. E. I.; Welten, K. C.; Meier, M. M. M.; Wieler, R.; Barth, M. I. F.; Ward, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Bischoff, A.; Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Busemann, H.

    2017-11-01

    The Almahata Sitta strewn field is dominated by ureilites, but contains a large fraction of chondritic fragments of various types. We analyzed stable isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl in six chondritic Almahata Sitta fragments (EL6 breccia, EL6, EL3-5, CB, LL4/5, R-like). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages of five of the six samples have an average of 19.2 ± 3.3 Ma, close to the average of 19.5 ± 2.5 Ma for four ureilites. The cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in the chondrites indicate a preatmospheric size consistent with Almahata Sitta. This corroborates that Almahata Sitta chondrite samples were part of the same asteroid as the ureilites. However, MS-179 has a lower CRE age of 11.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Further analysis of short-lived radionuclides in fragment MS-179 showed that it fell around the same time, and from an object of similar size as Almahata Sitta, making it almost certain that MS-179 is an Almahata Sitta fragment. Instead, its low CRE age could be due to gas loss, chemical heterogeneity that may have led to an erroneous 21Ne production-rate, or, perhaps most likely, MS-179 could represent the true 4π exposure age of Almahata Sitta (or an upper limit thereof), while all other samples analyzed so far experienced exposure on the parent body of similar lengths. Finally, MS-179 had an extraordinarily high activity of neutron-capture 36Cl, 600 dpm kg-1, the highest activity observed in any meteorite to date, related to a high abundance of the Cl-bearing mineral lawrencite.

  19. Proto-Planetary Disk Chemistry Recorded by D-Rich Organic Radicals in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Meibom, Anders; Mostefaoui, Smail; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Gourier, Didier; Derenne, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites has preserved its chemical composition and isotopic heterogeneity since the solar system formed ~4.567 billion years ago. We have identified the carrier moieties of isotopically anomalous hydrogen in IOM isolated from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Data from high spatial resolution, quantitative isotopic NanoSIMS mapping of Orgueil IOM combined with data from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that orga...

  20. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, Fran?ois; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Herv?; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of elec...

  1. Fall, recovery, and characterization of the Novato L6 chondrite breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rubin, Alan E.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sears, Derek W. G.; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Blair, Leigh; Kane, Darci; Utas, Jason; Verish, Robert; Friedrich, Jon M.; Wimpenny, Josh; Eppich, Gary R.; Ziegler, Karen; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Rowland, Douglas J.; Albers, Jim; Gural, Peter S.; Grigsby, Bryant; Fries, Marc D.; Matson, Robert; Johnston, Malcolm; Silber, Elizabeth; Brown, Peter; Yamakawa, Akane; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Welten, Kees C.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Meier, Matthias M. M.; Busemann, Henner; Clay, Patricia; Caffee, Marc W.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillipe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N.; Grady, Monica; Verchovsky, Sasha; Emel'Yanenko, Vacheslav; Naroenkov, Sergey; Clark, David L.; Girten, Beverly; Worden, Peter S.

    2014-08-01

    The Novato L6 chondrite fragmental breccia fell in California on 17 October 2012, and was recovered after the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project determined the meteor's trajectory between 95 and 46 km altitude. The final fragmentation from 42 to 22 km altitude was exceptionally well documented by digital photographs. The first sample was recovered before rain hit the area. First results from a consortium study of the meteorite's characterization, cosmogenic and radiogenic nuclides, origin, and conditions of the fall are presented. Some meteorites did not retain fusion crust and show evidence of spallation. Before entry, the meteoroid was 35 ± 5 cm in diameter (mass 80 ± 35 kg) with a cosmic-ray exposure age of 9 ± 1 Ma, if it had a one-stage exposure history. A two-stage exposure history is more likely, with lower shielding in the last few Ma. Thermoluminescence data suggest a collision event within the last ˜0.1 Ma. Novato probably belonged to the class of shocked L chondrites that have a common shock age of 470 Ma, based on the U,Th-He age of 420 ± 220 Ma. The measured orbits of Novato, Jesenice, and Innisfree are consistent with a proposed origin of these shocked L chondrites in the Gefion asteroid family, perhaps directly via the 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Novato experienced a stronger compaction than did other L6 chondrites of shock-stage S4. Despite this, a freshly broken surface shows a wide range of organic compounds.

  2. Fall, Recovery and Characterization of the Novato L6 Chondrite Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Petrus; Rubin, Alan E; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Sears, Derek; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Blair, Leigh; Kane, Darci; Utas, Jason; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Novato L6 chondrite fragmental breccia fell in California on 17 October 2012, and was recovered after the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project determined the meteor's trajectory between 95 and 45 km altitude. The final fragmentation at 33 1 km altitude was exceptionally well documented by digital photographs. The first sample was recovered before rain hit the area. First results from a consortium study of the meteorite's characterization, cosmogenic and radiogenic nuclides, origin and conditions of the fall are presented. Some meteorites did not retain fusion crust and show evidence of spallation. Before entry, the meteoroid was 35+/-5 cm in diameter (mass 80+/-35 kg) with a cosmic ray exposure age of 9+/-1 Ma, if it had a one-stage exposure history. However, based on the cosmogenic nuclide inventory, a two-stage exposure history is more likely, with lower shielding in the last few Ma. Thermoluminescence data suggest a collision event within the last approx. 0.1 Ma. Novato likely belonged to the class of shocked L chondrites that have a common shock age of 470 Ma, based on the U,Th-He age of 460+/-220 Ma. The measured orbits of Novato, Jesenice and Innisfree are consistent with a proposed origin of these shocked L chondrites in the Gefion asteroid family, but leave open the possibility that they came to us directly from the 5:2 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. Novato experienced a stronger compaction than did other L6 chondrites of shock-stage S4. Despite this, a freshly broken surface shows a wide range of organic compounds.

  3. Fall, Recovery, and Characterization of the Novato L6 Chondrite Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rubin, Alan E.; Yin, Qing Zhu; Sears, Derek W. G.; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Blair, Leigh; Kane, Daci; Utas, Jason; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Novato L6 chondrite fragmental breccia fell in California on 17 October 2012, and was recovered after the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project determined the meteor's trajectory between 95 and 46 km altitude. The final fragmentation from 42 to 22 km altitude was exceptionally well documented by digital photographs. The first sample was recovered before rain hit the area. First results from a consortium study of the meteorite's characterization, cosmogenic and radiogenic nuclides, origin, and conditions of the fall are presented. Some meteorites did not retain fusion crust and show evidence of spallation. Before entry, the meteoroid was 35+/-5 cm in diameter (mass 80+/-35 kg) with a cosmic-ray exposure age of 9+/-1 Ma, if it had a one-stage exposure history. A two-stage exposure history is more likely, with lower shielding in the last few Ma. Thermoluminescence data suggest a collision event within the last approx.0.1 Ma. Novato probably belonged to the class of shocked L chondrites that have a common shock age of 470 Ma, based on the U, Th-He age of 420+/-220 Ma. The measured orbits of Novato, Jesenice, and Innisfree are consistent with a proposed origin of these shocked L chondrites in the Gefion asteroid family, perhaps directly via the 5:2 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter. Novato experienced a stronger compaction than did other L6 chondrites of shockstage S4. Despite this, a freshly broken surface shows a wide range of organic compounds.

  4. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  5. In Situ Mapping of the Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Mineral Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite organic matter represents a fossil record of reactions that occurred in a range of physically, spatially and temporally distinct environments, from the interstellar medium to asteroid parent bodies. While bulk chemical analysis has provided a detailed view of the nature and diversity of this organic matter, almost nothing is known about its spatial distribution and mineralogical relationships. Such information is nevertheless critical to deciphering its formation processes and evolutionary history.

  6. Ordinary Themes Presented with an Extra-ordinary Talent: An Overview of Emily Dickinson’s Notable Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef. A.N. Aldalabeeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a poet with varied writing styles and extra-ordinary talent, Emily Dickinson occupied a very prestigious position in the field of American literature. Her poetry deals with a unique and large number of thematic expressions. This paper aims at introducing the unfolded, underlying and amazing thematic expressions of Emily Dickinson’s notable poetry. To unveil these themes of death, love, nature, immortality, pain and suffering from her widely recognized poetry, secondary source of data has been used. In this study, an effort also has been made to trace, examine, and explore the various themes with outstanding style of presentation of her poetry and their impact on readers and critics. Many researchers and critics have spent their great exertion to trace out these themes and they became successful in this regard. It is hoped that this study will also be a part in this line of contribution and serve the purpose for which it is designed.

  7. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blander, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Unger, L. [Purdue Univ., Westiville, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  8. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  9. A dual origin for water in carbonaceous asteroids revealed by CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, Laurette; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Remusat, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Carbonaceous asteroids represent the principal source of water in the inner Solar System and might correspond to the main contributors for the delivery of water to Earth. Hydrogen isotopes in water-bearing primitive meteorites, for example carbonaceous chondrites, constitute a unique tool for deciphering the sources of water reservoirs at the time of asteroid formation. However, fine-scale isotopic measurements are required to unravel the effects of parent-body processes on the pre-accretion isotopic distributions. Here, we report in situ micrometre-scale analyses of hydrogen isotopes in six CM-type carbonaceous chondrites, revealing a dominant deuterium-poor water component (δD = -350 ± 40‰) mixed with deuterium-rich organic matter. We suggest that this deuterium-poor water corresponds to a ubiquitous water reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk. A deuterium-rich water signature has been preserved in the least altered part of the Paris chondrite (δDParis ≥ -69 ± 163‰) in hydrated phases possibly present in the CM rock before alteration. The presence of the deuterium-enriched water signature in Paris might indicate that transfers of ice from the outer to the inner Solar System were significant within the first million years of the history of the Solar System.

  10. Elemental and isotopic characterization of organic particles in carbonaceous chondrites by NanoSIMS imaging: assessment on the origin, accretion and preservation of organic matter in chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Chondrites accreted primitive components, including organic compounds sampled from the proto-solar nebula. However, the molecular and isotopic fingerprints of organic matter extracted from chondrites are also potentially influenced by complex evolution on the parent bodies. We have performed NanoSIMS in situ characterisation of organic matter in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil (CI), Murchison (CM), Tagish Lake (C2), Renazzo (CR) and Allende (CV) with a spatial resolution of ~200 nm; we could also constrains textural relationships between organic constituents and other phases. Those meteorites have undergone a diverse set of parent body processes. I.e., CI, C2 and CM meteorites have undergone aqueous alteration, and the CV’s are thermally metamorphosed. The CR’s are inferred to be the least altered class of chondrites. Despite these differences in parent body modification, the distributions of organic carbon in these meteorites is similar: in all cases it can be found as micron-size, randomly distributed organic particles that are surrounded by the clay minerals that dominate the matrix material, but are not specifically associated with sulfides, sulfates or oxides. In addition, there is a “diffuse” fraction of organic carbon intimately associated with the clay-rich matrix. We hypothesize that the C particles we identify are hosts of insoluble organic matter that co-accreted with other primitive constituents of these materials, whereas the diffuse C fraction is the soluble component (i.e., soluble in laboratory organic and aqueous solvents). Our analytical technique lacks the spatial resolution required to analyze the diffuse organic matter without contamination by associated clays. But we are able to analyze the compositions of the interiors of relatively large C-rich particles (>500 nm) without such contamination. Some fraction of the C-rich particles in all of the examined meteorites but Allende exhibit a very high enrichment in deuterium

  11. DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells: distribution and rates of equilibration between nucleus and cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid nuclear isolation technique was adapted in order to examine the question of DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells. By using this method a reproducible proportion of the cellular nucleotides remained associated with the isolated nuclei. Examination, at several different cell densities, of exponentially growing HeLa cells showed that the nuclei contained a constant but distinct proportion of each dNTP. The nuclear dATP and dTTP concentrations were equal at all densities examined even though the dTTP pool was 150% of the dATP whole-cell pool. The nuclear portion of the whole-cell pools was roughly equal to the volume occupied by the nucleus. The nuclear-cytoplasmic dNTP pool distribution did not change throughout the cell cycle of synchronized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The rates at which either radiolabeled cytidine or deoxycytidine equilibrated with the nuclear and whole-cell dCTP pools of G1 and S phase CHO cells were compared. Experiments comparing the labeling kinetics of 3 H-thymidine in G1, S phase, and exponentially growing cells revealed that the S phase dTTP pool equilibrated with exogenously added thymidine faster than the G1 phase pool. The rate of equilibration in exponentially growing cells appeared to be a combination of that seen in G1 and S phases. A linear rate of 3 H-thymidine incorporation into DNA occurred at the same rate in S phase and exponentially growing cells

  12. Continuous high-frequency dissolved O2/Ar measurements by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Nicolas; Barnett, Bruce A; Bender, Michael L; Kaiser, Jan; Hamme, Roberta C; Tilbrook, Bronte

    2009-03-01

    The oxygen (O(2)) concentration in the surface ocean is influenced by biological and physical processes. With concurrent measurements of argon (Ar), which has similar solubility properties as oxygen, we can remove the physical contribution to O(2) supersaturation and determine the biological oxygen supersaturation. Biological O(2) supersaturation in the surface ocean reflects the net metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration, i.e., the net community productivity (NCP). We present a new method for continuous shipboard measurements of O(2)/Ar by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry (EIMS). From these measurements and an appropriate gas exchange parametrization, NCP can be estimated at high spatial and temporal resolution. In the EIMS configuration, seawater from the ship's continuous intake flows through a cartridge enclosing a gas-permeable microporous membrane contactor. Gases in the headspace of the cartridge equilibrate with dissolved gases in the flowing seawater. A fused-silica capillary continuously samples headspace gases, and the O(2)/Ar ratio is measured by mass spectrometry. The ion current measurements on the mass spectrometer reflect the partial pressures of dissolved gases in the water flowing through the equilibrator. Calibration of the O(2)/Ar ion current ratio (32/40) is performed automatically every 2 h by sampling ambient air through a second capillary. A conceptual model demonstrates that the ratio of gases reaching the mass spectrometer is dependent on several parameters, such as the differences in molecular diffusivities and solubilities of the gases. Laboratory experiments and field observations performed by EIMS are discussed. We also present preliminary evidence that other gas measurements, such as N(2)/Ar and pCO(2) measurements, may potentially be performed with EIMS. Finally, we compare the characteristics of the EIMS with the previously described membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) approach.

  13. Impact of equilibrating time on phosphate adsorption and desorption behaviour in some selected saline sodic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Q.U.; HAN; Khan, M.J.; Rehman, S.; Khan, S.U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of equilibrating time on phosphate adsorption and desorption on saline sodic soils a study was carried using three soil series from Dera Ismail Khan (Pakistan) district, namely Zindani, Tikken and Gishkori. These soils are alkaline calcareous in nature with greater Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) values which classify them as saline sodic soils. The equilibrating time for the adsorption study was 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48 and 72 hours for two levels (5 mg L/sup -1/ and 100 mg L/sup -1/). For desorption study 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours after 24 hours for low and high dilution. Adsorption and desorption isotherms of phosphate were developed for these soils. The Gishkori soil showed the greatest rate of adsorption as compared with the other two soils. Applying Langmuir and Freundlich models to P adsorption data revealed that Freundlich equation (R2 = 0.99) showed a better fit over the Langmuir equation (R2 =0. 97) in the three soils. The desorption curves varied similarly from each other. The amount of P adsorbed was different from that released back to the soil solution. The amount of adsorption increased with the time. Statistical analysis showed that the rate of adsorption for both 5 and 100 mg P L/sup -1/ was significantly different at P<0.05 at 16 and 20 hours and at P<0.01 beyond 20 hours. However, the rate of desorption was not significantly influenced by the equilibrating time as compared with the theoretical values of the three series. As the P - desorption curve did not coincide the P - adsorption curve, hence the availability of P to plant was adversely affected on its application. (author)

  14. Equilibration and analysis of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, William; Gygi, François

    2018-03-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations based on density functional theory are becoming increasingly popular for the description of liquids. In view of the high computational cost of these simulations, the choice of an appropriate equilibration protocol is critical. We assess two methods of estimation of equilibration times using a large dataset of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of water. The Gelman-Rubin potential scale reduction factor [A. Gelman and D. B. Rubin, Stat. Sci. 7, 457 (1992)] and the marginal standard error rule heuristic proposed by White [Simulation 69, 323 (1997)] are evaluated on a set of 32 independent 64-molecule simulations of 58 ps each, amounting to a combined cumulative time of 1.85 ns. The availability of multiple independent simulations also allows for an estimation of the variance of averaged quantities, both within MD runs and between runs. We analyze atomic trajectories, focusing on correlations of the Kohn-Sham energy, pair correlation functions, number of hydrogen bonds, and diffusion coefficient. The observed variability across samples provides a measure of the uncertainty associated with these quantities, thus facilitating meaningful comparisons of different approximations used in the simulations. We find that the computed diffusion coefficient and average number of hydrogen bonds are affected by a significant uncertainty in spite of the large size of the dataset used. A comparison with classical simulations using the TIP4P/2005 model confirms that the variability of the diffusivity is also observed after long equilibration times. Complete atomic trajectories and simulation output files are available online for further analysis.

  15. Reduction by metals dissolved in liquid ammonia of keto steroids. Equilibration of the alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroud, A.M.

    1970-01-01

    Reducing a ketone by dissolved metals involves two electrons; we may consider as intermediate a radical-anion, then a di-anion or a carbo-anion. The radical-anion may also split and give pinacols away. In order to discuss the reduction proceeds, we had to know the respective stabilities of the alcohols, which lead us to effectuate equilibration. The first chapter is devoted to the method of preparing the androstanone-II and the androstanols-IIα and II-β. We further establish the impossibility of using our methods for reaching a conclusion about the alcohols relative stability by experimental equilibration. Last we describe the methods for reducing the ketone by alkaline and earth-alkaline metals, dissolved in liquid ammonia, either in contact with a protons donor or with a later added protons donor. The resulting mixture of the two alcohols shows a prevailing quantity of the stable equatorial isomer α. In a second chapter, we study the action of selenic acid and hydroperoxide on cholestanone-3, which leads us to study the preparation and stereochemistry of the A-nor cholestane derivates. We further describe the preparation of the A-nor cholestanols-2α and 2β, and the corresponding acetates. Equilibration of the alcohols by chemical methods shows the 2 α-alcohol more stable than the 2β, which is mathematically confirmed. Last, the reduction of the A-nor cholestanone-2 by dissolved metals consistently leads to the less stable 2 β epimer, with associated pinacols. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the androstanone-17 reductions, and the relative stabilities of the 17α and 17β alcohols. Whichever operating methods is used, we predominantly obtain the more stable 17β alcohol. In all cases, a pinacol production is observed. Summing up, we note that, in all cases, we predominantly obtain the equatorial epimer, whether it should be the more stable or the less stable. (author) [fr

  16. Magnetic Evidence for a Partially Differentiated Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Body and Possible Implications for Asteroid 21 Lutetia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin; Carporzen, L.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Shuster, D. L.; Ebel, D. S.; Gattacceca, J.; Binzel, R. P.

    2010-10-01

    The origin of remanent magnetization in the CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende has been a longstanding mystery. The possibility of a core dynamo like that known for achondrite parent bodies has been discounted because chondrite parent bodies are assumed to be undifferentiated. Here we report that Allende's magnetization was acquired over several million years (Ma) during metasomatism on the parent planetesimal in a > 20 microtesla field 8-9 Ma after solar system formation. This field was present too recently and directionally stable for too long to have been the generated by the protoplanetary disk or young Sun. The field intensity is in the range expected for planetesimal core dynamos (Weiss et al. 2010), suggesting that CV chondrites are derived from the outer, unmelted layer of a partially differentiated body with a convecting metallic core (Elkins-Tanton et al. 2010). This suggests that asteroids with differentiated interiors could be present today but masked under chondritic surfaces. In fact, CV chondrites are spectrally similar to many members of the Eos asteroid family whose spectral diversity has been interpreted as evidence for a partially differentiated parent asteroid (Mothe-Diniz et al. 2008). CV chondrite spectral and polarimetric data also resemble those of asteroid 21 Lutetia (e.g., Belskaya et al. 2010), recently encountered by the Rosetta spacecraft. Ground-based measurements of Lutetia indicate a high density of 2.4-5.1 g cm-3 (Drummond et al. 2010), while radar data seem to rule out a metallic surface composition (Shepard et al. 2008). If Rosetta spacecraft measurements confirm a high density and a CV-like surface composition for Lutetia, then we propose Lutetia may be an example of a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Regardless, the very existence of primitive achondrites, which contain evidence of both relict chondrules and partial melting, are prima facie evidence for the formation of partially differentiated bodies.

  17. Centrifugal Separation and Equilibration Dynamics in an Electron-Antiproton Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Humphries, A. J.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Cesar, C. L.; Friesen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Charges in cold, multiple-species, non-neutral plasmas separate radially by mass, forming centrifugally separated states. Here, we report the first detailed measurements of such states in an electron-antiproton plasma, and the first observations of the separation dynamics in any centrifugally separated system. While the observed equilibrium states are expected and in agreement with theory, the equilibration time is approximately constant over a wide range of parameters, a surprising and as yet unexplained result. Electron-antiproton plasmas play a crucial role in antihydrogen trapping experiments.

  18. THE IMPACT OF SYSTEM OF BUDGET EQUILIBRATION ON MACROECONOMIC INDEXES OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Peshina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical regulations of basic conceptions of budget equilibration are considered in the article and the position of budget deficit/proficit in a system of socioeconomics relations is grounded. Estimation of control mechanism of budget deficit and proficit in the system of socioeconomics relations was conducted. This estimation confirmed an analysis inference about large discontinuity and fragmentation, that is outboard, first of all in respect of strategy of financial policy, sum-total of using, at present, principles, methods and regulations of budgetary management. The article contains a description of basic directions of budgetary policy about optimization of budget deficit/proficit in Russian Federation.

  19. Centrifugal separation and equilibration dynamics in an electron-antiproton plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    Charges in cold, multiple-species, non-neutral plasmas separate radially by mass, forming centrifugally-separated states. Here, we report the first detailed measurements of such states in an electron-antiproton plasma, and the first observations of the separation dynamics in any centrifugally-separated system. While the observed equilibrium states are expected and in agreement with theory, the equilibration time is approximately constant over a wide range of parameters, a surprising and as yet unexplained result. Electron-antiproton plasmas play a crucial role in antihydrogen trapping experiments.

  20. Rhenium-osmium systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; MacPherson, G.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The Re-Os isotopic systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites were investigated in order to shed light on the behavior of the Re-Os system in bulk chondrites, and to constrain the timing of chemical fractionation in primitive chondrites. CAIs with relatively unfractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns (groups I, III, V, VI) define a narrow range of 187Re/188Os (0.3764-0.4443) and 187Os/188Os (0.12599-0.12717), and high but variable Re and Os abundances (3209-41,820 ppb Os). In contrast, CAIs that show depletions in highly refractory elements and strongly fractionated REE patterns (group II) also show a much larger range in 187Re/188Os (0.409-0.535) and 187Os/188Os (0.12695-0.13770), and greater than an order of magnitude lower Re and Os abundances than other groups (e.g., 75.7-680.2 ppb Os). Sixteen bulk CAIs and CAI splits plot within analytical uncertainty of a 4558 Ga reference isochron, as is expected for materials of this antiquity. Eight samples, however, plot off the isochron. Several possible reasons for these deviations are discussed. Data for multiple splits of one CAI indicate that the nonisochronous behavior for at least this CAI is the result of Re-Os reequilibration at approximately 1.6 Ga. Thus, the most likely explanation for the deviations of most of the nonisochronous CAIs is late-stage open-system behavior of Re and Os in the asteroidal environment. The 187Os/188Os-Os systematics of CAIs are consistent with previous models that indicate group II CAIs are mixtures of components that lost the bulk of their highly refractory elements in a previous condensation event and a minor second component that provided refractory elements at chondritic relative proportions. The high Re/Os of group II CAIs relative to other CAIs and chondrite bulk rocks may have been caused by variable mobilization of Re and Os during medium- to low-temperature parent body alteration ??4.5 Ga ago. This model is favored over nebular models, which

  1. Highly 15N-Enriched Chondritic Clasts in the Isheyevo Meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, L; Huss, G R; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-01-14

    The metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CB and CH) have the highest whole-rock {sup 15}N enrichment ({delta}{sup 15}N up to +1500{per_thousand}), similar to {delta}{sup 15}N values reported in micron-sized regions (hotspots) of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) of possibly cometary origin and fine-grained matrices of unmetamorphosed chondrites. These {sup 15}N-rich hotspots are commonly attributed to low-temperature ion-molecule reactions in the protosolar molecular cloud or in the outer part of the protoplanetary disk. The nature of the whole-rock {sup 15}N enrichment of the metal-rich chondrites is not understood. We report a discovery of a unique type of primitive chondritic clasts in the CH/CB-like meteorite Isheyevo, which provides important constraints on the origin of {sup 15}N anomaly in metal-rich chondrites and nitrogen-isotope fractionation in the Solar System. These clasts contain tiny chondrules and refractory inclusions (5-15 {micro}m in size), and abundant ferromagnesian chondrule fragments (1-50 {micro}m in size) embedded in the partly hydrated, fine-grained matrix material composed of olivines, pyroxenes, poorly-organized aromatic organics, phyllosilicates and other hydrous phases. The mineralogy and oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules and refractory inclusions in the clasts are similar to those in the Isheyevo host, suggesting formation at similar heliocentric distances. In contrast to the previously known extraterrestrial samples, the fine-grained material in the clasts is highly and rather uniformly enriched in {sup 15}N, with bulk {delta}{sup 15}N values ranging between +1000 and +1300{per_thousand}; the {delta}{sup 15}N values in rare hotspots range from +1400 to +4000{per_thousand}. Since fine-grained matrices in the lithic clasts are the only component containing thermally unprocessed (during CAI and chondrule formation or during impact melting) materials that accreted into the metal rich chondrite parent body(ies), the {sup 15}N

  2. The Sound of a Small Whisper: Ordinary Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugelmann Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ordinary religious experience does not entail an overwhelming sense of the Divine; it is not a “numinous” experience. It is instead easily ignored. In a phenomenological psychological inquiry into such a religious experience, both the noema, the “what” experienced, and the noesis, the mode of givenness of the experience, manifested themselves in distinctive ways. The paper examines a simple experience of having been guided in making a decision. The guidance was recognized only at the moment of realization. The realization revealed the decision to have been part of a larger drama that transcended the immediate experience. The “world” of this moment of realization included sensing that the sky above-as an “elemental”-was a dome, with allusions to the Noah story. Even at the time, this perception was not experienced as literal, but as symbolic. The social, historical, and theological contexts for the possibility of this experience receive attention. Theological as well as psychological reflection indicate such an experience continues to happen, in memory and thought, and even in action, long after the initial moment. Essential to the meaning of the experience is an admonition to transcend egocentricity.

  3. On Public Influence on People's Interactions with Ordinary Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Skandrani

    Full Text Available Besides direct impacts of urban biodiversity on local ecosystem services, the contact of city dwellers with urban nature in their everyday life could increase their awareness on conservation issues. In this paper, we focused on a particularly common animal urban species, the feral pigeon Columba livia. Through an observational approach, we examined behavioral interactions between city dwellers and this species in the Paris metropolis, France. We found that most people (mean: 81% do not interact with pigeons. Further, interactions (either positive or negative are context and age-dependent: children interact more than adults and the elderly, while people in tourist spots interact more than people in urban parks or in railway stations, a result that suggests that people interacting with pigeons are mostly tourists. We discuss these results in terms of public normative pressures on city dwellers' access to and reconnection with urban nature. We call for caution in how urban species are publically portrayed and managed, given the importance of interactions with ordinary biodiversity for the fate of nature conservation.

  4. [Application of ordinary Kriging method in entomologic ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runjie; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Cuixian; Wang, Shousong

    2003-01-01

    Geostatistics is a statistic method based on regional variables and using the tool of variogram to analyze the spatial structure and the patterns of organism. In simulating the variogram within a great range, though optimal simulation cannot be obtained, the simulation method of a dialogue between human and computer can be used to optimize the parameters of the spherical models. In this paper, the method mentioned above and the weighted polynomial regression were utilized to simulate the one-step spherical model, the two-step spherical model and linear function model, and the available nearby samples were used to draw on the ordinary Kriging procedure, which provided a best linear unbiased estimate of the constraint of the unbiased estimation. The sum of square deviation between the estimating and measuring values of varying theory models were figured out, and the relative graphs were shown. It was showed that the simulation based on the two-step spherical model was the best simulation, and the one-step spherical model was better than the linear function model.

  5. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisse, Andrea Y

    2010-10-28

    Abstract Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations.

  6. Ordinary Mathematical Models in Calculating the Aviation GTE Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Khoreva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical review results of the ordinary mathematical models of the operating process used to study aviation GTE parameters and characteristics at all stages of its creation and operation. Considers the mathematical models of the zero and the first level, which are mostly used when solving typical problems in calculating parameters and characteristics of engines.Presents a number of practical problems arising in designing aviation GTE for various applications.The application of mathematical models of the zero-level engine can be quite appropriate when the engine is considered as a component in the aircraft system to estimate its calculated individual flight performance or when modeling the flight cycle of the aircrafts of different purpose.The paper demonstrates that introduction of correction functions into the first-level mathematical models in solving typical problems (influence of the Reynolds number, characteristics deterioration of the units during the overhaul period of engine, as well as influence of the flow inhomogeneity at the inlet because of manufacturing tolerance, etc. enables providing a sufficient engineering estimate accuracy to reflect a realistic operating process in the engine and its elements.

  7. Runge-Kutta Methods for Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, David W.; Chisholm, Todd T.

    1997-01-01

    Three new Runge-Kutta methods are presented for numerical integration of systems of linear inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODES) with constant coefficients. Such ODEs arise in the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing linear wave phenomena. The restriction to linear ODEs with constant coefficients reduces the number of conditions which the coefficients of the Runge-Kutta method must satisfy. This freedom is used to develop methods which are more efficient than conventional Runge-Kutta methods. A fourth-order method is presented which uses only two memory locations per dependent variable, while the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method uses three. This method is an excellent choice for simulations of linear wave phenomena if memory is a primary concern. In addition, fifth- and sixth-order methods are presented which require five and six stages, respectively, one fewer than their conventional counterparts, and are therefore more efficient. These methods are an excellent option for use with high-order spatial discretizations.

  8. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

  9. Numerical methods for the solution of ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeem, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ode 113 code solves non-stiff differential equations and is a fully variable step, variable order, PECE implementation in terms of modified divided differences of Adams-Bashforth-Moulton family of formulas of order 1-12. The main objectives of this project were to modify PECE mode of ode 113 into PEC mode, study the variable step size and variable order strategy of both the modes and finally, develop the switching strategy between both PECE and PEC modes to minimize the cost of solving the ordinary differential equations. Using some test problems (including stiff, mild stiff and non-stiff), it was found that the PEC mode was more efficient for non-stiff problems at crude and intermediate tolerances and the PECE mode for all problems at the stringent tolerance. An automatic switching strategy was developed using the results observed from the step size and order plots of all the test problems for both the modes and gave the optimum results. (author)

  10. ORDINARY PERSON IN MEDIA: PUBLIC INTEREST AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Korkonosenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of the research project “Media Discourses on Material and Ethnic Gaps. A comparative study in St Petersburg and Stockholm” financed by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies (Sweden. One of the main sections of the project was focused on ordinary persons’ portrayal in comparison with images of so-called celebrities in the regional media. Russian and Swedish scholars used a set of methods such as content analysis of newspapers and TV, expert in-depth interviews, and focus groups (2013, Spring - Summer. In fact, common men appeared rarely in TV excerpts and newspaper articles, especially in Russia. At the same time non-commons were shown in the majority of Russian TV and print media items while Swedish media give the opposite proportions. To explain gaps between Russian and Swedish findings one needs to take into account different social and mental traditions in these countries. The difference has been revealed within expert interviews and focus groups.

  11. Giant Pulse Studies of Ordinary and Recycled Pulsars with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Natalia; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Enoto, Teruaki; Harding, Alice; Lommen, Andrea; Ray, Paul S.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew; Ransom, Scott M.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    Radio Giant Pulses are one of the earliest discovered form of anomalous single pulse emission from pulsars. Known for their non-periodical occurrence, restriction to certain phase ranges, power-law intensity distributions, pulse widths ranging from microseconds to nanoseconds and very high brightness temperatures, they stand out as an individual form of pulsar radio emission.Discovered originally in the case of the Crab pulsar, several other pulsars have been observed to emit radio giant pulses, the most promising being the recycled pulsar PSR B1937+21 and also the Vela pulsar.Although radio giant pulses are apparently the result of a coherent emission mechanism, recent studies of the Crab pulsar led to the discovery of an additional incoherent component at optical wavelengths. No such component has been identified for recycled pulsars, or Vela yet.To provide constraints on possible emission regions in their magnetospheres and to search for differences between giant pulses from ordinary and recycled pulsars, we present the progress of the correlation study of PSR B1937+21 and the Vela pulsar carried out with NICER and several radio observatories.

  12. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 15 January 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. Follow-up from the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in December 2004 The Chairman welcomed two new SCC members representing the Staff Association: Véronique Paris and Gianni Deroma. Expressing their best wishes for the New Year, the members of the SCC took note of a report by the Chairman on the outcome of these Committee meetings and of the Director-General's staff meeting on 10 January 2005, and discussed a number of internal follow-up actions. Work planning of the SCC & TREF The SCC agreed its calendar of ordinary sessions and its draft work planning for the first half of 2005, subject to including a number of matters outstanding from 2004. The Committee discussed internal preparation for the next meeting of TREF on 4 & 5 April devoted to items concerning the current 5-Yearly Review. The SCC also took note of the provisional scheduling of TREF meetings from May to September, which will be settled by...

  13. Equilibration in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach probed with the Wigner distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebl, N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2011-01-01

    By calculating the Wigner distribution function in the reaction plane, we are able to probe the phase-space behavior in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock scheme during a heavy-ion collision in a consistent framework. Various expectation values of operators are calculated by evaluating the corresponding integrals over the Wigner function. In this approach, it is straightforward to define and analyze quantities even locally. We compare the Wigner distribution function with the smoothed Husimi distribution function. Different reaction scenarios are presented by analyzing central and noncentral 16 O + 16 O and 96 Zr + 132 Sn collisions. Although we observe strong dissipation in the time evolution of global observables, there is no evidence for complete equilibration in the local analysis of the Wigner function. Because the initial phase-space volumes of the fragments barely merge and mean values of the observables are conserved in fusion reactions over thousands of fm/c, we conclude that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method provides a good description of the early stage of a heavy-ion collision but does not provide a mechanism to change the phase-space structure in a dramatic way necessary to obtain complete equilibration.

  14. Tolerance of brown bear spermatozoa to conditions of pre-freezing cooling rate and equilibration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; Anel-López, L; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-06-01

    Specific protocols for the cryopreservation of endangered Cantabrian brown bear spermatozoa are critical to create a genetic resource bank. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cooling rates and equilibration time before freezing on post-thawed brown bear spermatozoa quality. Electroejaculates from 11 mature bears were extended to 100 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in a TES-Tris-Fructose-based extender, cryopreserved following performance of the respective cooling/equilibration protocol each sample was assigned to, and stored at -196 °C for further assessment. Before freezing, after thawing, and after 1 hour's incubation post-thawing at 37 °C (thermal stress test), the quality of the samples was assessed for motility by computer-assisted semen analysis, and for viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate /propidium iodide), and sperm chromatin stability (SCSA) by flow cytometry. In experiment 1, three cooling rates (0.25 °C/min, 1 °C/min, and 4 °C/min) to 5 °C were assessed. After thawing, total motility (%TM) was higher and percentage of damaged acrosomes (%dACR) was lower (P bear sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Equilibration in the reaction of 175 and 252 MeV 20Ne with 197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulton, J.B.

    1978-06-01

    The highly inelastic nuclear reaction of 197 Au with 20 Ne at 175 and 252 MeV laboratory energies is studied. Energy-, elemental-, and angular- distributions for atomic numbers 5 to 30 (175 MeV) or 34 (252 MeV) are presented. The means and widths of the kinetic energy spectra for detected elements are compared with a theoretical calculation. The calculation postulates thermalization of the incident projectile kinetic energy, and includes one sha(e-vibrational degree of freedom and rigid rotation of the reaction complex. The effect of particle evaporation is considered. Good agreement of the expurimental mean energies with the theory is obtained. Poorer agreement of the kinetic energy widths with the theory may be due to a low-temperature quantal effect. The relative elemental yields are analyzed for their degree of equilibration, based on a model of diffusive nucleon exchange as described by the master equation. A similar degree of equilibration is observed for both reaction energies. The absolute elemental yields are reproduced qualitatively by employing an advanced diffusion code, coupled with calculation of the subsequent fission of heavy reaction products, including the compound nucleus. The angular distributions are analyzed with a simple model, to estimate the reaction lifetime of selected elements

  16. [Peritoneal dialysis adequacy in pediatrics. From the peritoneal equilibration test to the aquaporins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Lillian; Cano, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation of the characteristics of peritoneal solute and water transport is essential to assess the suitability of prescribing dialysis in patients suffering from chronic renal disease. There are currently a series of models to perform this evaluation. The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) evaluates the peritoneal transport capacity, classifying the patients into four transport categories: high, high-average, low-average, and low. The short PET enables the same evaluation to be made in only 2hours, and has been validated in paediatric patients. On the other hand, the MiniPET provides additional information by evaluating the free water transport capacity by the ultra-small pores, and the Accelerated Peritoneal Examination Time (APEX) evaluates the time when the glucose and urea equilibration curves cross, and has been proposed as the optimum dwell time to achieve adequate ultrafiltration. An analysis is presented on the current information on these diagnostic methods as regards free water transport via aquaporins, which could be an important tool in optimising solute and water transport in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis, particularly as regards the cardiovascular prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Trace-element analysis of Antarctic H chondrites: Chemical weathering and comparisons with their non-Antarctic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of meteorites have been discovered in Antarctica over the last decade (7000 fragments probably representing over 1200 separate events). They are important for their numbers and for their complement of unique or rare specimens; they also have long terrestrial ages (up to 1,000,000 years) compared to non-Antarctic falls (usually < 200 years). We report compositional data for mobile/volatile trace elements Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Ti, U, and Zn in a suite of Antarctic H chondrites. Our data show that heavily oxidized H chondrites are leached of a portion of their trace elements and, therefore, have been chemically compromised by their stay in Antarctica. The less oxidized specimens seem to have retained their chemical integrity. We suggest possibilities for using chemical data to measure the degree of a chondrite's chemical weathering. We compare our data to that obtained previously for non-Antarctic H chondrites (Linger et al., 1986), by petrologic type (H4, H5, H6, H4-6) and shock-loading (moderately shocked facies a-c, heavily shocked facies d-f). Many statistically significant differences are found between non-Antarctic and Victoria Land, Antarctica H chondrites of each petrologic type and of shock facies d-f

  18. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  19. Multiscale approach for the construction of equilibrated all-atom models of a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianfeng; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Becker, Matthew L.; Latour, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A multiscale modeling approach is presented for the efficient construction of an equilibrated all-atom model of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel using the all-atom polymer consistent force field (PCFF). The final equilibrated all-atom model was built with a systematic simulation toolset consisting of three consecutive parts: (1) building a global cross-linked PEG-chain network at experimentally determined cross-link density using an on-lattice Monte Carlo method based on the bond fluctuation model, (2) recovering the local molecular structure of the network by transitioning from the lattice model to an off-lattice coarse-grained (CG) model parameterized from PCFF, followed by equilibration using high performance molecular dynamics methods, and (3) recovering the atomistic structure of the network by reverse mapping from the equilibrated CG structure, hydrating the structure with explicitly represented water, followed by final equilibration using PCFF parameterization. The developed three-stage modeling approach has application to a wide range of other complex macromolecular hydrogel systems, including the integration of peptide, protein, and/or drug molecules as side-chains within the hydrogel network for the incorporation of bioactivity for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery applications. PMID:27013229

  20. Unconstrained snoring detection using a smartphone during ordinary sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Cho, Jaegeol

    2014-08-15

    Snoring can be a representative symptom of a sleep disorder, and thus snoring detection is quite important to improving the quality of an individual's daily life. The purpose of this research is to develop an unconstrained snoring detection technique that can be integrated into a smartphone application. In contrast with previous studies, we developed a practical technique for snoring detection during ordinary sleep by using the built-in sound recording system of a smartphone, and the recording was carried out in a standard private bedroom. The experimental protocol was designed to include a variety of actions that frequently produce noise (including coughing, playing music, talking, rining an alarm, opening/closing doors, running a fan, playing the radio, and walking) in order to accurately recreate the actual circumstances during sleep. The sound data were recorded for 10 individuals during actual sleep. In total, 44 snoring data sets and 75 noise datasets were acquired. The algorithm uses formant analysis to examine sound features according to the frequency and magnitude. Then, a quadratic classifier is used to distinguish snoring from non-snoring noises. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the developed snoring detection methods, and validation was repeated 100 times randomly to improve statistical effectiveness. The overall results showed that the proposed method is competitive with those from previous research. The proposed method presented 95.07% accuracy, 98.58% sensitivity, 94.62% specificity, and 70.38% positive predictivity. Though there was a relatively high false positive rate, the results show the possibility for ubiquitous personal snoring detection through a smartphone application that takes into account data from normally occurring noises without training using preexisting data.

  1. Algebraic dynamics solutions and algebraic dynamics algorithm for nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunjin; ZHANG; Hua

    2006-01-01

    The problem of preserving fidelity in numerical computation of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is studied in terms of preserving local differential structure and approximating global integration structure of the dynamical system.The ordinary differential equations are lifted to the corresponding partial differential equations in the framework of algebraic dynamics,and a new algorithm-algebraic dynamics algorithm is proposed based on the exact analytical solutions of the ordinary differential equations by the algebraic dynamics method.In the new algorithm,the time evolution of the ordinary differential system is described locally by the time translation operator and globally by the time evolution operator.The exact analytical piece-like solution of the ordinary differential equations is expressd in terms of Taylor series with a local convergent radius,and its finite order truncation leads to the new numerical algorithm with a controllable precision better than Runge Kutta Algorithm and Symplectic Geometric Algorithm.

  2. Paris vs. Murchison: Impact of hydrothermal alteration on organic matter in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.; Binet, L.; Cartigny, P.; Brearley, A. J.; Remusat, L.

    2017-09-01

    Unravelling the origin of organic compounds that were accreted into asteroids requires better constraining the impact of asteroidal hydrothermal alteration on their isotopic signatures, molecular structures, and spatial distribution. Here, we conducted a multi-scale/multi-technique comparative study of the organic matter (OM) from two CM chondrites (that originate from the same parent body or from identical parent bodies that accreted the same mixture of precursors) and underwent a different degree of hydrothermal alteration: Paris (a weakly altered CM chondrite - CM 2.8) and Murchison (a more altered one - CM 2.5). The Paris insoluble organic matter (IOM) shows a higher aliphatic/aromatic carbon ratio, a higher radical abundance and a lower oxygen content than the Murchison IOM. Analysis of the OM in situ shows that two texturally distinct populations of organic compounds are present within the Paris matrix: sub-micrometric individual OM particles and diffuse OM finely distributed within phyllosilicates and amorphous silicates. These results indicate that hydrothermal alteration on the CM parent body induced aromatization and oxidation of the IOM, as well as a decrease in radical and nitrogen contents. Some of these observations were also reported by studies of variably altered fragment of Tagish Lake (C2), although the hydrothermal alteration of the OM in Tagish Lake was apparently much more severe. Finally, comparison with data available in the literature suggests that the parent bodies of other chondrite petrologic groups could have accreted a mixture of organic precursors different from that accreted by the parent body of CMs.

  3. Petrologic evolution of CM chondrites: The difficulty of discriminating between nebular and parent-body effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, J. F.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Bunch, T. E.

    1994-07-01

    We wish to draw attention to a major controversy that has arisen in the area of CM-chondrite petrology. The problem is important because its resolution will have profound implications for ideas concerning nebular dynamics, gas-solid interactions in the nebula, and accretionary processes in the nebula, among other issues. On the one hand, cogent arguments have been presented that 'accretionary dust mantles,' were formed in the solar nebula prior to accretion of the CM parent asteroid(s). On the other hand, no-less-powerful arguments have been advanced that a significant fraction of the CM lithology is secondary, produced by aqueous alteration in the near-surface regions of an asteroid-sized object. Because most, if not all, CM chondrites are breccias, these two views could coexist harmoniously, were it not for the fact that some of the coarse-grained lithologies surrounded by 'accretion dust mantles' are themselves of apparently secondary origin. Such an observation must clearly force a reassessment of one or both of the present schools of thought. Our objective here is to stimulate such a reassessment. Four possible resolutions of this conflict may be postulated. First, perhaps nature found a way of permitting such secondary alteration to take place in the nebula. Second, maybe dust mantles could form in a regolith, rather than a nebular, environment. Third, it is possible that dust mantles around secondary lithologies are different from those around primary lithologies. Finally, perhaps formation of CM chondrites involved a more complex sequence of events than visualized so far, so that some apparently 'primary' processes postdated certain 'secondary' processes.

  4. Amino Acid Chemistry as a Link Between Small Solar System Bodies and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishing chemical links between meteorites and small solar system bodies, such as comets and asteroids, provides a tool for investigating the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system. Carbonaceous meteorites are of particular interest, since they may have seeded the early Earth with a variety of prebiotic organic compounds including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, which are thought to be necessary for the origin of life. Here we report the results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analyses of the acid-hydrolyzed hot water extracts from pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna and the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray. We found that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna contained high abundances of beta-alanine and glycine, while only traces of other amino acids like alanine, alpha-amino-n-butryic acid (ABA) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were detected in these meteorites. Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine in Orgueil by gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry clearly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these amino acids. The amino acid composition of Orgueil and Ivuna was strikingly different from the CM chondrites Murchison and Murray. The most notable difference was the high relative abundance of B-alanine in Orgueil and Ivuna compared to Murchison and Murray. Furthermore, AIB, which is one of the most abundant amino acids found in Murchison and Murray, was present in only trace amounts in Orgueil and Ivuna. Our amino acid data strongly suggest that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna came from a different type of parent body than the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray, possibly from an extinct comet. It is generally thought that carbonaceous meteorites are fragments of larger asteroidal bodies delivered via near Earth objects (NEO). Orbital and dynamic studies suggest that both fragments of main belt asteroids

  5. Chondritic Mn/Na ratio and limited post-nebular volatile loss of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Julien; Sossi, Paolo A.; Blanchard, Ingrid; Mahan, Brandon; Badro, James; Moynier, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    The depletion pattern of volatile elements on Earth and other differentiated terrestrial bodies provides a unique insight as to the nature and origin of planetary building blocks. The processes responsible for the depletion of volatile elements range from the early incomplete condensation in the solar nebula to the late de-volatilization induced by heating and impacting during planetary accretion after the dispersion of the H2-rich nebular gas. Furthermore, as many volatile elements are also siderophile (metal-loving), it is often difficult to deconvolve the effect of volatility from core formation. With the notable exception of the Earth, all the differentiated terrestrial bodies for which we have samples have non-chondritic Mn/Na ratios, taken as a signature of post-nebular volatilization. The bulk silicate Earth (BSE) is unique in that its Mn/Na ratio is chondritic, which points to a nebular origin for the depletion; unless the Mn/Na in the BSE is not that of the bulk Earth (BE), and has been affected by core formation through the partitioning of Mn in Earth's core. Here we quantify the metal-silicate partitioning behavior of Mn at deep magma ocean pressure and temperature conditions directly applicable to core formation. The experiments show that Mn becomes more siderophile with increasing pressure and temperature. Modeling the partitioning of Mn during core formation by combining our results with previous data at lower P-T conditions, we show that the core likely contains a significant fraction (20 to 35%) of Earth's Mn budget. However, we show that the derived Mn/Na value of the bulk Earth still lies on the volatile-depleted end of a trend defined by chondritic meteorites in a Mn/Na vs Mn/Mg plot, which tend to higher Mn/Na with increasing volatile depletion. This suggests that the material that formed the Earth recorded similar chemical fractionation processes for moderately volatile elements as chondrites in the solar nebula, and experienced limited post

  6. C/N and other Elemental Ratios of Chondritic Porous IDPS and a Fluffy Concordia Micrometeorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Khodja, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Taylor, S.; Engrand, C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) may be cometary in origin [1], as may ultracarbona-ceous (UCAMMs) [2] and 'fluffy' [3] micrometeorites from the Concordia collection. They are all rich in organics, which can rim grains and may have helped glue grains together during accretion [4]. The organics also contain nitrogen the input of which to Earth has potential biological importance. We report C/N ratios, and other properties of CP-IDPs and a Concordia fluffy microme-teorite.

  7. 40Ar/39Ar age and thermal history of the Kirin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; McDougall, I.; Tetley, N.; Harrison, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Kirin meteorite, a large (> 2800 kg) H5 chondrite, fell in Kirin Province, China in 1976. A sample from each of the two largest fragments (K-1. K-2) yield 40 Ar/ 39 Ar total fusion ages of 3.63 +- 0.02 b.y. and 2.78 +- 0.02 b.y. respectively. 40 Ar/ 40 Ar age spectra show typical diffusional argon loss profiles. Maximum apparent ages of 4.36 b.y. (K-1) and approx. 4.0 b.y. (K-2) are interpreted as possible minimum estimates for the age of crystallization of the parent body. (orig./ME)

  8. Early history of Earth's crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, Henning; Rosing, M.

    2003-01-01

    for the chondrite-forming event. This ¿176 value indicates that Earth's oldest minerals were derived from melts of a mantle source with a time-integrated history of depletion rather than enrichment. The depletion event must have occurred no later than 320 Myr after planetary accretion, consistent with timing......The Lu to Hf decay series has been widely used to understand the nature of Earth's early crust-mantle system. The interpretation, however, of Lu-Hf isotope data requires accurate knowledge of the radioactive decay constant of Lu (¿176), as well as bulk-Earth reference parameters. A recent...

  9. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite and implications for the CO-CM relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumard, Noël; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-05-01

    High-precision oxygen three-isotope measurements of olivine and pyroxene were performed on 29 chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen isotope ratios of analyzed chondrules all plot very close to the primitive chondrule minerals (PCM) line. In each of 24 chondrules, the olivine and/or pyroxene grains analyzed show indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios. Exceptions are minor occurrences of isotopically distinguished relict olivine grains, which were found in nine chondrules. The isotope homogeneity of these phenocrysts is consistent with a co-magmatic crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the final chondrule melts and a significant oxygen isotope exchange between the ambient gas and the melts. Homogeneous type I chondrules with Mg#'s of 98.9-99.5 have host chondrule Δ17O values ranging from -6.0‰ to -4.1‰, with one exception (Δ17O: -1.2‰; Mg#: 99.6). Homogeneous chondrules with Mg#'s poor H2O ice (∼0.3-0.4× the CI dust; Δ17O > 0‰) and at dust enrichments of ∼300-2000×. Regarding the Mg# and oxygen isotope ratios, the chondrule populations sampled by CM and CO chondrites are similar and indistinguishable. The similarity of these 16O-rich components in CO and CM chondrites is also supported by the common Fe/Mn ratio of olivine in type II chondrules. Although they accreted similar high-temperature silicates, CO chondrites are anhydrous compared to CM chondrites, suggesting they derived from different parent bodies formed inside and outside the snow line, respectively. If chondrules in CO and CM chondrites formed at the same disk locations but the CM parent body accreted later than the CO parent body, the snow line might have crossed the common chondrule-forming region towards the Sun between the time of the CO and CM parent bodies accretion.

  10. Detection of a meteorite 'stream' - Observations of a second meteorite fall from the orbit of the Innisfree chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.

    1987-03-01

    The first observational evidence of multiple meteorite falls from the same orbit is adduced from the February 6, 1980 fall of a meteorite precisely 3 yr after the fall of the Innisfree meteorite. Due consideration of the detection probability for two related objects with the meteorite camera network in western Canada suggests that the Innisfree brecciated LL chondrite was a near-surface fragment from a parent object whose radius was of the order of several tens of meters. A meteorite mass of 1.8 kg is predicted for the new object, whose recovery in the vicinity of Ridgedale, Saskatchewan, is now sought for the sake of comparison with the Innisfree chondrite.

  11. Enstatite chondrites EL3 as building blocks for the Earth: The debate over the 146Sm-142Nd systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyet, M.; Bouvier, A.; Frossard, P.; Hammouda, T.; Garçon, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2018-04-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd extinct decay scheme (146Sm half-life of 103 My) is a powerful tool to trace early Earth silicate differentiation. Differences in 142Nd abundance measured between different chondrite meteorite groups and the modern Earth challenges the interpretation of the 142Nd isotopic variations found in terrestrial samples because the origin of the Earth and the nature of its building blocks is still an ongoing debate. As bulk meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC) have isotope signatures that are the closest to the Earth value with an average small deficit of ∼10 ppm in 142Nd relative to modern terrestrial samples. Here we review all the Nd isotope data measured on EC so far, and present the first measurements on an observed meteorite fall Almahata Sitta containing pristine fragments of an unmetamorphosed enstatite chondrite belonging to the EL3 subgroup. Once 142Nd/144Nd ratios are normalized to a common chondritic evolution, samples from the EC group (both EL and EH) have a deficit in 142Nd but the dispersion is important (μ142 Nd = - 10 ± 12 (2SD) ppm). This scatter reflects their unique mineralogy associated to their formation in reduced conditions (low fO2 or high C/O). Rare-earth elements are mainly carried by the sulfide phase oldhamite (CaS) that is more easily altered than silicates by weathering since most of the EC meteorites are desert finds. The EL6 have fractionated rare-earth element patterns with depletion in the most incompatible elements. Deviations in Nd mass independent stable isotope ratios in enstatite chondrites relative to terrestrial standard are not resolved with the level of analytical precision achieved by modern mass spectrometry techniques. Here we show that enstatite chondrites from the EL3 and EL6 subgroups may come from different parent bodies. Samples from the EL3 subgroup have Nd (μ142 Nd = - 0.8 ± 7.0, 2SD) and Ru isotope ratios undistinguishable from that of the Bulk Silicate Earth. EL3 samples have never been

  12. Uranium-lead Isotope Evidence in the Shelyabinsk LL5 Chondrite Meteorite for Ancient and Recent Thermal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Kring, D. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Swindle, T. D.; Beard, S. P.; Swindle, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    The impact histories on chondrite parent bodies can be deduced from thermochronologic analyses of materials and isotope systems with distinct apparent closure temperatures. It is especially critical to better understand the geological histories and physical properties of potenally hazardous near-Earth asteroids. Chelyabinsk is an LL5 chondrite meteorite that was dispersed over a wide area tens of kilometers south of the town of Chelyabinsk, Russia by an explosion at an altitude of 27 km at 3:22 UT on 15 Feb 2013 [1,2]. The explosion resulted in significant damage to surrounding areas and over 1500 injuries along with meteorite fragments being spread over a wide area [1].

  13. A neural-network potential through charge equilibration for WS2: From clusters to sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Roohollah; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we use a machine learning method to construct a high-dimensional potential for tungsten disulfide using a charge equilibration neural-network technique. A training set of stoichiometric WS2 clusters is prepared in the framework of density functional theory. After training the neural-network potential, the reliability and transferability of the potential are verified by performing a crystal structure search on bulk phases of WS2 and by plotting energy-area curves of two different monolayers. Then, we use the potential to investigate various triangular nano-clusters and nanotubes of WS2. In the case of nano-structures, we argue that 2H atomic configurations with sulfur rich edges are thermodynamically more stable than the other investigated configurations. We also studied a number of WS2 nanotubes which revealed that 1T tubes with armchair chirality exhibit lower bending stiffness.

  14. Correlations in plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium; Les correlations dans un plasma en equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper treats of a fully, ionized plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium. An attempt is made at reviewing the calculation of spatial correlations in such a plasma. The equation of recurrence and the principle of superposition are used. The linear approximation is first treated. The next higher approximation is studied in the case of a neutral homogeneous and isotropic plasma. (author) [French] Un plasma completement ionise est en equilibre thermodynamique. On tente une mise au point du calcul des correlations de position dans ce plasma. On utilise les equations de recurrence et le principe de superposition. On expose d'abord l'approximation lineaire. Dans le cas d'un plasma neutre homogene et isotrope l'etude est poursuivie a l'approximation suivante. (auteur)

  15. Unusual equilibration of a particle in a potential with a thermal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Deepak; Sabhapandit, Sanjib; Kundu, Anupam; Dhar, Abhishek

    2017-11-01

    We consider a particle in a one-dimensional box of length L, with a Maxwell bath at one end and a reflecting wall at the other end. Using a renewal approach, as well as directly solving the master equation, we show that the system exhibits a slow power law relaxation, with a logarithmic correction, towards the final equilibrium state. We extend the renewal approach to a class of confining potentials of the form U(x) \\propto x^α , x>0 , where we find that the relaxation is ∼ t-(α+2)/(α-2) for α >2 , with a logarithmic correction when (α+2)/(α-2) is an integer. For α <2 the relaxation is exponential. Interestingly for α=2 (harmonic potential) the localised bath cannot equilibrate the particle.

  16. Universality in the equilibration of quantum systems after a small quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    A sudden change in the Hamiltonian parameter drives a quantum system out of equilibrium. For a finite-size system, expectations of observables start fluctuating in time without converging to a precise limit. A new equilibrium state emerges only in the probabilistic sense, when the probability distribution for the observable expectations over long times concentrates around their mean value. In this paper we study the full statistic of generic observables after a small quench. When the quench is performed around a regular (i.e., noncritical) point of the phase diagram, generic observables are expected to be characterized by Gaussian distribution functions ('good equilibration'). Instead, when quenching around a critical point a new, universal, double-peaked distribution function emerges for relevant perturbations. Our analytic predictions are numerically checked for a nonintegrable extension of the quantum Ising model.

  17. Mechanisms of submicron inclusion re-equilibration during host mineral deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas; Habler, Gerlinde; Abart, Rainer; Rhede, Dieter; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Both brittle and ductile deformation can facilitate re-equilibration of mineral inclusions. The presence of inclusions also influences stress and strain distribution in the host. The processes governing feedbacks between brittle deformation, ductile deformation, and inclusion re-equilibration have been studied using unique microstructures in Permian meta-pegmatite garnets from the Koralpe, Eastern Alps, Austria. Sampled almandine-spessartine garnets contain highly abundant submicron-sized inclusions, which originated during or subsequent to magmatic garnet growth. The Permian magmatic assemblages were affected by eclogite facies metamorphism during the Cretaceous tectono-metamorphic event. The meta-pegmatite garnet deformed crystal-plastically at this metamorphic stage (Bestmann et al. 2008) and the host-inclusion system was affected by partial recrystallization. Trails of coarser inclusions (1-10µm diameter) crosscut the magmatic submicron inclusion density zoning in the garnet, defining curviplanar geometrical surfaces in 3D. In 10-40µm broad 'bleaching zones' flanking inclusion trails, the original ≤1µm sized inclusions are not seen in the optical microscope or SEM, however inclusions <100nm are still abundant in TEM foils from these areas. From their microstructural characteristics it is inferred that the trails formed at sites of healed brittle cracks. FEG-microprobe data showed that inclusion-trails and associated bleaching zones can be formed isochemically, although some trails showed non-isochemical coarsening. In both cases no change in garnet major element composition was observed. EBSD mapping revealed two phenomena that were investigated by cutting targeted TEM foils. Firstly, bleaching zones are associated with systematic very low angle (ca. 0.5°) garnet lattice orientation changes along discrete boundaries. TEM foils transecting such a boundary show a lower concentration of dislocations than expected for the lattice rotation inferred from EBSD

  18. Studies of the surface of titanium dioxide. IV. The hydrogen-deuterium equilibration reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, T.; Katsuta, K.; Miura, M.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with the surface of titanium dioxide has been studied in connection with the hydrogen-reduction mechanism of titanium dioxide, by means of such measurements as weight decrease, magnetic susceptibility, hydrogen uptake, and electrical conductance. It was postulated in the previous study that the rate-determining step of the hydrogen-reduction reaction may be the formation of surface hydroxyl groups, followed by the rapid removal of water molecules from the surface. In this study, the interactions between hydrogen and the surface of titanium dioxide were investigated by measuring the hydrogen-deuterium equilibration reaction, H 2 + D 2 = 2HD, at temperatures above 200 0 C on both surfaces before and after hydrogen reduction to compare the differences in the reactivities

  19. Experimental studies of N/Z equilibration in peripheral collisions using fragment yield ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keksis, A. L.; May, L. W.; Kohley, Z.; Soisson, S. N.; Stein, B. C.; Wuenschel, S.; Yennello, S. J.; Souliotis, G. A.; Veselsky, M.; Galanopoulos, S.; Shetty, D. V.; Tripathi, R.; Li, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral collisions of 40 Ca and 48 Ca projectiles at 32 MeV/nucleon on 112 Sn and 124 Sn targets were studied in this work. The fragments of the projectile-like source (quasiprojectile) were collected with a charged-particle multidetector array. The average value of the neutron-to-proton ratio N/Z of the quasiprojectiles formed in the reactions was determined with two approaches. The first is a direct reconstruction approach using isotopically resolved fragments and is hindered by undetected neutrons leading to lower N/Z values. The second approach, based on the assumption of early fragment formation, employs yield ratios of fragment isobars and is not hindered by undetected neutrons. Using this approach, the amount of N/Z mixing that occurred in the quasiprojectiles (compared to a fully N/Z equilibrated system) was found to be approximately 53%. The experimental results were compared with model calculations. First, the phenomenological DIT (deep inelastic transfer) model was used, followed by the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM). The results of these calculations are in close agreement with the data and indicate that the mean number of undetected neutrons increases with the N/Z of the composite system, accounting for the difference observed between the two approaches of quasiprojectile N/Z determination. Second, the microscopic transport model IBUU (isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck) was employed, providing preliminary results in reasonable agreement with the data. The determination of the degree of N/Z equilibration employing the present fragment yield ratio approach may provide a valuable probe to study the isospin part of the nuclear equation of state in conjunction with detailed microscopic models of the collisions in the Fermi energy regime.

  20. The dynamics of carbon dioxide equilibration after alterations in the respiratory rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, Sarah; Jensen, Marie C; Gottlieb, Dominik; Eckle, Daniel; Szczyrba, Marc; Schumann, Stefan; Guttmann, Josef; Lozano-Zahonero, Sara; Moeller, Knut

    2013-01-01

    Manual or automated control of mechanical ventilation can be realized as an open or closed-loop system for which the regulation of the ventilation parameters ideally is tuned to the dynamics and equilibration time of the biological system. We investigated the dynamic, transient state and equilibration time (t eq ) of the CO 2 partial pressure (PCO 2 ) after changes in the respiratory rate (ΔRR). In 17 anaesthetized patients without known history of lung disease, respiratory rate was alternately increased and decreased and end-tidal CO 2 partial pressures (PetCO 2 ) were measured. Linear relations were found between ΔRR and PetCO 2 changes (ΔPetCO 2 = 0.3 − 1.1 · ΔRR) and between ΔRR and t eq for increasing and decreasing RR (t eq(hypervent) = 0.5 · |ΔRR|, t eq(hypovent) = 0.7 · |ΔRR|). Extrapolation of the transition between two PCO 2 steady-states allowed for the prediction of the new PCO 2 steady-state as early as 0.5 · t eq with an error <4 mmHg. At bedside or in automated ventilation systems, the linear dependencies between ΔRR and ΔPCO 2 and between ΔRR and t eq as well as early steady-state prediction of PCO 2 could be used as a guidance towards a timing and step size regulation of RR that is well adapted to the biological system. (paper)

  1. Changes of peritoneal transport parameters with time on dialysis: assessment with sequential peritoneal equilibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia

    2017-10-27

    Sequential peritoneal equilibration test (sPET) is based on the consecutive performance of the peritoneal equilibration test (PET, 4-hour, glucose 2.27%) and the mini-PET (1-hour, glucose 3.86%), and the estimation of peritoneal transport parameters with the 2-pore model. It enables the assessment of the functional transport barrier for fluid and small solutes. The objective of this study was to check whether the estimated model parameters can serve as better and earlier indicators of the changes in the peritoneal transport characteristics than directly measured transport indices that depend on several transport processes. 17 patients were examined using sPET twice with the interval of about 8 months (230 ± 60 days). There was no difference between the observational parameters measured in the 2 examinations. The indices for solute transport, but not net UF, were well correlated between the examinations. Among the estimated parameters, a significant decrease between the 2 examinations was found only for hydraulic permeability LpS, and osmotic conductance for glucose, whereas the other parameters remained unchanged. These fluid transport parameters did not correlate with D/P for creatinine, although the decrease in LpS values between the examinations was observed mostly for patients with low D/P for creatinine. We conclude that changes in fluid transport parameters, hydraulic permeability and osmotic conductance for glucose, as assessed by the pore model, may precede the changes in small solute transport. The systematic assessment of fluid transport status needs specific clinical and mathematical tools beside the standard PET tests.

  2. Formation of solid materials in the preplanetary nebula and the composition of chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the model of the formation of the preplanetary nebula as an accretion disk during the formation of the sun, the hypothesis is proposed that a significant fraction of the solid materials of the preplanetary nebula was formed by the successive condensation of the components of the gas of solar composition during its motion from the hot, dense region near the protosun to the periphery of the nebula into regions of ever decreasing values of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis removes the contradiction materials and the presence of traces of high-temperature phenomena in chondrite materials and the conclusion that there were never high temperature in the preplanetary nebula at distances of 2-4 AU from the sun, where meteorites encountering the earth originate, and also explains a number of properties of chondrites. It follows from this hypothesis that the mass and angular momentum of the nebula were close to their minimum possible values and that the loss of the nebular gas had already begun at the final stage of its formation.

  3. Formation of solid materials in the preplanetary nebula and the composition of chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of the model of the formation of the preplanetary nebula as an accretion disk during the formation of the sun, the hypothesis is proposed that a significant fraction of the solid materials of the preplanetary nebula was formed by the successive condensation of the components of the gas of solar composition during its motion from the hot, dense region near the protosun to the periphery of the nebula into regions of ever decreasing values of temperature and pressure. The hypothesis removes the contradiction materials and the presence of traces of high-temperature phenomena in chondrite materials and the conclusion that there were never high temperature in the preplanetary nebula at distances of 2-4 AU from the sun, where meteorites encountering the earth originate, and also explains a number of properties of chondrites. It follows from this hypothesis that the mass and angular momentum of the nebula were close to their minimum possible values and that the loss of the nebular gas had already begun at the final stage of its formation

  4. Origin of metallic Fe-Ni in Renazzo and related chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min S.; Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the formation of metallic Fe-Ni in Renazzo and related chondrites, Ni and Co zoning profiles in metallic Fe-Ni are determined from different petrographic sites (chondrule interiors, chondrule margins, chondrule rims, and matrix) in Renazzo, Al Rais, and the related chondrite, MacAlpine Hills 87320. Metal from chondrule interiors shows flat Ni and Co concentrations and profiles, moderately large grain-to-grain compositional variations (even with chondrules), and generally high Ni and Co. Nickel concentrations extend above the kamacite stability limit; etching such 'martensite' shows high-Ni domains in some cases, but observed Ni concentrations do not exceed 190 mg/g. Metal from chondrule margins adjacent to matrix shows convex Ni and Co zoning profiles; the highest Ni and Co concentrations are at grain centers, although the mean central Ni and Co concentrations in margin grains are much lower than those from chondrule interiors; the remainder are convex. The low Co and Ni contents at the edge of grains in chondrule margins are interpreted to reflect dilution by Fe produced by FeO reduction.

  5. Thermoluminescence studies of the thermal and radiation histories of chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of chondritic meteorites are investigated to understand the ways in which the stored TL reflects the thermal and radiation histories of these objects. Differences in TL levels measured in recent falls are attributed to small differences in orbital temperatures. In addition, a correlation between TL level and terrestrial age is observed in meteorites of known terrestrial age. The thermoluminescence in chondrites is produced primarily by ionization from galactic cosmic rays with a much smaller contribution from the decay of natural radionuclides (U, Th, K, Rb). The production of most of the TL occurs after the break up of the large parent bodies into meter-size objects which are thus exposed to the ionizing effects of the cosmic rays. Measurements indicate that the low temperature TL represents a dynamic equilibrium between build up from ionizing radiation and thermal draining. The high temperature TL is near saturation. The terrestrial ages currently of greatest interest are those of the recently discovered meteorites in Antarctica. TL measurements were made on 11 of these meteorites and compared with the activities of 14 C, 26 Al, and 36 Cl measured by other workers in terrestrial age studies. A good correlation was found between the TL levels and the activities of cosmogenic radionuclides in these meteorites. Since the TL measurements can be made more rapidly and require much smaller samples (approx. 10 mg) than the radionuclide measurements, TL is most useful as a screening process to select potentially interesting samples for further study by more precise techniques

  6. Non-chondritic iron isotope ratios in planetary mantles as a result of core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; Shahar, Anat

    2017-02-01

    Information about the materials and conditions involved in planetary formation and differentiation in the early Solar System is recorded in iron isotope ratios. Samples from Earth, the Moon, Mars and the asteroid Vesta reveal significant variations in iron isotope ratios, but the sources of these variations remain uncertain. Here we present experiments that demonstrate that under the conditions of planetary core formation expected for the Moon, Mars and Vesta, iron isotopes fractionate between metal and silicate due to the presence of nickel, and enrich the bodies' mantles in isotopically light iron. However, the effect of nickel diminishes at higher temperatures: under conditions expected for Earth's core formation, we infer little fractionation of iron isotopes. From our experimental results and existing conceptual models of magma ocean crystallization and mantle partial melting, we find that nickel-induced fractionation can explain iron isotope variability found in planetary samples without invoking nebular or accretionary processes. We suggest that near-chondritic iron isotope ratios of basalts from Mars and Vesta, as well as the most primitive lunar basalts, were achieved by melting of isotopically light mantles, whereas the heavy iron isotope ratios of terrestrial ocean floor basalts are the result of melting of near-chondritic Earth mantle.

  7. Stanley Cavell, Classical Hollywood and the Constitution of the Ordinary (With Notes on Billy Wilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jukić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When in his Tanner lectures Stanley Cavell sets out to define Ordinary Language Philosophy or – rather – to explain how it demarcates philosophy as such, he takes up psychoanalytic literary criticism in order to articulate the terms of this task. Yet the constitution of the ordinary, in Cavell, is never quite accessed from within psychoanalysis-cum-literature alone; instead, it takes another relation, that of psychoanalysis and literature to classical Hollywood, for Cavell to address the ordinary in terms of its constitution. I propose to discuss this complex using two films by Billy Wilder as a passageway to Cavell’s analytic procedure.

  8. FORSIM, Solution of Ordinary or Partial Differential Equation with Initial Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FORSIM is a FORTRAN oriented simulation program which automates the continuous transient solution of systems of ordinary and/or partial differential equations. The user writes his equations in a FORTRAN subroutine, following prescribed rules, and loads this routine along with the executive routines. The executive routines then read in initial data supplied by the user and proceed with the integration. 2 - Method of solution: Partial differential equations are converted to coupled ordinary differential equations by suitable discretization formulae. Integration is done by variable order, variable step-size error controlled algorithms. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maximum of: 1000 ordinary differential equations

  9. The crux of the method: assumptions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rebecca G

    2008-10-01

    Logistic regression has increasingly become the tool of choice when analyzing data with a binary dependent variable. While resources relating to the technique are widely available, clear discussions of why logistic regression should be used in place of ordinary least squares regression are difficult to find. The current paper compares and contrasts the assumptions of ordinary least squares with those of logistic regression and explains why logistic regression's looser assumptions make it adept at handling violations of the more important assumptions in ordinary least squares.

  10. Correlations Among Microstructure, Morphology, Chemistry, and Isotopic Systematics of Hibonite in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Liu, M.-C..; Keller, L. P.; Davis, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hibonite is a primary refractory phase occurring in many CAIs, typically with spinel and perovskite. Our microstructural studies of CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites reveal a range of stacking defect densities and correlated non-stoichiometry in hibonite. We also conducted a series of annealing experiments, demonstrating that the Mg-Al substitution stabilized the formation of defect-structured hibonite. Here, we continue a detailed TEM analysis of hibonite-bearing inclusions from CM chondrites that have been well-characterized isotopically. We examine possible correlations of microstructure, morphology, mineralogy, and chemical and isotopic systematics of CM hibonites in order to better understand the formation history of hibonite in the early solar nebula. Methods: Fifteen hibonite-bearing inclusions from the Paris CM chondrite were analyzed using a JEOL 7600F SEM and a JEOL 8530F electron microprobe. In addition to three hibonite-bearing inclusions from the Murchison CM chondrite previously reported, we selected three inclusions from Paris, Pmt1-6, 1-9, and 1-10, representing a range of 26Al/27Al ratios and minor element concentrations for a detailed TEM study. We extracted TEM sections from hibonite grains using a FEI Quanta 3D field emission gun SEM/FIB. The sections were then examined using a JEOL 2500SE field-emission scanning TEM equipped with a Thermo-Noran thin window EDX spectrometer. Results and Discussion: A total of six hibonite-bearing inclusions, including two platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) and four spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs), were studied. There are notable differences in chemical and isotopic compositions between the inclusions (Table 1), indicative of their different formation environment or timing. Our TEM observations show perfectly-ordered, stoichiometric hibonite crystals without stacking defects in two PLACs, 2-7-1 and 2-8-2, and in three SHIBs, Pmt1-6, 1-9, and 1-10. In contrast, SHIB 1-9-5 hibonite grains contain a

  11. ODEPACK, Initial Value Problems of Ordinary Differential Equation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarsh, A.C.; Petzold, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    I - Description of program or function: ODEPACK is a collection of Fortran solvers for the initial value problem for ordinary differential equation systems. It consists of nine solvers, namely a basic solver called LSODE and eight variants of it -- LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, LSODPK, LSODKR, LSODI, LSOIBT, and LSODIS. The collection is suitable for both stiff and non-stiff systems. It includes solvers for systems given in explicit form, dy/dt = f(t,y), and also solvers for systems given in linearly implicit form, A(t,y) dy/dt = g(t,y). Two of the solvers use general sparse matrix solvers for the linear systems that arise. Two others use iterative (preconditioned Krylov) methods instead of direct methods for these linear systems. The most recent addition is LSODIS, which solves implicit problems with general sparse treatment of all matrices involved. The ODEPACK solvers are written in standard Fortran 77, with a few exceptions, and with minimal machine dependencies. There are separate double and single precision versions of ODEPACK. The actual solver names are those given above with a prefix of D- or S- for the double or single precision version, respectively, i.e. DLSODE/SLSODE, etc. Each solver consists of a main driver subroutine having the same name as the solver and some number of subordinate routines. For each solver, there is also a demonstration program, which solves one or two simple problems in a somewhat self-checking manner. A. Solvers for explicitly given systems. For each of the following solvers, it is assumed that the ODEs are given explicitly, so that the system can be written in the form dy/dt = f(t,y), where y is the vector of dependent variables, and t is the independent variable. 1. LSODE (Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations) is the basic solver of the collection. It solves stiff and non-stiff systems of the form dy/dt = f. In the stiff case, it treats the Jacobian matrix df/dy as either a dense (full) or a banded matrix, and as

  12. Extrinsic labelling of staple food crops with isotopic iron does not consistently result in full equilibration: Revisiting the methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrinsic isotopic labeling of food Fe has been used for over 50 years to measure Fe absorption. This method is based on the assumption that complete equilibration occurs between the extrinsic and the intrinsic Fe prior to intestinal absorption. The present study tested this assumption via use of in...

  13. Effects of nuclear elastic scattering and modifications of ion-electron equilibration power on advanced-fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of Nuclear Elastic Scattering (NES) of fusion products and modifications of the ion-electron equilibration power on D-T and D-based advanced-fuel fusion plasmas are presented here. The processes causing the modifications to the equilibration power included here are: (1) depletion of low-energy electrons by Coulomb collisions with the ions; and (2) magnetic field effects on the energy transfer between the ions and the electrons. Both NES and the equilibration modifications affect the flow of power to the plasma ions, which is an important factor in the analysis of advanced-fuels. A Hot Ion Mode (HIM) analysis was used to investigate the changes in the minimum ignition requirements for Cat-D and D- 3 He plasmas, due to the changes in the allowable T/sub i/T/sub e/ for ignition from NES and equilibration modifications. Both of these effects have the strongest influence on the ignition requirements for high temperature (>50 keV), low beta (<15%) plasmas, where the cyclotron radiation power loss from the electrons (which is particularly sensitive to changes in the electron temperature) is large

  14. A redox equilibrator for the preparation of cytochrome oxidase of mixed valence states and intermediate compounds for x-ray synchrotron studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, B.; Moore, J.; Powers, L.; Ching, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A redox titrator for the preparation of small volumes of highly concentrated biological samples of X-ray synchrotron studies provides for the redox equilibration at temperatures of 40 to -30 0 C. Anaerobic transfer directly to the X-ray sample chamber and mixing of an additional reagent just prior to freeze-trapping of the redox-equilibrated sample are provided

  15. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value on the day before a policyholder's 65th and... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...) of 1995 [[Page 40452

  16. Antiperiodic Boundary Value Problems for Second-Order Impulsive Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a second-order ordinary differential equation with antiperiodic boundary conditions and impulses. By using Schaefer's fixed-point theorem, some existence results are obtained.

  17. Consistency of direct integral estimator for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujačić, Ivan; Dattner, Itai

    In this paper we use the sieve framework to prove consistency of the ‘direct integral estimator’ of parameters for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations, which are commonly used for modeling dynamic processes.

  18. Contact symmetries of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations: letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Ruud; Kersten, P.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using 1-1 mappings, the complete symmetry groups of contact transformations of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations are determined from two independent solutions of those equations, and applied to the harmonic oscillator with and without damping.

  19. Error estimation in the neural network solution of ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filici, Cristian

    2010-06-01

    In this article a method of error estimation for the neural approximation of the solution of an Ordinary Differential Equation is presented. Some examples of the application of the method support the theory presented. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Numerical solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, G.; Por, G.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical problems during the noise simulation in a nuclear power plant are discussed. The solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations are studied in the frequency domain. Numerical methods by the transfer function method are applied. It is shown that the correctness of the numerical methods is limited for ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. To overcome the difficulties, step-size selection is suggested. (author)

  1. Ordinary Share Price Behaviour Around 'C' Share Issues by Investment Trusts

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Andrew T; Szakacs, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the "C" share issue, a method of issuing shares which is peculiar to the UK investment trust industry. In particular, we analyse abnormal returns and discount/premium to net asset value behaviour of the ordinary shares both before and after the announcement of "C" share issues. The research was conducted using event study methodology and an innovative approach to the analysis of discount/premium movements. The results suggest a tendency for the ordinary shares to outperfor...

  2. Filtering informal learning in everyday life: invoking ordinariness and moving to civic engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Grummell, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of informal learning from television as it is anchored within the ordinariness of daily life. It examines the consequences for pedagogy and civic engagement, questioning how informal learning from television can enhance civic engagement. For many, this learning was localized through personalized and interpersonal relations of everyday life. Learning was not viewed as a distant institutional force, but as an embedded part of an ordinary life. The invoking of ordi...

  3. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa Līga; Selga Guntars; Sauka Melita; Randoha Aija; Krasovska Eva; Lāriņš Viesturs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calcul...

  4. Organic matter in primitive meteorites: a study of the hydrogen isotopic distribution in CM-type carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, L.; Yurimoto, H.; Remusat, L.; Gonzales, A.; Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Chondrite meteorites are fragments of rocks coming from small bodies of the asteroid belt and constitute witnesses of the volatile-rich reservoirs present in the inner protoplanetary disk. Among these meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites contain the largest quantity of water and organic matter and are one of the most probable candidates for the delivery of water and molecular origin of life to Earth. Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites is intimately mixed with hydrated minerals challenging its in situ characterization and the determination of its H-isotope composition (Le Guillou et al., GCA 131, 2014). Organic matter occurs as soluble components (in water or organic solvents) and an insoluble macromolecule. The insoluble organic matter (IOM) is efficiently isolated after acid leaching of the chondrite minerals. IOM has thus been investigated by a large set of analytical techniques allowing its structural organization, chemical composition and isotopic composition to be determined at several scales (e.g. Derenne and Robert, MAPS 45, 2010). In the soluble counterpart (SOM), targeted studies have shown large ranges of D/H ratios in the different classes of soluble organic compounds (i.e. carboxylic acids, ketones and aldehydes, amino-acids etc.) (Remusat, Planetary Mineralogy 15, 2015 and references therein). This D/H distribution indicates a complex and probably multiple-stage synthesis of this organic compounds occurring at different stages of the disk evolution. Nevertheless, inventories of the known C-bearing species in carbonaceous chondrites (carbonates, SOM and IOM) show that about 40-50 % of the carbon is hidden within the matrix (Alexander et al., MAPS 50, 2015). In this study, we perform in situ hydrogen isotope analyses at the micrometer scale by secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the distribution of organic matter in primitive chondrites without the use of any chemical treatment. Correlated analyses of the D/H and C/H ratios allow us to

  5. CT dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: ICRU Report No. 87 Committee and AAPM Task Group 200 designed a three-sectional polyethylene phantom of 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in length for evaluating the midpoint dose D L (0) and its rise-to-the-equilibrium curve H(L) = D L (0)/D eq from computed tomography (CT) scanning, where D eq is the equilibrium dose. To aid the use of the phantom in radiation dose assessment and to gain an understanding of dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene, the authors evaluated the short (20 cm) to long (60 cm) phantom dose ratio with a polyethylene diameter of 30 cm, assessed H(L) in polyethylene cylinders of 6–55 cm in diameters, and examined energy absorption in these cylinders. Methods: A GEANT4-based Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the single axial scans of polyethylene cylinders (diameters 6–55 cm and length 90 cm, as well as diameter 30 cm and lengths 20 and 60 cm) on a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare). Axial dose distributions were computed on the phantom central and peripheral axes. An average dose over the central 23 or 100 mm region was evaluated for modeling dose measurement using a 0.6 cm 3 thimble chamber or a 10 cm long pencil ion chamber, respectively. The short (20 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were calculated for the 30 cm diameter polyethylene phantoms scanned at four tube voltages (80–140 kV) and a range of beam apertures (1–25 cm). H(L) was evaluated using the dose integrals computed with the 90 cm long phantoms. The resultant H(L) data were subsequently used to compute the fraction of the total energy absorbed inside or outside the scan range (E in /E or E out /E) on the phantom central and peripheral axes, where E = LD eq was the total energy absorbed along the z axis. Results: The midpoint dose in the 60 cm long polyethylene phantom was equal to that in the 90 cm long polyethylene phantom. The short-to-long phantom dose ratios changed with beam aperture and

  6. CT dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Diagnostic Imaging Physics and Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ICRU Report No. 87 Committee and AAPM Task Group 200 designed a three-sectional polyethylene phantom of 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in length for evaluating the midpoint dose D{sub L}(0) and its rise-to-the-equilibrium curve H(L) = D{sub L}(0)/D{sub eq} from computed tomography (CT) scanning, where D{sub eq} is the equilibrium dose. To aid the use of the phantom in radiation dose assessment and to gain an understanding of dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene, the authors evaluated the short (20 cm) to long (60 cm) phantom dose ratio with a polyethylene diameter of 30 cm, assessed H(L) in polyethylene cylinders of 6–55 cm in diameters, and examined energy absorption in these cylinders. Methods: A GEANT4-based Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the single axial scans of polyethylene cylinders (diameters 6–55 cm and length 90 cm, as well as diameter 30 cm and lengths 20 and 60 cm) on a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare). Axial dose distributions were computed on the phantom central and peripheral axes. An average dose over the central 23 or 100 mm region was evaluated for modeling dose measurement using a 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble chamber or a 10 cm long pencil ion chamber, respectively. The short (20 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were calculated for the 30 cm diameter polyethylene phantoms scanned at four tube voltages (80–140 kV) and a range of beam apertures (1–25 cm). H(L) was evaluated using the dose integrals computed with the 90 cm long phantoms. The resultant H(L) data were subsequently used to compute the fraction of the total energy absorbed inside or outside the scan range (E{sub in}/E or E{sub out}/E) on the phantom central and peripheral axes, where E = LD{sub eq} was the total energy absorbed along the z axis. Results: The midpoint dose in the 60 cm long polyethylene phantom was equal to that in the 90 cm long polyethylene phantom. The short-to-long phantom dose

  7. Circumstellar and interstellar material in the CO3 chondrite ALHA77307: An isotopic and elemental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Maitrayee; Floss, Christine; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Speck, Angela K.

    2012-09-01

    We have carried out a NanoSIMS C, N and O ion imaging study of the CO3.0 chondrite ALHA77307. The distribution of O-anomalous grains in ALHA77307 is similar to that observed in other primitive meteorites, and is dominated (84%) by 17O-rich Group 1 grains from low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of close-to-solar metallicity. Four percent of the grains belong to Group 2, whose 18O depletions suggest cool-bottom processing in low-mass stars during the AGB phase, while 8% are Group 4 grains with likely origins in Type II supernova (SN) ejecta. One ferromagnesian silicate has a very high 17O enrichment; nova explosions have been suggested as sources for such grains, but recent models with updated reaction rates show large discrepancies with the grain data, leaving the origins of these grains uncertain. Most of the grains are silicates (86%) with the remainder consisting of oxides (8%), three silica grains and two 'composite' grains composed of multiple subgrains with different elemental compositions. The elemental compositions of the silicates are similar to those found in other studies, with a predominance of non-stoichiometric compositions and high (up to 44 at.%) Fe concentrations. A comparison of isotopic and elemental compositions for all presolar silicates shows that olivine compositions are overabundant in Group 4 grains compared to grains from Groups 1 and 2. This may reflect injection of presolar material from a nearby supernova into the early solar nebula and incorporation into parent bodies before alteration of compositions through irradiation and sputtering in the interstellar medium, as is likely to have occurred for the Group 1 and 2 grains from more distant AGB stars. The matrix material in ALHA77307 contains abundant carbonaceous hotspots with excesses in 15N. However, unlike CR chondrites, the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ALHA77307 does not have a bulk N isotopic anomaly, consistent with Raman evidence that it has experienced more

  8. Fe and O EELS Studies of Ion Irradiated Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christofferson, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The physical and chemical response of hydrated carbonaceous chondrite materials to space weathering processes is poorly understood. Improving this understanding is a key part of establishing how regoliths on primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes, knowledge that supports future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRISREx) that are targeting objects of this type. We previously reported on He+ irradiation of Murchison matrix and showed that the irradiation resulted in amorphization of the matrix phyllosilicates, loss of OH, and surface vesiculation. Here, we report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements of the irradiated material with emphasis on the Fe and O speciation. Sample and Methods: A polished thin section of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite was irradiated with 4 kilovolts He(+) (normal incidence) to a total dose of 1 x 10(exp 18) He(+) per square centimeter. We extracted thin sections from both irradiated and unirradiated regions in matrix using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques with electron beam deposition for the protective carbon strap to minimize surface damage artifacts from the FIB milling. The FIB sections were analyzed using a JEOL 2500SE scanning and transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with a Gatan Tridiem imaging filter. EELS spectra were collected from 50 nanometer diameter regions with an energy resolution of 0.7 electronvolts FWHM at the zero loss. EELS spectra were collected at low electron doses to minimize possible artifacts from electron-beam irradiation damage. Results and Discussion: Fe L (sub 2,3) EELS spectra from matrix phyllosilicates in CM chondrites show mixed Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) oxidation states with Fe(3+)/Sigma Fe approximately 0.5. Fe L(sub 2,3) spectra from the irradiated/ amorphized matrix phyllosilicates show higher Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratios compared to spectra obtained from pristine material at depths beyond the implantation/amorphization layer. We

  9. Micro-X-ray diffraction assessment of shock stage in enstatite chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Flemming, Roberta L.; Banerjee, Neil R.; McCausland, Philip J. A.

    2011-05-01

    A new method for assessing the shock stage of enstatite chondrites has been developed, using in situ micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) to measure the full width at half maximum (FWHMχ) of peak intensity distributed along the direction of the Debye rings, or chi angle (χ), corresponding to individual lattice reflections in two-dimensional XRD patterns. This μXRD technique differs from previous XRD shock characterization methods: it does not require single crystals or powders. In situ μXRD has been applied to polished thin sections and whole-rock meteorite samples. Three frequently observed orthoenstatite reflections were measured: (020), (610), and (131); these were selected as they did not overlap with diffraction lines from other phases. Enstatite chondrites are commonly fine grained, stained or darkened by weathering, shock-induced oxidation, and metal/sulfide inclusions; furthermore, most E chondrites have little olivine or plagioclase. These characteristics inhibit transmitted-light petrography, nevertheless, shock stages have been assigned MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02837 (EL3) S3, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91020 (EL3) S5, MAC 02747 (EL4) S4, Thiel Mountains (TIL) 91714 (EL5) S2, Allan Hills (ALHA) 81021 (EL6) S2, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87746 (EH3) S3, Meteorite Hills (MET) 00783 (EH4) S4, EET 96135 (EH4-5) S2, Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88180 (EH5) S2, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94204 (EH7) S2, LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 02225 (EH impact melt) S1; for the six with published shock stages, there is agreement with the published classification. FWHMχ plotted against petrographic shock stage demonstrates positive linear correlation. FWHMχ ranges corresponding to shock stages were assigned as follows: S1 3.5°, S6—not measured. Slabs of Abee (EH impact-melt breccia), and Northwest Africa (NWA) 2212 (EL6) were examined using μXRD alone; FWHMχ values place both in the S2 range, consistent with literature values. Micro-XRD analysis may be applicable to other shocked orthopyroxene

  10. K-Ca Dating of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Y-74442 and Bhola LL-Chondritic Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T; Misawa, K.; Okano, O; Shih, C. -Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Krahenberg (LL5) [1], Bhola (LL3-6) [2], Siena (LL5) [3] and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4) [4-6], show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkali and alkaline elements [7]. The alkali-rich fragments in Krahenberg, Bhola and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography, suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials [6]. Recently we reported Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in Y-74442: nine fragments from Y-74442 yield the Rb-Sr age of 4429 plus or minus 54 Ma (2 sigma) for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.01402 Ga(exp -1) [8] with the initial ratio of Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7144 plus or minus 0.0094 (2 sigma) [9]. The Rb-Sr age of the alkali-rich fragments of Y-74442 is younger than the primary Rb-Sr age of 4541 plus or minus 14 Ma for LL-chondrite whole-rock samples [10], implying that they formed after accumulation of LL-chondrite parental bodies, although enrichment may have happened earlier. Marshall and DePaolo [11,12] demonstrated that the K-40 - Ca-40 decay system could be an important chronometer as well as a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [13,14] and more recently Simon et al. [15] determined K-Ca ages of lunar granitic rocks, and showed the application of the K-Ca chronometer for K-rich planetary materials. Since alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias are highly enriched in K, we can expect enhancements of radiogenic Ca-40. Here, we report preliminary results of K-Ca isotopic systematics of alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias, Y-74442 and Bhola.

  11. Ordered mixed-layer structures in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix has revealed the presence of a new mixed layer structure material. This mixed-layer material consists of an ordered arrangement of serpentine-type (S) and brucite-type (B) layers in the sequence SBBSBB. Electron diffraction and imaging techniques show that the basal periodicity is approximately 17 A. Discrete crystals of SBB-type material are typically curved, of small size (less than 1 micron) and show structural variations similar to the serpentine group minerals. Mixed-layer material also occurs in association with planar serpentine. Characteristics of SBB-type material are not consistent with known terrestrial mixed-layer clay minerals. Evidence for formation by a condensation event or by subsequent alteration of pre-existing material is not yet apparent.

  12. CIRCUMSTELLAR MAGNETITE FROM THE LAP 031117 CO3.0 CHONDRITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zega, Thomas J. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine [Laboratory for Space Sciences and Physics Department, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Stroud, Rhonda M., E-mail: tzega@lpl.arizona.edu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Code 6366, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We report the first microstructural confirmation of circumstellar magnetite, identified in a petrographic thin section of the LaPaz Icefield 031117 CO3.0 chondrite. The O-isotopic composition of the grain indicates an origin in a low-mass (∼2.2 M{sub ⊙}), approximately solar metallicity red/asymptotic giant branch (RGB/AGB) star undergoing first dredge-up. The magnetite is a single crystal measuring 750 × 670 nm, is free of defects, and is stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. We hypothesize that the magnetite formed via oxidation of previously condensed Fe dust within the circumstellar envelope of its progenitor star. Using an empirically derived rate constant for this reaction, we calculate that such oxidation could have occurred over timescales ranging from approximately ∼9000–500,000 years. This timescale is within the lifetime of estimates for dust condensation within RGB/AGB stars.

  13. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  14. Radar-Enabled Recovery of the Sutters Mill Meteorite, a Carbonaceous Chondrite Regolith Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Petrus M.; Fries, Marc D.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Sears, Derek; Beauford, Robert; Ebel, Denton S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Doppler weather radar imaging enabled the rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite after a rare 4-kiloton of TNT-equivalent asteroid impact over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The recovered meteorites survived a record high-speed entry of 28.6 kilometers per second from an orbit close to that of Jupiter-family comets (Tisserand's parameter = 2.8 +/- 0.3). Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of CM (Mighei)-type carbonaceous chondrite and highly reduced xenolithic materials. It exhibits considerable diversity of mineralogy, petrography, and isotope and organic chemistry, resulting from a complex formation history of the parent body surface. That diversity is quickly masked by alteration once in the terrestrial environment but will need to be considered when samples returned by missions to C-class asteroids are interpreted.

  15. Park Forest (L5) and the asteroidal source of shocked L chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Welten, Kees C.; Riebe, My E. I.; Caffee, Marc W.; Gritsevich, Maria; Maden, Colin; Busemann, Henner

    2017-08-01

    The Park Forest (L5) meteorite fell in a suburb of Chicago, Illinois (USA) on March 26, 2003. It is one of the currently 25 meteorites for which photographic documentation of the fireball enabled the reconstruction of the meteoroid orbit. The combination of orbits with pre-atmospheric sizes, cosmic-ray exposure (CRE), and radiogenic gas retention ages ("cosmic histories") is significant because they can be used to constrain the meteoroid's "birth region," and test models of meteoroid delivery. Using He, Ne, Ar, 10Be, and 26Al, as well as a dynamical model, we show that the Park Forest meteoroid had a pre-atmospheric size close to 180 g cm-2, 0-40% porosity, and a pre-atmospheric mass range of 2-6 tons. It has a CRE age of 14 ± 2 Ma, and (U, Th)-He and K-Ar ages of 430 ± 90 and 490 ± 70 Ma, respectively. Of the meteorites with photographic orbits, Park Forest is the second (after Novato) that was shocked during the L chondrite parent body (LCPB) break-up event approximately 470 Ma ago. The suggested association of this event with the formation of the Gefion family of asteroids has recently been challenged and we suggest the Ino family as a potential alternative source for the shocked L chondrites. The location of the LCPB break-up event close to the 5:2 resonance also allows us to put some constraints on the possible orbital migration paths of the Park Forest meteoroid.

  16. Amino acid compositions in heated carbonaceous chondrites and their compound-specific nitrogen isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie Hoi Shan; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Takano, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for compound-specific nitrogen isotope compositions with an achiral column which was previously shown to offer high precision for nitrogen isotopic analysis. We applied the method to determine the amino acid contents and stable nitrogen isotopic compositions of individual amino acids from the thermally metamorphosed (above 500 °C) Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites Ivuna-like (CI)1 (or CI-like) Yamato (Y) 980115 and Ornans-like (CO)3.5 Allan Hills (ALH) A77003 with the use of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry. ALHA77003 was deprived of amino acids due to its extended thermal alteration history. Amino acids were unambiguously identified in Y-980115, and the δ15N values of selected amino acids (glycine +144.8 ‰; α-alanine +121.2 ‰) are clearly extraterrestrial. Y-980115 has experienced an extended period of aqueous alteration as indicated by the presence of hydrous mineral phases. It has also been exposed to at least one post-hydration short-lived thermal metamorphism. Glycine and alanine were possibly produced shortly after the accretion event of the asteroid parent body during the course of an extensive aqueous alteration event and have abstained from the short-term post-aqueous alteration heating due to the heterogeneity of the parent body composition and porosity. These carbonaceous chondrite samples are good analogs that offer important insights into the target asteroid Ryugu of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which is a C-type asteroid likely composed of heterogeneous materials including hydrated and dehydrated minerals.

  17. Detection of serpentine in exogenic carbonaceous chondrite material on Vesta from Dawn FC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Cloutis, Edward A.; Schäfer, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Christensen, Ulrich; Sierks, Holger; Thangjam, Guneshwar Singh; Le Corre, Lucille; Mengel, Kurt; Vincent, Jean-Baptist; Russell, Christopher T.; Prettyman, Tom; Schmedemann, Nico; Kneissl, Thomas; Raymond, Carol; Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo; Hall, Ian; Büttner, Irene

    2014-09-01

    The Dawn mission’s Framing Camera (FC) observed Asteroid (4) Vesta in 2011 and 2012 using seven color filters and one clear filter from different orbits. In the present paper we analyze recalibrated HAMO color cubes (spatial resolution ∼60 m/pixel) with a focus on dark material (DM). We present a definition of highly concentrated DM based on spectral parameters, subsequently map the DM across the Vestan surface, geologically classify DM, study its spectral properties on global and local scales, and finally, compare the FC in-flight color data with laboratory spectra. We have discovered an absorption band centered at 0.72 μm in localities of DM that show the lowest albedo values by using FC data as well as spectral information from Dawn’s imaging spectrometer VIR. Such localities are contained within impact-exposed outcrops on inner crater walls and ejecta material. Comparisons between spectral FC in-flight data, and laboratory spectra of meteorites and mineral mixtures in the wavelength range 0.4-1.0 μm, revealed that the absorption band can be attributed to the mineral serpentine, which is typically present in CM chondrites. Dark material in its purest form is rare on Vesta’s surface and is distributed globally in a non-uniform manner. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of an exogenic origin of the DM by the infall of carbonaceous chondritic material, likely of CM type. It further confirms the hypothesis that most of the DM was deposited by the Veneneia impact.

  18. Facet-controlled phase separation in supersaturated Au-Ni nanoparticles upon shape equilibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Rossberg, D.; Hentschel, M.; Theska, F.; Wang, D., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P. [Department of Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Friák, M. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Žižkova 22, CZ-616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC MU, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Holec, D. [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Šob, M. [Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC MU, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Žižkova 22, CZ-616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Schneeweiss, O. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Žižkova 22, CZ-616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-17

    Solid-state dewetting is used to fabricate supersaturated, submicron-sized Au-Ni solid solution particles out of thin Au/Ni bilayers by means of a rapid thermal annealing technique. Phase separation in such particles is studied with respect to their equilibrium crystal (or Wulff) shape by subsequent annealing at elevated temperature. It is found that (100) faceting planes of the equilibrated particles are enriched with Ni and (111) faces with Au. Both phases are considered by quantum-mechanical calculations in combination with an error-reduction scheme that was developed to compensate for a missing exchange-correlation potential that would reliably describe both Au and Ni. The observed phase configuration is then related to the minimization of strongly anisotropic elastic energies of Au- and Ni-rich phases and results in a rather unique nanoparticle composite state that is characterized by nearly uniform value of elastic response to epitaxial strains all over the faceted surface. The same conclusion is yielded also by evaluating bi-axial elastic moduli when employing interpolated experimental elastic constants. This work demonstrates a useful route for studying features of physical metallurgy at the mesoscale.

  19. Effects of electron-ion temperature equilibration on inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Barry; Hu, S X

    2011-07-01

    The electron-ion temperature relaxation essentially affects both the laser absorption in coronal plasmas and the hot-spot formation in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It has recently been reexamined for plasma conditions closely relevant to ICF implosions using either classical molecular-dynamics simulations or analytical methods. To explore the electron-ion temperature equilibration effects on ICF implosion performance, we have examined two Coulomb logarithm models by implementing them into our hydrocodes, and we have carried out hydrosimulations for ICF implosions. Compared to the Lee-More model that is currently used in our standard hydrocodes, the two models predict substantial differences in laser absorption, coronal temperatures, and neutron yields for ICF implosions at the OMEGA Laser Facility [Boehly et al. Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Such effects on the triple-picket direct-drive design at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have also been explored. Based on the validity of the two models, we have proposed a combined model of the electron-ion temperature-relaxation rate for the overall ICF plasma conditions. The hydrosimulations using the combined model for OMEGA implosions have shown ∼6% more laser absorption, ∼6%-15% higher coronal temperatures, and ∼10% more neutron yield, when compared to the Lee-More model prediction. It is also noticed that the gain for the NIF direct-drive design can be varied by ∼10% among the different electron-ion temperature-relaxation models.

  20. Equilibration in long-range quantum spin systems from a BBGKY perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paškauskas, Rytis; Kastner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The time evolution of l-spin reduced density operators is studied for a class of Heisenberg-type quantum spin models with long-range interactions. In the framework of the quantum Bogoliubov–Born–Green–Kirkwood–Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy, we introduce an unconventional representation, different from the usual cluster expansion, which casts the hierarchy into the form of a second-order recursion. This structure suggests a scaling of the expansion coefficients and the corresponding time scales in powers of N 1/2 with the system size N, implying a separation of time scales in the large-system limit. For special parameter values and initial conditions, we can show analytically that closing the BBGKY hierarchy by neglecting l-spin correlations never leads to equilibration, but gives rise to quasi-periodic time evolution with at most l/2 independent frequencies. Moreover, for the same special parameter values and in the large-N limit, we solve the complete recursion relation (the full BBGKY hierarchy), observing a superexponential decay to equilibrium in rescaled time τ = tN −1/2

  1. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  2. Analytical treatment of neutrino asymmetry equilibration from flavor oscillations in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yvonne Y.

    2002-07-01

    A recent numerical study by A. D. Dolgov, S. H. Hansen, S. Pastor, S. T. Petcov, G. G. Raffelt, and D. V. Semikoz (DHPPRS) [Nucl. Phys. B632, 363 (2002)] found that complete or partial equilibrium between all active neutrino flavors can be achieved before the big bang nucleosynthesis epoch via flavor oscillations, if the oscillation parameters are those inferred from the atmospheric and solar neutrino data, and, in some cases, if θ13 is also sizable. As such, cosmological constraints on the electron neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry are now applicable in all three neutrino sectors. In the present work, we provide an analytical treatment of the scenarios considered in DHPPRS, and demonstrate that their results are stable even for very large initial asymmetries. The equilibration mechanism can be understood in terms of a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-like effect for a maximally mixed and effectively monochromatic system. We also comment on the DHPPRS's choices of mixing parameters, and their handling of collisional effects, both of which could impinge on the extent of flavor equilibrium.

  3. Ordinary Social Interaction and the Main Effect Between Perceived Support and Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Brian; Vander Molen, Randy J; Fles, Elizabeth; Andrews, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of fast freeze-thaw cycles on mechanical properties of ordinary-air-entrained concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Huai-shuai; Cao, Wei-qun; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Freezing-thawing resistance is a very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as cold region with the lowest temperature below 0°C). In this study, ordinary-air-entrained (O-A-E) concrete was produced in a laboratory environment; the compressive strength, cubic compressive strength of C50, C40, C30, C25, and C20 ordinary-air-entrained concrete, tensile strength, and cleavage strength of C30 ordinary-air-entrained concrete were measured after fast freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of fast freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and cleavage strength) of ordinary-air-entrained concrete materials are investigated on the basis of the experimental results. And the concise mathematical formula between mechanical behavior and number of fast freeze-thaw cycles was established. The experiment results can be used as a reference in design, maintenance, and life prediction of ordinary-air-entrained concrete structure (such as dam, offshore platform, etc.) in cold regions.

  5. Effects of an extension of the equilibration period up to 96 hours on the characteristics of cryopreserved bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, A; Malama, E; Witschi, U; Leiding, C; Siuda, M; Janett, F; Bollwein, H

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of an equilibration period up to 96 hours and three extenders (AndroMed, OPTIXcell, and Triladyl) on the quality of cryopreserved bull semen and to evaluate, whether an extension of the equilibration time to 72 hours does affect fertility in the field. One ejaculate of 17 bulls was collected and divided into three equal aliquots and diluted, respectively, with the three extenders. Each aliquot was again divided into five parts and equilibrated for 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours before freezing in an automatic freezer. Sperm motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity (PMAI), and DNA fragmentation index (% DFI) were measured during equilibration. In addition to the parameters measured during equilibration, the percentage of viable sperm cells with high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP) was measured immediately after thawing, and after 3 hours of incubation at 37 °C. Sperm motility was assessed using CASA, and PMAI, HMMP, and % DFI were measured using flow cytometry. Equilibration time did affect all parameters before freezing (P semen characteristics during 3 hours of incubation were also dependent on the equilibration time and the extender used in all parameters (P semen of nine bulls was collected thrice weekly, processed using Triladyl egg yolk extender, and frozen in 0.25 mL straws with 15 × 10 6 spermatozoa per straw. In total, the nonreturn rates on Day 90 after insemination (NRR90) of 263,816 inseminations in two periods were evaluated. Whereas semen collected on Mondays and Wednesdays was equilibrated for 24 hours in both periods, semen collected on Fridays was equilibrated for 4 hours in period one and equilibrated for 72 hours in period 2. No differences in NRR90 could be found (P > 0.05). In conclusion, extension of the equilibration time from 4 hours to 24-72 hours can improve motility and viability of cryopreserved semen after thawing. The extent of improvement in semen quality

  6. Combinations of glycerol percent, glycerol equilibration time, and thawing rate upon freezability of bull spermatozoa in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, H B; Almquist, J O

    1975-03-01

    Twelve ejaculates were used in a central composite experiment to test 15 combinations of glycerol (7, 9, 11, 13, or 15%), glycerol equilibration times (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h) and thawing rates (water at 35 C for 15 s, 50 C for 13 s, 65 C for 11 s, 80 C for 9 s, or 95 C for 7 s). Semen was diluted in heated skim milk-glycerol, packaged in .3-ml. Continental U.S. straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Based on post-thaw progressive sperm motility after storage at -196 C for 9 to 11 days, estimated optima from multiple regression were 10.7% for glycerol, 2.0 h for glycerol equilibration time, and 76 C for thawing bath temperature. Only the linear effect for each variable was significant. Much faster thawing rates and shorter glycerol equilibration times than those for freezing bull spermatozoa in glass ampules should be used for maximum post-thaw sperm motility in straws.

  7. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarini, G.; Djanikian, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95 0 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Communication: Surface-facilitated softening of ordinary and vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-08-01

    A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.

  9. A comparison of flashbacks and ordinary autobiographical memories of trauma: content and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellawell, Steph J; Brewin, Chris R

    2004-01-01

    We investigated hypotheses derived from the dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder, which proposes that flashbacks and ordinary memories of trauma are supported by different types of representation. Sixty-two participants meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder completed a detailed written trauma narrative, and afterwards identified those sections in the narrative that had been written in flashback and ordinary memory periods. As predicted, flashback periods were characterised by greater use of detail, particularly perceptual detail, by more mentions of death, more use of the present tense, and more mention of fear, helplessness, and horror. In contrast, ordinary memory sections were characterised by more mention of secondary emotions such as guilt and anger.

  10. SILICATE AND CARBONACEOUS MINERALS IN METEORITIC MINERAL ENVIROMENTS I . THE ALLENDE C-CHONDRITE

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    第8回極域科学シンポジウム/個別セッション:[OA] 南極隕石12月5日(火)国立極地研究所 1階交流アトリウムThe Eighth Symposium on Polar Science/Ordinary sessions: [OA] Antarctic meteoritesTue. 5 Dec./Entrance Hall (1st floor), National Institute of Polar Research

  11. Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougemont, Romulo [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ficnar, Andrej [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Finazzo, Stefano I. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, CEP 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Noronha, Jorge [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, μ{sub B}, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for μ{sub B}≤400 MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and μ{sub B} dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter q̂ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the baryon dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy and light quarks generally displays a nontrivial, fast-varying behavior as a function of the temperature near the crossover. Moreover, energy loss is also found to generally increase due to nonzero baryon density effects even though this strongly coupled liquid cannot be described in terms of well defined quasiparticle excitations. Furthermore, to get a glimpse of how thermalization occurs in a hot and baryon dense QGP, we study how the lowest quasinormal mode of an external massless scalar disturbance in the bulk is affected by a nonzero baryon charge. We find that the equilibration time associated with the lowest quasinormal mode decreases in a dense medium.

  12. Acceleration of Lateral Equilibration in Mixed Lipid Bilayers Using Replica Exchange with Solute Tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; García, Angel E

    2014-10-14

    The lateral heterogeneity of cellular membranes plays an important role in many biological functions such as signaling and regulating membrane proteins. This heterogeneity can result from preferential interactions between membrane components or interactions with membrane proteins. One major difficulty in molecular dynamics simulations aimed at studying the membrane heterogeneity is that lipids diffuse slowly and collectively in bilayers, and therefore, it is difficult to reach equilibrium in lateral organization in bilayer mixtures. Here, we propose the use of the replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) approach to accelerate lateral relaxation in heterogeneous bilayers. REST is based on the replica exchange method but tempers only the solute, leaving the temperature of the solvent fixed. Since the number of replicas in REST scales approximately only with the degrees of freedom in the solute, REST enables us to enhance the configuration sampling of lipid bilayers with fewer replicas, in comparison with the temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation (T-REMD) where the number of replicas scales with the degrees of freedom of the entire system. We apply the REST method to a cholesterol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayer mixture and find that the lateral distribution functions of all molecular pair types converge much faster than in the standard MD simulation. The relative diffusion rate between molecules in REST is, on average, an order of magnitude faster than in the standard MD simulation. Although REST was initially proposed to study protein folding and its efficiency in protein folding is still under debate, we find a unique application of REST to accelerate lateral equilibration in mixed lipid membranes and suggest a promising way to probe membrane lateral heterogeneity through molecular dynamics simulation.

  13. Stream Kriging: Incremental and recursive ordinary Kriging over spatiotemporal data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xu; Kealy, Allison; Duckham, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Ordinary Kriging is widely used for geospatial interpolation and estimation. Due to the O (n3) time complexity of solving the system of linear equations, ordinary Kriging for a large set of source points is computationally intensive. Conducting real-time Kriging interpolation over continuously varying spatiotemporal data streams can therefore be especially challenging. This paper develops and tests two new strategies for improving the performance of an ordinary Kriging interpolator adapted to a stream-processing environment. These strategies rely on the expectation that, over time, source data points will frequently refer to the same spatial locations (for example, where static sensor nodes are generating repeated observations of a dynamic field). First, an incremental strategy improves efficiency in cases where a relatively small proportion of previously processed spatial locations are absent from the source points at any given iteration. Second, a recursive strategy improves efficiency in cases where there is substantial set overlap between the sets of spatial locations of source points at the current and previous iterations. These two strategies are evaluated in terms of their computational efficiency in comparison to ordinary Kriging algorithm. The results show that these two strategies can reduce the time taken to perform the interpolation by up to 90%, and approach average-case time complexity of O (n2) when most but not all source points refer to the same locations over time. By combining the approaches developed in this paper with existing heuristic ordinary Kriging algorithms, the conclusions indicate how further efficiency gains could potentially be accrued. The work ultimately contributes to the development of online ordinary Kriging interpolation algorithms, capable of real-time spatial interpolation with large streaming data sets.

  14. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the biggest challenges to understanding the early history of the solar system include determining the distribution of oxygen isotopes amongst materials that existed in the solar nebula, and interpreting the processes that might have resulted in the observed isotopic distributions. Oxygen isotope ratios in any individual mineral grain from a chondritic meteorite may be the cumulative product of a variety of processes, including stellar nucleosynthetic events, gas/solid interactions in the molecular cloud, mixing of independent isotopic reservoirs in the nebula, mass-independent processing in the nebula, and mass-dependent fractionation effects in various environments. It is not possible to unravel this complex isotopic record unless the distribution of oxygen isotope ratios in chondritic materials is fully understood.

  15. The comparison of element composition of Venus, Earth, Mars, and chondrites in the light of the Mendeleev Periodic Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1998-01-01

    The share of free neutral atoms, N 0 , for all elements in Protoplanet nebula has been determined with the account of their abundance and physico-chemical properties. The linear dependence for the ratio of nonvolatile and volatile elements in chondrites and igneous rocks of the Earth on N 0 was obtained. The Mendeleev Periodic Law was used to obtain the proof of the existence of the hypothetical process of element magnetic separation in Protoplanet nebula. To this end the concentration ratios of element-analogous with different N 0 in the matters of Venus, Earth, Mars, and chondrites were compared. The data obtained are sufficient demonstration of the existence of the hypothetical process of element magnetic separation in Protoplanet nebula. With the account of the above said, it was shown that Shergotty and Tunguska meteorites by their relative elemental composition are close to Mars and asteroids, respectively. (author)

  16. Ridge regression estimator: combining unbiased and ordinary ridge regression methods of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Damodar Gore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical literature has several methods for coping with multicollinearity. This paper introduces a new shrinkage estimator, called modified unbiased ridge (MUR. This estimator is obtained from unbiased ridge regression (URR in the same way that ordinary ridge regression (ORR is obtained from ordinary least squares (OLS. Properties of MUR are derived. Results on its matrix mean squared error (MMSE are obtained. MUR is compared with ORR and URR in terms of MMSE. These results are illustrated with an example based on data generated by Hoerl and Kennard (1975.

  17. Lie group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    A group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations (DODEs) accompanied by an equation for the delay parameter (delay relation) is presented. A subset of such systems (delay ordinary differential systems or DODSs), which consists of linear DODEs and solution-independent delay relations, have infinite-dimensional symmetry algebras—as do nonlinear ones that are linearizable by an invertible transformation of variables. Genuinely nonlinear DODSs have symmetry algebras of dimension n, . It is shown how exact analytical solutions of invariant DODSs can be obtained using symmetry reduction.

  18. Influence of oak planting on microelement composition (on example of Mn) of ordinary chernozem

    OpenAIRE

    Y. O. Tagunova

    2011-01-01

    Changes of Mn content in the ordinary chernozem of the forb-fescue-stipa steppeunder the influence of oak afforestation within the Prisamar’ya Dniprovske region were studied. The increase of the Mn content in the soil under the artificial oak plantation was noted. The average gross content of Mn in the root layer of the chernozem improved by forest was 541.2 mg/kg and 139.2 mg/kg in the ordinary chernozem. Average content of potentially available metal (mobile forms) in the root layer is 0.5 ...

  19. Ordinary least square regression, orthogonal regression, geometric mean regression and their applications in aerosol science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Ling; Zhang Tianyi; Kleinman, Lawrence; Zhu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Regression analysis, especially the ordinary least squares method which assumes that errors are confined to the dependent variable, has seen a fair share of its applications in aerosol science. The ordinary least squares approach, however, could be problematic due to the fact that atmospheric data often does not lend itself to calling one variable independent and the other dependent. Errors often exist for both measurements. In this work, we examine two regression approaches available to accommodate this situation. They are orthogonal regression and geometric mean regression. Comparisons are made theoretically as well as numerically through an aerosol study examining whether the ratio of organic aerosol to CO would change with age

  20. Numerical solution of stiff systems of ordinary differential equations with applications to electronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Systems of ordinary differential equations in which the magnitudes of the eigenvalues (or time constants) vary greatly are commonly called stiff. Such systems of equations arise in nuclear reactor kinetics, the flow of chemically reacting gas, dynamics, control theory, circuit analysis and other fields. The research reported develops an A-stable numerical integration technique for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations. The method, which is called the generalized trapezoidal rule, is a modification of the trapezoidal rule. However, the method is computationally more efficient than the trapezoidal rule when the solution of the almost-discontinuous segments is being calculated.

  1. Generation and Identification of Ordinary Differential Equations of Maximal Symmetry Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Ndogmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective method for generating linear ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in their most general form is found, and an explicit expression for the point transformation reducing the equation to its canonical form is obtained. New expressions for the general solution are also found, as well as several identification and other results and a direct proof of the fact that a linear ordinary differential equation is iterative if and only if it is reducible to the canonical form by a point transformation. New classes of solvable equations parameterized by an arbitrary function are also found, together with simple algebraic expressions for the corresponding general solution.

  2. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

    CERN Document Server

    Schiesser, William E

    2014-01-01

    Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

  3. Zhamanshin astrobleme provides evidence for carbonaceous chondrite and post-impact exchange between ejecta and Earth's atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magna, T.; Žák, Karel; Pack, A.; Moynier, F.; Mougel, B.; Peters, S.; Skála, Roman; Jonášová, Šárka; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, AUG 9 2017 (2017), č. článku 227. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-22351S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : chondrite * moldavites * Zhamanshin astrobleme, Kazakhstan Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UJF-V) OBOR OECD: Geology; Analytical chemistry (UJF-V) Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  4. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  5. Crystallography of Magnetite Plaquettes and their Significance as Asymmetric Catalysts for the Synthesis of Chiral Organics in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously observed the magnetite plaquettes in carbonaceous chondrites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, examined the crystal orientation of the polished surfaces of magnetite plaquettes in CI Orgueil using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, and concluded that these magnetite plaquettes are likely naturally asymmetric materials. In this study, we expanded our EBSD observation to other magnetite plaquettes in Orgueil, and further examined the internal structure of these remarkable crystals with the use of X-ray computed microtomography.

  6. In situ observation of D-rich carbonaceous globules embedded in NWA 801 CR2 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Kobayashi, Sachio; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2013-12-01

    Eighty-five D-rich carbonaceous particles were identified in the matrix of the NWA 801 CR2 chondrite using isotope microscopy. The occurrence of 67 D-rich carbonaceous particles was characterized using secondary electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental mapping. The close association of H and C, and D-enrichment suggests that the D-rich carbonaceous particles correspond to organic matter. The D-rich organic particles were scattered ubiquitously throughout the matrix at a concentration of approximately 660 ppm. The morphology of the D-rich carbonaceous particles is globular up to about 1 μm in diameter and is classified into four types: ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates. The ring globules are ring-shaped organic matter containing silicate and/or oxide, with or without a void in the center. This is the first report of silicate and oxide grains surrounded by D-rich organic matter. The globule aggregates are composed of several D-rich organic globules mixed with silicates. Morphology of ring globules is very similar to core-mantle grain produced in the molecular cloud or in the outer solar nebula inferring by astronomy, suggesting that the organic globules have formed by UV photolysis in the ice mantle. Silicates or oxides attached to D-rich organic globules are the first observation among chondrites so far and may be unique nature of CR2 chondrites. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates are δD = 3000-4800, 2900-8100, 2700-11,000, and 2500-11,000‰, respectively. Variations of D/H ratio of these organic globules seemed to be attributed to variations of D/H ratio of the organic radicals or differences of content of the D-rich organic radicals. There are no significant differences in the hydrogen isotopic compositions among the four types of D-rich carbonaceous matter. The D-enrichments suggest that these organic globules have

  7. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  8. A Breccia of Ureilitic and C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Materials from Almahata Sitta: Implications for the Regolith of Urelitic Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Fioretti, A. M.; Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I.; Young, E.; Jenniskens, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta (AhS) polymict ureilite is the first meteorite to originate from a spectrally classified asteroid (2008 TC3) [1-3], and provides an unprecedented opportunity to correlate properties of meteorites with those of their parent asteroid. AhS is also unique because its fragments comprise a wide variety of meteorite types. Of approximately140 stones studied to-date, 70% are ureilites (carbon-rich ultramafic achondrites) and 30% are various types of chondrites [4,5]. None of these show contacts between ureilitic and chondritic lithologies. It has been inferred that 2008 TC3 was loosely aggregated, so that it disintegrated in the atmosphere and only its most coherent clasts fell as individual stones [1,3,5]. Understanding the structure and composition of this asteroid is critical for missions to sample asteroid surfaces. We are studying [6] the University of Khartoum collection of AhS [3] to test hypotheses for the nature of 2008 TC3. We describe a sample that consists of both ureilitic and chondritic materials.

  9. Structure and isotopic ratios of aliphatic side chains in the insoluble organic matter of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Wang, Yi

    2007-07-01

    We report in this paper the first molecular and isotopic characterization of individual aliphatic side chains from the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite using a novel combined approach of RuO 4 oxidation and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The aliphatic side chains in the IOM of Murchison were first released by oxidizing aromatic structures using RuO 4. Because the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites contains predominantly short (C 1 to C 9) aliphatic substitutions, the resulting low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) are highly volatile and water-soluble. The conventional aqueous extraction and derivatization procedures following RuO 4 oxidation are unable to recover MCAs for subsequent analyses. We overcame this problem by employing SPME to directly capture the MCAs from the aqueous solution. We selected a SPME fiber with greater affinity for longer chain monoacids to compensate for the exponential decline of monoacid concentrations with increasing carbon numbers in meteorite IOM, allowing more accurate identification and quantification for the less abundant monoacids. We also determined the carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of individual MCAs derived from Murchinson IOM. Our results reveal significant similarity in both molecular structures and hydrogen isotopic ratios between the IOM aliphatic side chains and water-soluble MCAs in Murchison, suggesting that these compounds had common precursors. Our combined new approach of RuO 4 oxidation-SPME provides a new way to probe the molecular and isotopic characteristics of aliphatic side chains in carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Thermal alteration in carbonaceous chondrites and implications for sublimation in rock comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Lauretta, Dante S.; Steckloff, Jordan K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock comets are small solar system bodies in Sun-skirting orbits (perihelion q CO2, etc.). B-class asteroid (3200) Phaethon, considered to be the parent body of the Geminid meteor shower, is the only rock comet currently known to periodically eject dust and form a coma. Thermal fracturing or thermal decomposition of surface materials may be driving Phaethon’s cometary activity (Li & Jewitt, 2013). Phaethon-like asteroids have dynamically unstable orbits, and their perihelia can change rapidly over their ~10 Myr lifetimes (de León et al., 2010), raising the possibility that other asteroids may have been rock comets in the past. Here, we propose using spectroscopic observations of mercury (Hg) as a tracer of an asteroid’s thermal metamorphic history, and therefore as a constraint on its minimum achieved perihelion distance.B-class asteroids such as Phaethon have an initial composition similar to aqueously altered primitive meteorites such as CI- or CM-type meteorites (Clark et al., 2010). Laboratory heating experiments of ~mm sized samples of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites from 300K to 1200K at a rate of 15K/minute show mobilization and volatilization of various labile elements at temperatures that could be reached by Mercury-crossing asteroids. Samples became rapidly depleted in labile elements and, in particular, lost ~75% of their Hg content when heated from ~500-700 K, which corresponds to heliocentric distances of ~0.15-0.3 au, consistent with our thermal models. Mercury has strong emission lines in the UV (~ 185 nm) and thus its presence (or absence) relative to carbonaceous chondrite abundances would indicate if these bodies had perihelia in their dynamical histories inside of 0.15 AU, and therefore may have previously been Phaethon-like rock comets. Future space telescopes or balloon-borne observing platforms equipped with a UV spectrometer could potentially detect the presence or absence of strong ultraviolet mercury lines on rock comets or rock

  11. 29th June 2017 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Thursday, 29 June 2017 from 15.30 to 17.30, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of disc...

  12. Transmission of neutrons in serpentine mixed and ordinary concrete a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravishankar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In particle accelerator facilities, for radiation shielding, concrete is commonly used for its effectiveness in attenuating neutrons in addition to its good structural and mechanical properties. Neutron attenuation depends largely on the water content in the concrete. Serpentine mixed concrete is reported to retain better water content than ordinary concrete. Experiments have been carried out to compare neutron attenuation properties of Serpentine mixed concrete slabs and ordinary concrete slabs of different thickness. Transmission of neutrons from a 185 GBq Pu-Be neutron source has been studied using NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, along with the associated electronics to discriminate neutron from gamma using pulse shape discrimination techniques. The energy differential neutron spectra transmitted through the concrete slabs and the corresponding dose have been obtained by unfolding the pulse height spectra using the FERDOR-U computer code and proper response matrix data of the NE-213 detector. The neutron transmission factors through both Serpentine and Ordinary concrete slabs have been studied. The results show serpentine mixed concrete slabs can attenuate more neutrons of varying energies compared to ordinary concrete slabs of equal dimensions. From the trend, it has been found out, with the increase in slab thickness, the gain in neutron attenuation increases. This is due to increase in quantity of serpentine with the increase in thickness of, concrete. A Monte Carlo simulation carried out, for theoretical analysis of the results, has been found to be in order

  13. Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the influence of moisture condition, including moisture content and its distribution, on the chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar. The mortar samples with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, cured for 1

  14. Experimental study of chloride diffusivity in unsaturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Santhanam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments are carried out to investigate the chloride diffusivity in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortars with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Based on resistivity measurement and Nernst-Einstein equation, the chloride diffusivities of cement mortars at various

  15. Crowdsourcing ideas : Involving ordinary users in the ideation phase of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schemmann, Brita; Herrmann, Andrea M.; Chappin, Maryse M H; Heimeriks, Gaston J.

    2016-01-01

    The different roles of users in new product development (NPD) have been extensively described. Currently online idea crowdsourcing, via long-term open idea calls, is increasingly being used by companies to collect new product ideas from ordinary users. Such open idea calls can result in thousands of

  16. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... insurance. Modified Life insurance coverage is reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA...

  17. Constructive Development of the Solutions of Linear Equations in Introductory Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, D. G.; McCue, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    The solution of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is commonly taught in first-year undergraduate mathematics classrooms, but the understanding of the concept of a solution is not always grasped by students until much later. Recognizing what it is to be a solution of a linear ODE and how to postulate such solutions, without resorting to…

  18. Design of TIR collimating lens for ordinary differential equation of extended light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianjing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Hou, Zaihong; Wu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The source of LED has been widely used in our daily life. The intensity angle distribution of single LED is lambert distribution, which does not satisfy the requirement of people. Therefore, we need to distribute light and change the LED's intensity angle distribution. The most commonly method to change its intensity angle distribution is the free surface. Generally, using ordinary differential equations to calculate free surface can only be applied in a point source, but it will lead to a big error for the expand light. This paper proposes a LED collimating lens based on the ordinary differential equation, combined with the LED's light distribution curve, and adopt the method of calculating the center gravity of the extended light to get the normal vector. According to the law of Snell, the ordinary differential equations are constructed. Using the runge-kutta method for solution of ordinary differential equation solution, the curve point coordinates are gotten. Meanwhile, the edge point data of lens are imported into the optical simulation software TracePro. Based on 1mm×1mm single lambert body for light conditions, The degrees of collimating light can be close to +/-3. Furthermore, the energy utilization rate is higher than 85%. In this paper, the point light source is used to calculate partial differential equation method and compared with the simulation of the lens, which improve the effect of 1 degree of collimation.

  19. On the coupling of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws with ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsche, Raul; Colombo, Rinaldo M; Garavello, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications to the piston problem, to a manhole model, to blood flow and to supply chain dynamics, this paper deals with a system of conservation laws coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations. The former is defined on a domain with boundary and the coupling is provided by the boundary condition. For each of the examples considered, numerical integrations are provided

  20. Finding higher order Darboux polynomials for a family of rational first order ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, J.; Claudino, A. L. G. C.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

    2015-10-01

    For the Darbouxian methods we are studying here, in order to solve first order rational ordinary differential equations (1ODEs), the most costly (computationally) step is the finding of the needed Darboux polynomials. This can be so grave that it can render the whole approach unpractical. Hereby we introduce a simple heuristics to speed up this process for a class of 1ODEs.

  1. An algorithm for solving initial value problems of third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We propose an implicit multi-step method for the solution of initial value problems (IVPs) of third order ordinary differential equations (ODE) which does not require reducing the ODE to first order before solving. The development of the method is based on collocation of the differential system and interpolation of the ...

  2. Transmission of neutrons in serpentine mixed and ordinary concrete- a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravishankar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    In particle accelerator facilities, for radiation shielding, concrete is commonly used for its effectiveness in attenuating neutrons in addition to its good structural and mechanical properties. Neutron attenuation depends largely on the water content in the concrete. Serpentine mixed concrete is reported to retain better water content than ordinary concrete. Experiments have been carried out to compare neutron attenuation properties of Serpentine mixed concrete slabs and ordinary concrete slabs of different thickness. Transmission of neutrons from a 185 GBq Pu-Be neutron source has been studied using NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, along with the associated electronics to discriminate neutron from gamma using pulse shape discrimination techniques. The energy differential neutron spectra transmitted through the concrete slabs and the corresponding dose have been obtained by unfolding the pulse height spectra using the FERDOR-U computer code and proper response matrix data of the NE-213 detector. The neutron transmission factors through both Serpentine and Ordinary concrete slabs have been studied. The results show serpentine mixed concrete slabs can attenuate more neutrons of varying energies compared to ordinary concrete slabs of equal dimensions. From the trend, it has been found out, with the increase in slab thickness, the gain in neutron attenuation increases. This is due to increase in quantity of serpentine with the increase in thickness of concrete. A Monte Carlo simulation carried out, for theoretical analysis of the results, has been found to be in order

  3. [Review of: K.-S. Taussig Ordinary genomes: science, citizenship, and genetic identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary Genomes is an ethnography of clinical genetics practice in the Netherlands, written by US anthropologist Karen-Sue Taussig. By looking at the case of the Netherlands, this book aims to illuminate the way specific scientific knowledge - in this case genomics - which is generally presumed to

  4. A Simple Method to Find out when an Ordinary Differential Equation Is Separable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Jose Angel

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method to that of Scott (D. Scott, "When is an ordinary differential equation separable?", "Amer. Math. Monthly" 92 (1985), pp. 422-423) to teach the students how to discover whether a differential equation y[prime] = f(x,y) is separable or not when the nonlinearity f(x, y) is not explicitly factorized. Our approach is…

  5. Identifying and Exploring Relationships between Contextual Situations and Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Machín, M.; Guerrero-Ortiz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the evidence regarding the resources that students use when they establish relationships between a contextual situation and an ordinary differential equation (ODE). We present research results obtained from work by seven students in a graduate level course in mathematics education, where they…

  6. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  7. Comparative numerical solutions of stiff Ordinary differential equations using magnus series expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURE KÖME

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the effect of Magnus Series Expansion Method on homogeneous stiff ordinary differential equations with different stiffness ratios. A Magnus type integrator is used to obtain numerical solutions of two different examples of stiff problems and exact and approximate results are tabulated. Furthermore, absolute error graphics are demonstrated in detail.

  8. A block Krylov subspace time-exact solution method for linear ordinary differential equation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a time-exact Krylov-subspace-based method for solving linear ordinary differential equation systems of the form $y'=-Ay+g(t)$ and $y"=-Ay+g(t)$, where $y(t)$ is the unknown function. The method consists of two stages. The first stage is an accurate piecewise polynomial approximation of

  9. On the multisummability of WKB solutions of certain singularly perturbed linear ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitsugu Takei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using two concrete examples, we discuss the multisummability of WKB solutions of singularly perturbed linear ordinary differential equations. Integral representations of solutions and a criterion for the multisummability based on the Cauchy-Heine transform play an important role in the proof.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1244(a)-1 - Loss on small business stock treated as ordinary loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transaction treated as a sale or exchange, such as worthlessness) of section 1244 stock which would otherwise... other hand, stock purchased by an investment firm and subsequently resold does not qualify as section... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Loss on small business stock treated as ordinary...

  11. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

    2013-01-01

    Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach.

  12. The mixed BVP for second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation at resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 290, 2-3 (2017), s. 393-400 ISSN 0025-584X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : mixed problem at resonance * nonlinear ordinary differencial equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  13. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

  14. On method of solving third-order ordinary differential equations directly using Bernstein polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataybeh, S. N.; Hashim, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose for the first time a method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving directly a class of third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). This method gives a numerical solution by converting the equation into a system of algebraic equations which is solved directly. Some numerical examples are given to show the applicability of the method.

  15. Coming in from the Margin: Research Practices, Representation and the Ordinary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Karen P.

    2010-01-01

    This essay explores issues of marginality and representation in research, which emerged during life history interviews with Tammi, an "ordinary" woman living in Appalachia. I examine how my research practices, namely my thirst for drama and marginality, nearly silenced the preferred stories of the woman who shared her life with me. I…

  16. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  17. Solving Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations without Using Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis E.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a subject with a wide range of applications and the need of introducing it to students often arises in the last year of high school, as well as in the early stages of tertiary education. The usual methods of solving second-order ODEs with constant coefficients, among others, rely upon the use of complex…

  18. A new power mapping method based on ordinary kriging and determination of optimal detector location strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xingjie; Wang, Kan; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new power mapping method based on Ordinary Kriging (OK) is proposed. • Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the OK method. • The OK method performs better than the CECOR method. • An optimal neutron detector location strategy based on ordinary kriging and simulated annealing is proposed. - Abstract: The Ordinary Kriging (OK) method is presented that is designed for a core power mapping calculation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the accuracy of the OK method. The root mean square (RMS) reconstruction errors are kept at less than 0.35%, and the maximum reconstruction relative errors (RE) are kept at less than 1.02% for the entire operating cycle. The reconstructed assembly power distribution results show that the OK method is fit for core power distribution monitoring. The quality of power distribution obtained by the OK method is partly determined by the neutron detector locations, and the OK method is also applied to solve the optimal neutron detector location problem. The spatially averaged ordinary kriging variance (AOKV) is minimized using simulated annealing, and then, the optimal in-core neutron detector locations are obtained. The result shows that the current neutron detector location of DayaBay Unit 1 reactor is near-optimal

  19. 3D Laser Scanning Assisted by Ordinary Plane Mirror for Non-direct Viewing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is one of principal methods to get the geometric information of object surface,and the integrity of the scanned object is a basic requirement in data acquisition. In order to solve the missing point cloud problem due to the scanning dead angle caused by confined working space,this paper proposes a method using ordinary plane mirror to obtain laser scanning data for non-direct viewing area according to the plane mirror reflection principle,analyzes the influence mechanism of the ordinary plane mirror on the propagation path and distance of laser beam,deduces the coordinate equation of the object point corresponding to the image point reflected by ordinary plane mirror in laser scanning. Given the laser scanning characteristic,this paper introduces a mirror reflection system included target balls and ordinary plane mirror,and expounds the system construction,system calibration and constructing method of system coordinate system. The feasibility and precision of the method are verified by experiments.

  20. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…