Sample records for epithermal au-ag-te mineralization

  1. Mineralogy and geochemical environment of formation of the Perama Hill high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag-Te-Se deposit, Petrota Graben, NE Greece (United States)

    Voudouris, Panagiotis Christos; Melfos, Vasilios; Spry, Paul G.; Moritz, Robert; Papavassiliou, Constantinos; Falalakis, George


    The Perama Hill deposit is a high-sulfidation Au-Ag-Te-Se epithermal system hosted in silicic- and argillic altered andesitic rocks and overlying sandstones, which were emplaced on the eastern margin of the Petrota graben, northeastern Greece. The deposit evolved from an early stage silica-pyrite rock and argillic alteration followed by the deposition of sulfide-, sulfosalt- and telluride-bearing quartz-barite veins and stockworks. Early ore formation is characterized by a high-sulfidation-type enargite-galena-bearing ore assemblage (consisting of enargite, watanabeite, Fe-free sphalerite, covellite, kesterite, bismuthinite, selenian bismuthinite, lillianite homologues, kawazulite-tetradymite, goldfieldite, and native gold), followed by the formation of an intermediate-sulfidation-type tennantite-bearing assemblage characterized by ferrian/zincian tennantite, tellurobismuthite, tetradymite, melonite, native tellurium, Au-Ag-tellurides (calaverite, krennerite, sylvanite, hessite, petzite, stützite), altaite and electrum. Quartz, barite, kaolinite, sericite and minor aluminum-phosphate-sulfate minerals are gangue minerals. Fluid inclusion data demonstrate that the ore system evolved from an initial high temperature (up to 330°C) and low salinity (up to 4.9 wt.% NaCl equiv.) fluid towards a cooler (200°C) and very low salinity (0.7 wt.% NaCl equiv.) hydrothermal fluid suggesting progressive cooling and dilution of the ore fluid. The ore minerals at Perama Hill reflect variable fS2 and fTe2 conditions during base and precious metal deposition. Early ore deposition took place at ~300°C, at log fS2 values between ≈-8.2 and -5.5, and log fTe2 from -11.8 and -7.8. Late ore deposition occurred at log fS2 = -11.8 to -9.8 and log fTe2 of ≈-9.2 and -7.8. These data and paragenetic studies indicate a shift towards higher log fTe2 and lower log fS2 and log fSe2 values for the mineralizing fluids with time. The kawazulite/tetradymitess-gold association at Perama Hill

  2. Metallogeny of the Gold Quadrilateral: style and characteristics of epithermal - subvolcanic mineralized structures, South Apuseni Mts., Romania

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    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad


    Full Text Available The Romanian territory contains numerous ore deposits mined since pre-Roman times. An assessment of historical gold production of the Gold Quadri-lateral (GQ yielded a total estimate of 55.7 Moz of gold throughout an area of 2400 km2. Interpreted in terms of mineralization density this is 23,208 oz of gold/ km2. The geological setting of the GQ is represented mainly by Tertiary (14.7 My to 7.4 My calc-alkaline volcano-plutonic complexes of intermediate character in sedimentary basins of molasse type. These basins are tectonically controlled by NW-SE lineation across early Alpine magmatic products, i.e. subduction related Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous igneous association (island arc ophiolites and granitoids and Upper Cretaceous igneous association (banatites. The Tertiary magmatism is associated with extensional tectonics caused by NE escape of the Pannonian region during Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene times. As a result of tectono-magmatic and mineralization-alteration characteristics, two metallogenetical types were separated in the GQ, i.e. calc-alkaline andesitic (CAM and sub-alkaline rhyodacitic (SRM. Both develop almost entirely low-sulfidation type of Au epithermal mineralization. However, two subtypes, -rich in sulfide (2-7% and -poor in sulfide (7-20% were delineated and correlated with CAM type and SRM type respectively. Furthermore, CAM is connected at deeper levels with Cu-Au+/-Mo porphyry systems in contrast with SRM, which is a non-porphyry environment. The Brad-Săcărâmb district contains mainly CAM type andesitic structures. It is a porphyry environment with epithermal low-sulfidation-rich sulfide vein halo (Barza, Troiţa-Bolcana deposits. However, a few SRM type patterns, such as Măgura Ţebii, Băiţa-Crăciuneşti and Săcărâmb, deposits exhibit Au-Ag-Te low-sulfidation-poor sulfide epithermal vein halo. The Zlatna-Stănija district exhibits similar characteristics, with Au-Ag+/-Pb, Zn veins in Cu-Au subvolcanic

  3. Geochemical characteristics of igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits—A review (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.


    Newly synthesized data indicate that the geochemistry of igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits varies extensively and continuously from subalkaline basaltic to rhyolitic compositions. Trace element and isotopic data for these rocks are consistent with subduction-related magmatism and suggest that the primary source magmas were generated by partial melting of the mantle-wedge above subducting oceanic slabs. Broad geochemical and petrographic diversity of individual igneous rock units associated with epithermal deposits indicate that the associated magmas evolved by open-system processes. Following migration to shallow crustal reservoirs, these magmas evolved by assimilation, recharge, and partial homogenization; these processes contribute to arc magmatism worldwide.Although epithermal deposits with the largest Au and Ag production are associated with felsic to intermediate composition igneous rocks, demonstrable relationships between magmas having any particular composition and epithermal deposit genesis are completely absent because the composition of igneous rock units associated with epithermal deposits ranges from basalt to rhyolite. Consequently, igneous rock compositions do not constitute effective exploration criteria with respect to identification of terranes prospective for epithermal deposit formation. However, the close spatial and temporal association of igneous rocks and epithermal deposits does suggest a mutual genetic relationship. Igneous systems likely contribute heat and some of the fluids and metals involved in epithermal deposit formation. Accordingly, deposit formation requires optimization of source metal contents, appropriate fluid compositions and characteristics, structural features conducive to hydrothermal fluid flow and confinement, and receptive host rocks, but not magmas with special compositional characteristics.

  4. Mineralogy of telluride-bearing epithermal ores in the Kassiteres-Sappes area, western Thrace, Greece (United States)

    Voudouris, P.; Tarkian, M.; Arikas, K.


    The Kassiteres-Sappes district represents a multi-centered, porphyry-epithermal system developed during the Oligocene to Miocene at a composite calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic edifice. Precious and base metal mineralization postdates the emplacement of dacite and rhyolite porphyries and is partly superimposed on earlier microdiorite-related porphyry-style mineralization exposed at the Koryfes Hill prospect. A second mineralized porphyry-type system genetically related to a dacite porphyry body developed near the St Demetrios deposit. Tellurides occur mainly at the St Barbara prospect and the St Demetrios deposit. Based on petrographic, electron microprobe, and scanning electron microscope analyses, hessite, petzite, sylvanite, altaite, stützite and native tellurium occur in the St Barbara prospect. These tellurium-bearing minerals are hosted in intermediate-sulfidation type veins and accompanied by pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-group minerals, galena and native gold/electrum. The St Demetrios mineralization includes hessite, altaite, stützite, and tetradymite in close spatial relation to a high-sulfidation assemblage composed of enargite, chalcopyrite, goldfieldite, and native gold. Tellurides were deposited at logfTe2 values of -8.5 to -7.1 and logfS2 values of -10.7 to -7.9 (275 °C). The ore systems are characterized by Au, Ag, Te, Bi, and Mo, which suggests a magmatic contribution to the mineralizing fluids. Ore-forming components were likely derived from both the dacite and rhyolite porphyries.

  5. Permeability enhancement during gold mineralization: Evidences from Kestanelik epithermal vein system, NW Turkey (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Kuscu, Ilkay; Lord, Richard A.; Gladwell, David R.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin


    The most favourable and principal mineral deposition mechanism in low sulphidation epithermal systems is boiling. Mineralization in these systems occurs dominantly as veins and stockworks; therefore, structures play major role in the localization of epithermal fluid flow. Epithermal fluids rise from depth along structural conduits at high temperatures under enough pressure to prevent boiling. When the pressure drops suddenly (for instance, through faulting or any fracturing), boiling occurs, and CO2 and H2S are released to the vapour phase. Change in fluid chemistry due to the boiling causes first the base metals, and then the ore and gangue minerals to deposit in a well-recognized temporal and vertical sequence until all open spaces are filled. Vein infill in epithermal deposits indicate that mineralization is multiphase and associated with repeated and episodic fluid flow rather than a steady-state process. How can permeability enhancement be achieved after deposition of minerals in fractures and faults chokes permeable pathways and restrict fluid flow? Although geochemical aspects of LS epithermal systems are well known, limited studies exist on the permeability enhancement mechanisms in LS epithermal veins. The main aim of the study is to understand the permeability enhancement mechanisms in epithermal gold deposits by focussing on the structures and quartz textures of a well-preserved low sulphidation epithermal quartz vein/breccia system in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We revealed the kinematics of the structure-vein network by mapping the geometries of epithermal quartz veins and associated structures and collecting detailed structural data from them. In addition, we determined the different phases of fluid flow and mineralization with the cross-cutting and structural relationships among them by examining the quartz textures and breccias and mapping their spatial distribution on vein outcrops and in drill cores with the help of thin section analyses. On-going work

  6. Evidence for rapid epithermal mineralization and coeval bimodal volcanism, Bruner Au-Ag property, NV USA (United States)

    Baldwin, Dylan

    The character of Au-Ag mineralization and volcanic/hydrothermal relationships at the underexplored Miocene-age Bruner low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit are elucidated using field and laboratory studies. Bruner is located in central Nevada within the Great Basin extensional province, near several major volcanic trends (Western Andesite, Northern Nevada Rift) associated with world-class Miocene-age epithermal Au-Ag provinces. Despite its proximity to several >1 Moz Au deposits, and newly discovered high-grade drill intercepts (to 117 ppm Au/1.5m), there is no published research on the deposit, the style of mineralization has not been systematically characterized, and vectors to mineralization remain elusive. By investigating the nature of mineralization and time-space relationships between volcanic/hydrothermal activity, the deposit has been integrated into a regional framework, and exploration targeting improved. Mineralization occurs within narrow quartz + adularia +/- pyrite veins that manifest as sheeted/stockwork zones, vein swarms, and rare 0.3-2 m wide veins hosted by two generations of Miocene high-K, high-silica rhyolite flow dome complexes overlying an andesite flow unit. The most prominent structural controls on veining are N­striking faults and syn-mineral basalt/rhyolite dikes. Productive veins have robust boiling indicators (high adularia content, bladed quartz after calcite, recrystallized colloform quartz bands), lack rhythmic banding, and contain only 1-2 stages; these veins overprint, or occur separately from another population of barren to weakly mineralized rhythmically banded quartz-only veins. Ore minerals consist of coarse Au0.5Ag 0.5 electrum, fine Au0.7Ag0.3 electrum, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite (Ag3AuS2) and minor embolite Ag(Br,Cl). Now deeply oxidized, veins typically contain <1% pyrite/goethite + Au-Ag minerals, with trace marcasite and microscopic Fe-poor sphalerite. Property-scale K-feldspar alteration related to a pre

  7. Origin of epithermal Ag-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization in Guanajuato, Mexico (United States)

    Mango, Helen; Arehart, Greg; Oreskes, Naomi; Zantop, Half


    The Guanajuato epithermal district is one of the largest silver producers in Mexico. Mineralization occurs along three main vein systems trending dominantly northwest-southeast: the central Veta Madre, the La Luz system to the northwest, and the Sierra system to the east. Mineralization consists dominantly of silver sulfides and sulfosalts, base metal sulfides (mostly chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and pyrite), and electrum. There is a broad zonation of metal distribution, with up to 10 % Cu+Pb+Zn in the deeper mines along the northern and central portions of the Veta Madre. Ore occurs in banded veins and breccias and as stockworks, with gangue composed dominantly of quartz and calcite. Host rocks are Mesozoic sedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks and Tertiary volcanic rocks. Most fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are between 200 and 300 °C, with salinities below 4 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Fluid temperature and salinity decreased with time, from 290 to 240 °C and from 2.5 to 1.1 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Relatively constant fluid inclusion liquid-to-vapor ratios and a trend of decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature and with increasing time suggest dilution of the hydrothermal solutions. However, evidence of boiling (such as quartz and calcite textures and the presence of adularia) is noted along the Veta Madre, particularly at higher elevations. Fluid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for boiling of metal-bearing solutions is found in gold-rich portions of the eastern Sierra system; this part of the system is interpreted as the least eroded part of the district. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur isotope analysis of host rocks, ore, and gangue minerals and fluid inclusion contents indicate a hydrothermal fluid, with an initial magmatic component that mixed over time with infiltrating meteoric water and underwent exchange with host rocks. Mineral deposition was a result of decreasing activities of sulfur and oxygen, decreasing temperature, increasing p

  8. Lithologic controls on mineralization at the Lagunas Norte high-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, northern Peru (United States)

    Cerpa, Luis M.; Bissig, Thomas; Kyser, Kurt; McEwan, Craig; Macassi, Arturo; Rios, Hugo W.


    The 13.1-Moz high-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit of Lagunas Norte, Alto Chicama District, northern Peru, is hosted in weakly metamorphosed quartzites of the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Chimú Formation and in overlying Miocene volcanic rocks of dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The Dafne and Josefa diatremes crosscut the quartzites and are interpreted to be sources of the pyroclastic volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal activity was centered on the diatremes and four hydrothermal stages have been defined, three of which introduced Au ± Ag mineralization. The first hydrothermal stage is restricted to the quartzites of the Chimú Formation and is characterized by silice parda, a tan-colored aggregate of quartz-auriferous pyrite-rutile ± digenite infilling fractures and faults, partially replacing silty beds and forming cement of small hydraulic breccia bodies. The δ34S values for pyrite (1.7-2.2 ‰) and digenite (2.1 ‰) indicate a magmatic source for the sulfur. The second hydrothermal stage resulted in the emplacement of diatremes and the related volcanic rocks. The Dafne diatreme features a relatively impermeable core dominated by milled slate from the Chicama Formation, whereas the Josefa diatreme only contains Chimú Formation quartzite clasts. The third hydrothermal stage introduced the bulk of the mineralization and affected the volcanic rocks, the diatremes, and the Chimú Formation. In the volcanic rocks, classic high-sulfidation epithermal alteration zonation exhibiting vuggy quartz surrounded by a quartz-alunite and a quartz-alunite-kaolinite zone is observed. Company data suggest that gold is present in solid solution or micro inclusions in pyrite. In the quartzite, the alteration is subtle and is manifested by the presence of pyrophyllite or kaolinite in the silty beds, the former resulting from relatively high silica activities in the fluid. In the quartzite, gold mineralization is hosted in a fracture network filled with coarse alunite

  9. Generation of Au(p)Ag(q)Te(r) clusters via laser ablation synthesis using Au-Ag-Te nano-composite as precursor: quadrupole ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Amato, Filippo; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef


    Metal tellurides have applications in various fields of science and technology but only a few gold-silver tellurides have been reported. The laser ablation synthesis (LAS) method allows the preparation of nano-materials from solid substrates. Therefore, this method was selected to synthesise some gold-silver tellurides. Laser desorption ionisation quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI QIT TOF MS) was used for the generation of new Au(p)Ag(q)Te(r) clusters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to characterise the materials. The stoichiometry of the clusters generated was determined via collision-induced dissociation (CID) and modeling of isotopic patterns. Chemisorption of gold and silver nano-particles on tellurium powder led to the formation of a new kind of Au-Ag-Te nano-composite. The LDI of this nano-composite yielded nine unary (Ag(q), Te(r)), 40 binary (Au(p)Te(r) and Ag(p)Te(r)) and 78 ternary clusters. The stoichiometry of these novel Au(p)Ag(q)Te(r) clusters is reported here for the first time. The new Au-Ag-Te nano-composite was found to be a more suitable precursor for the generation of clusters than the mixtures of the elements. TOF MS was shown to be a useful technique for following the generation of gold-silver tellurides. Knowledge of the cluster stoichiometry could accelerate the further development of novel high-tech materials such as chalcogenide glasses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Proterozoic low-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag mineralization in the Mallery Lake area, Nunavut, Canada (United States)

    Turner, William; Richards, Jeremy; Nesbitt, Bruce; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Biczok, John


    The Mallery Lake area contains pristine examples of ancient precious metal-bearing low-sulfidation epithermal deposits. The deposits are hosted by rhyolitic flows of the Early Proterozoic Pitz Formation, but are themselves apparently of Middle Proterozoic age. Gold mineralization occurs in stockwork quartz veins that cut the rhyolites, and highest gold grades (up to 24 g/t over 30 cm) occur in the Chalcedonic Stockwork Zone. Quartz veining occurs in two main types: barren A veins, characterized by fine- to coarse-grained comb quartz, with fluorite, calcite, and/or adularia; and mineralized B veins, characterized by banded chalcedonic silica and fine-grained quartz, locally intergrown with fine-grained gold or electrum. A third type of quartz vein (C), which crosscuts B veins at one locality, is characterized by microcrystalline quartz intergrown with fine-grained hematite and rare electrum. Fluid inclusions in the veins occur in two distinct assemblages. Assemblage 1 inclusions represent a moderate temperature (Th=150 to 220 °C), low salinity (~1 eq. wt% NaCl, with trace CO2), locally boiling fluid; this fluid type is found in both A and B veins and is thought to have been responsible for Au-Ag transport and deposition. Assemblage 2 inclusions represent a lower temperature (Th=90 to 150 °C), high salinity calcic brine (23 to 31 wt% CaCl2-NaCl), which occurs as primary inclusions only in the barren A veins. Assemblage 1 and 2 inclusions occur in alternating quartz growth bands in the A-type veins, where they appear to represent alternating fluxes of dilute fluid and local saline groundwater. No workable primary fluid inclusions were observed in the C veins. The A-vein quartz yields δ18O values from 8.3 to 14.5‰ (average=10.9±1.7‰ [1σ], n=30), whereas δ18O values for B-vein quartz range from 11.2 to 14.0‰ (average=13.0±0.9‰, n=12). Calculated δ18OH2O values for the dilute mineralizing fluid from B veins range from -2.6 to 0.2‰ (average=-0.8±0.9

  11. The genesis of the slab window-related Arzular low-sulfidation epithermal gold mineralization (eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

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    Enver Akaryalı


    Full Text Available The Arzular mineralization is one of the best examples of epithermal gold deposits in the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. The mineralization is hosted by the subduction-related basaltic andesites and is mainly controlled by E–W and NE–SW trending fracture zones. The main ore minerals are galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and gold. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions are between 130 and 295 °C for quartz and between 90 and 133 °C for sphalerite. Sulphur isotope values obtained from pyrite, galena and sphalerite vary between −1.2‰ and 3‰, indicating that sulphur belongs to magmatic origin and was derived from the Lutetian non-adakitic granitic intrusions in the region. Oxygen isotope values are between 15.0‰ and 16.7‰, and hydrogen isotope values are between −87‰ and −91‰. The sulphur isotope thermometer yielded temperatures in the range of 244–291 °C for the ore formation. Our results support the hypothesis that the Arzular mineralization is a low-sulfidation epithermal gold deposit associated with non-adakitic subduction-related granitic magmas that were generated by slab window-related processes in a south-dipping subduction zone during the Lutetian.

  12. Wavelength feature mapping as a proxy to mineral chemistry for investigating geologic systems: An example from the Rodalquilar epithermal system (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek; Kopačková, Veronika; Koucká, Lucie; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Bakker, Wim H.


    The final product of a geologic remote sensing data analysis using multi spectral and hyperspectral images is a mineral (abundance) map. Multispectral data, such as ASTER, Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2, typically allow to determine qualitative estimates of what minerals are in a pixel, while hyperspectral data allow to quantify this. As input to most image classification or spectral processing approach, endmembers are required. An alternative approach to classification is to derive absorption feature characteristics such as the wavelength position of the deepest absorption, depth of the absorption and symmetry of the absorption feature from hyperspectral data. Two approaches are presented, tested and compared in this paper: the 'Wavelength Mapper' and the 'QuanTools'. Although these algorithms use a different mathematical solution to derive absorption feature wavelength and depth, and use different image post-processing, the results are consistent, comparable and reproducible. The wavelength images can be directly linked to mineral type and abundance, but more importantly also to mineral chemical composition and subtle changes thereof. This in turn allows to interpret hyperspectral data in terms of mineral chemistry changes which is a proxy to pressure-temperature of formation of minerals. We show the case of the Rodalquilar epithermal system of the southern Spanish Gabo de Gata volcanic area using HyMAP airborne hyperspectral images.

  13. The origin of Ag-Au-S-Se minerals in adularia-sericite epithermal deposits: constraints from the Broken Hills deposit, Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand (United States)

    Cocker, Helen A.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Rabone, Stuart D. C.


    The 7.1 Ma Broken Hills adularia-sericite Au-Ag deposit is currently the only producing rhyolite-hosted epithermal deposit in the Hauraki Goldfield of New Zealand. The opaque minerals include pyrite, electrum, acanthite (Ag2S), sphalerite, and galena, which are common in other adularia-sericite epithermal deposits in the Hauraki Goldfield and elsewhere worldwide. Broken Hills ores also contain the less common minerals aguilarite (Ag4SeS), naumannite (Ag2Se), petrovskaite (AuAgS), uytenbogaardtite (Ag3AuS2), fischesserite (Ag3AuSe2), an unnamed silver chloride (Ag2Cl), and unnamed Ag ± Au minerals. Uytenbogaardtite and petrovskaite occur with high-fineness electrum. Broken Hills is the only deposit in the Hauraki Goldfield where uytenbogaardtite and petrovskaite have been identified, and these phases appear to have formed predominantly from unmixing of a precursor high-temperature phase under hypogene conditions. Supergene minerals include covellite, chalcocite, Au-rich electrum, barite, and a variety of iron oxyhydroxide minerals. Uytenbogaardtite can form under supergene and hypogene conditions, and textural relationships between uytenbogaardtite and associated high-fineness electrum may be similar in both conditions. Distinguishing the likely environment of formation rests principally on identification of other supergene minerals and documenting their relationships with uytenbogaardtite. The presence of aguilarite, naumannite, petrovskaite, and fischesserite at Broken Hills reflects a Se-rich mineral assemblage. In the Hauraki Goldfield and the western Great Basin, USA, Se-rich minerals are more abundant in provinces that are characterized by bimodal rhyolite-andesite volcanism, but in other epithermal provinces worldwide, the controls on the occurrences of Se-bearing minerals remain poorly constrained, in spite of the unusually high grades associated with many Se-rich epithermal deposits.

  14. The Stypsi-Megala Therma porphyry-epithermal mineralization, Lesvos Island, Greece: new mineralogical and geochemical data (United States)

    Periferakis, Argyrios; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Melfos, Vasilios; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Alfieris, Dimitrios


    anomalies to those previously reported by [1] but also provide additional information in a series of elements: Cu (up to 843 ppm), Mo (up to 76 ppm), Au (up to 120 ppb), Pb (up to 339ppm), Zn (up to 815ppm), Se (up to 10ppm), Te (up to 4 ppm), Bi (up to 4 ppm) and Sn (up to 23 ppm). The Lesvos Island may be interpreted as the westward extension of the Eocene-Miocene Biga peninsula Cu-Au porphyry belt, with potential for future discoveries of Cu-Mo±Au deposits in the Aegean area. [1] Voudouris P, Alfieris D (2005) New porphyry-Cu±Mo occurrences in northeastern Aegean/Greece: Ore mineralogy and transition to epithermal environment. In: Mao J, Bierlein FP (eds) Mineral deposit research: Meeting the global challenge. Springer Verlag, 473-476; [2] Kontis E, Kelepertsis AE, Skounakis S (1994) Geochemistry and alteration facies associated with epithermal precious metal mineralization in an active geothermal system, northern Lesvos, Greece. Min Deposita, 29:430-433; [3] Muntean JL, Einaudi MT (2000) Porphyry Gold Deposits of the Refugio District, Maricunga Belt, Northern Chile. Econ. Geology, 95, 1445-1472.

  15. Epithermal mineralization and ore controls of the Shasta Au-Ag deposit, Toodoggone District, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Thiersch, P. C.; Williams-Jones, A. E.; Clark, J. R.


    The Shasta gold-silver deposit, British Columbia, Canada, is an adularia-sericite-type epithermal deposit in which deposition of precious metals coincided with the transition of quartz- to calcite-dominant gangue. Mineralization is associated with stockwork-breccia zones in potassically altered dacitic lapilli tuffs and flows, and consists of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, acanthite, electrum and native silver. Pre- and post-ore veins consist solely of quartz and calcite, respectively. Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that ore minerals were deposited between 280 ° and 225 °C, from a relatively dilute hydrothermal fluid (˜1.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent). Abundant vapor-rich inclusions in ore-stage calcite are consistent with boiling. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data (δ18Ofluid = -1.5 to -4.1‰; δDfluid = -148 to -171‰) suggest that the fluid had a meteoric origin, but was 18O-enriched by interaction with volcanic wallrocks. Initial (˜280 °C) fluid pH and log f O2 conditions are estimated at 5.3 to 6.0, and -32.5 to -33 bar, respectively; during ore deposition, the fluid became more alkaline and oxidizing. Ore deposition at Shasta is attributed to localization of meteoric hydrothermal fluids by extensional faults; mineralization was controlled by boiling in response to hydraulic brecciation. Calcite and base metal sulfides precipitated due to the increase in pH that accompanied boiling, and the associated decrease in H2S concentration led to precipitation of gold and silver.

  16. Gold-Silver mineralization in porphyry-epithermal systems of the Baimka trend, western Chukchi Peninsula, Russia (United States)

    Nikolaev, Yu. N.; Baksheev, I. A.; Prokofiev, V. Yu.; Nagornaya, E. V.; Marushchenko, L. I.; Sidorina, Yu. N.; Chitalin, A. F.; Kal'ko, I. A.


    Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and geochemical studies of precious metal mineralization within the Baimka trend in the western Chukchi Peninsula have been preformed. Porphyry copper-molybdenum-gold deposits and prospects of the Baimka trend are spatially related to monzonitic rocks of the Early Cretaceous Egdygkych Complex. Four types of precious metal-bearing assemblages have been identified: (1) chalcopyrite + bornite + quartz with high-fineness native gold enclosed in bornite, (2) low-Mn dolomite + quartz + sulfide (chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tennantite-tetrahedrite) ± tourmaline with low-fineness native gold and hessite, (3) rhodochrosite + high-Mn dolomite + quartz + sulfide (chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tennantite- tetrahedrite) with low-fineness native gold, electrum, acanthite, Ag and Au-Ag tellurides, and Ag sulfosalts, and (4) calcite + quartz + sulfide (chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena) with low-fineness native gold, Ag sulfides and selenides, and Ag-bearing sulfosalts. Study of fluid inclusions from quartz, sphalerite, and fluorite have revealed that hydrothermal ores within the Baimka trend precipitated from fluids with strongly variable salinity at temperatures and pressures ranging from 594 to 104°C and from 1200 to 170 bar, respectively. An indicator of vertical AgPbZn/CuBiMo geochemical zoning is proposed. The value range of this indicator makes it possible to estimate the erosion level of the porphyry-epithermal system. The erosion level of the Baimka deposits and prospects deepens in the following order: Vesenny deposit → Pryamoi prospect → Nakhodka prospect → Peschanka deposit → III Vesenny prospect.

  17. The Bi'r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization (United States)

    Surour, Adel A.; Harbi, Hesham M.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.


    The Bi'r Tawilah gold deposit in central western Saudi Arabia represents a Pan-African example of gold mineralization in which both hypogene and supergene ores are recorded. The sulphidic gold ore is hosted in intermediate to felsic intrusions that occur along the N-S trending thrust-fault zone within the so-called “Nabitah orogenic zone”. There are four rock units present (from oldest to youngest): serpentinites and related listwaenites, diorites, granitic rocks and porphyries. Hydrothermal alteration consists of chloritization, sericitization, carbonatization and silicification and affects all rock types. Chloritization of biotite results in abundant rutile, whereas sulphidization coincides with carbonatization. The Bi'r Tawilah ore is confined to NW-trending shears (Riedel fractures) related to N-S slip of the pre-existing Tawilah thrust due to activation within the Najd fault system. Samples from the boreholes show macro- and microscopic evidence of shearing such as micro-shear planes and strain shadows of pyrite. Sulphides and gold are present in most rock types. Paragenetically, the sulphides consist of abundant pyrite and relatively lesser amounts of arsenopyrite, in addition to very minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. In all boreholes, it was noticed that the abundance of arsenopyrite increases with depth. The elevated silver content of electrum (∼13-22 wt%) at Bi'r Tawilah is typical of gold deposits and low-sulphidation epithermal deposits. The early mineralization stage took place in proximity to hydrothermally altered intermediate to felsic intrusions. The aerially restricted hydrothermal alteration by carbon-aqueous fluids led to ore remobilization in which gold amounts up to 4.3 g/t. Finally, gold enrichment (up to 5.4 g/t) resulted from supergene alteration that took place during weathering above the water table at a depth of ∼20-25 m.


    Johnson, Kathleen M.; McIntyre, David H.


    The Custer graben is a 13 by 32 km northeast-trending volcano-tectonic graben in the Challis volcanic field of central Idaho. Andesites, rhyolites, and associated pyroclastic rocks host vein and disseminated gold-silver deposits that are localized along discrete northeast- and northwest-trending fracture zones. Ore minerals in vein deposits are electrum, native gold and silver, chalcopyrite, and various sulfosalts in a gangue of pyrite and fine-grained quartz. At the Sunbeam Mine, near the center of the graben, vein and disseminated gold-silver mineralization occurred in hydrothermally altered rhyolite and pyroclastic rocks. The host rock has been pervasively silicified, and the feldspars altered to clay minerals. Analyses of surface and drill-core samples show that altered rocks are variably enriched in gold, silver, molybdenum, arsenic, zirconium, and selenium. Intense silicification is shown by SiO//2 values at high as 93%.

  19. Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) (United States)

    Rottier, Bertrand; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Casanova, Vincent; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Wälle, Markus; Fontboté, Lluís


    Cerro de Pasco (Peru) is known for its large epithermal polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Bi) mineralization emplaced at shallow level, a few hundred meters below the paleo-surface, at the border of a large diatreme-dome complex. Porphyry-style veins crosscutting hornfels and magmatic rock clasts are found in the diatreme breccia and in quartz-monzonite porphyry dikes. Such mineralized veins in clasts allow investigation of high-temperature porphyry-style mineralization developed in the deep portions of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Quartz in porphyry-style veins contains silicate melt inclusions as well as fluid and solid mineral inclusions. Two types of high-temperature (> 600 °C) quartz-molybdenite-(chalcopyrite)-(pyrite) veins are found in the clasts. Early, thin (1-2 mm), and sinuous HT1 veins are crosscut by slightly thicker (up to 2 cm) and more regular HT2 veins. The HT1 vein quartz hosts CO2- and sulfur-rich high-density vapor inclusions. Two subtypes of the HT1 veins have been defined, based on the nature of mineral inclusions hosted in quartz: (i) HT1bt veins with inclusions of K-feldspar, biotite, rutile, and minor titanite and (ii) HT1px veins with inclusions of actinolite, augite, titanite, apatite, and minor rutile. Using an emplacement depth of the veins of between 2 and 3 km (500 to 800 bar), derived from the diatreme breccia architecture and the supposed erosion preceding the diatreme formation, multiple mineral thermobarometers are applied. The data indicate that HT1 veins were formed at temperatures > 700 °C. HT2 veins host assemblages of polyphase brine inclusions, generally coexisting with low-density vapor-rich inclusions, trapped at temperatures around 600 °C. Rhyolitic silicate melt inclusions found in both HT1 and HT2 veins represent melt droplets transported by the ascending hydrothermal fluids. LA-ICP-MS analyses reveal a chemical evolution coherent with the crystallization of an evolved rhyolitic melt. Quartz from both HT1 and HT2 veins

  20. A new indicator mineral methodology based on a generic Bi-Pb-Te-S mineral inclusion signature in detrital gold from porphyry and low/intermediate sulfidation epithermal environments in Yukon Territory, Canada (United States)

    Chapman, R. J.; Allan, M. M.; Mortensen, J. K.; Wrighton, T. M.; Grimshaw, M. R.


    Porphyry-epithermal and orogenic gold are two of the most important styles of gold-bearing mineralization within orogenic belts. Populations of detrital gold resulting from bulk erosion of such regions may exhibit a compositional continuum wherein Ag, Cu, and Hg in the gold alloy may vary across the full range exhibited by natural gold. This paper describes a new methodology whereby orogenic and porphyry-epithermal gold may be distinguished according to the mineralogy of microscopic inclusions observed within detrital gold particles. A total of 1459 gold grains from hypogene, eluvial, and placer environments around calc-alkaline porphyry deposits in Yukon (Nucleus-Revenue, Casino, Sonora Gulch, and Cyprus-Klaza) have been characterized in terms of their alloy compositions (Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg) and their inclusion mineralogy. Despite differences in the evolution of the different magmatic hydrothermal systems, the gold exhibits a clear Bi-Pb-Te-S mineralogy in the inclusion suite, a signature which is either extremely weak or (most commonly) absent in both Yukon orogenic gold and gold from orogenic settings worldwide. Generic systematic compositional changes in ore mineralogy previously identified across the porphyry-epithermal transition have been identified in the corresponding inclusion suites observed in samples from Yukon. However, the Bi-Te association repeatedly observed in gold from the porphyry mineralization persists into the epithermal environment. Ranges of P-T-X conditions are replicated in the geological environments which define generic styles of mineralization. These parameters influence both gold alloy composition and ore mineralogy, of which inclusion suites are a manifestation. Consequently, we propose that this methodology approach can underpin a widely applicable indicator methodology based on detrital gold.

  1. Epithermal mercury-antimony and gold-bearing vein lodes of southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Gent, Carol A.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Miller, Lance D.


    thermal convection and hydrothermal fluid flow along fractures and faults. Isotopic data from sulfide and alteration minerals of the Hg-Sb lodes indicate multiple sources for the ore fluids; most fluids appear to have originated from local sedimentary rocks. Hydrothermal fluids with isotopically heavy oxygen but isotopically light hydrogen and sulfur compositions indicate derivation of these species from sedimentary rocks. Isotopically shifted, evolved meteoric water was a primary component in ore fluids from a few Hg-Sb lodes. Geochemical, isotopic, and fluid inclusion data also indicate that Hg, Co2, CH4, N2, and local hydrocarbons were derived from breakdown of organic matter in sedimentary rocks when they were heated by intrusions. Radiometric 40Ar/39Ar ages of 70 ± 3 Ma from hydrothermal sercites in the Hg-Sb lodes indicate a temporal association of igneous activity and mineralization, which is consistent with the geologic characteristics.Most epithermal gold-bearing vein lodes on the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands are located in Eocene to Pleistocene volcanic-arc rocks, commonly andesite and dacite. These vein and vein breccia lodes, such as the Alaska-Apollo and Shumagin deposits on Unga Island, tend to be aligned along regional, northeast-striking, steeply dipping faults and fractures. The Alaska-Apollo mine produced about 500,000 metric tons (t) of ore that yielded an estimated 3,500 kg (130,000 oz) of gold from veins that were as much as 12 m wide and extended for 1,500 m laterally and 420 m vertically. Ore minerals include gold, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, marcasite, arsenopyrite, and native copper; gangue minerals are quartz, sericite, calcite, and chlorite and locally, barsite, clay, rhodonite, and adularia. Ores generally have Au-Ag-Te-Pb-Zn-Mn-Cu geochemical signatures, with wide As-Hg aureoles around some veins. Geologic and mineralogical characteristics of these lodes are similar to adularia-sericite volcanic-hosted epithermal

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona (United States)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.


    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  3. Geology of the Ivanhoe Hg-Au district, northern Nevada: Influence of Miocene volcanism, lakes, and active faulting on epithermal mineralization (United States)

    Wallace, A.R.


    massive rhyolites and Paleozoic quartzites at deeper levels, and these mineralized zones possibly represent the feeder zones for the higher-level deposits. Fluctuations in the ground-water table locally produced hydrothermal oxidation of the near-surface mercury and disseminated gold deposits. The locus of mineralization shifted with time, moving south and east from its inception point in the west-central part of the district. Thus, although mineralization in the district took place during a span of 300,000 years, the duration of mineralization at any one place probably was much shorter. The low-sulfidation deposits of the Ivanhoe district formed at the same time and under similar conditions as those in the nearby Midas district, 15 km to the northwest, which includes the large, high-grade Ken Snyder gold-silver epithermal vein deposit. The exposures in the Ivanhoe district are interpreted to represent the near-surface example of the paleosurface that originally was present above the Midas mineralizing system. The resulting combined Ivanhoe-Midas model provides an exploration guide for epithermal deposits in similar geologic environments in northern Nevada.

  4. Intermediate sulfidation epithermal mineralization of No. 4 anomaly of Golojeh deposit (N. Zanjan based on mineralography, alteration and ore fluid geochemistry features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrab


    contents of galena, sphalerite and minor chalcopyrite and tennantite, low to moderate temperature and salinity of ore-bearing fluid, low depth of mineralization and Fe–bearing sphalerite features at the No. 4 anomaly of Golojeh deposit, are similar to those of intermediate sulfidation (IS epithermal base and precious metals vein–type deposit that probably might be related to Cu–Au porphyry system in depth.

  5. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [and others


    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma).

  6. Boiling and vertical mineralization zoning: a case study from the Apacheta low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, southern Peru (United States)

    André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Leroy, Jacques; Bailly, Laurent; Chauvet, Alain; Marcoux, Eric; Grancea, Luminita; Llosa, Fernando; Rosas, Juan


    The Au-Ag (±Pb-Zn) Apacheta deposit is located in the Shila district, 600 km southeast of Lima in the Cordillera Occidental of Arequipa Province, southern Peru. The vein mineralization is found in Early to Middle Miocene calc-alkaline lava flows and volcanic breccias. Both gangue and sulfide mineralization express a typical low-sulfidation system; assay data show element zoning with base metals enriched at depth and higher concentrations of precious metals in the upper part of the veins. Three main deposition stages are observed: (1) early pyrite and base-metal sulfides with minor electrum 1 and acanthite; (2) brecciation of this mineral assemblage and cross-cutting veinlets with subhedral quartz crystals, Mn-bearing calcite and rhombic adularia crystals; and finally (3) veinlets and geodal filling of an assemblage of tennantite/tetrahedrite + colorless sphalerite 2 + galena + chalcopyrite + electrum 2. Fluid inclusions in the mineralized veins display two distinct types: aqueous-carbonic liquid-rich Lw-c inclusions, and aqueous-carbonic vapor-rich Vw-c inclusions. Microthermometric data indicate that the ore minerals were deposited between 300 and 225 °C from relatively dilute hydrothermal fluids (0.6-3.4 wt% NaCl). The physical and chemical characteristics of the hydrothermal fluids show a vertical evolution, with in particular a drop in temperature and a loss of H2S. The presence of adularia and platy calcite and of co-existing liquid-rich and vapor-rich inclusions in the ore-stage indicates a boiling event. Strong H2S enrichment in the Vw-c inclusions observed at -200 m, the abundance of platy calcite, and the occurrence of hydrothermal breccia at this level may indicate a zone of intense boiling. The vertical element zoning observed in the Apacheta deposit thus seems to be directly related to the vertical evolution of hydrothermal-fluid characteristics. Precious-metal deposition mainly occurred above the 200-m level below the present-day surface, in response

  7. Hubungan Kondisi Geologi terhadap Alterasi dan Mineralisasi Endapan Epithermal Daerah Sualan, Kecamatan Talegong, Kabupaten Garut, Provinsi Jawa Barat


    Kumala Sari, Paramitha Eka


    In exploration process of epithermal deposit, it is important to understand alteration and mineralization. The presence of alteration and mineralization zones help development of ore mineral exploration. Hydrothermal alteration is change of the chemistry, physics, mineralogy and origin textures of rocks as it interacts with the hydrothermal fluid. Alteration and mineralization zones has characteristics and certain minerals in each area.The research purposes are to determine the geological ...

  8. Production of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Bisceglie, E; Colonna, N; Paticchio, V; Santorelli, P; Variale, V


    The use of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of deep-seated tumors requires neutron beams of suitable energy and intensity. Simulations indicate the optimal energy to reside in the epithermal region, in particular between 1 and 10 keV. Therapeutic neutron beams with high spectral purity in this energy range could be produced with accelerator-based neutron sources through a suitable neutron-producing reaction. Herein, we report on different solutions that have been investigated as possible sources of epithermal neutron beams for BNCT. The potential use of such sources for a hospital-based therapeutic facility is discussed.

  9. Improvement in grade of minerals using simultaneous Bio-oxidation of invisible gold concentrate and deep-sea manganese crust (United States)

    Myung, EunJi; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Cheon Young


    Many sulfides of metal such as galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite, are semiconductors. When two kinds of such minerals contact each other in an electrolyte, a galvanic couple, where the mineral of lower rest potential as anode, and that of higher rest potential as cathode forms. Manganese dioxide is also a semiconductor with much higher rest potential than all sulfides mentioned above, so that a galvanic couple in which both the minerals would dissolve simultaneously can form, when it contacts with any of the sulfides. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in grade of minerals using the simultaneous bio-oxidation of deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate. The samples(deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate) were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. The primary components of the invisible gold concentrate was pyrite and quartz and the deep-sea manganese crust was amorphous material, as detected using XRD. The result of chemical analysis showed that Au, Ag, Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate 130.2, 954.1 and 1,043.6 mg/kg, respectively. and that Mn, Ni, Co contents in the deep-sea manganese crust 19,501.5, 151.9, 400.4 mg/kg, respectively. In order to increase the bacteria's tolerance of heavy metals, the bacteria using bio-oxidation experiments were repeatedly subcultured in an Cu adaptation-medium containing of 382.98 mg/l for 20 periods of 21 days. The improvement in grade of samples of in present adapted bacteria condition was greater than another conditions(control and in present non-adapted bacteria). The Au-Ag-Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate was enhanced in the order of physical oxidation, simultaneous/non-adaptive bio-oxidation, adaptive/bio-oxidation, simultaneous/adaptive bio-oxidation. If the bacteria is adapted to heavy metal ions and an optimization of conditions is found in future bio-oxidation-leaching processes. Acknowledgment : "This research was supported

  10. Geologic and tectonic setting of Deseado Massif epithermal deposits, Argentina, based on El Dorado-Monserrat (United States)

    Echavarría, Leandro E.; Schalamuk, Isidoro B.; Etcheverry, Ricardo O.


    Middle-Late Jurassic bimodal volcanism, typical of a retroarc setting, developed during widespread extensional tectonism within the Deseado Massif, southern Argentina. This geologic environment led to the formation of numerous low-sulfidation epithermal deposits that are spatially and temporally related to the volcanic activity. The lack of significant high-sulfidation epithermal deposits may be because the tectonic and volcanic settings do not favor the formation of these types of deposits. El Dorado-Monserrat is a low-sulfidation epithermal prospect located near the southern boundary of the Deseado Massif. Mineralization is genetically linked to the Late Jurassic Chon Aike Formation and hosted by volcanic rocks of the middle Late Jurassic Bajo Pobre Formation. Two different mineralization areas have been identified. The Monserrat area is the most important, with veins hosted in a north-striking, left-lateral shear zone. The average thickness is 0.85 m, and the average metal content is 6.2 ppm gold and 153 ppm silver. The El Dorado area has discontinuous echelon veins within a right-lateral shear zone with low gold and silver grades. Hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks includes an inner zone of quartz-adularia and illite alteration and an outer zone of propylitic alteration. The main gangue mineral is quartz, which formed in successive pulses, plus adularia, pyrite, hematite, magnetite, and barite. Precious metals occur as zoned electrum. Ore mineral precipitation took place between 200 and 280 °C from low salinity fluids due to boiling.

  11. Geology of epithermal silver-gold bulk-mining targets, bodie district, Mono County, California (United States)

    Hollister, V.F.; Silberman, M.L.


    The Bodie mining district in Mono County, California, is zoned with a core polymetallic-quartz vein system and silver- and gold-bearing quartz-adularia veins north and south of the core. The veins formed as a result of repeated normal faulting during doming shortly after extrusion of felsic flows and tuffs, and the magmatic-hydrothermal event seems to span at least 2 Ma. Epithermal mineralization accompanied repeated movement of the normal faults, resulting in vein development in the planes of the faults. The veins occur in a very large area of argillic alteration. Individual mineralized structures commonly formed new fracture planes during separate fault movements, with resulting broad zones of veinlets growing in the walls of the major vein-faults. The veinlet swarms have been found to constitute a target estimated at 75,000,000 tons, averaging 0.037 ounce gold per ton. The target is amenable to bulkmining exploitation. The epithermal mineralogy is simple, with electrum being the most important precious metal mineral. The host veins are typical low-sulfide banded epithermal quartz and adularia structures that filled voids created by the faulting. Historical data show that beneficiation of the simple vein mineralogy is very efficient. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  12. Textural Evidence of Episodic Introduction of Metallic Nanoparticles into Bonanza Epithermal Ores

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    James A. Saunders


    Full Text Available Tertiary low sulfidation (LS epithermal deposits in the western USA often show evidence of the former presence of nanoparticle-sized precious-metal and silica phases in the highest grade (bonanza ores. Here, nanoparticles are defined to have a size less than ~10−7 m. The ore-mineral textures that formed from aggregation of nanoparticles (or colloids observed to date in these ores include electrum and naumannite (Ag2Se. Here it is proposed that chalcopyrite also forms nanoparticles in these ores, but sulfide nanoparticles apparently have significantly different physical (surface properties than the precious-metal phases, and thus exhibit different mineral textures (e.g., no textural evidence of previous chalcopyrite nanoparticles. Textures described here show that nanoparticles of precious-metal phases and silica were episodically and often repeatedly deposited to form the banded bonanza veins typical of many western USA epithermal deposits. Chalcopyrite is the most abundant metal-sulfide mineral in these bonanza ores, and it was also deposited episodically as well, and it appears to replace earlier formed naumannite dendrites. However, this apparent “replacement” texture may just be the result of naumannite dendrite limbs trapping chalcopyrite nanoparticles that later recrystallized to the apparent replacement texture. The episodic and repetitive nature of the metal-depositing events may record periodic “degassing” of magma chambers at depth, where metals are repeatedly delivered to the shallow epithermal environment by “vapor-phase” metal (loid transport.

  13. Epithermal gold occurrences in the lakes district of the Main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall characteristics of the known ore occurrences and the evolution of the Quaternary central volcanoes within the MER, and related epithermal processes seem to delineate an individual, homogeneous metallogenic province. A new field of investigation on epithermal ore occurrences which are unusual for the ...

  14. Physics of epi-thermal boron neutron capture therapy (epi-thermal BNCT). (United States)

    Seki, Ryoichi; Wakisaka, Yushi; Morimoto, Nami; Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Toki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro


    The physics of epi-thermal neutrons in the human body is discussed in the effort to clarify the nature of the unique radiologic properties of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This discussion leads to the computational method of Monte Carlo simulation in BNCT. The method is discussed through two examples based on model phantoms. The physics is kept at an introductory level in the discussion in this tutorial review.

  15. Fluid inclusion chemistry of adularia-sericite epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the southern Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand (United States)

    Simpson, Mark P.; Strmic Palinkas, Sabina; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Bodnar, Robert J.


    Microthermometry, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Raman spectroscopy have been used to determine the temperature, apparent salinity, and composition of individual fluid inclusions in adularia-sericite Au-Ag epithermal veins from the Karangahake, Martha, Favona, and Waitekauri deposits, southern Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Quartz veins contain colloform to crustiform bands that alternate with coarse-grained quartz and amethyst. The ore mineralization occurs only in colloform to crustiform bands.

  16. Formation and Aggregation of Gold (Electrum) Nanoparticles in Epithermal Ores


    James A. Saunders; Michelle Burke


    Here, we review the concept that nanoparticles and colloids may have played a significant role in forming some types of hydrothermal ores deposits, particularly epithermal. This concept was first proposed almost a century ago but the development of new analytical technologies, lab experiments, and the discovery of new epithermal deposits where nanoparticles are evident have added credence to the “gold colloid theory”. Nanoparticles are defined to have at least one dimension <10−7 m, and ma...

  17. Enhanced plastic neutron shielding for thermal and epithermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino, L A RodrIguez; Blostein, J J; Dawidowski, J [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, (8400) Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche, RIo Negro (Argentina); Cuello, G J [Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail:


    We describe a compound made of paraffin and boron carbide (boraffin) deviced to enhance epithermal neutron shielding. The compound is easily prepared and is specially suited to be adapted to particular surfaces. Transmission experiments show a favourable comparison with a commercial rubber-boron carbide compound in the epithermal range. A detector shielding built with this material is described and the achieved background reduction experimentally determined is shown.

  18. Ore deposits and epithermal evidences associated with intra-magmatic faults at Aïn El Araâr-Oued Belif ring structure (NW of Tunisia) (United States)

    Aissa, Wiem Ben; Aissa, Lassaâd Ben; Amara, Abdesslem Ben Haj; Tlig, Said; Alouani, Rabah


    Hydrothermal ore deposits at Aïn El Araâr-Oued Belif location are classified as epithermal deposits type. The ore bodies are hosted by upper Turonian (8-9 M.y) volcanic rhyodacitic complex. Polymetallic sulfide orebodies are mainly concentrated within intra-magmatic faults. Petrographic, XRD, and TEM-STEM investigations revealed that ore minerals are essentially, arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite and magnetite with Au, Ag and Pt trace metals. Gangue minerals are mainly adularia, quartz, sericite, alunite, tridymite, chlorite, phlogopite and smectite. Epithermal alteration is well zoned with four successive characteristic zones: (1) zone of quartz-adularia-sericite and rare alunite; (2) zone of kaolinite and plagioclase albitization; (3) intermediate zone of illite-sericite; (4) sapropelic alteration type zone of chlorite-smectite and rare illite. This can be interpreted as a telescoping of two different acidity epithermal phases; low sulfidation (adularia-sericite) and high sulfidation (quartz-alunite), separated in time or due to a gradual increase of fluids acidity and oxicity within the same mineralization phase. Brecciated macroscopic facies with fragments hosting quartz-adularia-sericite minerals (low-sulfidation phase) without alunite, support the last hypothesis. Geodynamic context and mineral alteration patterns are closely similar to those of Maria Josefa gold mine at SE of Spain which exhibit a volcanic-hosted epithermal ore deposit in a similar vein system, within rhyolitic ignimbrites, altered to an argillic assemblage (illite-sericite abundant and subordinate kaolinite) that grades outwards into propylitic alteration (Sanger-von Oepen et al. (1990)). Mineralogical and lithologic study undertaken in the volcanic host rock at Aïn El Araâr-Oued Belif reveals a typical epithermal low-sulfidation and high-sulfidation ore deposits with dominance of low-sulfidation. Host rocks in these systems range from silicic to

  19. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.


    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  20. Formation and Aggregation of Gold (Electrum Nanoparticles in Epithermal Ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Saunders


    Full Text Available Here, we review the concept that nanoparticles and colloids may have played a significant role in forming some types of hydrothermal ores deposits, particularly epithermal. This concept was first proposed almost a century ago but the development of new analytical technologies, lab experiments, and the discovery of new epithermal deposits where nanoparticles are evident have added credence to the “gold colloid theory”. Nanoparticles are defined to have at least one dimension <10−7 m, and may have different chemical and physical properties than the bulk solids. Colloids are typically <10−6 m in diameter and have the added characteristic that they are dispersed in another medium. In epithermal ore-forming solutions, gold or electrum nanoparticles nucleate from supersaturated hydrothermal solutions, and thus this is a “far-from-equilibrium” process. In some cases, gold nanoparticles may simply play a transitory role of aggregating to form much coarser-grained crystals, where all of the evidence of nanoparticles precursor phases is not preserved. However, in some epithermal ores, silica nanoparticles also formed, and their co-deposition with gold (electrum nanoparticles preserved the gold aggregation features as self-organized “fractal” dendrites. Here, we review existing the data on gold and electrum nanoparticles in epithermal ores, present images of electrum nanoparticles and their aggregates, and discuss the significance of gold nanoparticles formation and aggregation in helping to produce some of the highest-grade gold ores in the world.

  1. Performance verification of an epithermal neutron flux monitor using accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources (United States)

    Guan, X.; Murata, I.; Wang, T.


    The performance of an epithermal neutron flux monitor developed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is verified by Monte Carlo simulations using accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs). The results indicate that the developed epithermal neutron flux monitor works well and it can be efficiently used in practical applications to measure the epithermal neutron fluxes of ABNSs in a high accuracy.

  2. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others


    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  3. Measurement of epithermal neutrons by a coherent demodulation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, N; Takahashi, H; Kobayashi, H; Harasawa, S


    Epithermal neutrons have been measured using a neutron dosimeter via a coherent demodulation technique. This dosimeter consists of CsI(Tl)-photodiode scintillation detectors, four of which are coupled to neutron-gamma converting foils of various sizes. Neutron-gamma converting foils of In, Au and Co materials were used, each of which has a large capture cross section which peaks in the epithermal neutron energy region. The type of foil was selected according to the material properties that best correspond to the energy of the epithermal neutrons to be measured. In addition, the proposed technique was applied using Au-foils in order to measure the Cd ratio. The validity of the proposed technique was examined using an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be source placed in a testing stack of polyethylene blocks, and the results were compared with the theoretical values calculated by the Monte Carlo calculation. Finally, the dosimeter was applied for measuring epithermal neutrons and the Cd ratio in an experimental beam-tube o...

  4. Ore mineralogy and textural zonation in the world-class epithermal Waihi Vein System, Hauraki Goldfield (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Skinner, Erin G; Fyfe, Sarah J; Menzies, Andrew H; Lowers, Heather A.; Koenig, Alan E.


    The Waihi district in the Hauraki Goldfield of New Zealand contains adularia-sericite epithermal gold-silver veins that have produced more than 7.7 Moz gold. The outermost veins of the district (Martha, Favona, Moonlight, and Cowshed) contain abundant colloform, cherty, and black quartz fill textures, with minor crustiform and massive quartz. The central veins (Amaranth, Trio, and Union) contain predominantly massive and crustiform textures, and these veins are also commonly coarser grained than outermost veins. Pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, electrum, and acanthite occur in both outermost and central veins; base metal sulfide minerals typically increase in abundance in deeper samples. Antimony-, arsenic-, and selenium-bearing minerals are most abundant in the Favona and Moonlight veins, whereas base metal sulfide minerals are more abundant in the central veins at Correnso. Throughout the Waihi vein system, electrum is by far the most widespread, abundant, and significant gold-bearing mineral, but LA-ICP-MS analyses show that arsenian pyrite also contains some gold. Mineralogical and textural data are consistent with the central veins forming at a deeper structural level, or from hydrothermal fluids with different chemistry, or both.

  5. Formation conditions of high-grade gold-silver ore of epithermal Tikhoe deposit, Russian Northeast (United States)

    Volkov, A. V.; Kolova, E. E.; Savva, N. E.; Sidorov, A. A.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Ali, A. A.


    The Tikhoe epithermal deposit is located in the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (OChVB) 250 km northeast of Magadan. Like other deposits belonging to the Ivan'insky volcanic-plutonic depression (VTD), the Tikhoe deposit is characterized by high-grade Au-Ag ore with an average Au grade of 23.13 gpt Au and Au/Ag ratio varying from 1: 1 to 1: 10. The detailed explored Tikhoe-1 orebody is accompanied by a thick (20 m) aureole of argillic alteration. Pyrite is predominant among ore minerals; galena, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, Ag sulfosalts, fahlore, electrum, and küstelite are less abundant. The ore is characterized by abundant Sebearing minerals. Cu-As geochemical specialization is noted for silver minerals. Elevated Se and Fe molar fractions of the main ore minerals are caused by their formation in the near-surface argillic alteration zone. The veins and veinlets of the Tikhoe-1 ore zone formed stepwise at a temperature of 230 to 105°C from Nachloride solution enriched in Mg and Ca cations with increasing salinity. The parameters of the ore-forming fluid correspond to those of epithermal low-sulfidation deposits and assume the formation of high-grade ore under a screening unit of volcanic rocks. In general, the composition of the ore-forming fluid fits the mineralogy and geochemistry of ore at this deposit. The similarity of the ore composition and parameters of the ore-forming fluid between the Tikhoe and Julietta deposits is noteworthy. Meanwhile, differences are mainly related to the lower temperature and fluid salinity at the Julietta deposit with respect to the Tikhoe deposit. The fluid at the Julietta deposit is depleted in most components compared with that at the Tikhoe deposit except for Sb, Cd, and Ag. The results testify to a different erosion level at the deposits as derivatives of the same ore-forming system. The large scale of the latter allows us to predict the discovery of new high-grade objects, including hidden mineralization, which is not exposed at

  6. Assessment method for epithermal gold deposits in Northeast Washington State using weights-of-evidence GIS modeling (United States)

    Boleneus, D.E.; Raines, G.L.; Causey, J.D.; Bookstrom, A.A.; Frost, T.P.; Hyndman, P.C.


    The weights-of-evidence analysis, a quantitative mineral resource mapping tool, is used to delineate favorable areas for epithermal gold deposits and to predict future exploration activity of the mineral industry for similar deposits in a four-county area (222 x 277 km), including the Okanogan and Colville National Forests of northeastern Washington. Modeling is applied in six steps: (1) building a spatial digital database, (2) extracting predictive evidence for a particular deposit, based on an exploration model, (3) calculating relative weights for each predictive map, (4) combining the geologic evidence maps to predict the location of undiscovered mineral resources and (5) measuring the intensity of recent exploration activity by use of mining claims on federal lands, and (6) combining mineral resource and exploration activity into an assessment model of future mining activity. The analysis is accomplished on a personal computer using ArcView GIS platform with Spatial Analyst and Weights-of-Evidence software. In accord with the descriptive model for epithermal gold deposits, digital geologic evidential themes assembled include lithologic map units, thrust faults, normal faults, and igneous dikes. Similarly, geochemical evidential themes include placer gold deposits and gold and silver analyses from stream sediment (silt) samples from National Forest lands. Fifty mines, prospects, or occurrences of epithermal gold deposits, the training set, define the appropriate a really-associated terrane. The areal (or spatial) correlation of each evidential theme with the training set yield predictor theme maps for lithology, placer sites and normal faults. The weights-of-evidence analysis disqualified the thrust fault, dike, and gold and silver silt analyses evidential themes because they lacked spatial correlation with the training set. The decision to accept or reject evidential themes as predictors is assisted by considering probabilistic data consisting of weights and

  7. Colloidal and physical transport textures exhibited by electrum and naumannite in bonanza epithermal veins from western USA, and their significance (United States)

    Saunders, James A.; Vikre, Peter G.; Unger, Derick L.; Beasley, Lee


    It is reasonably clear that disequilibrium or “far-from equilibrium” conditions lead to the formation of silica colloids and their deposition in many epithermal deposits. This implies ore-forming solutions had elevated concentrations of dissolved silica, well in excess of amorphous silica saturation. We have previously demonstrated that such colloidal silica particles were deposited in epithermal veins as silica gels and opal, which may later progress along a path to crystallize into more thermodynamically favored (less-soluble) silica phases such as quartz and chalcedony. Also, in some deposits, amorphous silica is co-deposited with precious-metal minerals, such as electrum in the banded super-bonanza ores of the Sleeper deposit (NV). Ore-mineral textures from some western USA bonanza epithermal ores indicate that two precious-metal phases (electrum and naumannite, Ag2Se) form colloidal particles that are transported by ore-forming fluids and are deposited either by aggregation (by sticking to other precious metal-particles) to make dendrites, or are deposited on the “lee” side of protrusion along vein walls (or perhaps by both processes). We can infer by analogy to silica that this also implies that ore-forming solutions contained elevated (supersaturated) dissolved concentrations of both gold and silver that formed colloidal particles under disequilibrium (often chaotic) conditions. Thus physical transport and deposition textures seem to indicate the presence of strongly precious-metal-enriched ore forming fluids, which led to (not surprisingly) the bonanza grades of these remarkable ores. What causes such a precious-metal-rich solution is debatable, but that is the subject of our continued investigations.

  8. The optimal windows for seismically-enhanced gold precipitation in the epithermal environment


    Sanchez-Alfaro, Pablo; Reich, Martin; Driesner, Thomas; Cembrano, José; Arancibia,Gloria; Pérez-Flores, Pamela; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Rowland, Julie; Tardani, Daniele; Lange, Dietrich; Campos,Eduardo


    Highlights • A geothermal system was studied as a modern analogue of epithermal Au deposits • Fluid data were combined with thermodynamic modeling and numerical simulations • Small-magnitude (Mw < 2) earthquakes can produce large drops in Au solubility • Earthquake-driven flash vaporization is more efficient than cooling and boiling • Protracted seismicity enhances Au precipitation rates in the epithermal environment Abstract Epithermal gold (Au) deposit...

  9. Zoning in the Carboniferous-Lower Permian Cracow epithermal vein system, central Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Dong, G. Y.; Zhou, T.


    Four epithermal vein deposits (i.e. Dawn, Central Extended, Rose’s Pride and Klondyke) in the Cracow gold field, central Queensland were investigated in terms of paragenesis, mineralogy, vein textures, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. The Cracow epithermal field is confined to an area approximately 6 by 5 kilometers. All the deposits are hosted by the massive Camboon Andesite of Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian age, occur as open-space vein fillings, and have similar paragenesis. However, significant variations in mineralogy, textures of quartz and adularia, and fluid geochemistry were found for a main mineralisation stage (Stage II) of each individual deposits. At Rose’s Pride and Klondyke, base-metal sulphides are virtually absent, but significant amounts of calcite and quartz with minor adularia are widely distributed. Replacement textures are distinct, and mineralisation temperature is less than 220 °C and salinity less than 0.2 wt%. The δ18O values of quartz and calcite range from -2.65 to -2.06‰ and from -6.66 to -6.34‰ respectively, and calculated δ18OH2O value is about -17‰ which represents a nearly unshifted palaeo-meteoric water. Gold mineralisation is best developed at Central Extended among the studied deposits, where patches rich in electrum are often observed in polished thin sections and where gold grades exceeding 10 g/t are frequently indicated by assays. Base-metal sulphides are only present locally and rarely exceed 5 volume percent of the vein samples. Quartz is the dominant gangue mineral, but significant amounts of rhombic adularia and chlorite are widely distributed. Various primary and recrystallisation textures possibly inherited from silica gel are well developed and widespread. At individual sites where crustiform bands developed from both walls of a fissure, temperatures could drop sharply from 275 °C to less than 220 °C. The ore-forming fluid at Central Extended, compared with that at Rose’s Pride and Klondyke

  10. Geochemistry and statistical analyses of porphyry system and epithermal veins at Hizehjan in northwestern Iran (United States)

    Radmard, Kaikhosrov; Zamanian, Hassan; Hosseinzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Khalaji, Ahmad Ahmadi


    Situated about 130 km northeast of Tabriz (northwest Iran), the Mazra'eh Shadi deposit is in the Arasbaran metallogenic belt (AAB). Intrusion of subvolcanic rocks, such as quartz monzodiorite-diorite porphyry, into Eocene volcanic and volcano-sedimentary units led to mineralisation and alteration. Mineralisation can be subdivided into a porphyry system and Au-bearing quartz veins within andesite and trachyandesite which is controlled by fault distribution. Rock samples from quartz veins show maximum values of Au (17100 ppb), Pb (21100 ppm), Ag (9.43ppm), Cu (611ppm) and Zn (333 ppm). Au is strongly correlated with Ag, Zn and Pb. In the Au-bearing quartz veins, factor group 1 indicates a strong correlation between Au, Pb, Ag, Zn and W. Factor group 2 indicates a correlation between Cu, Te, Sb and Zn, while factor group 3 comprises Mo and As. Based on Spearman correlation coefficients, Sb and Te can be very good indicator minerals for Au, Ag and Pb epithermal mineralisation in the study area. The zoning pattern shows clearly that base metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn and Mo, occur at the deepest levels, whereas Au and Ag are found at higher elevations than base metals in boreholes in northern Mazra'eh Shadi. This observation contrasts with the typical zoning pattern caused by boiling in epithermal veins. At Mazra'eh Shadi, quartz veins containing co-existing liquid-rich and vapour-rich inclusions, as strong evidence of boiling during hydrothermal evolution, have relatively high Au grades (up to 813 ppb). In the quartz veins, Au is strongly correlated with Ag, and these elements are in the same group with Fe and S. Mineralisation of Au and Ag is a result of pyrite precipitation, boiling of hydrothermal fluids and a pH decrease.

  11. Gold grade of epithermal gold ore at Lamuntet, Brang Rea, West Sumbawa District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia (United States)

    Ernawati, Rika; Idrus, Arifudin; TBMP, Himawan


    Lamuntet is one of gold ore mining area carried out by the Artisanal Small scale Gold Mining (ASGM) located in West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Most of the miners at this area are not the local miners but also those from other regions. Mineralization of this area is strong identified as low sulfidation epithermal system. There are two blocks of this mining location, namely, Ngelampar block with an area of 0.164 km2 and Song block with an area of 0.067 km2. This study was focused on Ngelampar block. The characteristic of epithermal system is the existence of quartz vein with comb, vuggy, and sugary texture. The aim of this research was to analyze the gold grade and other metals, such as Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. The research methods included literature study from previous researches, field work, laboratory work, and interpretation. The literature study was performed on previous researches with similar study area. The field work comprised of direct observation and sampling. Fieldwork was done for a week to obtain gold ore/vein. Sixteen samples were analyzed to obtain the grade of ore/metal. The Hg laboratory analysis was then performed on the six samples with the highest gold grade. Laboratory works were conducted at Intertek Jakarta by using Fire Assay (FA) for gold grade and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. Results of the analysis showed the range of Au was grade (0.1 ppm - 27.8 ppm), Cu was 26 ppm -1740 ppm, Pb was 101 ppm- >4000 ppm, Zn of 73 ppm- >10,000 ppm, Ag of 3 ppm -185 ppm, As was 150 ppm-6530 ppm, and Hg of 0.08 ppm - 1.89 ppm. L1 and L15 had high grade for all values (Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg). Gold mineralization was formed as electrum because of Ag content is higher than 20%. Associated minerals of the samples in the study area were galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite which showed the characteristic of rich base metal of Pb, Zn, and Cu at LS epithermal.

  12. First evidence of epithermal gold occurrences in the SE Afar Rift, Republic of Djibouti (United States)

    Moussa, N.; Fouquet, Y.; Le Gall, B.; Caminiti, A. M.; Rolet, J.; Bohn, M.; Etoubleau, J.; Delacourt, C.; Jalludin, M.


    The geology of the Republic of Djibouti, in the SE Afar Triangle, is characterized by intense tectonic and bimodal volcanic activity that began as early as 25-30 Ma. Each magmatic event was accompanied by hydrothermal activity. Mineralization generally occurs as gold-silver bearing chalcedony veins and is associated with felsic volcanism. Eighty samples from mineralized hydrothermal chalcedony, quartz ± carbonate veins and breccias were studied from ten sites representing four major volcanic events that range in age from early Miocene to the present. The most recent veins are controlled by fractures at the edges of grabens established during the last 4 Myr. Gold in excess of 200 ppb is present in 30% of the samples, with values up to 16 ppm. Mineralogical compositions allowed us to identify different types of mineralization corresponding to different depths in the hydrothermal system: (1) surface and subsurface mineralization characterized by carbonate chimneys, gypsum, silica cap and quartz ± carbonate veins that are depleted in metals and Au; (2) shallow banded chalcedony ± adularia veins related to boiling that contain up to 16 ppm Au, occurring as native gold and electrum with pyrite, and tetradymite; (3) quartz veins with sulfides, and (4) epidote alteration in the deepest hydrothermal zones. Samples in which pyrite is enriched in As tend to have a high Au content. The association with bimodal volcanism, the occurrence of adularia and the native Au and electrum in banded chalcedony veins are typical of epithermal systems and confirm that this type of mineralization can occur in a young intracontinental rift system.

  13. Genesis of Middle Miocene Yellowstone hotspot-related bonanza epithermal Au-Ag deposits, Northern Great Basin, USA (United States)

    Saunders, J. A.; Unger, D. L.; Kamenov, G. D.; Fayek, M.; Hames, W. E.; Utterback, W. C.


    Epithermal deposits with bonanza Au-Ag veins in the northern Great Basin (NGB) are spatially and temporally associated with Middle Miocene bimodal volcanism that was related to a mantle plume that has now migrated to the Yellowstone National Park area. The Au-Ag deposits formed between 16.5 and 14 Ma, but exhibit different mineralogical compositions, the latter due to the nature of the country rocks hosting the deposits. Where host rocks were primarily of meta-sedimentary or granitic origin, adularia-rich gold mineralization formed. Where glassy rhyolitic country rocks host veins, colloidal silica textures and precious metal-colloid aggregation textures resulted. Where basalts are the country rocks, clay-rich mineralization (with silica minerals, adularia, and carbonate) developed. Oxygen isotope data from quartz (originally amorphous silica and gels) from super-high-grade banded ores from the Sleeper deposit show that ore-forming solutions had δ 18O values up to 10‰ heavier than mid-Miocene meteoric water. The geochemical signature of the ores (including their Se-rich nature) is interpreted here to reflect a mantle source for the “epithermal suite” elements (Au, Ag, Se, Te, As, Sb, Hg) and that signature is preserved to shallow crustal levels because of the similar volatility and aqueous geochemical behavior of the “epithermal suite” elements. A mantle source for the gold in the deposits is further supported by the Pb isotopic signature of the gold ores. Apparently the host rocks control the mineralization style and gangue mineralogy of ores. However, all deposits are considered to have derived precious metals and metalloids from mafic magmas related to the initial emergence of the Yellowstone hotspot. Basalt-derived volatiles and metal(loid)s are inferred to have been absorbed by meteoric-water-dominated geothermal systems heated by shallow rhyolitic magma chambers. Episodic discharge of volatiles and metal(loid)s from deep basaltic magmas mixed with

  14. Effect of epithermal neutrons on viability of glioblastoma tumor cells in vitro. (United States)

    Mostovich, L A; Gubanova, N V; Kutsenko, O S; Aleinik, V I; Kuznetsov, A S; Makarov, A N; Sorokin, I N; Taskaev, S Yu; Nepomnyashchikh, G I; Grigor'eva, E V


    We studied in vitro effect of epithermal neutrons in various doses on viability of glioblastoma U87 tumor cells. Increasing the dose from 1.9 to 4.1 Sv promoted cell death. Cytofluorimetric analysis revealed no activation of apoptosis in the irradiated cells, which attested to necrotic death of the tumor cells exposed to epithermal neutron radiation.

  15. Critical elements in Carlin, epithermal, and orogenic gold deposits (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Simmons, Stuart F.


    Carlin, epithermal, and orogenic gold deposits, today mined almost exclusively for their gold content, have similar suites of anomalous trace elements that reflect similar low-salinity ore fluids and thermal conditions of metal transport and deposition. Many of these trace elements are commonly referred to as critical or near-critical elements or metals and have been locally recovered, although typically in small amounts, by historic mining activities. These elements include As, Bi, Hg, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and W. Most of these elements are now solely recovered as by-products from the milling of large-tonnage, base metal-rich ore deposits, such as porphyry and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.A combination of dominance of the world market by a single country for a single commodity and a growing demand for many of the critical to near-critical elements could lead to future recovery of such elements from select epithermal, orogenic, or Carlin-type gold deposits. Antimony continues to be recovered from some orogenic gold deposits and tellurium could potentially be a primary commodity from some such deposits. Tellurium and indium in sphalerite-rich ores have been recovered in the past and could be future commodities recovered from epithermal ores. Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada are enriched in and may be a future source for As, Hg, Sb, and/or Tl. Some of the Devonian carbonaceous host rocks in the Carlin districts are sufficiently enriched in many trace elements, including Hg, Se, and V, such that they also could become resources. Thallium may be locally enriched to economic levels in Carlin-type deposits and it has been produced from Carlin-like deposits elsewhere in the world (e.g., Alsar, southern Macedonia; Lanmuchang, Guizhou province, China). Mercury continues to be recovered from shallow-level epithermal deposits, as well as a by-product of many Carlin-type deposits where refractory ore is roasted to oxidize carbon and pyrite, and mercury is then

  16. Correlated Observations of Epithermal Neutrons and Polar Illumination for Orbital Neutron Detectors (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Malakhov, A.; Livengood, T.; hide


    We correlate Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter's (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer's (LPNS) orbital epithermal neutron maps of the Lunar high-latitudes with co-registered illumination maps derived from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography. Epithermal neutron count rate maps were derived from the LEND: 1) Collimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons, CSETNI-4 2) Uncollimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons, SETN and the Uncollimated Lunar Prospector: 3) Low-altitude and 4) High-altitude mapping phases. In this abstract we illustrate 1) and 3) and include 2) and 4) in our presentation. The correlative study provides unique perspectives on the regional epithermal neutron fluences from the Lunar polar regions under different detector and altitude configurations.

  17. Diverse subaerial and sublacustrine hot spring settings of the Cerro Negro epithermal system (Jurassic, Deseado Massif), Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.


    The Late Jurassic (~ 150 Ma) Cerro Negro volcanic-epithermal-geothermal system (~ 15 km2 area), Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, includes two inferred volcanic emission centers characterized by rhyolitic domes linked along NW-SE regional faults that are associated with deeper level Au/Ag mineralization to the NW, and with shallow epithermal quartz veins and mainly travertine surface hot spring manifestations to the SE. Some travertines are silica-replaced, and siliceous and mixed silica-carbonate geothermal deposits also are found. Five hot spring-related facies associations were mapped in detail, which show morphological and textural similarities to Pleistocene-Recent geothermal deposits at Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.), the Kenya Rift Valley, and elsewhere. They are interpreted to represent subaerial travertine fissure ridge/mound deposits (low-flow spring discharge) and apron terraces (high-flow spring discharge), as well as mixed silica-carbonate lake margin and shallow lake terrace vent-conduit tubes, stromatolitic mounds, and volcano-shaped cones. The nearly 200 mapped fossil vent-associated deposits at Cerro Negro are on a geographical and numerical scale comparable with subaerial and sublacustrine hydrothermal vents at Mammoth Hot Springs, and affiliated with Yellowstone Lake, respectively. Overall, the Cerro Negro geothermal system yields paleoenvironmentally significant textural details of variable quality, owing to both the differential preservation potential of particular subaerial versus subaqueous facies, as well as to the timing and extent of carbonate diagenesis and silica replacement of some deposits. For example, the western fault associated with the Eureka epithermal quartz vein facilitated early silicification of the travertine deposits in the SE volcanic emission center, thereby preserving high-quality, microbial macro- and micro-textures of this silica-replaced "pseudosinter." Cerro Negro provides an opportunity to reconstruct

  18. Statistical Evaluation of the Geochemical Data from Akoluk Epithermal Gold Area (Ulubey-Ordu), NE Turkey (United States)

    Yaylalı-Abanuz, G.; Tüysüz, N.


    There are several economic epithermal gold deposits in the eastern Pontide arc basin in northeast of Turkey. These mineralizations are generally found as veins in NE-SW and NW-SE trending shear fractures. The presence of faults and associated suitable hydrothermal alteration in the study area has been important guide for the gold exploration. Since region is intensely covered with thick soil and rocks are exposed in limited areas, stream sediment and soil geochemistry studies are the most commonly used methods in the exploration of mineral deposits. In this study, the applicability of soil geochemistry surveys in the exploration of mineral deposits in areas of intense overburden is tested using statistical methods. A vein type gold occurence is confined to the fault zones crossing dacitic tuffs of Upper Cretaceous age. Faults appear to be a conjugate set of a shear system, striking N 45-50 E, and N 55-60 W dipping 80-85 SE and 70-80 NW respectively. Mineralization occurs generally as replacement of dacitic tuffs along the fault planes and less of void fillings. Main ore minerals are native gold, stibnite, zinkenite, pyrite, marcasite, realgar, orpiment, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, malachite, and azurite, and the most common gangue mineral is barite. Soil is residual and well developed ranging in thickness from 0.5 m to 1 m. Elements analyzed and interpreted are the ones which are known to have close association with gold. Of these Au, Ag, Sb, As, Zn, Mo, W, and Ba show a single very significant anomaly pattern although several other small isolated anomalies are also recorded. The latter must be related to sampling artifacts. The significant one is circular in shape and has a diameter of approx. 200 m. It is strikingly of interest that anomaly shape does not imitate fracture system. This may be due to the fact that sampling interval is wider than the fault zones. However the circular pattern may suggest a granitic intrusion in subcrop as the main controller of

  19. Fast and epithermal neutron radiography using neutron irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karol A.M. de; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil).Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Ferreira, Francisco J.O., E-mail: [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Reatores


    The neutron radiography technique (NR) with neutrons in the energy range fast to epithermal is a powerful tool used in no-destructive inspection of bulky objects of diverse materials, including those rich in hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen ad carbon. Thus, it can be used to identify, inclusions, voids and thickness differences in materials such as explosive artifacts and narcotics. Aiming at using NR with fast and epithermal neutrons, an Irradiator was constructed by: a {sup 241}Am-Be source, with 5 Ci activity, a collimator with adjustable collimation rate, L/D; and a shield device composed by plates of borated paraffin and iron. The test specimens chosen were a Beam Purity Indicator (BPI) and an Indicator of Visual Resolution (IVR). The neutron radiography images obtained had a resolution of 444.4 μm and 363.6 μm respectively when registered in: 1) the sheet of the nuclear track solid detector, CR-39 type, through X (n,p) Y nuclear reaction; and 2) Kodak Industrex M radiographic film plate in close contact with a boron converter screen, both stored in a Kodak radiographic cassette. (author)

  20. A comparative mineralogical study of Te-rich magmatic-hydrothermal systems in northeastern Greece (United States)

    Voudouris, P.


    Several magmatic-hydrothermal systems in northeastern Greece (western Thrace and Limnos Island) are highly enriched in tellurides which, in addition to native gold and electrum, represent major carriers of precious metals in the ore. Deposition near the porphyry-epithermal transition for several systems is indicated by field relations and by the presence of key minerals (Pb- and Ag-rich tellurides, Bi-sulfosalts and Bi-tellurides/tellurosulfides). Hessite, stützite, sylvanite, petzite, coloradoite, altaite, unnamed Ag-sulfotelluride, native tellurium and electrum are abundant in intermediate sulfidation quartz-carbonate veins together with zincian tetrahedrite-group minerals, chalcopyrite and galena. The presence of hessite, goldfieldite, native gold and enargite or famatinite suggests deposition at a high sulfidation state. The main stage of telluride deposition took place at ˜275 °C at log fTe2 values of -8.5 to -7.1 and log fS2 values of -10.8 to -9.0, based on the Fe-content in sphalerite and the sulfide-telluride mineralogy. The close spatial association of telluride mineralization with intrusive centers of intermediate composition, the base metal enrichment and the trace element signature involving Au, Ag, Te, Bi, Sn and Mo suggest that ore-forming components were introduced at the porphyry-epithermal transition. Potential sources of tellurium are the high-K calc-alkaline (western Thrace) to shoshonitic (Limnos) intrusive rocks.

  1. Noble gas data from Goldfield and Tonopah epithermal Au-Ag deposits, ancestral Cascades Arc, USA: Evidence for a primitive mantle volatile source (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Hofstra, Albert H.


    The He, Ne, and Ar isotopic composition of fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals were analyzed to determine the source of volatiles in the high-grade Goldfield and Tonopah epithermal Au-Ag deposits in southwestern Nevada, USA. Ar and Ne are mainly atmospheric, whereas He has only a minor atmospheric component. Corrected 3He/4He ratios (with atmospheric He removed) range widely from 0.05 to 35.8 times the air 3He/4He ratio (RA), with a median of 1.43 RA. Forty-one percent of measured 3He/4He ratios are ≥4 RA, corresponding to ≥50% mantle He assuming a mantle ratio of 8 RA. These results suggest that mafic magmas were part of the magmatic-hydrothermal system underlying Goldfield and Tonopah, and that associated mantle-sourced volatiles may have played a role in ore formation. The three highest corrected 3He/4He ratios of 17.0, 23.7, and 35.8 RAindicate a primitive mantle He source and are the highest yet reported for any epithermal-porphyry system and for the Cascades arc region. Compiled 3He/4He measurements from epithermal-porphyry systems in subduction-related magmatic arcs around the world (n = 209) display a statistically significant correlation between 3He/4He and Au-Ag grade. The correlation suggests that conditions which promote higher fluid inclusion 3He/4He ratios (abundance of mantle volatiles and focused upward volatile transport) have some relation to conditions that promote higher Au-Ag grades (focused flow of metal-bearing fluids and efficient chemical traps). Results of this and previous investigations of He isotopes in epithermal-porphyry systems are consistent with the hypothesis posed in recent studies that mafic magmas serve an important function in the formation of these deposits.

  2. Portovelo: a volcanic-hosted epithermal vein-system in Ecuador, South America (United States)

    van Thournout, F.; Salemink, J.; Valenzuela, G.; Merlyn, M.; Boven, A.; Muchez, P.


    The Portovelo epithermal vein-system in southwestern Ecuador has produced more than 120 tons of gold and about 250 tons of silver. The veins result from hydrothermal processes close to a Miocene volcano which produced an andesitic to dacitic sequence followed by collapse and post-collapse rhyolitec activity which generated most of the alteration and mineralization. Three main structural segments are defined by NW-trending strike-slip faults, which show later stages of vertical movement. These faults are responsible for development of an extensive N-S dilatational jog within andesitic rocks, which acted as the main host to ore-deposition. A large-scale propylitic aureole surrounds a quartz-chloritesericite-adularia core, centered on the rhyolites, within a system of collapse-related ring-structures. A quartz-chlorite-sericite-adularia-calcite assemblage is the most common wall-rock alteration close to the veins. The size (4 × 15 km) and vertical range (1400 m) of the vein-system is exceptional. Alteration, textures and mineral assemblage, including a quartz-calcite gangue, sulfides, abundant sulfosalts and free gold (electrum), are quite typical of an adularia-sericite epithermal deposit. Spatially, the mineralization is arranged in three zones. In addition, three successive stages can be distinguished. The bulk of economic mineralization was deposited during the second stage, in association with a clear quartz and calcite gangue. Tm-ice and Tm-clath data of fluid inclusions in the clear quartz indicate a high salinity (˜ 10.5 eq. wt% NaCI). The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in the gangue minerals and in the altered host-rocks vary between 180° and 310°C. Quartz δ 18O-values from hydrothermally altered wall-rocks reflect the original isotopic values of the latter. These values show a narrower range in vein quartz ( δO18 between +7.7‰ and +11.57‰ SMOW). In addition, the δO18 values of the vein quartz increase systematically with

  3. Chelpo - Kalate Choubak, Kashmar, NE Iran: an epithermal Sb-As deposit (United States)

    Hanna, B.; Mogk, D. W.; Ghaderi, M.; Narimani, A.


    Chelpo - Kalate Choubak Sb-As deposit is located 65 km north of Kashmar (Khorasan Province), northeast Iran. The area is a part of Central Iran structural zone. Paleogene gray-red marls and interbeds of tuff, sandstone and conglomerate comprise the main part of lithological sequence in the area. Paleogene units are intruded by monzonitic and micro-granitic plutons. Mafic dykes (diabasic-andesitic) are also present. Paleogene sequences are intensely folded and faulted making complex anticline and syncline structures. The deposit consists of veins and veinlets. The host rocks to mineralization are the Paleogene unit and micro-granites. The mineralized zone can be traced for about 6 km from Chelpo village in the east to Kalate Choubak village to the west. Argillic, pyritic and small amounts of silicic alterations accompany the mineralization. The mineralogy in the veins is simple and includes stibnite, stibiconite, kermesite, realgar, orpiment, pyrite, iron-hydroxide, calcite, gypsum and a small amount of quartz. Crustifide, open space filling, comb and colloform textures are present in the veins. Electron microprobe study was conducted to identify gold in stibnite, pyrite and realgar, but only As was detected in pyrite and stibnite. Geochemical studies of the drill hole cores show a positive correlation between Au and Sb and negative correlation between Au and As. Gold content increases slightly with depth. On the basis of evidences such as geometry, texture and structure, alteration, mineralogy, geochemistry and paragenesis, Chelpo - Kalateh Choubak can be regarded as an epithermal deposit. It seems that the veins formed as a result of hydrothermal system driven by subvolcanic microgranites.

  4. Determination of the thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities of an LBO chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Satoru; Kotani, Kei; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi [Hiroshima University, Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Erika [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Science, Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Shimazaki, Takuto [Hiroshima University, Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Delta Kogyo Co., Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan); Suda, Mitsuru; Hamano, Tsuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-Shi, Chiba (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Institute for Peace Science, Hiroshima (Japan)


    An LBO (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) walled ionization chamber was designed to monitor the epithermal neutron fluence in boron neutron capture therapy clinical irradiation. The thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities of the device were evaluated using accelerator neutrons from the {sup 9}Be(d, n) reaction at a deuteron energy of 4 MeV (4 MeV d-Be neutrons). The response of the chamber in terms of the electric charge induced in the LBO chamber was compared with the thermal and epithermal neutron fluences measured using the gold-foil activation method. The thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities obtained were expressed in units of pC cm{sup 2}, i.e., from the chamber response divided by neutron fluence (cm{sup -2}). The measured LBO chamber sensitivities were 2.23 x 10{sup -7} ± 0.34 x 10{sup -7} (pC cm{sup 2}) for thermal neutrons and 2.00 x 10{sup -5} ± 0.12 x 10{sup -5} (pC cm{sup 2}) for epithermal neutrons. This shows that the LBO chamber is sufficiently sensitive to epithermal neutrons to be useful for epithermal neutron monitoring in BNCT irradiation. (orig.)

  5. Determination of the thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities of an LBO chamber. (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Sato, Hitoshi; Shimazaki, Takuto; Nakajima, Erika; Kotani, Kei; Suda, Mitsuru; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu


    An LBO (Li2B4O7) walled ionization chamber was designed to monitor the epithermal neutron fluence in boron neutron capture therapy clinical irradiation. The thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities of the device were evaluated using accelerator neutrons from the (9)Be(d, n) reaction at a deuteron energy of 4 MeV (4 MeV d-Be neutrons). The response of the chamber in terms of the electric charge induced in the LBO chamber was compared with the thermal and epithermal neutron fluences measured using the gold-foil activation method. The thermal and epithermal neutron sensitivities obtained were expressed in units of pC cm(2), i.e., from the chamber response divided by neutron fluence (cm(-2)). The measured LBO chamber sensitivities were 2.23 × 10(-7) ± 0.34 × 10(-7) (pC cm(2)) for thermal neutrons and 2.00 × 10(-5) ± 0.12 × 10(-5) (pC cm(2)) for epithermal neutrons. This shows that the LBO chamber is sufficiently sensitive to epithermal neutrons to be useful for epithermal neutron monitoring in BNCT irradiation.

  6. Mineral potential tracts for orogenic, Carlin-like, and epithermal gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, (phase V, deliverable 68): Chapter H1 in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II) (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Marsh, Erin; Horton, John D.


    In 1996, at the request of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists produced a strategic plan for the acquisition, improvement and modernization of multidisciplinary sets of data to support the growth of the Mauritanian minerals sector and to highlight the geological and mineral exploration potential of the country. In 1999, the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania implemented a program for the acquisition of the recommended basic geoscientific information, termed the first Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier (Project for Institutional Capacity Building in the Mining Sector, PRISM-I). As a result of the PRISM-I efforts, a great deal of new geological, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing, and hydrological data became available for evaluation and synthesis. However, the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy, and Mines recognized that additional work was required to extract the full benefit of the data before it could be of greatest use to the international community and of benefit to the Mauritanian minerals and development sector.

  7. Predictive mapping using GIS to locate epithermal gold deposits at Cabo de Gata (Prov. of Almeria, Spain); Cartografia predictiva mediante SIG de depositos epitermales de oro en Cabo de Gata, Almeria, Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogol-Sanchez, J. P.; Chica-Olmo, M.; Rodriguez-Galiano, V.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.


    The main aim of mineral potential mapping is to generate predictive maps showing the spatial distribution of a numerical index of favour ability for the presence of a mineral deposit of the type sought. We have studied the mineral favorability for epithermal gold deposits in the Cabo de Gata volcanic field in the Province of Almeria in Spain. Predictive maps deriving from the models suggest the presence of several potentially favourable zones. The performance of predictive maps is similar in most cases. Nevertheless, data-driven methods are able to capture more readily the spatial distribution of known gold occurrences in the area. (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of El Dorado epithermal gold deposit, El Sauce district, central-northern Chile (United States)

    Carrillo-Rosúa, J.; Morales-Ruano, S.; Morata, D.; Boyce, A. J.; Belmar, M.; Fallick, A. E.; Fenoll Hach-Alí, P.


    The El Dorado Au-Cu deposit is located in an extensive intra-caldera zone of hydrothermal alteration affecting Upper Cretaceous andesites of the Los Elquinos Formation at La Serena (≈ 29°47'S Lat., 70°43'W Long., Chile). Quartz-sulfide veins of economic potential are hosted by N25W and N20E fault structures associated with quartz-illite alteration (+supergene kaolinite). The main ore minerals in the deposit are pyrite, chalcopyrite ± fahlore (As/(As + Sb): 0.06-0.98), with electrum, sphalerite, galena, bournonite-seligmanite (As/(As + Sb): 0.21-0.31), marcasite, pyrrhotite being accessory phases. Electrum, with an Ag content between 32 and 37 at.%, occurs interstitial to pyrite aggregates or along pyrite fractures. Pyrite commonly exhibits chemical zonation with some zones up to 1.96 at.% As. Electron probe microanalyses of pyrite indicate that As-rich zones do not exhibit detectable Au values. Fluid inclusion microthermometry shows homogenization temperatures between 130 and 352 °C and salinities between 1.6 and 6.9 wt.% NaCl eq. Isotope data for quartz, ankerite and phyllosilicates and estimated temperatures show that δ18O and δD for the hydrothermal fluids were between 3 and 10‰ and between -95 and -75‰, respectively. These results suggest the mineralizing fluids were a mixture of meteoric and magmatic waters. An epithermal intermediate-sulfidation model is proposed for the formation of the El Dorado deposit.

  9. Geochemical patterns of epithermal ore formation in the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanoplutonic belt (Northeast Russia) (United States)

    Volkov, A. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Sidorov, A. A.


    Ores of epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanoplutonic belt are characterized by enrichment in a wide spectrum of elements in relation to the average upper crustal values. The data obtained show that the host volcanic rocks are the most likely sources of minor elements and REEs for the fluids that formed epithermal Au-Ag deposits of the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanoplutonic belt.

  10. Dose measurements and calculations in the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Greenberg, D.; Kamen, Y.; Fiarman, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept.); Benary, V. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept. Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Kalef-Ezra, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept. Ioannina Univ. (Greece)); Wielopolski, L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA). Medical Dept. State Univ. of New


    The characteristics of the epithermal neutron beam at BMRR were measured, calculated, and reported. This beam has already been used for animal irradiations. We anticipate that it will be used for clinical trials. Thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities distributions, and dose rate distributions, as a function of depth were measured in a lucite dog-head phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed and compared with the measured values. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A spin reversal system for polarized epithermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D. [Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM (United States); Penttilae, S.I. [Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM (United States); Tippens, W.B. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)


    The design and construction of a spin-reversal system for longitudinally polarized epithermal neutrons are presented. The design uses a static magnetic field parallel to the momentum of the neutron. The longitudinal field changes the direction at its midpoint. A transverse magnetic field is turned off to control the spin direction at the end of the spin flipper. The neutron spin is reversed with respect to both the neutron momentum and the static longitudinal field at the exit of the spin flipper. In the transverse field-on state the spin adiabatically follows the field direction and the spin direction is reversed. In the transverse field-off state the spin passes rapidly through the region where the solenoidal field reverses the sign and the spin direction is not reversed. With this design, the spins of an 8-cm-diameter beam of longitudinally polarized neutrons can be reversed with an efficiency greater than 88% over a range of neutron energies of more than four orders of magnitude. (orig.).

  12. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.


    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  13. Experimental demonstration of a compact epithermal neutron source based on a high power laser (United States)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Raspino, D.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, L. A.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Kelleher, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Notley, M.; Rusby, D. R.; Schooneveld, E.; Borghesi, M.; McKenna, P.; Rhodes, N. J.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.


    Epithermal neutrons from pulsed-spallation sources have revolutionised neutron science allowing scientists to acquire new insight into the structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate that laser driven fast (˜MeV) neutrons can be efficiently moderated to epithermal energies with intrinsically short burst durations. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a 100 TW laser, a significant epithermal neutron flux of the order of 105 n/sr/pulse in the energy range of 0.5-300 eV was measured, produced by a compact moderator deployed downstream of the laser-driven fast neutron source. The moderator used in the campaign was specifically designed, by the help of MCNPX simulations, for an efficient and directional moderation of the fast neutron spectrum produced by a laser driven source.

  14. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter


    hornblende, biotite, and pyroxene phenocrysts. Seven epithermal gold-silver deposits with >1 Moz gold production, several large elemental sulfur deposits, and many large areas (10s to >100 km2) of hydrothermally altered rocks are present in the southern ancestral arc, especially south of latitude 40°N. These deposits are principally hosted by intermediate to silicic lava dome complexes; only a few deposits are associated with mafic- to intermediate-composition stratovolcanoes. Large deposits are most abundant and well developed in volcanic fields whose evolution spanned millions of years. Most deposits are hundreds of thousands to several million years younger than their host rocks, although some quartz-alunite deposits are essentially coeval with their host rocks. Variable composition and thickness of crustal basement is the primary control on mineralization along the length of the southern ancestral arc; most deposits and large alteration zones are localized in basement rock terranes with a strong continental affinity, either along the edge of the North American craton (Goldfield, Tonopah) or in an accreted terrane with continental affinities (Walker Lake terrane; Aurora, Bodie, Comstock Lode, Paradise Peak). Epithermal deposits and quartz-alunite alteration zones are scarce to absent in the northern part of the ancestral arc above an accreted island arc (Black Rock terrane) or unknown basement rocks (Modoc Plateau). Walker Lane structures and areas that underwent large magnitude extension during the Late Cenozoic (areas with Oligocene-early Miocene volcanic rocks dipping >40°) do not provide regional control on mineralization. Instead, these features may have served as local-scale conduits for mineralizing fluids.

  15. Geodynamics and metallogeny of the central Eurasian porphyry and related epithermal mineral systems: A review (United States)

    Seltmann, Reimar; Porter, T. Mike; Pirajno, Franco


    Major porphyry Cu-Au and Cu-Mo deposits are distributed across almost 5000 km across central Eurasia, from the Urals Mountains in Russia in the west, to Inner Mongolia in north-eastern China. These deposits were formed during multiple magmatic episodes from the Ordovician to the Jurassic. They are associated with magmatic arcs within the extensive subduction-accretion complex of the Altaid and Transbaikal-Mongolian orogenic collages that developed from the late Neoproterozoic, through the Palaeozoic, to the Jurassic intracratonic extension. The arcs formed predominantly on the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean margin of the proto-Asian continent, but also within two back-arc basins. The development of the collages commenced when slivers of an older Proterozoic subduction complex were rifted from an existing cratonic mass and accreted to the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean margin of the combined Eastern Europe and Siberian cratons. Subduction of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean beneath the Karakum and Altai-Tarim microcontinents and the associated back-arc basin produced the overlapping late Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic Tuva-Mongol and Kipchak magmatic arcs. Contemporaneous intra-oceanic subduction within the back-arc basin from the Late Ordovician produced the parallel Urals-Zharma magmatic arc, and separated the main Khanty-Mansi back-arc basin from the inboard Sakmara marginal sea. By the Late Devonian, the Tuva-Mongol and Kipchak arcs had amalgamated to form the Kazakh-Mongol arc. By the mid Palaeozoic, the two principal cratonic elements, the Siberian and Eastern European cratons, had begun to rotate relative to each other, "drawing-in" the two sets of parallel arcs to form the Kazakh Orocline between the two cratons. During the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean began subducting below the Siberian craton to form the Sayan-Transbaikal arc, which expanded by the Permian to become the Selanga-Gobi-Khanka arc. By the Middle to Late Permian, as the Kazakh Orocline continued to develop, both the Sakmara and Khanty-Mansi back-arc basins were closed and the collage of cratons and arcs were sutured by accretionary complexes. During the Permian and Triassic, the North China craton approached and docked with the continent, closing the Mongol-Okhotsk Sea, an embayment on the Palaeo-Pacific margin, to form the Mongolian Orocline. Subduction and arc-building activity on the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean margin continued to the mid Mesozoic as the Indosinian and Yanshanian orogens.

  16. Studies on the properties of an epithermal-neutron hydrogen analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: papppa@atomki.h [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pf. 51, 4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pf. 51, 4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, Pf. 105, 4010 Debrecen-10 (Hungary)


    Systematic investigations have proved the advantages of the Epithermal Neutron Analyzer (ETNA) for bulk hydrogen analysis as compared to the thermal neutron techniques. Results can contribute, for example, to the design and construction of instruments needed for the detection and identification of plastic anti-personnel landmines, explosives hidden in airline baggage and cargo containers via hydrogen contents as an indicator of their presence.

  17. Epithermal Neutron Evidence for a Diurnal Surface Hydration Process in the Moon's High Latitudes (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Parsons, A.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Livengood, T.


    We report evidence from epithermal neutron flux observations that show that the Moon's high latitude surfaces are being actively hydrated, dehydrated and rehydrated in a diurnal cycle. The near-surface hydration is indicated by an enhanced suppression of the lunar epithermal neutron leakage flux on the dayside of the dawn terminator on poleward-facing slopes (PFS). At 0600 to 0800 local-time, hydrogen concentrations within the upper 1 meter of PFS are observed to be maximized relative to equivalent equator-facing slopes (EFS). During the lunar day surface hydrogen concentrations diminish towards dusk and then rebuild overnight. Surface hydration is determined by differential comparison of the averaged EFS to PFS epithermal neutron count rates above +/- 75 deg latitude. At dawn the contrast bias towards PFS is consistent with at least 15 to 25 parts-per-million (ppm) hydrogen that dissipates by dusk. We review several lines of evidence derived from temperature and epithermal neutron data by a correlated analysis of observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) that were mapped as a function of lunar local-time, Lunar Observing Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography and Diviner (DLRE) surface temperature.

  18. Possibilities of the short-term thermal and epithermal neutron activation for analysis of macromycetes (mushrooms)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Soukal, Ladislav; Mizera, Jiří


    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2005), s. 67-76 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3048201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * epithermal NAA * mushrooms * macromycetes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.460, year: 2005

  19. Fine Structure Discussion of Parity-Nonconserving Neutron Scattering at Epithermal Energies


    Hussein, M. S.; Kerman, A. K.; Lin, C-Y


    The large magnitude and the sign correlation effect in the parity non-conserving resonant scattering of epithermal neutrons from $^{232}$Th is discussed in terms of a non-collective $2p-1h$ local doorway model. General conclusions are drawn as to the probability of finding large parity violation effects in other regions of the periodic table.

  20. Epithermal uranium deposits in a volcanogenic context: the example of Nopal 1 deposit, Sierra de Pena Blanca, Mexico (United States)

    Calas, G.; Angiboust, S.; Fayek, M.; Camacho, A.; Allard, T.; Agrinier, P.


    The Peña Blanca molybdenum-uranium field (Chihuahua, Mexico) exhibits over 100 airborne anomalies hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs (44 Ma) overlying the Pozos conglomerate and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of two or more fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Trace element geochemistry (U, Th, REE) provides evidence for local mobilization of uranium under oxidizing conditions. In addition, O- and H-isotope geochemistry of kaolinite, smectite, opal and calcite suggests that argillic alteration proceeded at shallow depth with meteoric water at 25-75 °C. Focussed along breccia zones, fluids precipitated several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite, as in the Nopal 1 mine, indicating that mineralization and hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tuffs are contemporaneous. Low δ34S values (~ -24.5 ‰) of pyrites intimately associated with uraninite suggest that the reducing conditions at the origin of the U-mineralization arise from biological activity. Later, the uplift of Sierra Pena Blanca resulted in oxidation and remobilization of uranium, as confirmed by the spatial distribution of radiation-induced defect centers in kaolinites. These data show that tectonism and biogenic reducing conditions can play a major role in the formation and remobilization of uranium in epithermal deposits. By comparison with the other uranium deposits at Sierra Pena Blanca and nearby Sierra de Gomez, Nopal 1 deposit is one of the few deposits having retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  1. Plavica epithermal Au-Ag-Cu deposit in eastern Macedonia: Geology and 3D model of valuable component distribution in ore (United States)

    Serafimovski, T.; Volkov, A. V.; Serafimovski, D.; Tasev, G.; Ivanovski, I.; Murashov, K. Yu.


    The Plavica Au-Ag-Cu deposit is related to the large Neogene volcanic center, which complicates the paleocaldera in the central Kratovo-Zletovo ore district of eastern Macedonia. Based on the geology, ore mineralogy, wall-rock alteration, and fluid inclusions, the Plavica deposit has been referred to the epithermal high-sulfidation type. The general 3D model of orebody at this deposit is based on its general geological structure and complex distribution of metal contents. The framework of the 3D model, which has been constructed in the ArcGIS System, comprises 195 exploration boreholes 47295.8 m in total length. The 3D model allows to a better understanding of distribution of mineralization and supplements the geological data on the deposit.

  2. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay


    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  3. Mineralogical Distribution of Germanium, Gallium and Indium at the Mt Carlton High-Sulfidation Epithermal Deposit, NE Australia, and Comparison with Similar Deposits Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sahlström


    Full Text Available Germanium, gallium and indium are in high demand due to their growing usage in high-tech and green-tech applications. However, the mineralogy and the mechanisms of concentration of these critical elements in different types of hydrothermal ore deposits remain poorly constrained. We investigated the mineralogical distribution of Ge, Ga and In at the Mt Carlton high-sulfidation epithermal deposit in NE Australia, using electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Parageneses from which selected minerals were analyzed include: Stage 1 acid sulfate alteration (alunite, Stage 2A high-sulfidation enargite mineralization (enargite, argyrodite, sphalerite, pyrite, barite, Stage 2B intermediate-sulfidation sphalerite mineralization (sphalerite, pyrite, galena and Stage 3 hydrothermal void fill (dickite. Moderate to locally high concentrations of Ga were measured in Stage 1 alunite (up to 339 ppm and in Stage 3 dickite (up to 150 ppm. The Stage 2A ores show enrichment in Ge, which is primarily associated with argyrodite (up to 6.95 wt % Ge and Ge-bearing enargite (up to 2189 ppm Ge. Co-existing sphalerite has comparatively low Ge content (up to 143 ppm, while Ga (up to 1181 ppm and In (up to 571 ppm are higher. Sphalerite in Stage 2B contains up to 611 ppm Ge, 2829 ppm Ga and 2169 ppm In, and locally exhibits fine colloform bands of an uncharacterized Zn-In mineral with compositions close to CuZn2(In,GaS4. Barite, pyrite and galena which occur in association with Stage 2 mineralization were found to play negligible roles as carriers of Ge, Ga and In at Mt Carlton. Analyzed reference samples of enargite from seven similar deposits worldwide have average Ge concentrations ranging from 12 to 717 ppm (maximum 2679 ppm. The deposits from which samples showed high enrichment in critical elements in this study are all hosted in stratigraphic sequences that locally contain carbonaceous sedimentary rocks. In

  4. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru (United States)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann


    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the

  5. (Uranium-Thorium)/Helium Thermochronologic Constraints on Secondary Iron-Oxide Mineralization in Southwestern New Mexico


    Channer, Michael


    Southwestern New Mexico experienced protracted volcanism from ~60 Ma to 500 ka and associated epithermal mineralization. We apply hematite (U-Th)/He (hematite He) thermochronology to fracture-hosted hematite in the Lordsburg Mining District to resolve the timing of mineralization related to hydrothermal fluid circulation. We interpret hematite He dates with integrated field and structural observations, scanning electron microscopy to characterize hematite texture and grain size distribution, ...

  6. Determination of rare earths and thorium in apatites by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation analysis. (United States)

    Brunfelt, A O; Roelandts, I


    A procedure is described for the non-destructive determination of Na, Mn, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu and Th in apatites by thermal and epithermal neutron-activation of independent portions of the material. The method was applied to three apatites with different contents. The precision obtained was better than +/-5% for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy and +/-20% for Yb, Nd, Ho, Er and Lu for an apatite with a total rare-earth oxide content of the order of 1%. Determination of Ce, Tb and Yb could only be carried out with thermal neutron-activation analysis, while Gd, Ho and Er could only be determined after irradiation with epithermal neutrons.

  7. Imaging of gamma and neutron dose distributions at LVR-15 epithermal beam by means of FGLDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Universita degli Studi, Milan (Italy)] [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Milan, Milan (Italy); Bartesaghi, G. [Department of Physics, Universita degli Studi, Milan (Italy)] [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Milan, Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [The Fondazione IRCCS ' Istituto Nazionale Tumori' , Milan (Italy); Negri, A. [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Milan, Milan (Italy); Paganini, L. [Department of Physics, Universita degli Studi, Milan (Italy); Vanossi, E. [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Milan, Milan (Italy); Burian, J.; Marek, M.; Viererbl, L.; Klupak, V.; Rejchrt, J. [Department of Reactor Physics, NRI Rez, plc (Czech Republic)


    Gamma and fast neutron dose spatial distributions have been measured at the collimator exit of the epithermal neutron beam of LVR-15 reactor (Rez). Measurements were performed by means of optically analyzed Fricke-gel-layer detectors. The separation of the two dose contributions has been achieved by suitable pixel-to-pixel elaboration of the light transmittance images of Fricke-gel-layer detectors prepared with water and heavy water.

  8. On the {sup 252}Cf primary and secondary gamma rays and epithermal neutron flux for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J. [LPTN, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)], E-mail:; Merzouki, A. [LPTN, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Remote Sensing and Geomatics of the Environnement Laboratory, Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, Marion Hall-140Louis Pasteur Ottawa, ON, KIN 6N5 (Canada); El Morabiti, A.; Jehouani, A. [LPTN, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)


    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to calculate the different components of neutrons and secondary gamma rays originated by {sup 252}Cf fission and also the primary gamma rays emitted directly by the {sup 252}Cf source at the exit face of a compact system designed for the BNCT. The system consists of a {sup 252}Cf source and a moderator/reflector/filter assembly. To study the material properties and configuration possibilities, the MCNP code has been used. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement is optimised to moderate neutrons to epithermal energy and, as far as possible, to get rid of fast and thermal neutrons and photons from the therapeutic beam. To reduce the total gamma contamination and to have a sufficiently high epithermal neutron flux we have used different photon filters of different thickness. Our analysis showed that the use of an appropriate filter leads to a gamma ray flux reduction without affecting the epithermal neutron beam quality at the exit face of the system.

  9. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  10. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis


    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with measured fluid inclusion temperatures. A striking aspect of the

  11. Mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, and fluid properties of the Ag-Au epithermal deposit Nová Baňa, Slovakia (United States)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Berkh, Khulan; Kiefer, Stefan; Koděra, Peter; Fallick, Anthony E.; Chovan, Martin; Bakos, František; Biroň, Adrián; Ferenc, Štefan; Lexa, Jaroslav


    In this contribution, we report new data on mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, fluid properties and source of fluids for the deposit Nová Baňa, one of the smaller epithermal deposits in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica andesite stratovolcano (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Ore veins and the associated rocks were studied in samples from outcrops and old mines, grab samples, and bore holes from the central part of the deposit (ore structures Althandel, Jozef, Jakub, Vavrinec), northern part (Freischurf), SE part (Gupňa) and SW part (Šibeničný vrch). Pervasive hydrothermal alteration transformed the rock-forming minerals into a mixture of adularia and fine-grained quartz, with lesser amount of pyrite, Ti oxides and Fe oxides. This assemblage was further altered to omnipresent interstratified illite/smectite that was used in this study as a geothermometer, corroborating the results from the fluid inclusion work. Ore minerals comprise predominantly pyrite, sphalerite, galena but all sulfides are relatively sparse in the samples studied. Minerals of precious metals are electrum, Ag-tetrahedrite, acanthite, members of the polybasite-pearceite and pyrargyrite-proustite solid solution, and rare miargyrite, Hg-Ag tetrahedrite, and diaphorite. In the central part, we have found also some stibnite. In the SE part of the deposit, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite, and petrovskaite occur and seem to be related to supergene enrichment of the ores. In bulk ore samples, Zn usually dominates over Pb and Cu. The average Ag:Au ratio for the entire deposit is 64:1. The concentrations of precious metals in the grab samples reach maxima of 50 ppm Au and 570 ppm Ag in the SE part and 116 ppm Au and 1110 ppm Ag in the central part of the deposit. Fluid inclusions show signs of trapping of a heterogeneous fluid. In the central, northern and SE parts of the deposit, homogenization temperatures of 190-260 °C and consistently low salinities of <5 wt% NaCl eq were recorded. In the SW

  12. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams (United States)

    Kosunen, Antti

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realization of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: (a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionization chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b)the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S/r) waterair , in photon beams, (c)the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d)the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that UP to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionization chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S/r) waterair can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. By a twin ionization chamber technique accuracy the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). The general accuracy achieved by treatment planning systems is approximately 4% for photons and 5 to 7% for electrons. Large (>10%) deviations in calculated doses are possible even when relatively modern calculation approaches are used.

  13. Evidence for de-sulfidation to form native electrum in the Fire Creek epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada (United States)

    Perez, J.; Day, J. M.; Cook, G. W.


    The Fire Creek property is a newly developed and previously unstudied epithermal Au-Ag deposit located in the Northern Shoshone range of north central Nevada. The mineralization occurs within and above en echelon N-NW trending basaltic dykes that are hosted within a co-genetic and bimodal suite of mid-Miocene basalts and andesites formed in association with the Yellowstone hotspot-track. Previous studies of Au-Ag mineralization in the Great Basin have focused primarily on extensively mined and/or low-grade deposits. Therefore, the ability for unrestricted sampling of a major Au-Ag deposit early in its exploration and development represents an opportunity for refined understanding of epithermal ore genesis processes. New petrology reveals at least two distinct pulses of mineralization that in relative order of timing are: 1) S-rich veins which are associated with initial host-rock alteration; 2) quartz- and/or calcite-rich veins which vary from fine-grained to lath-like quartz crystals with large calcite crystals in vein centers. Native electrum occurs only within the second phase of mineralization and typically occurs within quartz and adjacent to cross-cut first-phase S-rich veins. In places the electrum appears to replace or form overgrowths around existing sulfide phases. High levels of gold and silver are found in both the first (0.8 g Au/tonne) and second-phase pulses (37 g Au/tonne). Fire Creek shares many similarities with its northern neighbor, the Mule Canyon Au-Ag deposit, with high Fe sulfide contents for some of the ores, altered wall-rocks and the presence of narrow and discontinuous gold-bearing siliceous veins. Like Fire Creek, Mule Canyon possesses two distinct mineralizing phases, a sulfide rich and a late stage calcite/silica assemblage. The first pulse appears to be identical in both locations with a variation of disseminated to euhedral iron-sulfides and associated intense alteration of host rock. However, Fire Creek differs from Mule Canyon in

  14. Correlation of Lunar South Polar Epithermal Neutron Maps: Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector and Lunar Prospector Neutron Detector (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Sagdeev, R.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.; hide


    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) was developed to refine the lunar surface hydrogen (H) measurements generated by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. LPNS measurements indicated a approx.4,6% decrease in polar epithermal fluxes equivalent to (1.5+/-0,8)% H concentration and are direct geochemical evidence indicating water /high H at the poles. Given the similar operational and instrumental objectives of the LEND and LPNS systems, an important science analysis step for LEND is to test correlation with existing research including LPNS measurements. In this analysis, we compare corrected low altitude epithermal rate data from LPNS available via NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) with calibrated LEND epithermal maps using a cross-correlation technique

  15. Optimization of source-sample-detector geometries for bulk hydrogen analysis using epithermal neutrons. (United States)

    Csikai, J; Dóczi, R


    The advantages and limitations of epithermal neutrons in qualification of hydrocarbons via their H contents and C/H atomic ratios have been investigated systematically. Sensitivity of this method and the dimensions of the interrogated regions were determined for various types of hydrogenous samples. Results clearly demonstrate the advantages of direct neutron detection, e.g. by BF(3) counters as compared to the foil activation method in addition to using the hardness of the spectral shape of Pu-Be neutrons to that from a (252)Cf source.

  16. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A


    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  17. The Chahnaly low sulfidation epithermal gold deposit, western Makran volcanic arc, southeastern Iran (United States)

    Sholeh, Ali; Rastad, Ebrahim; Huston, David L.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Taylor, Ryan D.


    The Chahnaly low-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit and nearby Au prospects are located northwest of the intermittently active Bazman stratovolcano on the western end of the Makran volcanic arc, which formed as the result of subduction of the remnant Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Lut block. The arc hosts the Siah Jangal epithermal and Kharestan porphyry prospects, near Taftan volcano, as well as the Saindak Cu-Au porphyry deposit and world-class Reko Diq Cu-Au porphyry deposit, near Koh-i-Sultan volcano to the east-northeast in Pakistan. The host rocks for the Chahnaly deposit include early Miocene andesite and andesitic volcaniclastic rocks that are intruded by younger dacitic domes. Unaltered late Miocene dacitic ignimbrites overlie these rocks. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology data yield ages between 21.8 and 9.9 Ma for the acidic-intermediate regional volcanism. The most recent volcanic activity of the Bazman stratovolcano involved extrusion of an olivine basalt during Pliocene to Quaternary times. Interpretation of geochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks are synsubduction and calc-alkaline to subalkaline. The lack of a significant negative Eu anomaly, a listric-shaped rare earth element pattern, and moderate La/Yb ratios of host suites indicate a high water content of the source magma.

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing applied to mineral exploration in southern Peru: A multiple data integration approach in the Chapi Chiara gold prospect (United States)

    Carrino, Thais Andressa; Crósta, Alvaro Penteado; Toledo, Catarina Labouré Bemfica; Silva, Adalene Moreira


    Remote sensing is a strategic key tool for mineral exploration, due to its capacity of detecting hydrothermal alteration minerals or alteration mineral zones associated with different types of mineralization systems. A case study of an epithermal system located in southern Peru is presented, aimed at the characterization of mineral assemblies for discriminating potential high sulfidation epithermal targets, using hyperspectral imagery integrated with petrography, XRD and magnetic data. HyMap images were processed using the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) technique for producing alteration map in the Chapi Chiara epithermal gold prospect. Extensive areas marked by advanced argillic alteration (alunite-kaolinite-dickite ± topaz) were mapped in detail, as well as limited argillic (illite-smectite) and propylitic (chlorite spectral domain) alteration. The magmatic-hydrothermal processes responsible for the formation of hypogene minerals were also related to the destruction of ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite) of host rocks such as andesite, and the remobilization/formation of paramagnetic Fe-Ti oxides (e.g., rutile, anatase). The large alteration zones of advanced argillic alteration are controlled by structures related to a regional NW-SE trend, and also by local NE-SW and ENE-WSW ones.

  19. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jr., Thomas Dean [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 x 108 n/cm2 • s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 x 10-11cGy•cm2/nepi and 20 x 10-11 cGy•cm2/nepi , respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

  20. Epithermal Neutron Observations and Lunar South Pole Targeting for LCROSS Impact Planning using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Exploring Neutron Detector (LEND) (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Colaprete, A.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Litvak, R.; Malakhov, A.; hide


    LCROSS impact targeting and planning efforts included quantifying South Polar epithermal neutron flux depressions in early LEND mapped results to maximize the expected plume Hydrogen (H) yield. Epithermal neutron surface fluxes are a key geochemical indicator of surface Hydrogen (H) concentration inferred to be elevated in polar permanent shadow regions (PSR). LCROSS impact target regions were delineated as (PSR) using illumination modeling of polar topography. To quantify targets potential yield for LCROSS, LEND epithermal neutron flux observations were integrated over LCROSS targets of interest and compared to background observations. Discussion will define methods review impact prior estimates and contrast post impact results.

  1. Distribution of 35 Elements in Peat Cores from Ombrotrophic Bogs Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V


    In ombrotrophic bogs the surface peat layer is supplied with chemical substances only from the atmosphere. Peat cores from these bogs therefore can be used to study temporal trends in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. In this work epithermal neutron activation analysis was applied for the first time to study the distribution of 35 elements in peat profiles from ombrotrophic bogs. The selected examples were from Finnmark county in northern Norway: one pristine site far from any local pollution source, and another strongly affected by long-term operation of Russian copper-nickel smelters located close to the border. The elements are classified with respect to their behavior in the uppermost 40 cm of the peat, and similarities and differences between the two profiles are discussed. As compared with other more commonly used analytical techniques based on acid decomposition of the sample ENAA has the advantage of providing the total concentrations of the elements.

  2. Effective dose evaluation for BNCT treatment in the epithermal neutron beam at THOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.N. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Division of Health Physics, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Huang, C.K. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tsai, W.C. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y.H. [Nuclear Science and Technol. Develop. Center, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Jiang, S.H., E-mail: [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)


    This paper aims to evaluate the effective dose as well as equivalent doses of several organs of an adult hermaphrodite mathematical phantom according to the definition of ICRP Publication 60 for BNCT treatments of brain tumors in the epithermal neutron beam at THOR. The MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used for the calculation of the average absorbed dose of each organ. The effective doses for a typical brain tumor treatment with a tumor treatment dose of 20 Gy-eq were evaluated to be 0.59 and 0.35 Sv for the LLAT and TOP irradiation geometries, respectively. In addition to the stochastic effect, it was found that it is also likely to produce deterministic effects, such as cataracts and depression of haematopoiesis.

  3. Hydrologic models of modern and fossil geothermal systems in the Great Basin: Genetic implications for epithermal Au-Ag and Carlin-type gold deposits (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Hofstra, A.; Sweetkind, D.; Gao, Y.


    The Great Basin region in the western United States contains active geothermal systems, large epithermal Au-Ag deposits, and world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features, including the absence of a clear magmatic fluid source, discharge areas restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures (>200 ??C) at shallow depths (200-1500 m). While the plumbing of these systems varies, geochemical and isotopic data collected at the Dixie Valley and Beowawe geothermal systems suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones was relatively deep (>5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (water line (MWL). Many fossil ore-forming systems were also dominated by meteoric water, but usually exhibit ??18O fluid-rock interactions with larger shifts of 5???-20??? from the MWL. Here we present a suite of two-dimensional regional (100 km) and local (40-50 km) scale hydrologic models that we have used to study the plumbing of modern and Tertiary hydrothermal systems of the Great Basin. Geologically and geophysically consistent cross sections were used to generate somewhat idealized hydrogeologic models for these systems that include the most important faults, aquifers, and confining units in their approximate configurations. Multiple constraints were used, including enthalpy, ??18O, silica compositions of fluids and/or rocks, groundwater residence times, fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures, and apatite fission track anomalies. Our results suggest that these hydrothermal systems were driven by natural thermal convection along anisotropic, subvertical faults connected in many cases at depth by permeable aquifers within favorable lithostratigraphic horizons. Those with minimal fluid ?? 18O shifts are restricted to high-permeability fault zones and

  4. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Radzimowice Au As Cu deposit from the Kaczawa Mountains (Western Sudetes, Poland): an example of the transition of porphyry and epithermal style (United States)

    Mikulski, Stanislaw Z.


    The sheeted quartz sulfide veins of the Radzimowice Au As Cu deposit in the Kaczawa Mountains are related to Upper Carboniferous post-collisional potassic magmatism of the composite Zelezniak porphyry intrusion. Multiple intrusive activity ranges from early calc-alkaline to sub-alkaline and alkaline rocks and is followed by multiple hydrothermal events. Early crustally derived dacitic magma has low mg# (electrum of two generations, and minor maldonite (Au2Bi). Fluid inclusions from various quartz generations co-genetic with base-metal sulfides and associated with carbonates, tellurides and non-refractory gold indicate fluids with moderate salinity (9 15 wt% NaCl equiv.) and a temperature and pressure drop from 350 to 190°C and 1.2 to 0.8 kbar, respectively. According to the result of the sulfur isotope fractionation geothermometer the temperature of base-metal crystallization was in the range from 322 to 289°C. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope studies of quartz from veins indicate a gradual increase in the proportion of meteoric water in the epithermal stage. The gold to silver ratio in ore samples with >3 ppm Au is about 1:5 (geometric mean). Hydrothermal alteration started with sericitization, pyritization, and kaolinitization in vein selvages followed by alkaline hydrothermal alteration of propylitic character (illitization and chloritization), albitization and carbonatization. The mineralization of the Radzimowice deposit is considered as related to alkaline magmatism and is characterized by the superposition of low-sulfidation epithermal mineralization on higher-temperature and deeper-seated mesothermal/porphyry style.

  5. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Marine minerals have been center of attraction to mankind since ancient times. The technological advances in the recent years show that the retrieval of underwater minerals from deep-sea can no longer be a dream. Marine minerals are terrigenous...

  6. The alanine detector in BNCT dosimetry: Dose response in thermal and epithermal neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, T., E-mail: [Institute for nuclear chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz D-55128 (Germany); Bassler, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, Aarhus C, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark); Blaickner, M. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220 (Austria); Ziegner, M. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna A-1220, Austria and TU Wien, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna A-1020 (Austria); Hsiao, M. C. [Insitute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y. H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Koivunoro, H. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, POB 64, FI-00014, Finland and HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00029 HUS (Finland); Auterinen, I.; Serén, T.; Kotiluoto, P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Palmans, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt A-2700 (Austria); Sharpe, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Langguth, P. [Department of Pharmacy and Toxicology, University of Mainz, Mainz D-55128 (Germany); Hampel, G. [Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz D-55128 (Germany)


    Purpose: The response of alanine solid state dosimeters to ionizing radiation strongly depends on particle type and energy. Due to nuclear interactions, neutron fields usually also consist of secondary particles such as photons and protons of diverse energies. Various experiments have been carried out in three different neutron beams to explore the alanine dose response behavior and to validate model predictions. Additionally, application in medical neutron fields for boron neutron capture therapy is discussed. Methods: Alanine detectors have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, Germany, in five experimental conditions, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been made in the epithermal neutron beams at the research reactors FiR 1 in Helsinki, Finland, and Tsing Hua open pool reactor in HsinChu, Taiwan ROC. Readout has been performed with electron spin resonance spectrometry with reference to an absorbed dose standard in a {sup 60}Co gamma ray beam. Absorbed doses and dose components have been calculated using the Monte Carlo codes FLUKA and MCNP. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using the Hansen and Olsen alanine response model. Results: The measured dose response of the alanine detector in the different experiments has been evaluated and compared to model predictions. Therefore, a relative effectiveness has been calculated for each dose component, accounting for its dependence on particle type and energy. Agreement within 5% between model and measurement has been achieved for most irradiated detectors. Significant differences have been observed in response behavior between thermal and epithermal neutron fields, especially regarding dose composition and depth dose curves. The calculated dose components could be verified with the experimental results in the different primary and secondary particle fields. Conclusions: The

  7. Marine Gradients of Halogens in Moss Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V


    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is known to be a powerful technique for the simultaneous study of chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples. In this paper it is shown to be useful to elucidate marine gradients of these elements. Examples are from a transect study in northern Norway where samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens were collected at distances 0-300 km from the coastline. All three elements decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the ocean in the moss samples, strongly indicating that atmospheric supply from the marine environment is the predominant source of these elements to the terrestrial ecosystem. These results are compared with similar data for surface soils along the same gradients. Comparison is also made with previous data for halogens in moss in Norway obtained by conventional NAA and covering similar transects in other geographical regions. The Cl/Br and Br/I ratios in moss showed a regular change distance from the ocean in all transects, and h...

  8. Determination of uranium in tree bark samples by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Nicole Pereira de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this study uranium (U) concentrations were determined in certified reference materials (CRMs) and in tree bark samples collected in 'Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira' (CUASO) USP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil). The barks were collected from different species namely Poincianella pluviosa and Tipuana tipu. These bark samples were cleaned, dried, grated and milled for the analyses by epithermal neutron activation analysis method (ENAA). This method consists on irradiating samples and U standard in IEAR1 nuclear reactor with thermal neutron flux of 1:9 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} during 40 to 60 seconds depending on the samples matrices. The samples and standard were measured by gamma ray spectroscopy. U was identified by the peak of 74.66 keV of {sup 239}U with half life of 23.47 minutes. Concentration of U was calculated by comparative method. For analytical quality control of U results, certified reference materials were analysed. Results obtained for CRMs presented good precision and accuracy, with |Z score| <= 0.39. Uranium concentrations in tree barks varied from 83.1 to 627.6 ng g{sup -} {sup 1} and the relative standard deviations of these results ranged from 1.8 to 10%. (author)

  9. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) of Cr(VI)-reducer Basalt-inhabiting Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G; Kalabegishvili, T L; Murusidze, I G; Mosulishvili, L M; Holman, H Y N


    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 $\\mu $g/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental condition...

  10. Mineral oils (United States)

    Furby, N. W.


    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  11. ESR-dosimetry in thermal and epithermal neutron fields for application in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Tobias


    Dosimetry is essential for every form of radiotherapy. In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) mixed neutron and gamma fields have to be considered. Dose is deposited in different neutron interactions with elements in the penetrated tissue and by gamma particles, which are always part of a neutron field. The therapeutic dose in BNCT is deposited by densely ionising particles, originating from the fragmentation of the isotope boron-10 after capture of a thermal neutron. Despite being investigated for decades, dosimetry in neutron beams or fields for BNCT remains complex, due to the variety in type and energy of the secondary particles. Today usually ionisation chambers combined with metal foils are used. The applied techniques require extensive effort and are time consuming, while the resulting uncertainties remain high. Consequently, the investigation of more effective techniques or alternative dosimeters is an important field of research. In this work the possibilities of ESR-dosimeters in those fields have been investigated. Certain materials, such as alanine, generate stable radicals upon irradiation. Using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry the amount of radicals, which is proportional to absorbed dose, can be quantified. Different ESR detector materials have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany, with five setups, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been conducted in two epithermal neutron beams. The detector response, however, strongly depends on the dose depositing particle type and energy. It is hence necessary to accompany measurements by computational modelling and simulation. In this work the Monte Carlo code FLUKA was used to calculate absorbed doses and dose components. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using amorphous track models. For the simulation, detailed models of

  12. High Spatial Resolution Studies of Epithermal Neutron Emission from the Lunar Poles: Constraints on Hydrogen Mobility (United States)

    Boynton, W. V.; Droege, G. F.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sanin, A. B.; Litvak, M. L.; Schaffner, M.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J. B.; hide


    The data from the collimated sensors of the LEND instrument are shown to be of exceptionally high quality. Counting uncertainties are about 0.3% relative and are shown to be the only significant source of random error, thus conclusions based on small differences in count rates are valid. By comparison with the topography of Shoemaker crater, the spatial resolution of the instrument is shown to be consistent with the design value of 5 km for the radius of the circle over which half the counts from the lunar surface would be determined. The observed epithermal-neutron suppression factor due to the hydrogen deposit in Shoemaker crater of 0.25 plus or minus 0.04 cps is consistent with the collimated field-of-view rate of 1.7 cps estimated by Mitrofanov et al. (2010a). The statistical significance of the neutron suppressed regions (NSRs) relative to the larger surrounding polar region is demonstrated, and it is shown that they are not closely related to the permanently shadowed regions. There is a significant increase in H content in the polar regions independent of the H content of the NSRs. The non-NSR H content increases directly with latitude, and the rate of increase is virtually identical at both poles. There is little or no increase with latitude outside the polar region. Various mechanisms to explain this steep increase in the non-NSR polar H with latitude are investigated, and it is suggested that thermal volatilization is responsible for the increase because it is minimized at the low surface temperatures close to the poles.

  13. Multipurpose epithermal neutron beam on new research station at MARIA research reactor in Swierk-Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzinski, M.A.; Maciak, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    MARIA reactor is an open-pool research reactor what gives the chance to install uranium fission converter on the periphery of the core. It could be installed far enough not to induce reactivity of the core but close enough to produce high flux of fast neutrons. Special design of the converter is now under construction. It is planned to set the research stand based on such uranium converter in the near future: in 2015 MARIA reactor infrastructure should be ready (preparation started in 2013), in 2016 the neutron beam starts and in 2017 opening the stand for material and biological research or for medical training concerning BNCT. Unused for many years, horizontal channel number H2 at MARIA research rector in Poland, is going to be prepared as a part of unique stand. The characteristics of the neutron beam will be significant advantage of the facility. High flux of neutrons at the level of 2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} will be obtainable by uranium neutron converter located 90 cm far from the reactor core fuel elements (still inside reactor core basket between so called core reflectors). Due to reaction of core neutrons with converter U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} material it will produce high flux of fast neutrons. After conversion neutrons will be collimated and moderated in the channel by special set of filters and moderators. At the end of H2 channel i.e. at the entrance to the research room neutron energy will be in the epithermal energy range with neutron intensity at least at the level required for BNCT (2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). For other purposes density of the neutron flux could be smaller. The possibility to change type and amount of installed filters/moderators which enables getting different properties of the beam (neutron energy spectrum, neutron-gamma ratio and beam profile and shape) is taken into account. H2 channel is located in separate room which is adjacent to two other empty rooms under the preparation for research laboratories (200 m2). It is

  14. Geologic setting and genesis of the Mule Canyon low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada (United States)

    John, D.A.; Hofstra, A.H.; Fleck, R.J.; Brummer, J.E.; Saderholm, E.C.


    The Mule Canyon mine exploited shallow, low-sulfidation, epithermal Au-Ag deposits that lie near the west side of the Northern Nevada rift in northern Lander County, Nevada. Mule Canyon consists of six small deposits that contained premining reserves of about 8.2 Mt at an average grade of 3.81 g Au/tonne. It is an uncommon mafic end member of low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits associated with tholeiitic bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism. The ore is hosted by a basalt-andesite eruptive center that formed between about 16.4 to 15.8 Ma during early mafic eruptions related to regionally extensive bimodal magmatism. Hydrothermal alteration and Au-Ag ores formed at about 15.6 Ma and were tightly controlled by north-northwest- to north-striking high-angle fault and breccia zones developed during rifting, emplacement of mafic dikes, and eruption of mafic lava flows. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages are zoned outward from fluid conduits in the sequence silica-adularia, adularia-smectite, smectite (intermediate argillic), and smectite-carbonate (propylitic). All alteration types contain abundant pyrite and/or marcasite ?? arsenopyrite. Field relations indicate that silica-adularia alteration is superimposed on argillic and propylitic alteration. Little or no steam-heated acid-sulfate alteration is present, probably the result of a near-surface water table during hydrothermal alteration and ore deposition. Two distinct ore types are present at Mule Canyon: early replacement and later open-space filling. Replacement ores consist of disseminated and vesicle-filling pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyrite in argillically altered or weakly silicified rocks. Ore minerals consist of Au-bearing arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite overgrowths on earlier-formed pyrite and marcasite. Open-space filling ores include narrow stockwork quartz-adularia veins, banded and crustiform opaline and chalcedonic silica-adularia veins, silica-adularia cemented breccias, and sparse carbonate-pyrite and

  15. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Y.A., E-mail: [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Landsberger, S.; O' Kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Gabdo, H. [Physics Department, Federal College of Education, Yola (Nigeria); Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I. [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)


    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and epithermal flux of 1.4x10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  16. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. (United States)

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I


    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of Spirulina platensis Biomass, of the C-Phycocianin and of DNA Extracted from It

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Kirkesali, E I; Khizanishvili, A I; Pomyakushina, E V


    The epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) was used for study of the biomass of Spirulina platensis. The background levels of concentration 27 macro-, micro- and trace elements ranging from 10^{-3} up to 10^{4} ppm were determined. It was found that the biomass of spirulina does not contain toxic elements above the tolerance levels and can be utilized as a matrix of pharmaceuticals based on it. The concentrations of basic elements in C-phycocianin and DNA extracted from Spirulina platensis were determined by ENAA. A comparison of the element content of a whole spirulina biomass with that of a refined C-phycocianin preparation was made.

  18. Application of Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis to Investigate Accumulation and Adsorption of Mercury by Spirulina platensis Biomass

    CERN Document Server

    Mosulishvili, L M; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G


    Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study interaction of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis with toxic metal mercury. Various concentrations of Hg(II) were added to cell cultures in a nutrient medium. The dynamics of accumulation of Hg was investigated over several days in relation to Spirulina biomass growth. The process of Hg adsorption by Spirulina biomass was studied in short-time experiments. The isotherm of adsorption was carried out in Freindlich coordinates. Natural Spirulina biomass has potential to be used in the remediation of sewage waters at Hg concentrations \\sim 100 {\\mu}g/l.

  19. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme using the epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Diaz, A.Z.; Chadha, M. [Univ. Hospital, State Univ. of New York, NY (United States)] [and others


    The abstract describes evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for two groups of glioblastoma multiforme patients. From September 1994 to February 1996 15 patients have been treated. In September 1997 another 34 patients were examined. Authors determined a safe starting dose for BNCT using epithermal neutrons and BPA-F. They have also evaluated adverse effects of BNCT at this starting dose. Therapeutic effectiveness of this starting dose has been evaluated. No significant side effects from BPA-F infusion or BNCT treatment were observed in normal brains.

  20. Geology of the epithermal Ag-Au Huevos Verdes vein system and San José district, Deseado massif, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Gutierrez, Ronald; Nelson, Eric P.; Layer, Paul W.


    The San José district is located in the northwest part of the Deseado massif and hosts a number of epithermal Ag-Au quartz veins of intermediate sulfidation style, including the Huevos Verdes vein system. Veins are hosted by andesitic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and locally by rhyodacitic pyroclastic rocks of the Chon Aike Formation. New 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the age of host rocks and mineralization define Late Jurassic ages of 151.3 ± 0.7 Ma to 144.7 ± 0.1 Ma for volcanic rocks of the Bajo Pobre Formation and of 147.6 ± 1.1 Ma for the Chon Aike Formation. Illite ages of the Huevos Verdes vein system of 140.8 ± 0.2 and 140.5 ± 0.3 Ma are 4 m.y. younger than the volcanic host rock unit. These age dates are among the youngest reported for Jurassic volcanism in the Deseado massif and correlate well with the regional context of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. The Huevos Verdes vein system has a strike length of 2,000 m, with several ore shoots along strike. The vein consists of a pre-ore stage and three main ore stages. Early barren quartz and chalcedony are followed by a mottled quartz stage of coarse saccharoidal quartz with irregular streaks and discontinuous bands of sulfide-rich material. The banded quartz-sulfide stage consists of sulfide-rich bands alternating with bands of quartz and bands of chlorite ± illite. Late-stage sulfide-rich veinlets are associated with kaolinite gangue. Ore minerals are argentite and electrum, together with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, minor bornite, covellite, and ruby silver. Wall rock alteration is characterized by narrow (220°C. Kaolinite occurring with the late sulfide-rich veinlet stage indicates pH 315°, whereas strike directions of <315° are predicted with an induced dextral strike-slip movement. The components of the structural model appear to be present on a regional scale and are not restricted to the San José district.

  1. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.


    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Recent aspect, a change from thermal neutron to epithermal neutron beam and a new protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [Dept. of Neurosurgery National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentsuji, Kagawa (Japan)


    Since 1968, One-hundred seventy three patients with glioblastoma (n=81), anaplastic astrocytoma (n=44), low grade astrocytoma (n=16) or other types of tumor (n=32) were treated by boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a combination of thermal neutron and BSH in 5 reactors (HTR n=13, JRR-3 n=1, MuITR n=98, KUR n=28, JRR-2 n=33). Out of 101 patients with glioma treated by BNCT under the recent protocol, 33 (10 glioblastoma, 14 anaplastic astrocytoma, 9 low grade astrocytoma) patients lived or have lived longer than 3 years. Nine of these 33 lived or have lived longer than 10 years. According to the retrospective analysis, the important factors related to the clinical results were tumor dose radiation dose and maximum radiation dose in thermal brain cortex. The result was not satisfied as it was expected. Then, we decided to introduce mixed beams which contain thermal neutron and epithermal neutron beams. KUR was reconstructed in 1996 and developed to be available to use mixed beams. Following the shutdown of the JRR-2, JRR-4 was renewed for medical use in 1998. Both reactors have capacity to yield thermal neutron beam, epithermal neutron beam and mixed beams. The development of the neutron source lead us to make a new protocol. (author)

  3. Development of An Epi-thermal Neutron Field for Fundamental Researches for BNCT with A DT Neutron Source (United States)

    Osawa, Yuta; Imoto, Shoichi; Kusaka, Sachie; Sato, Fuminobu; Tanoshita, Masahiro; Murata, Isao


    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is known to be a new promising cancer therapy suppressing influence against normal cells. In Japan, Accelerator Based Neutron Sources (ABNS) are being developed for BNCT. For the spread of ABNS based BNCT, we should characterize the neutron field beforehand. For this purpose, we have been developing a low-energy neutron spectrometer based on 3He position sensitive proportional counter. In this study, a new intense epi-thermal neutron field was developed with a DT neutron source for verification of validity of the spectrometer. After the development, the neutron field characteristics were experimentally evaluated by using activation foils. As a result, we confirmed that an epi-thermal neutron field was successfully developed suppressing fast neutrons substantially. Thereafter, the neutron spectrometer was verified experimentally. In the verification, although a measured detection depth distribution agreed well with the calculated distribution by MCNP, the unfolded spectrum was significantly different from the calculated neutron spectrum due to contribution of the side neutron incidence. Therefore, we designed a new neutron collimator consisting of a polyethylene pre-collimator and boron carbide neutron absorber and confirmed numerically that it could suppress the side incident neutrons and shape the neutron flux to be like a pencil beam.

  4. Development of An Epi-thermal Neutron Field for Fundamental Researches for BNCT with A DT Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osawa Yuta


    Full Text Available Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT is known to be a new promising cancer therapy suppressing influence against normal cells. In Japan, Accelerator Based Neutron Sources (ABNS are being developed for BNCT. For the spread of ABNS based BNCT, we should characterize the neutron field beforehand. For this purpose, we have been developing a low-energy neutron spectrometer based on 3He position sensitive proportional counter. In this study, a new intense epi-thermal neutron field was developed with a DT neutron source for verification of validity of the spectrometer. After the development, the neutron field characteristics were experimentally evaluated by using activation foils. As a result, we confirmed that an epi-thermal neutron field was successfully developed suppressing fast neutrons substantially. Thereafter, the neutron spectrometer was verified experimentally. In the verification, although a measured detection depth distribution agreed well with the calculated distribution by MCNP, the unfolded spectrum was significantly different from the calculated neutron spectrum due to contribution of the side neutron incidence. Therefore, we designed a new neutron collimator consisting of a polyethylene pre-collimator and boron carbide neutron absorber and confirmed numerically that it could suppress the side incident neutrons and shape the neutron flux to be like a pencil beam.

  5. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.


    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  6. Constraints of C-O-S isotope compositions and the origin of the Ünlüpınar volcanic-hosted epithermal Pb-Zn ± Au deposit, Gümüşhane, NE Turkey (United States)

    Akaryali, Enver; Akbulut, Kübra


    The Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt (EPOB) constitutes one of the best examples of the metallogenic provinces in on the Alpine-Himalayan belt. This study focuses on the genesis of the Ünlüpınar Pb-Zn ± Au deposit in the southern part of the Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt. The main lithological units in the study area are the Early Carboniferous Kurtoğlu Metamorphic Complex the Late Carboniferous Köse Granitoid and the Early-Middle Jurassic Şenköy Formation. The studied deposit is hosted by the Şenköy Formation, which consists predominantly of basaltic-andesitic rocks and associated pyroclastic rocks that are calc-alkaline in composition. Silicic, sulfidic, argillic, chloritic, hematitic, carbonate and limonite are the most obvious alteration types observed in the deposit site. Ore microscopy studies exhibit that the mineral paragenesis in deposits includes pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, gold, quartz and calcite. Electron microprobe analyses conducted on sphalerite indicate that the Zn/Cd ratio varies between 84 and 204, and these ratios point at a hydrothermal deposit related to granitic magmas. Fluid inclusion studies in calcite and quartz show that the homogenization temperature of the studied deposit ranges between 90-160 °C and 120-330 °C respectively. The values of sulfur isotope analysis of pyrite, sphalerite and galena minerals vary between 1.6‰ and 5.7‰, and the results of oxygen and carbon isotope analysis range between 8.4‰ and 18‰ and -5‰ and -3.6‰, respectively. The average formation temperature of the ore was calculated as 264 °C with a sulfur isotope geothermometer. All of the data indicate that the Ünlüpınar deposit is an epithermal vein-type mineralization that was formed depending on the granitic magmatism.

  7. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    , radon etc. to locate active venting site 4. Seabed sampling for rocks and minerals looking for indications of hydrothermal mineralization 5. TV and still Photographic surveys with real- time imaging on board 6. Submersible/ROVs for direct... thriving in this unique environments. However, the study of hydrothermal systems is still relatively young, and there are many fundamental questions that remain to be addressed in the forthcoming years. Suggested reading 1. Seafloor hydrothermal...

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  9. Geochemistry of sediments and surface soils from the Nile Delta and lower Nile valley studied by epithermal neutron activation analysis (United States)

    Arafa, Wafaa M.; Badawy, Wael M.; Fahmi, Naglaa M.; Ali, Khaled; Gad, Mohamed S.; Duliu, Octavian G.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.; Steinnes, Eiliv


    The distributions of 36 major and trace elements in 40 surface soil and sediment samples collected from the Egyptian section of the river Nile were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis and compared with corresponding data for the Upper Continental Crust and North American Shale Composite. Their relative distributions indicate the presence of detrital material of igneous origin, most probably resulting from weathering on Ethiopian highlands and transported by the Blue Nile, the Nile main tributary. The distributions of the nickel, zinc, and arsenic contents suggest that the lower part of the Nile and its surroundings including the Nile Delta is not seriously polluted with metals from local human activity. The geographical distributions of Na, Cl, and I as well as results of principal component analysis suggest atmospheric supply of these elements from the ocean. In general the present data may contribute to a better understanding of the geochemistry of the Nile sediments.

  10. An APS mineralization in the kaolin deposit Desa Toraget from northern Sulawesi, Indonesia (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Fricke, A.; Henning, K. H.; Gebert, H.

    Two different types of APS minerals are described for the first time from the Desa Toraget kaolin deposit (Sulawesi, Indonesia). Type I is a near end member alunite with some PO 43- substituting for (SO 4) 2-. The second type contains Ca at a maximum of 0.28 in the structural formula and as a consequence of this, phosphate (-0.47) increased at the expense of SO 42- (1.53). The compositional data attest to a solid solution between woodhouseite and pure alunite. Desa Toraget kaolin mineralization, hence may be classified as "advanced argillic alteration" which requires high oxidation and sulfidation and is related in time and space to the Quaternary volcanic activity. In view of the genetic linkage between epithermal Au mineralization and high sulphidation kaolinitic alteration elsewhere, the study area might be considered as a potential target for Au exploration.

  11. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, M. T., E-mail:; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Sartenejas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dávila, J. [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  12. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter


    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral associat......The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...

  13. Mineral Resources


    Ababsa, Myriam


    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  14. Geology and geochemistry of epithermal precious metal vein systems in the intra-oceanic arcs of Palau and Yap, western Pacific (United States)

    Rytuba, J.J.; Miller, W.R.


    The Palau and Yap arcs are part of an intra-oceanic island-arc-trench system which separates the Pacific and Philippine plates in the western Pacific Ocean. The 350-km-long Palau arc consists of over 200 islands while the 400-km-long Yap arc located to the north has only four major islands exposed. Four of the largest islands in Palau are composed primarily of early Eocene to mid-Miocene volcanic rocks and the four islands comprising Yap contain only Miocene volcanic rocks. Basalt and basaltic andesites of the Babelthuap Formation are the oldest volcanic rocks in Palau and are characterized by high MgO, Ni and Cr and low TiO2 and have a boninitic affinity. They form the central and southeastern parts of Babelthuap Island. Oligocene arc tholeiite flows having an age of 34-35.5 Ma comprise most of the three smaller volcanic islands in Palau and the western part of Babelthuap. The youngest volcanic rocks are dacitic intrusions having an age of 22.7-23.2 Ma. The Yap arc is unusual in that metamorphic rocks up to amphibolite grade form most of the islands. These are underlain by a melange composed of igneous and volcanic clasts as well as clasts from a dismembered copper-gold skarn deposit. Miocene volcanic rocks consisting of flows and volcaniclastic deposits overlie the melange and metamorphic complex. An epithermal precious-metal vein system hosted by flows and flow breccias of the Babelthuap Formation occurs in an area 1.5 km by 1 km on the southeast side of Babelthuap Island. Over 50 veins and mineralized breccias ranging up to 2 m in width and having a strike length up to 500 m contain from trace to 13.0 ppm gold. The veins consist of quartz with varying amounts of sulfides and iron oxides after sulfides and the mineralized breccias consist of brecciated country rock cemented by quartz and iron oxides after sulfides. The veins and mineralized breccias generally dip within 15?? of vertical and have two preferred orientations, north-northwest and north

  15. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.


    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  16. Intermediate sulfidation type base metal mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy, Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt, NW Iran (United States)

    Kouhestani, Hossein; Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Chang, Zhaoshan; Johnson, Craig A.


    The Aliabad-Khanchy epithermal base metal deposit is located in the Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt (THMB) of northwest Iran. The mineralization occurs as Cu-bearing brecciated quartz veins hosted by Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Karaj Formation. Ore formation can be divided into five stages, with most ore minerals, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite being formed in the early stages. The main wall-rock alteration is silicification, and chlorite, argillic and propylitic alteration. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion assemblages show that the ore-forming fluids have eutectic temperatures between −30 and −52 °C, trapping temperatures of 150–290 °C, and salinities of 6.6–12.4 wt% NaCl equiv. These data demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were medium- to high-temperature, medium- to low-salinity, and low-density H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 fluids. Calculated δ18O values indicate that ore-forming hydrothermal fluids had δ18Owater ranging from +3.6‰ to +0.8‰, confirming that the ore–fluid system evolved from dominantly magmatic to dominantly meteoric. The calculated 34SH2S values range from −8.1‰ to −5.0‰, consistent with derivation of the sulfur from either magma or possibly from local volcanic wall-rock. Combined, the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that the Aliabad-Khanchy deposit formed from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. After rising to a depth of between 790 and 500 m, the fluid boiled and subsequent hydraulic fracturing may have led to inflow and/or mixing of early magmatic fluids with circulating groundwater causing deposition of base metals due to dilution and/or cooling. The Aliabad-Khanchy deposit is interpreted as an intermediate-sulfidation style of epithermal mineralization. Our data suggest that the mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy and other epithermal deposits of the THMB formed by hydrothermal activity related to shallow late Eocene magmatism. The altered Eocene volcanic and

  17. 8-group relative delayed neutron yields for epithermal neutron induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu

    CERN Document Server

    Piksaikin, V M; Kazakov, L E; Korolev, G G; Roshchenko, V A; Tertychnyj, R G


    An 8-group representation of relative delayed neutron yields was obtained for epithermal neutron induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu. These data were compared with ENDF/B-VI data in terms of the average half- life of the delayed neutron precursors and on the basis of the dependence of reactivity on the asymptotic period.

  18. In vitro biological effectiveness of JRR-4 epithermal neutron beam. Experiment under free air beam and in water phantom. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, T; Horiguchi, Y; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Yamamoto, K


    The surviving curve and the biological effectiveness factor of dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were separately determined in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No.4. Surviving fraction of V79 Chinese hamster cell with or without sup 1 sup 0 B was obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal neutron beam (TNB-2), which were used or planned to use for BNCT clinical trial. The cell killing effect of these neutron beams with or without the presence of sup 1 sup 0 B depended highly on the neutron beam used, according to the epithermal and fast neutron content in the beam. The biological effectiveness factor values of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 3.99+-0.24, 3.04+-0.19 and 1.43+-0.08, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50+-0.32, 2.34+-0.30 and 2.17+-0.28 for EN...

  19. Radiation injury of boron neutron capture therapy using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageji, T. E-mail:; Nagahiro, S.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Toi, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, H


    The purpose of this study was to clarify the radiation injury in acute or delayed stage after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beams in patients with malignant glioma. Eighteen patients with malignant glioma underwent mixed epithermal- and thermal neutron beam and sodium borocaptate between 1998 and 2004. The radiation dose (i.e. physical dose of boron n-alpha reaction) in the protocol used between 1998 and 2000 (Protocol A, n=8) prescribed a maximum tumor volume dose of 15 Gy. In 2001, a new dose-escalated protocol was introduced (Protocol B, n=4); it prescribes a minimum tumor volume dose of 18 Gy or, alternatively, a minimum target volume dose of 15 Gy. Since 2002, the radiation dose was reduced to 80-90% dose of Protocol B because of acute radiation injury. A new Protocol was applied to 6 glioblastoma patients (Protocol C, n=6). The average values of the maximum vascular dose of brain surface in Protocol A, B and C were 11.4{+-}4.2 Gy, 15.7{+-}1.2 and 13.9{+-}3.6 Gy, respectively. Acute radiation injury such as a generalized convulsion within 1 week after BNCT was recognized in three patients of Protocol B. Delayed radiation injury such as a neurological deterioration appeared 3-6 months after BNCT, and it was recognized in 1 patient in Protocol A, 5 patients in Protocol B. According to acute radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 15.8{+-}1.3 Gy in positive and was 12.6{+-}4.3 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. According to the delayed radiation injury, the maximum vascular dose was 13.8{+-}3.8 Gy in positive and was 13.6{+-}4.9 Gy in negative. There was no significant difference between them. The dose escalation is limited because most patients in Protocol B suffered from acute radiation injury. We conclude that the maximum vascular dose does not exceed over 12 Gy to avoid the delayed radiation injury, especially, it should be limited under 10 Gy in the case that tumor

  20. The geochemistry of host arc volcanic rocks to the Co-O epithermal gold deposit, Eastern Mindanao, Philippines (United States)

    Sonntag, Iris; Kerrich, Robert; Hagemann, Steffen G.


    Mindanao is the second largest island of the Philippines and is located in the southern part of the archipelago. It comprises the suture zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine plate, which is displayed in the Philippine Mobile Belt. Eastern Mindanao is part of the Philippine Mobile Belt and outcropping rocks are mainly Eocene to Pliocene in age related to episodes of arc volcanism alternating with sedimentation. New high-precision elemental analysis of the Oligocene magma series, hosting the Co-O epithermal Au deposit, which represents an arc segment in the central part of Eastern Mindanao, revealed dominantly calc-alkaline rocks ranging in composition between basalt and dacites. Major element trends (MgO vs. TiO2 and Fe2O3) are comparable to other magmas in Central and Eastern Mindanao as well as other SW Pacific Islands such as Borneo. Rare earth and trace element distribution patterns display typical island arc signatures highlighted by the conjunction of LILE-enrichment with troughs at Nb, Ta, and Ti. Ratios of Zr/Nb in basalts vary between 17 and 39, signifying a depleted subarc mantle wedge comparable to the range of MORB, and other Indonesian island arc basalts. In basalts, Nb/Ta and Zr/Sm ratios are 12-37 and 14-27 respectively indicative of deep melts of rutile-eclogite subducted slab, as well as fluids, infiltrating the mantle wedge source of basalts. Moderate large ion lithophile element contents and low Th/La and Th/Ce ratios suggest no significant slab-derived components such as sediment or crustal fragments. The comparatively low Ce and Yb values in basalts, but also andesites and dacites, are consistent with a thin arc crust related to an intraoceanic convergent margin setting. This is further supported by Nb contents in basalts that range between 1 and 3 ppm and are within the range of modern oceanic convergent margin basalts. The range of HREE fractionation signifies that basaltic melts separated at deeper levels of the subarc wedge, possibly

  1. Geology of the Barite Hill gold-silver deposit in the southern Carolina slate belt (United States)

    Clark, S.H.B.; Gray, K.J.; Back, J.M.


    Barite Hill is a stratiform gold-silver deposit associated with base metal sulfides and barite in greenschist facies rocks. The deposit, southernmost of four recently mined gold deposits in the Carolina slate belt, is located in the Lincolnton-McCormick district of Georgia and South Carolina, which includes several known gold-silver and base metal deposits in a Kuroko-type geological setting along with deposits of kyanite and manganese. Approximately 1,835,000 g of gold was produced mainly from oxidized ores in the Main and Rainsford pits from 1990 until their closing in 1994. Ore is hosted by sericitically altered felsic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Late Proterozoic Persimmon Fork Formation. The deposit is stratigraphically below an overturned contact between upper and lower pyroclastic units, which overlie the Lincolnton metarhyolite, an intrusive unit. Gold-silver-rich zones in the Main pit are partly coincident with lenses of siliceous barite rock, but not confined to them, and occur more commonly in pyrite-quartz-altered fragmental rock. The Main pit ore is stratigraphically overlain by a zone of base metal and barite enrichment, which is, in turn, overlain by a talc-tremolite alteration zone locally. Siliceous barite zones are absent in the Rainsford pit, and gold-silver minerals are associated with silicified rocks and chert. The Barite Hill deposit is interpreted to be the result of Kuroko-type, volcanogenic, base metal sulfide mineralization, followed by gold-silver mineralization under epithermal conditions with the following stages of evolution: (1) massive sulfides, barite, and fine-grained siliceous exhalites were deposited during Late Proterozoic to Cambrian submarine volcanism, which was related to plate convergence and subduction in a microcontinental or island-arc setting distant from the North American continental plate; (2) Au-Ag-Te and base and precious metal Te-Se-Bi minerals were deposited either during waning stages of


    Rytuba, James J.


    Arsenic minerals commonly occurring in Carlin-type gold deposits include orpiment and realgar and, more rarely, native arsenic and arsenopyrite. Other arsenic-bearing phases present include arsenian pyrite and stibnite and a number of thallium and mercury sulfides. Under conditions of constant temperature and pressure, the relative stability of arsenic minerals is a function of sulfur activity. At high sulfur activity, orpiment is the stable phase. As sulfur activity is decreased, more sulfur-deficient arsenic phases become stable with the progressive formation of realgar, native arsenic, arsenopyrite, and finally, loellingite at very low sulfur activity. Three univariant equilibrium assemblages: orpiment plus realgar, realgar plus native arsenic and native arsenic plus arsenopyrite are useful indicators of sulfur activity and commonly occur in the epithermal environment.

  3. IER-297 CED-2: Final Design for Thermal/Epithermal eXperiments with Jemima Plates with Polyethylene and Hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Percher, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zywiec, W. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report presents the final design (CED-2) for IER-297, and focuses on 15 critical configurations using highly enriched uranium (HEU) Jemima plates moderated by polyethylene with and without hafnium diluent. The goal of the U.S. Nuclear Criticality Safety Program’s Thermal/Epithermal eXperiments (TEX) is to design and conduct new critical experiments to address high priority nuclear data needs from the nuclear criticality safety and nuclear data communities, with special emphasis on intermediate energy (0.625 eV – 100 keV) assemblies that can be easily modified to include various high priority diluent materials. The TEX (IER 184) CED-1 Report [1], completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility of meeting the TEX goals with two existing NCSP fissile assets, plutonium Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) plates and highly enriched uranium (HEU) Jemima plates. The first set of TEX experiments will focus on using the plutonium ZPPR plates with polyethylene moderator and tantalum diluents.

  4. Study on the Impact of Thermal Agitation on Doppler Coefficient in Epithermal Range for Gd-Bearing Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takeda


    Full Text Available The impact of thermal agitation on Doppler coefficient for Gd-bearing fuel was analyzed. It was found through the analysis that the impact increases when a small amount of Gd2O3 is added to pure UO2 fuel although the impact decreases for a large amount of Gd2O3. This tendency was discussed with the usage of simplified expression for the difference of Doppler coefficient. The simplified expression was used to consider the tendency, and it was revealed that the tendency mainly comes from the rapid decrement of multiplication factor and the relatively slow decrement of the magnitude of sensitivity coefficient of U-238 capture cross section at low Gd2O3 concentration. Similar tendency which shows a maximum impact on Doppler coefficient at interior concentration is expected for other UO2 fuel with a slight content of strong absorber. This indicates that Doppler coefficient of UO2 fuel system with low content of strong absorber should be analyzed carefully by considering thermal agitation in epithermal range.

  5. Manganese oxides and associated minerals as constituents of dispersed mineralization of metasomatic rocks in the Dukat ore field (United States)

    Filimonova, L. G.; Sivtsov, A. V.; Trubkin, N. V.


    Lithiophorite and coronadite—varieties of vernadite and todorokite—make up finely dispersed colloform mixtures along with minor grains and nanoparticles of aluminosilicates and ore minerals in metasomatic rocks of the Dukat ore field, which were formed in local areas of fluid and hydrothermal-solution discharge at the upper level of the ore-forming system. Fe-vernadite associates with feroxyhyte, magnetite, apatite, K-feldspar, native silver, and acanthite in greisenized granitoids and with epidote, cerianite, plattnerite, and Fe-chlorite in quartz-garnet-chlorite propylites. Todorokite with high Pb, Tl, and Sn contents associates with epidote, albite, bitumen, and native silver in quartz-epidote-chlorite propylites. Al-vernadite, coronadite, and lithiophorite associate with opal, kaolinite, Fe-chlorite, zincite, uraninite, native silver, and acanthite in argillisites. These data allowed us to estimate the conditions of manganese accumulation in the epithermal ore-forming system and deposition conditions of Mn-rich, finely dispersed mineral mixtures in mineralized zones hosted in metasomatic rocks of the ore field.

  6. Mineralization and geochemical studies in the Kalchouyeh occurrence, southwest of Naein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Hosseini Dinani


    Full Text Available Kalchouyeh area in southwest of Naein is located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcano-plutonic belt. Mineralization occurred mainly as disseminations and veinlets hosted by trachy-andesite and pyroxene andesites. For mineralogy, alteration, fluid inclusion and geochemical studies, the two major mineralized zones: A (larger vein from the north-northwest and B (smaller vein from the east-southeast of the area were sampled. Alteration studies revealed that the main alteration assemblages are silicification and propylitic. The ore minerals are chalcopyrite, galena, pyrite, bornite, chalcocite, covellite, goethite, malachite, azurite, cerussite and cuprite with quartz, calcite and barite as the main gangues. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrated that salinity and homogenization temperatures were 0.38-4.23 and 0.166-9.188 wt% NaCl and 175-252°C and 250-324°C at the A and B veins, respectively. Rare Earth Element (REE plots show negative slopes that is one of the features for calc-alkaline magmas. La/Y is higher than 1 showing that mineralizing fluids were neutral to basic. According to the data, direction of ore-bearing fluids movement was determined to be from east-southeast toward north-northwest (from B to A veins(, approximate site of mineralization center is located adjacent to smaller vein and the mineralization is epithermal in type.

  7. Geology mineralogy, structure and texture of Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization (North Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rahmati


    Full Text Available The Agh-Otagh mineralization area in the north of Takab, was formed within the andesistic tuffaceous rocks of the Oligo- Miocene age. Mineralization include polymetallic (Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag quartz veins and silicified zones, which occurred as breccia and vein- veinlets with comb, cockade and disseminated textures. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena and sphalerite are common ore minerals. Alteration zones consist of silicification, sericitization, argillitic, propelitic and carbonatization. Cu-Au mineralization is associated with silicification and sericitization. Analytical results of the samples from the ore- bearing quartz veins and the silicified zones indicate that the highest grade for Au is 664 ppb (ave.181 ppb. The highest and the average grades for Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn are 120 ppm (300 ppm, 1.3 % (0.38 %, 5.5 % (0.06 % and 4.5 % (0.28 %, respectively. The investigations indicate that the Agh-Otagh mineralization was formed in four stages. In the first stage or the pre-mineralization stage, the host rock, as a result of hydrothermal process, underwent brecciation and some quartz veins and siliceous cap were formed. In the second stage or the mineralization stage the sulfide minerals formed within the quartz veins and silicification zones developed at the third stage, some unmineralized quartz, barite and carbonate vein- veinlets crosscut the previous stages. The last stage of mineralization related to supergene processes. Based on geological, mineralogical, alteration, structural and textural evidences, the Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization is similar to the medium sulfidation epithermal deposits.

  8. In vitro biological effectiveness of JRR-4 epithermal neutron beam. Experiment under free air beam and in water phantom. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Kishi, Toshiaki; Hori, Naohiko; Torii, Yoshiya; Horiguchi, Yoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The surviving curve and the biological effectiveness factor of dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were separately determined in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No.4. Surviving fraction of V79 Chinese hamster cell with or without {sup 10}B was obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal neutron beam (TNB-2), which were used or planned to use for BNCT clinical trial. The cell killing effect of these neutron beams with or without the presence of {sup 10}B depended highly on the neutron beam used, according to the epithermal and fast neutron content in the beam. The biological effectiveness factor values of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 3.99{+-}0.24, 3.04{+-}0.19 and 1.43{+-}0.08, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50{+-}0.32, 2.34{+-}0.30 and 2.17{+-}0.28 for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the neutron and photon components were 1.22{+-}0.16, 1.23{+-}0.16 and 1.21{+-}0.16, respectively. The depth function of biological effectiveness factor in water phantom and the difference in biological effectiveness factor among boron compounds were also determined. The experimental determination of biological effectiveness factor outlined in this paper is applicable to the dose calculation for each dose component of the neutron beams and contribute to an accurate biological effectiveness factor as comparison with a neutron beam at a different facility employed in ongoing and planned BNCT clinical trials. (author)

  9. The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator. (United States)

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y


    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  11. Trade in mineral resources


    Graham A. Davis


    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  12. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  13. Rajkonkoski gold-telluride ore occurrence: A new high prospective type of complex noble metal mineralization in the Karelian Proterozoic (United States)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.; Sundblad, K.; Toritsin, A. N.; Golubev, A. I.; Lavrov, O. B.


    The Rajkonkoski ore occurrence is located within the region of the Karelian craton (AR2) and the Svecofennian folded belt (PR1) conjugation. It is presented by quartz-carbonate veins in metadoleriles and a zone of brecciation, crumple, and silification of carbonaceous shales within the volcanites of the Soanlakhtinsky suite (PR1). Ore mineralization in black shales and quartz veins has features of genetic similarity presenting different levels of the ore system controlled by different range strike-slip fault dislocations. At the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence, 41 ore minerals have been identified: 12 tellurides (native tellurium, hedleyite, pilsenite, tsumoite, tellurobismuthite, hessite, stuetzite, radclidzhite, joseite-B, altaite, volynskite, petzite); 4 bismuth-tellurides of the following compositions Bi3Te, Bi3Te2, BiTe4, PbBiTe; 3 selenides (clausthalite, tellurolaitakarite, native selenium); and 12 native metals (gold, silver, electrum, copper, iron, lead, tin, bismuth, osmiridium). The contents of the main ore minerals in places exceed 10%, and the concentrations of elements reach as follows: Cu and Pb, 5%; Zn, Bi, 1%; Se, 219 ppm; Te, 171 ppm; Sb, 3 ppm; As, 5 ppm; Ag, >0.1%; Au, 35.28 ppm. Ore mineralization is formed during the temperature interval from 550°C up to 300°C) complete miscibilities galenite-clausthalite and galenite-altaite are observed. In aggregate with a wide temperature interval (>400°C) of ore process evolution and mineral specia variety of telluride and native metal mineralizations, the original “torsion” of different temperature mineralizations makes it possible to determine the affiliation of the Rajkonkoski ore occurrence to the xenothermal type deposits or epithermal “alkaline,” gold-telluride A-type characterized by a close connection with magmatism of increased alkalinity and the original geochemical (Te-V-F) and mineral (tellurides of gold, silver and other metals, fluorite, roscoelite, vanadium-containing sulfides

  14. Pingüino In-bearing polymetallic vein deposit, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina: characteristics of mineralization and ore-forming fluids (United States)

    Jovic, Sebastián M.; Guido, Diego M.; Schalamuk, Isidoro B.; Ríos, Francisco J.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Recio, Clemente


    The Pingüino deposit, located in the low sulfidation epithermal metallogenetical province of the Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, represents a distinct deposit type in the region. It evolved through two different mineralization events: an early In-bearing polymetallic event that introduced In, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Au, As, Cu, Sn, W and Bi represented by complex sulfide mineralogy, and a late Ag-Au quartz-rich vein type that crosscut and overprints the early polymetallic mineralization. The indium-bearing polymetallic mineralization developed in three stages: an early Cu-Au-In-As-Sn-W-Bi stage (Ps1), a Zn-Pb-Ag-In-Cd-Sb stage (Ps2) and a late Zn-In-Cd (Ps3). Indium concentrations in the polymetallic veins show a wide range (3.4 to 1,184 ppm In). The highest indium values (up to 1,184 ppm) relate to the Ps2 mineralization stage, and are associated with Fe-rich sphalerites, although significant In enrichment (up to 159 ppm) is also present in the Ps1 paragenesis associated with Sn-minerals (ferrokesterite and cassiterite). The hydrothermal alteration associated with the polymetallic mineralization is characterized by advanced argillic alteration within the immediate vein zone, and sericitic alteration enveloping the vein zone. Fluid inclusion studies indicate homogenisation temperatures of 308.2-327°C for Ps1 and 255-312.4°C for Ps2, and low to moderate salinities (2 to 5 eq.wt.% NaCl and 4 to 9 eq.wt.% NaCl, respectively). δ34S values of sulfide minerals (+0.76‰ to +3.61‰) indicate a possible magmatic source for the sulfur in the polymetallic mineralization while Pb isotope ratios for the sulfides and magmatic rocks (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 17.379 to 18.502; 15.588 to 15.730 and 38.234 to 38.756, respectively) are consistent with the possibility that the Pb reservoirs for both had the same crustal source. Spatial relationships, hydrothermal alteration styles, S and Pb isotopic data suggest a probable genetic relation between the

  15. Different Activation Techniques for the Study of Epithermal Spectra, Applied to Heavy Water Lattices of Varying Fuel-To-Moderator Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E.K.


    Spectral indices at the cell boundary have been studied as functions of lattice pitch in the reference core of the Swedish R0 reactor. Epithermal indices were determined by activation of In{sup 115}, employing three different techniques: the two-foil, the cadmium ratio and the sandwich foil methods. The latter of these has the advantage of being independent of assumptions about foil cross sections or spectral functions, and it gives a spectrum index that lends itself readily to comparisons with theoretical multigroup calculations. Alternatively the results can be expressed in terms of the Westcott parameters r and T{sub n} when this is justified by the spectral conditions. The agreement between the three methods investigated is generally good. Good agreement is also found with multigroup collision.

  16. Mineral Resources Data System (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  17. Stable Te isotope fractionation in tellurium-bearing minerals from precious metal hydrothermal ore deposits (United States)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Spry, Paul G.; Haghnegahdar, Mojhgan A.; Schauble, Edwin A.; Jackson, Simon E.; Mills, Stuart J.


    The tellurium isotope compositions of naturally-occurring tellurides, native tellurium, and tellurites were measured by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and compared to theoretical values for equilibrium mass-dependent isotopic fractionation of representative Te-bearing species estimated with first-principles thermodynamic calculations. Calculated fractionation models suggest that 130/125Te fractionations as large as 4‰ occur at 100 °C between coexisting tellurates (Te VI) and tellurides (Te -II) or or native tellurium Te(0), and smaller, typically ore-forming systems. Our data suggest that these sorts of reactions during mineralization may account for a ∼3‰ range of δ130/125Te values. Based on the data ranges for Te minerals from various ore deposits, the underpinning geologic processes responsible for mineralization seem to have primary control on the magnitude of fractionation, with tellurides in epithermal gold deposits showing a narrower range of isotope values than those in orogenic gold and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.

  18. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.


    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... (United States)


    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  20. Mineral Processing Sector (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  1. Residence of silver in mineral deposits of the Thunder Mountain caldera complex, Central Idaho, U.S.A. (United States)

    Leonard, B.F.; Christian, R.P.


    Silver is an accessory element in gold, antimony, and tungsten deposits of the caldera complex. Most of the deposits are economically of low grade and genetically of xenothermal or epithermal character. Their gold- and silver-bearing minerals are usually disseminated, fine grained, and difficult to study. Sparsely disseminated pyrite and arsenoprite are common associates. Identified silver minerals are: native silver and electrum; the sulfides acanthite, argentite (the latter always inverted to acanthite), and members of the Silberkies group; the sulfosalts matildite, miargyrite, pyrargyrite, argentian tetrahedrite, and unnamed Ag-Sb-S and Ag-Fe-Sb-S minerals; the telluride hessite and the selenide naumannite; halides of the cerargyrite group; and the antimonate stetefeldtite. Suspected silver minerals include the sulfide uytenbogaardtite and the sulfosalts andorite, diaphorite, and polybasite. Electrum, acanthite, and argentian tetrahedrite are common, though nowhere abundant. The other silver minerals are rare. Silver is present as a minor element in the structure of some varieties of other minerals. These include arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcostibite, covelline, digenite, galena, sphalerite, and stibnite. The search for adventitious Ag in most of these minerals has been cursory. The results merely indicate that elemental silver is not confined to discrete silver minerals and is, therefore, an additional complication for the recovery of silver-bearing material from some deposits. Silver occurs cryptically in some plants of the region. At Red Mountain, for example, the ashed sapwood of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) contains 2 to 300 ppm Ag. Silver in the ashed wood is roughly 100 times as abundant as it is in soil. The phenomenon, useful in biogeochemical exploration, deserves the attention of mineralogists. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Resolving the Distribution of Energy Critical Elements in Ore Systems through in situ Chemical mapping of Mineral Phases (United States)

    McClenaghan, Sean H.


    The mineral sphalerite is found in a wide-range of ore forming conditions including sedimentary and volcanogenic massive sulphides, as well as epigenetic mineralization associated with intrusive settings such as porphyries, skarns and epithermal veins. Sphalerite is a known host for In, Sn, Ge, Te, and Ga; these represent valuable commodities increasing the value of Zn production worldwide. These elements along with their deleterious counterparts Se, Hg, Tl, and Cd can reveal much about the genesis and evolution of a mineralizing system. From the standpoint of understanding the genesis of various ore systems, mineral chemistry, in particular the accommodation of trace elements in the sphalerite structure, is an ideal proxy for comparing both inter- and intra-deposit variations in hydrothermal geochemistry as well as enabling broad comparisons across a wide spectrum of mineral deposit types. The mineral chemistry of sphalerite will often differ between deposits of an ore district and can even exhibit considerable variability across individual mineral grains in response to evolving hydrothermal fluids and distinct fluid sources. Recent improvements in the field of in situ microanalysis have coupled advances in ICP-MS technology with newer classes of UV Excimer lasers and sample cells with smaller active volumes. This has effectively decreased the amount of ablated material required for analysis, allowing for more discrete analyses and permitting micro-chemical mapping at much smaller scales (important to note that while bulk analyses remain a good estimate of bulk metal contents, they do not portray the heterogeneous nature of trace elements in mineral systems, which could indicate the fertility of a system and the delineation of vein sphalerite enriched in ECE's.

  3. Metallogeny of precious and base metal mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt, South Africa: indications from U-Pb and Pb-Pb geochronology (United States)

    Jaguin, J.; Poujol, M.; Boulvais, P.; Robb, L. J.; Paquette, J. L.


    The 3.09 to 2.97 Ga Murchison Greenstone Belt is an important metallotect in the northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), hosting several precious and base metal deposits. Central to the metallotect is the Antimony Line, striking ENE for over 35 km, which hosts a series of structurally controlled Sb-Au deposits. To the north of the Antimony Line, hosted within felsic volcanic rocks, is the Copper-Zinc Line where a series of small, ca. 2.97 Ga Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)-type deposits occur. New data are provided for the Malati Pump gold mine, located at the eastern end of the Antimony Line. Crystallizations of a granodiorite in the Malati Pump Mine and of the Baderoukwe granodiorite are dated at 2,964 ± 7 and 2,970 ± 7 Ma, respectively (zircon U-Pb), while pyrite associated with gold mineralization yielded a Pb-Pb age of 2,967 ± 48 Ma. Therefore, granodiorite emplacement, sulfide mineral deposition and gold mineralization all happened at ca. 2.97 Ga. It is, thus, suggested that the major styles of orogenic Au-Sb and the Cu-Zn VMS mineralization in the Murchison Greenstone Belt are contemporaneous and that the formation of meso- to epithermal Au-Sb mineralization at fairly shallow levels was accompanied by submarine extrusion of felsic volcanic rocks to form associated Cu-Zn VMS mineralization.

  4. The Miner's Canary (United States)

    Guinier, Lani


    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  5. Mineral Fiber Toxicology (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  6. Minerals of Pohorje marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Jeršek


    Full Text Available In the Pohorje Mts, mostly outcrops of calcite marble can be found, which in places turn into dolomite marbles.The protolith carbonate rocks contained also detritical minerals, which remained unchanged or formed new mineralsduring metamorphosis. Minerals in the Pohorje marbles that can be seen as crystals with the naked eye or 10x magnifyingloupe and with binocular microscope were investigated. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, SEM-EDSanalysis and on the basis of morphological characteristics, the presence of 17 different minerals or group of mineralswas confirmed. The most numerous and also the most significant were, apart from calcite, tremolite, diopside, grossularand epidote. For the first time, vesuvianite and scapolite were described in the Pohorje Mts. Particularly rich, as faras crystal faces are concerned, were the crystals of quartz that contained needle-like amphiboles. Other minerals thatwell supplemented the mineral paragenesis were different minerals of mica and chlorite group, feldspars, magnetite,titanite, pyrite and graphite. The determined mineral association revealed the mineral diversity of Pohorje marbles,offering us a new challenge for the investigation of the characteristics and conditions during the origin of this noblerock, which was highly esteemed already by the Romans, while today it is regaining its value and recognisability.

  7. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018 (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.


    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.


    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  9. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  10. Mineral facilities of Europe (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric


    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (, and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  11. Remote Sensing Analysis of Mineralized Alteration in the Ramand Area (Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Ezzati


    Full Text Available Introduction The Ramand area, southwest of Buin- Zahra, about 60 kilometers from Qazvin, lies in the igneous belt of the Urmieh-Dokhtar region, the main structural zone of north-central Iran. Rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows are the principal host rocks of mineralization and alteration of the area, most of which occurs in faulted and brecciated zones alongmaj or northwest-trending fault systems (such as Kour-Cheshmeh, Hassan Abad and their branches. Clay minerals determined from satellite images indicated principally argillic hydrothermal alteration before laboratory mineralogical analysis. According to instrumental analyses, mineralized alteration with greater amounts of argillic halos and lesser amounts of sericitic-propylitic minerals contains quartz veinlets in the vertical and lateral sections. Initially, alteration in the Ramand area was revealed in ETM images by using the SPCA technique of Crosta and Moore, 1990 (Selective Principle Component Analysis. Compared with other techniques, SPCA results have reliable spectral signatures for identifying argillic minerals and Fe-oxides as the main mineralogical association in hydrothermal environments. Subsequently, multispectral images (ASTER were analyzed using band ratios.The results indicated silicification alteration along the faulted regions in the Ramand area. Later, areas of silicification alteration were prospected for precious and base metal mineralization.Sampling results suggested that the altered areas have some potential for epithermal mineralization, according to instrumental analyses and micrographic evidence. Materials and methods 1- Collecting satellite images, geological evidence and related documents 2- Image processing to reveal and identify the mineralized alteration. 3- Sampling of the mineralized zones indicated by the remote sensing. 4- Thin- and polished section microscopic studies. 5- X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD (19 samples, inductively coupled plasma mass

  12. The Genesis of Precious and Base Metal Mineralization at the Miguel Auza Deposit, Zacatecas, Mexico (United States)

    Findley, A. A.; Olivo, G. R.; Godin, L.


    The Miguel Auza mine located in Zacatecas State, Mexico, is a vein-type polymetallic epithermal deposit hosted in deformed argillite, siltstone and, greywacke of the Cretaceous Caracol Formation. Silver-rich base metal veins (0.2 m to >1.5 m wide) are spatially associated with the NE-striking, steeply SE- dipping (70-80°) Miguel Auza fault over a strike length of 1.6 km and a depth of 460 m. A 2 km2 monzonitic stock located in the proximity of the mineralized zones, has previously been interpreted as the source of the mineralizing fluids. Four distinct structural stages are correlated with hydrothermal mineral deposition: (I) The Pre-ore stage is characterized by normal faulting, fracturing of host rock, and rotation of bedding planes. This stage consists of quartz, illite, chlorite, +/- pyrite alteration of sedimentary wall rocks. (II) The Pyrite-vein stage is associated with reverse-sense reactivation of early normal faults, dilation of bedding planes/fractures, and deposition of generally barren calcite + pyrite veinlets. (III) The Main-ore stage is related to the development of reverse-fault- hosted massive sulphide veins. During this stage three phases of mineral deposition are recorded: early pyrite and arsenopyrite, intermediate chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and base metals, and late base metals and Ag-bearing minerals. Associated gangue minerals during the main ore stage are quartz, muscovite, calcite and chlorite. (IV) The Post-ore stage involves late NW-SE striking block faulting, brecciation and calcite veining. Later supergene oxidation of veins led to deposition of Fe-oxides and hydroxides, commonly filling fractures or replacing early-formed sulphide assemblages. The various vein types display classic epithermal textures including open space filling, banding, comb quartz and brecciation. The Ag-bearing minerals comprise pyrargyrite [Ag3(Sb,As)S3], argentotennantite [(Cu,Ag)10(Zn,Fe)2(Sn,As)4S13], polybasite-pearceite [(Ag,Cu)16(Sb,As)2S11], and

  13. sequenceMiner algorithm (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  14. Mineral spirits poisoning (United States)

    These substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some dry cleaning fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  15. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements (United States)

    ... Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  16. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009 (United States)



    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  17. [Synthetic mineral fibers]. (United States)

    Boillat, M A


    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are

  18. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova


    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  19. Minerals safeguarding areas and mineral consultation areas for West Sussex


    Hannis, S.D.; Steadman, E. J.; Linley, K.A.; Newsham, R.


    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of West Sussex County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas and Mineral Consultation Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduc...

  20. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.


    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  1. Evolution of the Creede Caldera and its relation to mineralization in the Creede mining district, Colorado (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.; Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.


    At 25 Ma a major epithermal silver and base metal deposit formed in rhyolitic welded tuff near Creede, Colorado. Nearly 24000 metric tons of silver, appreciable lead, and small amounts of zinc, copper, and gold, have been produced from large, crustified veins under Bachelor and Bulldog Mountains north and northwest of Creede. Prior geologic, hydrologic, and stable-isotope studies showed that ore deposition was associated with the mixing and boiling of waters from diverse sources and suggester that a critical part of the ore-forming fluid may have originated within the ancient lake and sediments of the lacustrine Creede Formation that filled the Creede caldera. Two drill holes that sampled the heretofore hidden lower half of the Creede Formation are the focus of this book. The Creede caldera formed at 26.9 Ma within a high constructional plateau of silicic ashflows that covered and were sporadically interlayed with, intermediate lavas and lahars from large stratovolcanoes. The Creede caldera lake had an inflow evaporation balance that did not permit rapid filling to create a brim-full deep lake. Thus salts were evaporatively concentrated; but, with the exception of possible gypsum, no evaporite minerals preserved. Cool springs deposited travertine as mounds and contributed to limestone interlaminations within the sediment. The lake bottom was anoxic, and bacterial reduction of sulfate led to extreme sulfur isotopic fractionation in diagenetic pyrite. The caldera gradually resurged, converting the initial equant lake into an arcuate moat. Resurgent doming, alluvial fans, lacustrine sediments, ashfalls, and lava domes displaced water, lifted the lake so that it overlapped what later became the southern edge of the mineralized are, and eventually filled the basin. At 25.1 Ma an unseen pluton intruded beneath the northen part of the Creede district and created a convecting olume that drew in brine from the Creede caldera fill, meteotic water from highlands to the north

  2. Minerals safeguarding areas for Warwickshire


    Hannis, S.D.; Brown, T J


    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of Warwickshire County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduces the obligation on all Miner...

  3. Vitamins and Minerals (United States)

    ... that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy ... Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking Calcium View more ...

  4. Gangue mineral textures and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Santa Margarita Vein in the Guanajuato Mining District, Mexico (United States)

    Moncada, Daniel; Bodnar, Robert


    Successful exploration for mineral deposits requires tools that the explorationist can use to distinguish between targets with high potential for mineralization and those with lower economic potential. In this study, we describe a technique based on gangue mineral textures and fluid inclusion characteristics that has been applied to identify an area of high potential for gold-silver mineralization in the epithermal Ag-Au deposits at Guanajuato, Mexico. The Guanajuato mining district in Mexico is one of the largest silver producing districts in the world with continuous mining activity for nearly 500 years. Previous work conducted on the Veta Madre vein system that is located in the central part of this district identified favorable areas for further exploration in the deepest levels that have been developed and explored. The resulting exploration program discovered one of the richest gold-silver veins ever found in the district. This newly discovered vein that runs parallel to the Veta Madre was named the Santa Margarita vein. Selected mineralized samples from this vein contain up to 249 g/t of Au and up to 2,280 g/t Ag. Fluid inclusions in these samples show homogenization temperatures that range from 184 to 300°C and salinities ranging from 0 to 5 wt.% NaCl. Barren samples show the same range in homogenization temperature, but salinities range only up to 3 wt.% NaCl. Evidence of boiling was observed in most of the samples based on fluid inclusions and/or quartz and calcite textures. Liquid-rich inclusions with trapped illite are closely associated with high silver grades. The presence of assemblages of vapor-rich-only fluid inclusions, indicative of intense boiling or "flashing", shows the best correlation with high gold grades.

  5. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  6. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Biondi


    Full Text Available The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  7. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  8. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W


    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  10. Silicosis in barium miners. (United States)

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R


    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  11. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru


    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  12. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  13. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    by mechanical concentration and natural gravity separation of mineral particles derived from weathered rocks. The formation of placers requires factors such as: climate, source rock, weathering, transport, deposition, concentration, high specific gravity... and transport of the rocks. For example, in cold and glaciated regions, there would be limited physical weathering and less concentration and more dispersion of the weathered material and placers would not FE AT U R E FE AT U R E A RT IC LE form...

  14. Mineralogy, paragenesis, and mineral zoning of the Bulldog Mountain vein system, Creede District, Colorado (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Heald Whitehouse-Veaux, Pamela


    The Bulldog Mountain vein system, Creede district, Colorado, is one of four major epithermal vein systems from which the bulk of the district's historical Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu production has come. Ores deposited along the vein system were discovered in 1965 and were mined from 1969 to 1985.Six temporally gradational mineralization stages have been identified along the Bulldog Mountain vein system, each with a characteristic suite of minerals deposited or leached and a characteristic distribution within the vein system; some of these stages are also strongly zoned within the vein system. Stage A was dominated by deposition of rhodochrosite along the lower levels of the Bulldog Mountain ore zone. Stage B in the northern parts of the ore zone is characterized by abundant fine-grained sphalerite and galena, with lesser tetrahedrite and minor chlorite and hematite. With increasing elevation to the south, stage B ores become progressively more barite and silver rich, with alternating barite and fine-grained sphalerite + galena generations; native silver + or - acanthite assemblages are also locally abundant within southern stage B barite sulfide ores, whereas chalcopyrite and other Cu and Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are present erratically in minor amounts. Stage C in the upper and northern portions of the ore zone is characterized by abundant quartz and fluorite, minor adularia, hematite, Mn siderite, sphalerite, and galena, and major leaching of earlier barite; to the south, some barite and sulfides may have been deposited. Stage D sphalerite and galena were deposited in the upper and northern portions of the ore zone; a barite- and silver-rich facies of this stage may also be present in the southern portions of the vein system. Late in stage D, mineralogically complex assemblages containing chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, polybasite, bornite, pyrargyrite, and a variety of other sulfides and sulfosalts were deposited in modest amounts throughout the vein system. This complex

  15. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2008 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  16. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.


    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  18. Minerals, markets and open access


    Mitchell, Clive


    Minerals, Markets and Open Access Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a world-leading geological survey that focuses on public-good science for government and research to understand earth and environmental processes. The BGS is the UK provider of spatial and statistical minerals information, in addition it carries out research in areas such as metallogenesis, land-use im...

  19. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    ThSiO 4 ; Cassiterite 6.8 - 7.0 6 1/2 SnO 2 ; Wolframite 7.1 - 7.5 4 1/2 (Fe,Mn)WO 4 ; Uraninite 7.5 - 10 5-6 UO 2 ; Cinnabar 8.0 - 8.2 2 1/2 HgS; Platinum 14 - 19 4 Pt Gold 15.6 - 19.3 2 1/2 Au 33 Amphibole Muscovite Quartz... Ca-plagioclose Ca-Na-plagioclose Pyroxene Na. Plagioclose K. Felspar Mineral Sp. Gravity Hardness Composition Tourmaline 3.1 7 NaMg 3 Al 6 B 3 Si 6 O 27 (OH, F) 4 ; Diamond 3.5 10 C; Topaz 3.6 8 Al 2 SiO 4 (P, OH) 2 ; Garnet 3.8 - 4.2 7...

  20. The 'Delft' system for mineral identification. Vol. 1. 'Opaque minerals'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, R.A.; Prins, J.J.; Roorda, H.J.


    University of Technology by the late Professor A.H. van der Veen, about half a century ago, and ever since it has been part of the curriculum for students in mining and mineral engineering. Teaching students to identify minerals by means of reflected-light microscopy has always been a matter of

  1. (MEPE) mineralization ability in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    expression and bone mineralization after the addition of glycerophosphate to osteoblast culture medium. MEPE plays a significant role in osteoblast-mediated minera- lization. These dentin-specific proteins are expressed by fully differentiated odontoblasts prior to the onset of mineralization (D'Souza et al., 1992; Bronckers ...

  2. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor


    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  3. Mineral Resources and the Environment. (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  4. From Mountain Men to Miners. (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.


    Examines three of the changes wrought by coal mining: (1) the miner's working conditions; (2) the establishment of company towns; and (3) the violence that ensued when miners from Harlan County, Kentucky, referred to as "Bloody Harlan," tried to better their lives by joining labor unions. (CMK)

  5. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.


    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  6. Cs-137 geochronology, epithermal neutron activation analysis, and principal component analysis of heavy metals pollution of the Black Sea anoxic continental shelf sediments (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C.; Oaie, G.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.


    Anthropogenic Cs-137 Gamma-ray Spectroscopy assay (GrSA) performed at the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Bucharest (Romania) in correlation with Epithermal Neutrons Activation Analysis (ENAA) performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches - Dubna (Russia) were used to investigate a 50 cm core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 600 m off Romanian town of Constantza, located in the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Shelf. A digital radiography showed the presence of about 265 distinct laminae, 1 to 3 mm thick, a fact attesting a stationary sedimentary process, completely free of bioturbation. After being radiographed, the core was sliced into 45 segments whose thickness gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 cm, such that the minimum thickness corresponded to the upper part of the core. From each segment two aliquots of about 0.5 g and 50 g were extracted for subsequent ENAA and Cs-137 GrSA. The Cs-137 vertical profile evidenced two maxima, one of them was very sharp and localized at a depth of 1 cm and the other very broad, almost undistinguished at about 8 cm depth, the first one being attributed to 1986 Chernobyl accident. Based on these date, we have estimated a sedimentation ratio of about 0.5 mm/year, value taken as reference for further assessment of recent pollution history. By means of ENAA we have determined the vertical content of five presumed pollutants, e.i. Zn, As, Br, Sn and Sb and of Sc, as natural, nonpolluting element. In the first case, all five elements presented a more or less similar vertical profile consisting of an almost exponential decrease for the first 10 cm below sediment surface followed by a plateau until the core base, i.e. 50 cm below surface, dependency better described by the equation: c(z) = c0 [1+k exp (-z/Z)] (1) where: where c(z) represents the concentration vertical profile; z represents depth (in absolute value); c0 represents the plateau

  7. Mineral Commodity Profiles: Selenium (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Brown, R.D.


    Overview -- Selenium, which is one of the chalcogen elements in group 16 (or 6A) of the periodic table, is a semiconductor that is chemically similar to sulfur for which it substitutes in many minerals and synthetic compounds. It is a byproduct of copper refining and, to a much lesser extent, lead refining. It is used in many applications, the major ones being a decolorizer for glass, a metallurgical additive to free-machining varieties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys, a constituent in cadmium sulfoselenide pigments, a photoreceptor in xerographic copiers, and a semiconductor in electrical rectifiers and photocells. Refined selenium amounting to more than 1,800 metric tons (t) was produced by 14 countries in 2000. Japan, Canada, the United States, and Belgium, which were the four largest producers, accounted for nearly 85 percent of world production. An estimated 250 t of the world total is secondary selenium, which is recovered from scrapped xerographic copier drums and selenium rectifiers; the selenium in nearly all other uses is dissipated (not recoverable as waste or scrap). The present selenium reserve bases for the United States and the world (including the United States), which are associated with copper deposits, are expected to be able to satisfy demand for selenium for several decades without difficulty.

  8. Economic drivers of mineral supply (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.


    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  9. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins (United States)

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.


    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  10. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru


    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... The mining of bodies of our solar system like the Moon, Mars and the asteroid belt can provide abundant energy resources such as helium 3 and minerals such as potassium, rare earth elements, iron...

  12. Evaluation and calibration of a pulsed neutron method for total hydrogen determination in mineral and concrete samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennun, L.; Santibanez, M. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Departamento de Fisica, P.O. Box 160c, Concepcion (Chile); Gomez, J. [Holcim (Costa Rica) S.A, Alajuela (Costa Rica); Santisteban, J.R. [Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche Rio Negro (Argentina)


    We studied the feasibility of a nondestructive method to determine hydrogen concentrations in concrete and mineral samples. The amount of total hydrogen in the sample is directly related to the proportion of water included in the paste preparation; and also considers all subsequent processes which can add or remove hydrogen in a real sample (like rain, evaporation, etc.). The hydrogen proportion is a critical variable in the curing concrete process; its excess or deficiency impacts negatively in the quality of the final product. The proposed technique is based on a pulsed neutron source and the technical support of the time of flight, which allow discriminating epithermal neutrons interacting with hydrogen (inelastic scattering) from the elastic and quasi-isotropic scattering produced by other kinds of atoms. The method was externally calibrated in limestone rocks fragments (CaCO{sub 3}-main material used in cement fabrication) and in steel, allowing an easy retrieval of the required information. The technique's simplicity may facilitate the development of a mobile measuring device in order to make determinations ''in situ.'' In this paper, we describe the foundations of the proposed method and various analysis results. (orig.)

  13. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology]. (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole


    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print ... here’s what you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your ...

  15. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  16. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V


    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  17. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    , stable BET values can be obtained by increasing the outgassing time without heating iron oxides. For quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite, stableBETvalues were obtained after outgassing the minerals at 100 to 250±C for 2 h. However, outgassing these minerals at room temperature (20±C) only resulted...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  18. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka


    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  19. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  20. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M


    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  1. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals (United States)


    ... greater public awareness of the source of issuers' conflict minerals and to promote the exercise of due... directly relate to the manufacturing of the product); (2) the issuer affixes its brand, marks, logo, or...

  2. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich


    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  3. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  4. [Mineral water as a cure]. (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz


    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  5. Metal endowment reflected in chemical composition of silicates and sulfides of mineralized porphyry copper systems, Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, Iran (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann G.; Pourkaseb, Houshang; Asadi, Sina; Saed, Madineh; Lentz, David R.


    Au are contained in pyrite assemblages as micro- to nano-sized inclusions, especially in the high grade fertile porphyry deposits. However, unexpectedly high concentrations of Te, Se, and Re may be associated with early stage of sulfide mineralization, especially when there is no epithermal lithocap. This may highlight the significance of trace metals partitioning in the sulfides formed at the early stages of mineralization in PCDs.

  6. Geology, mineralization and geochemistry of the Aqkand Cu occurrence (north of Zanjan, Tarom-Hashtjin zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Feyzi


    , fluorite and chlorite are present in the gangue minerals that represent vein-veinlet, breccia, vug infill, replacement, colloform, cockade, crustiform and plumose textures. Comparison of Chondrite normalized (Nakamura, 1974 REE patterns of Eocene fresh and barren andesitic basalt lavas, Oligocene rhyolitic-rhyodacitic lavas and the mineralized samples at Aqkand indicate that ore-forming fluids are probably related to Oligocene rhyolitic-rhyodacitic lavas. However, leaching of some elements from the host andesitic basalt lavas may have also been involved in mineralization. The geological, mineralogical, geochemical, textural and structural characteristics of the Aqkand occurrence reveals that copper mineralization at Aqkand is an example of epithermal base metal mineralization within the Tarom-Hashtjin zone. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the University of Zanjan Grant Commission for research funding. Mr. A.A. Atashnema is also appreciated for his help during the field work. Journal of Economic Geology reviewers and editor are also thanked for their constructive suggestions on alterations to the manuscript. References Davies, R.G., 1977. Geological map of Bandar-e-Anzali, scale 1:250,000. Geological Survey of Iran. Faridi, M. and Anvari, A., 2000. Geological map of Hashtjin, scale 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran. Hirayama, K., Samimi, M., Zahedi, M. and Hushmand-Zadeh, A., 1966. Geology of the Tarom District, Western Part (Zanjan area north-west Iran, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Report 8, 31 pp. Nakamura, N., 1974. Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na and K in carbonaceous and ordinary Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 38(5: 755–773.

  7. Minerals transnationalism and economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A.


    The efforts of developing countries to alter the prevailing presumptions and conditions under which their resources will become available for use in developed nations have fundamentally transformed the structure of international minerals political economy. This study attempts to contribute to an improved understanding of the complex issues that currently define the interactions among major participants in the international minerals equation. Its emphasis is directed toward an isolation and evaluation of policy options available to mineral-exporting developing nations. The study begins with a fairly detailed and comprehensive discussion of the historical and analytical issues that impose themselves on national deliberations. The intent of these chapters is to establish the major opportunities and constraints developing nations must confront in formulating appropriate minerals-sector policies. Thereafter, the core of analysis focuses upon a detailed, applied evaluation of policy options concerning ownership and control, fiscal regimes, and integrative linkage or spread-effect questions. The adduced evidence suggests the continued likelihood of instability and policy experimentation, but also indicates some hopeful avenues of establishing a more mutually beneficial and predictable structure of mineral relations.

  8. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.


    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation.

  9. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  10. Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization (United States)

    Konhauser, Kurt O.


    Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational

  11. A review of silver-rich mineral deposits and their metallogeny (United States)

    Graybeal, Frederick T.; Vikre, Peter


    . Gold is absent at economic levels. The magmatic-hydrothermal silver-rich deposits are epigenetic and related to cordilleran igneous and volcanic suites. Six magmatic-hydrothermal districts each contain more than 31,000 t Ag (1,000 Moz) with grades of veins >600 g/t Ag. Mineralization occurs as veins, massive sulfides in carbonate rocks, and disseminated deposits including porphyry silver deposits, a proposed exploration model. Most deposits are epithermal with low-sulfidation alteration assemblages. Deposits are often telescoped and well-zoned. All large and high-grade magmatic-hydrothermal deposits appear confined to regions of relatively thick continental crust above Cenozoic consuming plate margins on the eastern side of the Pacific Rim. Silver in these deposits may be partly derived by hydrothermal leaching of rocks under or adjacent to the deposits.Specific metal associations in SEDEX and lithogene deposits may reflect confinement of fluid flow to and derivation of metals from specific source rock types. Variable metal associations in VMS and magmatichydrothermal deposits may reflect derivation of metals from a more diverse suite of rocks by convecting hydrothermal systems and processes related to the generation of magma. The discovery rate for silver-rich deposits has accelerated during the past decade, with new deposit types, metal associations, and exploration models being identified that provide numerous exploration and research opportunities.

  12. Dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, R.V. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)


    The formation of uraniun vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of continuous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  14. Mineral evolution and Earth history (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.


    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  15. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  16. Estudo mineral de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Gomes Lopes

    Full Text Available Determinations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were evaluated in five different samples of medicinal plant leaves. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the metals quantification. Except for Fe in Artemisia vulgaris L, significant levels of these elements were found in all investigated plant as compared to other vegetables which are abundant concerning that mineral content.

  17. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC


    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  18. Mineral of the month: indium (United States)

    George, Micheal W.


    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  19. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals (United States)

    ... breastfeeding. Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Selenium Selenium is a mineral that the body needs ... or molecules that can damage cells) and infections. Selenium is present in many foods, and is ... Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary ...

  20. Mineral of the month: titanium (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph


    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  1. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals (United States)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.


    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  2. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)


    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  3. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC


    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  4. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  5. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  6. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  7. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  8. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population (United States)

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.


    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  9. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  10. Mineral operations outside the United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  11. Of US minerals and morals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, R.L.


    Mining is vital to the US economy, and to the standard of living of US citizens, but it is increasingly under threat from environmental activists and politicians. There is a widespread misunderstanding about the importance of mining in the maintenance of civilisation and of the high environmental standards of the modern American mining industry. Importing minerals which can be produced cheaply in the US will damage the economy, and since environmental standards in the US are high may cause more and not less, damage to the environment of the world. Importing vital minerals such as coal, molybdenum, and trona is also an unnecessary threat to national security. This is not to say that environmental standards should not be subject to constant improvement, but ceasing mining because of local objections or international greenhouse gas treaties is insanity.

  12. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles


    Albee, Arden


    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  13. Minerals (United States)

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  14. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek


    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.


    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William


    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  16. provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    are few amounts of rock fragments. The rock fragments are mostly metamorphic in origin and are dominated by gneisses and quartzite. The dominant accessory heavy minerals are composed mainly of opaque minerals magnetite and hematite. The non-opaque minerals include rutile, zircon, and chloriteare also present.

  17. Contribution of the Minerals Industry towards Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a leading producer of a number of mineral commodities, and the minerals industry is a key driver of the South African economy. Ensuring that this mineral wealth is exploited in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable development requires policies and strategies that are underpinned by a ...

  18. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah


    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  19. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  20. Estimating mineral requirements of Nellore beef bulls fed with or without inorganic mineral supplementation and the influence on mineral balance. (United States)

    Zanetti, D; Godoi, L A; Estrada, M M; Engle, T E; Silva, B C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L; Prados, L F; Rennó, L N; Valadares Filho, S C


    The objectives of this study were to quantify the mineral balance of Nellore cattle fed with and without Ca, P, and micromineral (MM) supplementation and to estimate the net and dietary mineral requirement for cattle. Nellore cattle ( = 51; 270.4 ± 36.6 kg initial BW and 8 mo age) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: reference ( = 5), maintenance ( = 4), and performance ( = 42). The reference group was slaughtered prior to the experiment to estimate initial body composition. The maintenance group was used to collect values of animals at low gain and reduced mineral intake. The performance group was assigned to 1 of 6 treatments: sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and soybean hulls with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; and corn silage as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation. Orthogonal contrasts were adopted to compare mineral intake, fecal and urinary excretion, and apparent retention among treatments. Maintenance requirements and true retention coefficients were generated with the aid of linear regression between mineral intake and mineral retention. Mineral composition of the body and gain requirements was assessed using nonlinear regression between body mineral content and mineral intake. Mineral intake and fecal and urinary excretion were measured. Intakes of Ca, P, S, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were reduced in the absence of Ca, P, and MM supplementation ( requirements. Dietary mineral requirements were lower for P, Cu, and Zn and greater for Fe compared with previously published recommendations. This study provides useful information about mineral requirements and mineral supplementation to obtain adequate dietary mineral supply of Nellore cattle in

  1. Some Key Features and Possible Origin of the Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Gold Mineralization in Buru Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus


    the role of supergene enrichment. Interestingly, most of the high-grade samples contain also high grade As (up to 991ppm, Sb (up to 885 ppm, and Hg (up to 75 ppm. Fluid inclusions in both quartz vein types consist of four phases including L-rich, V-rich, L-V-rich, and L1-L2-V (CO2-rich phases. Mineralizing hydrothermal fluid is typified by CO2-rich fluid, moderate temperature of 300 - 400 ºC and a typical low salinity (0.36 to 0.54 wt.% NaCl eq. Based on those key features, gold mineraliza­tion in Buru Island meets the characteristics of LS epithermal or orogenic gold deposit types; however, it tends to be fitter with orogenic gold deposit rather than another type.  

  2. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.


    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  3. Perencanaan Strategik SBU Mineral PT Sucofindo (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto


    Full Text Available Strategic planning requires an organization in the face of today's business competition and a more complex future. Likewise, Mineral Gas Station also requires this strategic planning as a newly formed business unit of 2015. Therefore, the company analyzed its internal and external factors as well as a future review of the mineral service industry to stay afloat, grow and develop. The objectives of this study were to identify the internal performance and core competencies of Mineral Gas Station, to identify the external macro environment condition and external micro intensity of mineral service industry competition, to map the current position of the company, to recommend appropriate business strategy in facing competition pressure, and to develop the objectives and program of the company. This research used descriptive and quantitative analysis methods with a purposive sampling technique. The results show that the position of Mineral Gas Station on the intensity of mineral service competition is 'moderate' and is in quadrant of 'grow and build'. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is intensive strategy (market penetration, market development and product development. Mineral Gas Station require to conduct customer satisfaction surveys related to customer perspectives which becomes the most important strategic factor with a focus on customer complaint factor. Further research is needed by involving all external parties so that the results will be more independent.Keywords: mineral services, strategic planning, competition, mineral gas station, SucofindoABSTRAKPerencanaan strategik dibutuhkan organisasi dalam menghadapi persaingan bisnis saat ini dan masa depan yang semakin komplek. Demikian juga yang dibutuhkan SBU Mineral sebagai unit bisnis yang baru terbentuk 2015, dengan menganalisis faktor internal dan ekternal perusahaan serta tinjauan masa depan industri jasa mineral untuk tetap bertahan, tumbuh dan berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iozefovich


    Full Text Available Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the mineral and vitamin complexes.Key words: vitamins, minerals, avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, treatment, prevention, children.

  5. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  6. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W


    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  7. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva


    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... with BMD in the control group, whereas in the juvenile obese, only lean body mass was positively associated with BMD and smoking negatively associated with BMD. Our study supports that leptin is inversely associated with BMD and may play a direct role in the bone metabolism in nonobese and obese Danish...

  8. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin


    such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...

  9. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing


    Pomykała Radosław; Tora Barbara


    The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million) to the project is described. The ...

  10. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples. (United States)

    Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E


    Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced.

  11. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.


    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  12. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis; Determinacion de plata, oro, zinc y cobre en muestras minerales mediante diversas tecnicas de analisis por activacion de neutrones instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez R, N. I.; Rios M, C.; Pinedo V, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S., E-mail: [University of Texas at Austin, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, Austin 78712, Texas (United States)


    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide {sup 110}Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide {sup 199}Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide {sup 69m}Zn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide {sup 66}Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used

  13. Nanofiltration renovation of mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodzek Michał


    Full Text Available There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO42- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2, recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO42- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L. As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO42- ions was obtained (79-98.7%, while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88% and magnesium (84-89% has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from

  14. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.


    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  15. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  16. South Tien Shan orogenic belt: structure, magmatism and gold mineralization (Uzbekistan) (United States)

    Koneev, Rustam; Seltmann, Reimer


    The Southern Tien Shan represents one of the key units of the Central Asian orogenic belt in Uzbekistan. Together with the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc it formed as a result of subduction of the crust under the Turkistan paleoocean and the Kazakhstan continent, followed by collision and post-collisional strike-slip processes. The Southern Tien Shan is of particular interest due to its gold mineralisation. It hosts the giant Muruntau gold deposit and the large gold deposits of Amantaitau, Daugyztau, Myutenbay (Kyzylkum ore district) and Charmitan, Guzhumsay, Urtalik (Nurata ore district). The Middle Tienshan hosts within the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc the Kurama ore district with the giant Kalmakyr Cu-Au porphyry and large epithermal Au-Ag deposits of Kochbulak and Kyzylalma. Yakubchuk et al. (2005) and others stress that the largest ore clusters are confined by the intersections of volcano-plutonic belts and transform faults in result of sinistral strike slip dislocations during the Permo-Carboniferous. Others believe that the ore giants are in addition controlled by hot spots - a mantle plume, superimposed on the crust architecture shaped by the subduction processes. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of main intrusive massifs of Uzbekistan (CERCAMS data) showed that granitoid magmatism is predominantly of postcollisional age, manifested in the accretionary units at 270-290 Ma, whereas subduction magmatism prevails as characteristic in the volcano-plutonic arc at 300-320 Ma. Determination of sulphide mineralization ages using Os-Re method (CERCAMS data), are respectively 283-289 Ma and 298-314 Ma. The studies were performed in the framework of IGCP- 592. References 1. Yakubchuk A.S., Shatov V.V., Kirwin D. et al., (2005) Gold and base metal metallogeny of the Central Asian Orogenic supercollage: Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology, 100th, Anniversary Volume, 1035-1068. 2. Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G. and

  17. Water mineralization and its importance for health


    N. Babio; C. Ferreira-Pêgo; F. Maraver Eyzaguirre; I. Vitoria Miñana; J. Salas-Salvadó


    Water mineralization and its importance for health La mineralización del agua y su importancia para la salud. Water is essential for life, participating in the metabolism of all the living organisms. In recent years, the consumption of tap water has decreased and the consumption of bottled water has increased worldwide. The mineral quality and composition of natural mineral water is known and constantly over the year, and their potential effects on health must be determined. Only magnes...

  18. Patch testing with mineral wool (Rockwool). (United States)

    Björnberg, A; Löwhagen, G B


    25% of 315 tested subjects exhibited skin reactions when patch tested with mineral wool. Coating of the mineral fibres with phenol-formaldehyde did not influence the skin reactions. The reactions seem to be induced mechanically, as the mineral without the fibres did not give any reactions. No allergic reactions to the chemical additives were demonstrated. Macroscopically, the reactions may simulate an allergic response; microscopically, they seem to be toxic, sometimes with prominent spongiosis.

  19. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.


    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by



    O.V. Iozefovich


    Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the m...

  1. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  2. Sustainable Development of Mining Mineral Resources


    Dubiński, Józef


    This paper describes mineral resources and the demand for them, taking into account the dynamics and global trends in the economy of raw materials. It presents the importance of mineral resources in the development of the world economy, and the importance of mineral resources that are critical for economic development. The main assumptions presented in this paper are the main assumptions that relate to the sustainable development of the mining sector, the ones that will significantly shape th...

  3. Raising environmental awareness among miners in Iran


    Mozaffari, Ezatollah


    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners.  Miners’ attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers’ point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management in Iran. Their opinions on methods used for minerals extraction and waste production are sought in order to ...

  4. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Adelpour


    Full Text Available Introduction The Garmab copper deposit is located northeast of Qaen (South Khorasan province in the1:100,000 scale map of Abiz in the eastern tectonic zone of Iran. It is hosted by Late Paleocene-Eocene lava flows consisting mainly of andesite, trachy¬andesite, andesite-basalt and basalt lavas, as well as pyroclastic rocks, including tuffs and ignimbrites. The Lut Block has undergone intense magmatic activitywith a variety of geochemical characteristics due to changing tectonic conditions (e.g., compression during subduction followed by tensional conditions; Karimpour et al., 2012; Zarrinkoub et al., 2012. The Lut Block has a great potential for the discovery of new mineral deposits, like the Mahrabad and Khonik porphyry copper-gold deposits (Malekzadeh shafarodi, 2009, the Dehsalam porphyry copper deposit (Arjmandzadeh, 2011, high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits such as Chah Shalghami (Karimpour, 2005 and IOCG deposits such as Kuh-E-Zar and Qaleh Zari (Mazlomi et al., 2008. Materials and methods After field studies of the Garmab area, 32 thin sections and 21 polished sections were prepared for petrological and mineralogical studies.In addition, 10 least-altered and fractured samples of volcanic rocks were selected for geochemical studies. Major oxides were determined using XRF analyses at the Zarazma laboratory. Induced polarization and resistivity geophysical data were collected and correlated with geological and alteration maps. The geophysical datawere collectedfrom 420 individual points, using a dipole-dipole arrangement along five profiles separated 60m apart.This covered the study area entirely. After a change in the mineralization trend was observed,additional profileswere designed, twoon bearings of 25º and three on 75º. Results The Garmab volcanic rocks exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas including strong enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Based on the discrimination plot of Irvine and

  5. Dissolution of minerals and hydrometallurgical processes (United States)

    Habashi, Fathi


    Physical, chemical, electrochemical, and electrolytic processes involved in the dissolution of minerals in aqueous solutions are identified and characterized. Their importance to hydrometallurgy is outlined.

  6. Biglycan Modulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R; Yamauchi, Mitsuo


    .... The processes of cell differentiation and matrix mineralization were accelerated in S but delayed in AS, indicating that BGN modulates osteoblastic cell differentiation. Introduction : Biglycan (BGN...

  7. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin


    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  8. Land use/mineral rights map series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.


    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin and for establishing a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assisting the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data. Ten additional maps were completed during this 1981-82 funding period. Virtually all large mining and leasing companies in the Basin now have standing orders for all new maps, and orders for existing maps are being received weekly.

  9. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  10. Geochemistry and mineralization of Novaky coal seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbich František


    Full Text Available The mineralization and geochemistry of the most important Slovak coal deposit in Novaky was intensively studied in the past. The favourable geological conditions create rich mineral association. There are different minerals in the deposit and they are responsible for the enhanced content of some elements in the coal. The summary of notions about geochemistry and mineralization of the coal seam with the emphasis on the main harmful elements – sulphur and arsenic – and their spacial distribution are studied in this paper.

  11. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany


    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (, and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  12. Clays, Nanoclays, and Montmorillonite Minerals (United States)

    Uddin, Faheem


    The recent introduction of nanoclays as fillers or additives in polymers for various desired effects is a subject of an increased interest for research and development to establish various applications. An increased consumption is indicated by the wider applications of clay nanocomposites approaching to almost one-quarter (24 pct) in 2005 of the total nanocomposites used. However, an interesting concern, along with the studies addressing how nanoclays change the behavior of polymeric materials, is to discover what are clays, nanoclays and montmorillonite minerals. The various structures of montmorillonite available in nature and their modification for application are discussed. An attempt is made to review the origin of using clays when nanotechnology did not exist, coupled with the effects of montmorillonite-based nanoclays on commercially known polymers.

  13. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomykała Radosław


    Full Text Available The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million to the project is described. The examples of good practice in the area of implementation of circular economy in Poland is presented (Tauron Wydobycie - wasteless mine and ZGH Bolesław - waste management

  14. HIV and bone mineral density. (United States)

    Mallon, Patrick W G


    This review details the clinical aspects and pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV, discusses broad management issues and outlines areas in which our understanding of this condition is incomplete. Low BMD is prevalent in HIV-infected patients, with traditional risk factors, HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy all contributing. The role of specific antiretrovirals in the development of low BMD remains controversial, but most changes arise at either antiretroviral therapy initiation or switch. Further research is needed to clarify mechanisms underlying low BMD in HIV, whether low BMD will translate to increased fractures and to determine the correct therapeutic approach to low BMD in HIV, particularly in younger HIV-infected patients.

  15. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.


    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  16. European Mineral Statistics 2010-14: a product of the World Mineral statistics database


    Brown, T. J.; Hobbs, S.F.; Idoine, N.E.; Mills, A. J.; Wrighton, C.E.; Raycraft, E.R.


    European Mineral Statistics provides statistical information about minerals and metals in Europe. It provides the essential background intelligence for any European minerals-related activities. Production, export and import tables are presented for all EU members and EU candidate countries, plus Norway and Switzerland, in two sections: •by individual country •by commodity, with bullets on salient features and graphics More than 70 different mineral commodities are included from ...

  17. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density


    Liesegang, A.; Firzlaff, U.; Kiefer, B.; Streich, W J; Clauss, Marcus


    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  18. Mineralogy, occurrence of mineralization and temperature-pressure conditions of the Agh-Daragh polymetallic deposit in the Ahar-Arasbaran metallogenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Asgharzadeh Asl


    reproducibility of ±1°C. However, it was reduced to 0.1–0.5°C/min near phase transformation, with a reproducibility of ±0.1°C. Results Mineralization that occurs in the area is mainly related to the Sheiviar Dagh intrusive rocks and it includes a variety of types of skarn, porphyry- and vein-type, epithermal and intrusion related deposits. Agh Daragh mineralization occurs at least in three states including: 1 stockwork-disseminated, 2 vein-type and 3 replacement (skarn. In order to determine the nature and characteristics of granodiorites hosted Ayran Goli mineralization, the biotites points were analyzed. The Ayran Goli granodiorite with calc-alkaline nature is related to orogenic zones that is associated with subduction zones. To determine the chemical properties of the minerals in Gowdal skarn mineralization, garnet and chlorite have been used for analysis which are often located at repidolite and picnochlorite positions. Electron micro probe analysis (EMPA of magnetite from the Chupanlar area showed that it belongs to porphyry and Kiruna type deposits. Based on the observations made, three types of aqueous fluid inclusions were distinguished in the quartz-sulfide veins, including halite-saturated aqueous (H2O–NaCl±KCl, aqueous two-phase (H2O–NaCl±CaCl2, and monophase liquid and vapor fluid inclusions. Discussion Because of the lack of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions phase in the samples, we used a temperature-pressure relationship intersection in order to obtain the depth of mineralization. However, but at this study salt-rich inclusions (type 1 the dissolution of halite homogeneous solid phase (Bodnar, 1994 were used in order to estimate the standing deposit. Considering the temperature of the liquid-vapor homogenization (Thl-v, temperatures between 201 to 474°C, homogenization halite (TmNaCl between 196 to 434°C (48 wt% NaCl eq. in the solid phase inclusions with halite, minimum and the maximum pressure between 4.0 and 7.2, respectively that occur at 0.4 to 2

  19. Cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data in mineralized northern Menderes Massif, Turkey (United States)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim


    The Menderes Massif in western Turkey formed by the stacking of tectonic units during Cretaceous-Eocene shortening that were modified by late Oligocene to recent crustal extension, accompanied by significant crustal melting. The interaction of regional deformation with crustal melting and the emplacement of plutons and volcanic complexes during both contraction and extension across structures related to the Tethyan suture has resulted in epithermal and porphyry type gold mineralization that has taken place mainly in the northern and western parts of the Menderes Massif, and in ongoing structurally controlled hydrothermal activity across its entire extent. The northern Menderes Massif contains granitic intrusions, ophiolitic klippen, volcanics, metamorphic basement and Cenozoic sediments. Some of the plutons, such as the Egrigöz granite, have intruded into the footwall of an extensional shear zone, defining at least part of the granite-intruded basement as a Miocene metamorphic core complex with ophiolitic rocks of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara zone in the hanging wall plate. Here we present results of cross-gradient joint inversions of gravity and magnetic data in the northern Menderes Massif along a series of cross-sections oriented N-S, E-W and ESE-WNW. The inversions were carried out to better define the subsurface geology and aid targeting hydrothermal mineralization. The results suggest that metamorphic rocks with low magnetization underlie wide areas in the centre and east of the study area. Dense rocks with low to intermediate magnetization often correlate with oceanic affinity rocks that extend to great depth in the west and southeast of the study area, but occur as thin sheets in the centre. Regions of low to intermediate magnetization and low density are mostly encountered with the upper 5 km of the crust and are often spatially associated with felsic volcanic complexes and sedimentary rocks. High magnetization and low density are generally associated with

  20. Measurements of bone mineral density. Mineral density in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, M. [Klinicum Kassel, Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Raue, F. [Endocrine Practice, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Bone metabolism and thus bone remodelling and bone mineral content are profoundly influenced by many hormonal and metabolic factors. This review presents the state of the art procedures for bone mineral absorptiometry and examines the interactions of endocrine and metabolic diseases and bone mineral content. Preventive and therapeutic modalities of osteoporosis are discusses in this context.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Debido a las altas tasas de consumo de minerales y el alto crecimiento de la población humana, los recursos minerales en el planeta Tierra se encuentran en proceso de agotamiento, esta escasez crea la necesidad de encontrar nuevas alternativas para suplir las crecientes necesidades. Una alternativa adicional a la tradicional búsqueda de nuevos yacimientos en la tierra, es la búsqueda de yacimientos más allá de nuestro planeta, estos nuevos recursos se pueden buscar en la vecindad de nuestro planeta. La extracción en cuerpos de nuestro sistema solar como la Luna, Marte y el cinturón de asteroides puede proporcionar abundantes recursos energéticos como el helio 3 y minerales como el potasio, elementos de tierras raras, hierro y minerales del grupo del platino. Ahora, algunas compañías están planeando esta exploración y para los geólogos y profesionales de la minería en general, esto abre grandes posibilidades para la investigación científica, innovación tecnológica y desarrollo profesional en nuevos campos.

  2. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi


    Abstract. The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  3. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS) (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.


    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: tantalum (United States)



    The article offers information on a rare transition metal called tantalum. It says that the blue-gray mineral resource was discovered in 1801 or 1802 and was used for capacitors in 1940. It adds that the tantalite ore and other minerals in the ore should be separated in order to generate concentrates of tantalum. The use of tantalum are also cited.

  5. Minerals in fish: does the source matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.


    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. (2015). Minerals in fish: does the source matter? PhD thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Minerals are a group of micro-nutrients essential to fish. Meta-analysis of literature data was performed to identify the appropriate response criterion to

  6. Phytochemicals and selected mineral constituents of Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris pods was screened for its phytochemical constituents. Selected mineral elements were also determined. Standard procedures were adopted for the phytochemical screening. Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for mineral analysis. Alkaloids ...

  7. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.


    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  8. Mineral matter and ash in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S. (ed.)


    The ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry was responsible for the symposium, held in Philadelphia in 1984, that gave rise to the 38 typescript papers in this volume. They are concerned with the chemistry of coal mineral matter, coal ash properties and their prediction, coal ash deposition in boilers, and catalysis by ash and mineral matter in coal utilization.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: Strontium (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.


    Strontium occurs commonly in nature, ranking as the 15th most abundant chemical element on Earth. Only two minerals contain sufficient strontium, however, to be used commercially to produce strontium compounds: Strontianite (strontium carbonate) has a higher strontium content, but celestite (strontium sulfate) is by far the most abundant strontium mineral.

  10. Strategic Minerals in the New World Order (United States)


    strategies on the part of mineral producers or consumers. They are unlikely to be undertaken without government incentives. Governmental incentives for the...these mineral products on the world markt can no longer be assured. Part of the problem is political, but economic malaise and environmental health

  11. Nitrogen Mineralization From Prunings Of Three Multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both mineralization and nitrification processes occurred more in the 0-30cm than 30-60cm soil depths. Among the legumes, low N mineralization, nitrification and ammonification were found in the Cajanus cajan alley treatments. Leaching was more pronounced in the fertilizer than in the alley treatments. However, nutrient ...

  12. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.


    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: potash (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.


    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  15. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended ...

  16. Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems. (United States)

    Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J


    The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene.

  17. Physical properties of evaporite minerals (United States)

    Robertson, Eugene C.


    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  18. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi


    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  19. Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization. (United States)

    Goldberg, Michel; Kulkarni, Askok B; Young, Marian; Boskey, Adele


    We review firstly the specificities of the different types of dentin present in mammalian teeth. The outer layers include the mantle dentin, the Tomes' granular and the hyaline Hopewell-Smith's layers. Circumpulpal dentin forming the bulk of the tooth, comprises intertubular and peritubular dentin. In addition to physiological primary and secondary dentin formation, reactionary dentin is produced in response to pathological events. Secondly, we evaluate the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation, their implication in the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen fibrils and non-collagenous molecules. Thirdly, we study the composition and functions of dentin extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules implicated in dentinogenesis. As structural proteins they are mineralization promoters or inhibitors. They are also signaling molecules. Three different forms of dentinogenesis are identified: i) matrix vesicles are implicated in early dentin formation, ii) collagen and some proteoglycans are involved in the formation of predentin, further transformed into intertubular dentin, iii) the distal secretion of some non-collagenous ECM molecules and some serum proteins contribute to the formation of peritubular dentin.

  20. Exploiting mineral data: applications to the diversity, distribution, and social networks of copper mineral (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Golden, J. J.; Pires, A.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Zednik, S.; Eleish, A.; Prabhu, A.; Hummer, D. R.; Liu, C.; Meyer, M.; Ralph, J.; Hystad, G.; Hazen, R. M.


    We have developed a comprehensive database of copper (Cu) mineral characteristics. These data include crystallographic, paragenetic, chemical, locality, age, structural complexity, and physical property information for the 689 Cu mineral species approved by the International Mineralogical Association ( Synthesis of this large, varied dataset allows for in-depth exploration of statistical trends and visualization techniques. With social network analysis (SNA) and cluster analysis of minerals, we create sociograms and chord diagrams. SNA visualizations illustrate the relationships and connectivity between mineral species, which often form cliques associated with rock type and/or geochemistry. Using mineral ecology statistics, we analyze mineral-locality frequency distribution and predict the number of missing mineral species, visualized with accumulation curves. By assembly of 2-dimensional KLEE diagrams of co-existing elements in minerals, we illustrate geochemical trends within a mineral system. To explore mineral age and chemical oxidation state, we create skyline diagrams and compare trends with varying chemistry. These trends illustrate mineral redox changes through geologic time and correlate with significant geologic occurrences, such as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) or Wilson Cycles.

  1. PMCR-Miner: parallel maximal confident association rules miner algorithm for microarray data set. (United States)

    Zakaria, Wael; Kotb, Yasser; Ghaleb, Fayed F M


    The MCR-Miner algorithm is aimed to mine all maximal high confident association rules form the microarray up/down-expressed genes data set. This paper introduces two new algorithms: IMCR-Miner and PMCR-Miner. The IMCR-Miner algorithm is an extension of the MCR-Miner algorithm with some improvements. These improvements implement a novel way to store the samples of each gene into a list of unsigned integers in order to benefit using the bitwise operations. In addition, the IMCR-Miner algorithm overcomes the drawbacks faced by the MCR-Miner algorithm by setting some restrictions to ignore repeated comparisons. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is a parallel version of the new proposed IMCR-Miner algorithm. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is based on shared-memory systems and task parallelism, where no time is needed in the process of sharing and combining data between processors. The experimental results on real microarray data sets show that the PMCR-Miner algorithm is more efficient and scalable than the counterparts.

  2. Adsorption of dextrin on hydrophobic minerals. (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A


    The adsorption of dextrin on talc, molybdenite, and graphite (three naturally hydrophobic minerals) has been compared. Adsorption isotherms and in situ tapping mode atomic force microscope (TMAFM) imaging have enabled polymer adsorbed amount and morphology of the adsorbed layer (area coverage and polymer domain size) to be determined and also the amount of hydration water in the structure of the adsorbed layer. The effect of the polymer on the mineral contact angles, measured by the captive bubble method on cleaved mineral surfaces, indicates clear correlations between the hydrophobicity reduction of the minerals, the adsorbed amount, and the surface coverage of the adsorbed polymer. Predictions of the flotation recovery of the treated mineral phases have been confirmed by performing batch flotation experiments. The influence of the polymer surface coverage on flotation recovery has highlighted the importance of this key parameter in the predictions of depressant efficiency. The roles of the initial hydrophobicity and the surface structure of the mineral basal plane in determining adsorption parameters and flotation response of the polymer-treated minerals are also discussed.

  3. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira


    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (, and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  4. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira


    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (, and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  5. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone (United States)

    Martin, Bruce


    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  6. Surface Geochemistry of the Clay Minerals (United States)

    Sposito, Garrison; Skipper, Neal T.; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, Sung-Ho; Soper, Alan K.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.


    Clay minerals are layer type aluminosilicates that figure in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, in the buffering capacity of the oceans, and in the containment of toxic waste materials. They are also used as lubricants in petroleum extraction and as industrial catalysts for the synthesis of many organic compounds. These applications derive fundamentally from the colloidal size and permanent structural charge of clay mineral particles, which endow them with significant surface reactivity. Unraveling the surface geochemistry of hydrated clay minerals is an abiding, if difficult, topic in earth sciences research. Recent experimental and computational studies that take advantage of new methodologies and basic insights derived from the study of concentrated ionic solutions have begun to clarify the structure of electrical double layers formed on hydrated clay mineral surfaces, particularly those in the interlayer region of swelling 2:1 layer type clay minerals. One emerging trend is that the coordination of interlayer cations with water molecules and clay mineral surface oxygens is governed largely by cation size and charge, similarly to a concentrated ionic solution, but the location of structural charge within a clay layer and the existence of hydrophobic patches on its surface provide important modulations. The larger the interlayer cation, the greater the influence of clay mineral structure and hydrophobicity on the configurations of adsorbed water molecules. This picture extends readily to hydrophobic molecules adsorbed within an interlayer region, with important implications for clay-hydrocarbon interactions and the design of catalysts for organic synthesis.

  7. Marketing mix of chosen Slovak mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhanová Silvia


    Full Text Available Considering its small area, Slovakia abounds in many sources of mineral waters and a considerable amount of them can be used for the commercial utilization. STN 86 8000 divides mineral waters in the natural mineral waters, natural mineral table waters and the natural mineral healing waters. Natural mineral water is, after the present norm, in effect water, which rises from natural trapped sources. This type of water contains more than 1 gram of dissolved substances or 1 gram of dissolved CO 2 in 1 litter. Natural mineral table water is water that, with its chemical composition as well as its physical and sensorial attributes is suitable as a refresher. It contains at least 1 gram of melted CO2 and up to 6 grams of dissolved illiquid substances in 1 litter. The mentioned substances are not characterised by any marked pharmacological effect. Natural mineral healing water is water, which with an eye to its chemical composition and physical properties, have a scientifically demonstrable effects to the human health and it is generally used for healing purposes. In the present contribution, an attention is orientated to the occurrence of listed types of waters in Slovakia, in connection with geological conditions of their circulation and accumulation and especially with possibilities of their use on the Slovak buyer’s market.The marketing mix is a complex of information, which can be regulated. Firms accumulate this information to satisfy a customer. Marketing mix of mineral waters includes information about four variables: product (characteristics of product, quality, packing, design..., prices, advertisement, distribution (the way how to get product to customer. Data listed in the contribution come from the sectional market research, which was performed between December 1st and December 22nd 2000 in twenty groceries in

  8. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  9. Minerals in nature and "on Paper": History of the commissions on new minerals in Russia and IMA and principles of classification and nomenclature of minerals (United States)

    Bulakh, A. G.


    This paper reviews the history of the foundation of the Commission on New Minerals in Russia (1956) and the same Commission of the International Mineral Association (IMA). The terms mineral species, subspecies, and variety are considered. The nomenclature of mineral groups of lovozerite, eudialyte, and apatite is given as examples of using a root name and its suffixes.

  10. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.


    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  11. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie


    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  12. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon


    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  13. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations (United States)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  14. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation


    Baláž Peter; Tréger Milan


    According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international c...

  15. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  16. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  17. Land use/mineral rights map series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.


    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin. It also establishes a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assists the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data. During the funded period, this was the only effort of this nature occurring in the United States. Ten additional maps were completed during this 1982-1983 funding period. Virtually all large mining and leasing companies operating in the Basin now have standing orders for all new maps, and orders for existing maps are regularly received. As a spinoff of this project, one additional major project has been completed during this funding period, a county-wide land use and land cover map of Cullman County, Alabama.

  18. Major mineral deposits of the world (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  19. The Minerals of Candor Chasma (United States)


    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of sulfate- and pyroxene-containing deposits in the Candor Chasma region of Mars at 0747 UTC (2:47 a.m. EST) on December 2, 2006, near 6.7 degrees south latitude, 75.8 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Candor Chasma is a deep, elongated, steep-sided depression some 813 kilometers (505 miles) long. It is one of two large chasmata that make up the northern end of the Valles Marineris system. The top panel in the montage above illustrates the location of CRISM data on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). CRISM data cover an area centered on the southwestern part of Candor Chasma, where highland crust was depressed by faulting and buried by a kilometers-thick stack of layered deposits. The bottom two images are views of CRISM data. The lower left image is an infrared false color image, while at lower right is a spectral image that illustrates the distribution of sulfates in the layered deposits, the olivine and pyroxene that make up the faulted highland crust, and high-calcium pyroxene in the highland crust. The northern part of CRISM's data swath covers interior deposits formed after the canyon floor was faulted and depressed. This lighter region in the infrared image at lower left exhibits the spectral signatures of sulfates (blues) in the CRISM spectral image at lower right. The southern end of CRISM's data reveals volcanic minerals (pyroxene and olivine) that make up the older, underlying highland crust. The strongest signature comes from the common diopside-hedenbergite series of pyroxenes a group of silicate materials rich in iron, magnesium, and calcium. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The

  20. Robert oerley and Tuzla mineral springs


    Ateş Can, Sevim


    In the Tuzla borough of İstanbul are located mineral springs of great importance which have been known and used since ancient times. Although the therapeutic value of Tuzla Mineral Springs has always been recognized, this value in terms of the history of architecture has not been very well understood. The current facilities in the springs were built in the Republican Period. The most important among them is the Spa Hotel, whose project was initiated by Robert Oerley. The oth...

  1. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals (United States)

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.


    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  2. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard


    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  3. Occupational asthma in a coal miner.


    Gamboa, P. M.; Jáuregui, I.; Urrutia, I.; Antépara, I.; González, G.; Múgica, V.


    Occupational asthma in coal miners is hardly recognised. A report is presented of a coal miner whose clinical picture suggested a respiratory allergy which occurred only in the mine where he worked. Serum specific IgE levels, skin tests, and bronchial provocation tests with different commercial extracts showed sensitisation to Rhizopus nigricans. Rhizopus spp were found inside the mine, as demonstrated by cultures on petri plates.

  4. Occupational asthma in a coal miner. (United States)

    Gamboa, P. M.; Jáuregui, I.; Urrutia, I.; Antépara, I.; González, G.; Múgica, V.


    Occupational asthma in coal miners is hardly recognised. A report is presented of a coal miner whose clinical picture suggested a respiratory allergy which occurred only in the mine where he worked. Serum specific IgE levels, skin tests, and bronchial provocation tests with different commercial extracts showed sensitisation to Rhizopus nigricans. Rhizopus spp were found inside the mine, as demonstrated by cultures on petri plates. PMID:8795682

  5. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew


    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  6. Mineral resources of Novokuznetsk administrative district of Kemerovo region (metallic and non-metallic minerals) (United States)

    Gutak, Ja M.


    The article summarizes data on metallic and non-metallic minerals of Novokuznetsk district of Kemerovo region. Consistently reviewed are iron deposits (Tersinskaya group of deposits), gold deposits (placer accumulations and vein gold deposits), mineral water deposits (Tersinskoe deposit), deposit of refractory clay (Barkinskoe) and wide spread mineral deposits such as brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel, building stones, ornamental stones, facing stones, peat, materials for lime production. It is indicated that resource base of metallic and nonmetallic minerals is inferior to that of mineral coal. At the same time it can be of considerable interest to small and medium-size businesses as objects with quick return of investment (facing and ornamental stones). For a number of wide spread mineral resources (brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel) it is an important component of local industry.

  7. High-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites (United States)

    Tomioka, Naotaka; Miyahara, Masaaki


    Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high-pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high-pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid-state high-pressure transformation of the host-rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to 25 GPa. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high-pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.

  8. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.


    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.


    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  10. Geochronology and geology of late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Bove, D.J.; Hon, Ken; Budding, K.E.; Slack, J.F.; Snee, L.W.; Yeoman, R.A.


    Twenty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages from volcanic rocks and veins in the western San Juan Mountains clarify relationships between volcanism and mineralization in this classic area. Five calc-alkaline ash-flow sheets erupted from caldera sources (Ute Ridge, Blue Mesa, Dillon Mesa, Sapinero Mesa, and Crystal Lake Tuffs) from 28.6 to 27.6 Ma. This is a much more restricted time interval than previously thought and indicates that the underlying batholith rose and evolved very rapidly beneath the western San Juan Mountains. The new ages and geologic relations constrain the timing of joint resurgence of the Uncompahgre and San Juan calderas to between 28.2 and 27.6 Ma. The collapse of the Silverton caldera produced a set of strong ring fractures that intersected with graben faults on the earlier resurgent dome to produce the complex set of structures that localized the mid-Miocene epithermal gold veins. Later calc-alkaline monzonitic to quartz monzontic plutons solidified at 26.5-26.0 Ma as the underlying batholith rose through its volcanic cover. A new age from lavas near Uncompahgre Peak supports earlier interpretations that these lavas were fed by nearby 26 Ma monzonite intrusions. Nearly all of these intrusions are associated with subeconomic Mo and Cu mineralization and associated alteration, and new ages of 26.40 and 25.29 Ma from the Ute-Ulay and Lilly veins in the Lake City region show that some of the most important silver and base-metal veins were temporally and possibly genetically connected to these plutons. In addition, the Golden Fleece telluride vein cuts all of the post-Uncompahgre caldera volcanics in the area and is probably temporally related to this cycle, though its age of 27.5 ? 0.3 Ma was determined by less precise U/Pb methods. The 22.9 Ma Lake City caldera collapsed within the older Uncompahgre caldera structure but is petrologically unrelated to the older calc-alkaline activity. The distinctive suite of high-silica rhyolite tuff and alkaline

  11. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres. (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena


    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.


    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  13. Dissolution Rates and Mineral Lifetimes of Phosphate Containing Minerals and Implications for Mars (United States)

    Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E.


    The objectives of NASA's Mars Exploration Program include exploring the planet's habitability and the possibility of past, present, or future life. This includes investigating "possible supplies of bioessential elements" [1]. Phosphate is one such bioessential element for life as we understand it. Phosphate is also abundant on Mars [2], and the phosphate rich minerals chlorapatite, fluorapatite, and merrillite have been observed in Martian meteorites [3]. Surface rock analyses from the MER Spirit also show the loss of a phosphate rich mineral from the rocks Wishstone and Watchtower at Gusev Crater [4,5], implying mineral dissolution. Dissolution rates of phosphate containing minerals are therefore important for characterizing phosphate mobility and bioavailability on Mars. Previous studies have measured dissolution rates of fluorapatite [6-8]. However, chlorapatite and merrillite (a non-terrestrial mineral similar to whitlockite) are more common phosphate minerals found in Martian meteorites [3], and few dissolution data exist for these minerals. We have begun batch dissolution experiments on chlorapatite, synthesized using methods of [9], and whitlockite, synthesized using a method modified from [10]. Additionally, we are dissolving Durango fluorapatite to compare to dissolution rates in literature, and natural Palermo whitlockite to compare to dissolution rates of our synthesized whitlockite. Batch dissolution experiments were performed after [8], using a 0.01 molar KNO3 solution with 0.1500g-0.3000g mineral powders and starting solution volumes of 180ml in LDPE reaction vessels. HNO3 or KOH were used to adjust initial pH as required. Dissolution rates are calculated from the rate of change of elemental concentration in solution as a function of time, and normalized to the mineral surface area as measured by BET. Resulting rates will be used to calculate mineral lifetimes for the different phosphate minerals under potential Mars-like aqueous conditions, and in

  14. Fluid-rock interaction: mineral stability, mineral equilibria, and the propagation of metastable phases (United States)

    Harlov, D.


    The role of fluids in promoting mineral equilibria as a function of P-T-X has been documented for a variety of mineral systems both in nature as well as experimentally. In each of these cases, the rate at which equilibration occurs depends on fluid-mineral reactivity and upon the subsequent rate of dissolution- reprecipitation of the participating mineral phases (cf. review in Putnis, 2002, Mineral Mag, 66, 689). In rocks without a fluid phase, equilibration between mineral phases is entirely diffusion controlled. As a consequence, complete equilibration tends not to occur. This can then lead to the propagation of metastable mineral phases far beyond their P-T-X stability field over geological time scales. Examples of fluid-induced re-equilibration in mineral systems include formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 150, 268), metasomatically induced replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar (Putnis et al., 2006, Lithos, in press online), solid-state transformation of biotite and amphibole to pyroxenes (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol, 47, 3), formation of titantite reaction rims on ilmenite (Harlov et al., Lithos, 88, 72), and replacement of fluorapatite by Fe-bearing chlorapatite (Harlov et al., 2006, Eur J Mineral, 18, 233). In each of these examples, fluids of varying compositions, pH, and H2O activities are required to achieve both the re-equilibration of the mineral phases involved, via dissolution-reprecipitation, as well as whatever subsequent mass transfer may be required. In general this process, whether from nature or experimental, can be investigated on both the micron and nanometer scale utilizing a variety of techniques including SEM, TEM, EBSD, LA-ICPMS, SIMS and EMP analysis. Such procedures, coupled with textural analysis, then allows for a more complete understanding of fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer on scales ranging from nanometers to kilometers.

  15. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three ...

  16. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson


    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  17. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.


    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  18. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards


    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate mine...

  19. Mineral profile of Spanish commercial baby food. (United States)

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; González-Masó, Anna; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel


    Commercial baby foods are an important part of the daily intake of babies from 6 to 12 months. The mineral profile of commercial baby foods in Spain was determined to establish levels of essential and non-essential elements, and their contribution to adequate intake (AI) and estimated average requirement (EAR). Thirty-five jars of commercial foods containing meat, fish, vegetables and fruit were obtained from the Spanish market and the mineral composition determined for 14 elements. In general, the baby foods analysed were sufficient for an adequate mineral intake, but contributions to AI and EAR for iron, zinc and calcium were very low (5-20%, 10-60% and 10-70%, respectively). This deficiency could be associated with growth problems or diseases in adulthood, and fortification of commercial products is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineral lung burden of an urban population (United States)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  1. On the natural floatability of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, C. [Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering


    The phenomenon of natural floatability in minerals, collectorless flotation, and features common to both are discussed. It is concluded that the natural floatability of minerals is confined to those with a sheet structure in which all primary chemical bonds are satisfied and Van der Waal`s bonds hold the crystal together; collectorless flotation appears to be controlled by the interface potential, which can lead to hydrophobic metal deficient sulphide, elemental sulphur, or polysulphides; collectorless flotation in a number of pure mineral samples and complex ores could provide significant cost benefits; and Derjaguin`s application of the zeta potential-pH relationship for natural flotation of antimonite and Chander`s verification of the hypothesis for molybdenite may be extendable to a generalized theory of collectorless flotation. 37 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an important matter of pediatrics — hypovitaminosis prevention among children. The author generally provided for the functions of vitamins in ensuring the normal vital functions of the organism, as well as described the properties of certain vitamins and microelements, their uniqueness and irreplaceability. Therefore, considering great troubles in ensuring the optimal contents of these substances in the ration, the author showed the necessity of the preventive prescription of the vitamin and mineral complexes. Besides, their application is expedient during the period of recovery from acute infectious diseases and in the comprehensive therapy of the chronic somatic diseases. The author points out to the necessity to choose the dosage form of a vitamin and mineral complex with due regard for the daily requirement for the vitamins and minerals among children from different age groups.Key words: vitamins, microelements, hypovitaminosis, prevention, children.

  3. Biogeochemical interactions during the biobeneficiation of minerals (United States)

    Shrivastava, J.; Mudliar, P. S.; Mudliar, S. N.; Pandey, R. A.


    Mineral biotechnology is one of the wings of biotechnology involving integrated application of the knowledge and techniques of biochemistry, microbiology, genetics and chemical engineering to draw benefit at the technological level from the properties and capacities of microorganisms. It offers the possibility of recovering, refining and concentrating wide varieties of minerals for services essential to life and well being of mankind. It also helps in minimising the environmental damages with recourse to conserving the natural resources for future generation. The paper outlines possible microorganism-microorganism interaction, microorganism-mineral interactions and microorganism interactions with produced products of biobeneficiation especially with respect to copper waste tailings and coal containing pyretic sulphur. Keywords: Copper; Tailings; Coal; Pyrite; Thiobascillus ferrooxidans; Thiobascillus thiooxidans

  4. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk (United States)

    Long, K. R.


    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  5. Geoelectrical Signatures Of Microbial Stimulated Mineralization (United States)

    Personna, Y. R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; O Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.


    Bioremediation techniques are commonly utilized to address soil and groundwater contamination due to acid- mine drainage, industrial sources, and government nuclear weapon programs. One critical component of these efforts is the real time, spatially accurate monitoring of the remediation processes. For this reason non-invasive high resolution geophysical methods have been employed in the recent years to elucidate system transformations occurring during bioremediation. In our study, we performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of microbe-mediated iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation accompanying stimulated sulfate-reduction; a bioremediation technique currently utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. In order to monitor the biomineralization process, we used two geoelectrical methods - induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) - in conjunction with conventional geochemical measurements. The IP data showed significant anomalies associated with ongoing FeS mineralization accompanying microbial activity. The magnitude of the IP response can be considered a proxy for the mass of minerals accumulating in the pore space and may provide insight into the aggregation state of the mineralization. Additionally, strong SP anomalies developed during the mineralization as a result of the continuous redox state changes following the microbial induced mineral formation. Visibly black precipitates accumulated with the column indicating FeS precipitation, and high H2S content confirmed the observed geochemical and geophysical data. Overall, the results suggest that the IP and SP methods can be used to monitor the progress of the microbial induced mineralization process associated with the precipitation of insoluble metal sulfides, and indirectly monitor the microbial activity within the subsurface. These methods can be valuable tools to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques.

  6. Mineral composition of basidiomes of Amanita species. (United States)

    Vetter, János


    Basidiomes of 43 samples of eight Amanita species were gathered from different habitats of Hungary. The mineral composition (22 elements) was analysed by the ICP method in three independent replications, and mineral compositions found as discussed and compared. The Amanita species analysed were very different in As-, Cd-, Cr-, Mo-, Mn-, Se- and mainly in V-content. Other elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, Sr, Ti, Zn) occur in the basidiomes in balanced concentrations. The K and P contents have the lowest differences. Summarizing all the data (n = 43), the average mineral status of species of Amanita can be deduced. The lowest variability measured was for K and P, and the highest for chromium, nickel and vanadium. Specific, significant accumulation was found only for vanadium, due to the previously demonstrated occurrence of a binding molecule 'amavadine' in the basidiomes of A. muscaria. Remarkable Cd-levels were estimated in A. pantherina and A. muscaria (11.4 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) D.M., respectively). The higher contents of other elements (e.g. K, practically in all species; Se in A. strobiliformis) are analytical facts but, not accumulations. The mineral compositions of the ectomycorrhizal genus Amanita, of litter decomposing Agaricus and of wood decaying Trametes were compared. Some significant differences were found (AsAmanita KTrametes; PAmanita > PTrametes) but it seems that the mineral composition of the basidiomes is practically independent of the ectomycorrhizal habit. The specificities of the fungi-tree symbiotic interactions are known, and well documented (higher uptake and transport of certain elements first of all of P), however, the differences found in the mineral components are due to other factors (e.g. substrates, accumulating ability) and not to the mycorrhizal status.

  7. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.


    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  8. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran


    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  9. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum). (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A


    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  10. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José


    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  11. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel


    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  12. [Characteristics of the lipid spectrum in miners]. (United States)

    Zhasminova, V G; Sokolova, M A; El'garov, A A


    Serum lipids were studied in workers of a mining enterprise situated in mid-altitude areas who were affected by some unfavourable occupational factors (noise, vibration, dustiness, psychological and physical stresses). They were compared with those in a number- and age-matched group of employees of an instrument-making plant who resided in the plain and were unexposed to the above adverse factors. The miners were found to have greater mean levels of triglycerides and potentially atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol. The mean lipid levels were higher with the miners' age and length of occupation whereas the duration of residence in mid-altitude areas had no noticeable influence on lipid levels.

  13. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    , is to handle the other projects that are generated by the "gold rush" informational externalities created by the initial discovery. At the core of the problems of dealing with a gold rush situation is both the informational externality and an institutional framework which is not designed to deal with large...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic (United States)

    Brooks, William E.


    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  15. Phospholipases of Mineralization Competent Cells and Matrix Vesicles: Roles in Physiological and Pathological Mineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Buchet


    Full Text Available The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis—a bone resorbing disease—and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in bone forming osteoblasts, chondrocytes and in bone resorbing osteoclasts. Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A1 or A2, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. Numerous experimental evidences suggested that phospholipases exert their action at various stages of mineralization by affecting intracellular signaling and cell differentiation. The lipid metabolites—such as arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate are involved in cell signaling and inflammation reactions. Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV biogenesis and exocytosis. They may favour mineral formation inside MVs, may catalyse MV membrane breakdown necessary for the release of mineral deposits into extracellular matrix (ECM, or

  16. Mineral composition and preferred orientation of minerals in shales from Palaeozoic Baltic Basin (United States)

    Gąsiński, Arkadiusz


    Ordovician and Silurian rocks from the Palaeozoic Baltic Basin in northern Poland, often described simply as "shale", embrace a wide range of siliceos and argillaceous rocks. The little knowledge that is available about their detailed mineralogical is mainly limited to qualitative data, so the main aim of this work was to obtain their quantitative mineral composition, based on analysis of thin sections with SEM, FIB and EDS techniques supported by XRD data. The mineral composition of shales dictates their chemical properties and is also a major factor determining their physical properties, especially relating to their stability during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and hydrocarbon production. Knowledge of the mineral composition of different shales plays a very important role in identifying optimal proppants, fracture fluids and pumping schedules. The mineralogy of the shale is an important influence on total gas capacity. Carbonate-rich shales indicate adjacent carbonate platform and embayment succession origins, and commonly have a lower organic carbon content and porosity, and a corresponding lower gas capacity, than shales with lower carbonate content. All samples show a rather complex mineralogical composition with illite, micas, quartz, calcite, dolomite and chlorites as major minerals. It was possible to point out the microzones that contain higher amount of brittle minerals and therefore should be especially prone to cracking. Anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks is receiving increasing attention. This feature is very important for the prospecting for hydrocarbon deposits and for hydraulic fracturing. Anisotropy of diffusion has become relevant for environmental contaminants, including nuclear waste. In both cases, the orientation of component minerals is a critical ingredient. In this study I also show the orientation of different mineral components in shales with image analysis methods that allow me to characterize the shape of grains and its

  17. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))


    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  19. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei) (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.


    Minerals are critical to an individual’s health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods. PMID:25372712

  20. Bismuth-silver mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin A. A.


    Full Text Available Bismuth-silver mineralization attendant to gold mineralization in the Sergozerskoe gold occurrence has been studied in detail. Bi-Ag mineralization is connected with diorite porphyry dykes, which cut volcanic-sedimentary Lopian complexes of the Strel'ninsky greenstone belt – hornblendite and actinolite-chlorite amphibolites, biotite and bi-micaceous gneisses. Distribution of Bi-Ag mineralization similar to gold mineralization is controlled by 80 m thick zone of silicification. Bi minerals are found in brecciated diorite porphyry. Bismuth-silver mineralization includes native metals (bismuth, electrum, silver, tellurides (hedleyite, hessite, selenides (ikunolite, sulfides and sulfosalts of Bi and Ag (matildite, lillianite, eckerite, jalpaite, prustite, acanthite, a few undiagnosed minerals. All Bi and Ag minerals associate with galena. Composition of mineralization evolved from early to late stages of development, depending on intensity of rock alteration. The earliest Bi-Ag minerals were native bismuth and hedleyite formed dissemination in galena, and electrum with 30-45 mass.% Au. Later native bismuth was partly substituted by silver and bismuth sulfosalts and bismuth sulfides. The latest minerals were low-temperature silver sulfides eckerite, jalpaite, and acanthite, which were noted only in the most intensively altered rocks. As soon as the process of formation of Bi-Ag mineralization is the same as formation of gold, findings of bismuth-silver mineralization can serve as a positive exploration sign for gold in the region.

  1. Maturational changes in dentin mineral properties. (United States)

    Verdelis, K; Lukashova, L; Wright, J T; Mendelsohn, R; Peterson, M G E; Doty, S; Boskey, A L


    In this study the changes in properties of the maturing mantle and circumpulpal dentin were quantitatively analyzed. Sections from six fetal bovine undecalcified incisors were used. Regions of mantle and circumpulpal dentin of sequential maturation stages were identified on spectroscopic images acquired by Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging. Spectroscopic parameters corresponding to mineral properties at these stages were analyzed and reported as a function of distance from the cervix of the incisor, the latter representing tissue age. Mineral parameters were correlated with distance from the cervix. Values of these parameters in mantle and circumpulpal dentin were compared. A multi-phasic pattern of changes was found for all the parameters examined, with most of the alterations occurring in the initial maturation period. The patterns of temporal variation in mantle and circumpulpal dentin mineral properties show distinct developmental stages and were not identical for the two dentin compartments. The study showed that mineral maturation in dentin is not a linear process and that mantle dentin is developmentally distinct from circumpulpal dentin, presenting at certain stages different physicochemical events during the maturation of the tissue.

  2. 939 Department of Geology and Mineral Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 12, 2015 ... the rock weathering dominance area. The. Gibbs' diagrams suggest that chemical weathering of the rock forming minerals is the main process which contributes to the concentration of ions in the water. Kelley ratio. Kelley ratio is used to determine suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Sodium ...

  3. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density. (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.


    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  4. Audio magnetotelluric Investigation of Sulfide Mineralization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dhanjori Volcanics along with high geothermal gradient and rifted margin gives rise to metallogeny in form of rifted phase greenstone belts with gold enriched sulfide mineralization. The conductivity model indicated the presence of shallow conductors but could not be resolved due to lack of high frequency data. However ...

  5. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.


    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  6. Non-nutritive mineral effects on rice (United States)

    The study of the responses of rice to non-nutritive minerals has numerous benefits. Rice is the current model plant for genomic studies of crops and with the sequencing of the rice genome, information obtained from rice can be extended to other organisms, which has been particularly valuable regard...

  7. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.


    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  8. Predicting complex mineral structures using genetic algorithms. (United States)

    Mohn, Chris E; Kob, Walter


    We show that symmetry-adapted genetic algorithms are capable of finding the ground state of a range of complex crystalline phases including layered- and incommensurate super-structures. This opens the way for the atomistic prediction of complex crystal structures of functional materials and mineral phases.

  9. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.


    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    excreta from birds kept in batteries. broiler excreta on deep litter systems and pullet and breeder excreta on deep litter systans. Large ... to investigate the concentralion of c@per and zinc in manure fronr broilers fed rations containing various levels of these minerals. ... which substantially increases the price of the product.

  11. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  12. Mineral evolution of redox-sensitive elements (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Grew, E. S.; Downs, R. T.; Golden, J.; Hystad, G.


    Temporal trends in Earth's near-surface mineralogy correlate with major events in geochemical, tectonic, and biological evolution. Recent compilations of age and locality information for the minerals of redox-sensitive elements Mo, Hg, W, Ni, Co, and U reveal statistically significant trends related to key events in the history of the geosphere and biosphere. Mineralization for all of these elements correlates with five intervals of supercontinent assembly, from ~2.7 Ga (Kenorland) to 300 Ma (Pangaea; see Fig. 1). Details of mineral diversity and distribution correlate with changes in near-surface geochemistry, as well as such biological innovations as oxygenic photosynthesis and the rise of the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, systematic increases in average and maximum trace concentrations of Re in molybdenite since 3.0 Ga point to enhanced oxidative weathering by subsurface fluids (Fig. 2). These trace element results, coupled with the delayed appearance of minerals of other redox sensitive elements, suggest that significant terrestrial subsurface oxidation may have postdated the Great Oxidation Event (~2.4 to 2.2 Ga) by hundreds of millions of years.he distribution of molybdenite (MoS2) through Earth history is episodic, with maxima corresponding to times of supercontinent assembly. he rhenium content of molybdenite displays a statistically significant increase over 3 billion years of Earth history. This trend reflects the increased mobility of Re in more oxidized subsurface aqueous environments.

  13. International strategic mineral issues summary report: tungsten (United States)

    Werner, Antony B.T.; Sinclair, W. David; Amey, Earle B.


    Scheelite and wolframite are the principal minerals currently mined for tungsten. Both occur in hard-rock deposits; wolframite is also recovered from placer deposits. Most current mine production of tungsten is from vein/stockwork, skarn, porphyry, and strata-bound deposits. Minor amounts are produced from disseminated, pegmatite, breccia, and placer deposits.

  14. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, R.J.

    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state

  15. Provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty five sandstone samples of Lokoja and Agbaja Formations were collected for textural, geochemical, petrographic and heavy minerals analysis with a view to determining the provenance of the sedimentary rocks.The texture of Lokoja Sandstones reveals poorly sorted sub-arkose immature sandstone with the quartz ...

  16. Comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overcome these limitations, various alternative formulations have been developed. Comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate as apical barrier material in traumatized nonvital, immature teeth: A clinical pilot study. N Tuloglu, S Bayrak. Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, ...

  17. High-temperature properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Maria; Ståhl, Kenny

    Thermal stability and thereby fire safety is an essential property of fibrous insulating materials for buildings. At the same time the viscosity is an important manufacturing property that may impair the thermal stability. This project aims at investigating the thermal stability of some mineral...

  18. Mineral nutrient status, some quality and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered to be one of the most important crops which thrive in newly reclaimed sandy soils as a leguminous crop of high nutritive value and a source of edible oil. Our study tested the effects of different salt levels on mineral nutrient partitioning (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, P and N) and some ...

  19. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Rutledge


    Full Text Available This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a specific type. Quebracho is most commonly used in industry as a method to separate fluorite from calcite, which is traditionally quite challenging as both minerals share a common ion—calcium. Other applications for quebracho in flotation with calcite minerals as the main gangue source include barite and scheelite. In sulfide systems, quebracho is a key reagent in differential flotation of copper, lead, zinc circuits. The use of quebracho in the precipitation of germanium from zinc ores and for the recovery of ultrafine gold is also detailed in this work. This analysis explores the wide range of uses and methodology of quebracho in the extractive metallurgy field and expands on previous research by Iskra and Kitchener at Imperial College entitled, “Quebracho in Mineral Processing”.

  20. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  1. Comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nanoparticles sized bioceramic BioAggregate (DiaRoot. BioAggregate, Innovative BioCeramix Inc., ... with cotton pellets and reinforced with zinc oxide eugenol cement (IRM, Dentsply International Inc., Milford, ..... Zhang H, Pappen FG, Haapasalo M. Dentin enhances the antibacterial effect of mineral trioxide aggregate and ...

  2. protecting miners against occupational injuries and diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    compensation." 1. Linked to this are the poor working conditions that South African miners find themselves in. 2. This is evident from the statistics of workers who die in accidents underground, while thousands more die of work-related diseases such as silicosis,. 3 ..... promotes personal health and well-being. To put this in ...

  3. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.


    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  4. Mineral scale management. Part 1, Case studies (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie


    Mineral scale increases operating costs, extends downtime, and increases maintenance requirements. This paper presents several successful case studies detailing how mills have eliminated scale. Cases presented include calcium carbonate scale in a white liquor strainer, calcium oxalate scale in the D0 stage of the bleach plant, enzymatic treatment of brown stock to...

  5. New Mexico Minerals Industry Locator System (MILS) (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This contains all Mineral Industry Systems in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the state of New...

  6. Nutritional Composition, Vitamins, Minerals And Toxic Heavy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study aimed at analyzing the nutritional potential of a wild edible plant, Trianthema portulacastrum. L. widely used in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The nutritional composition, vitamins, minerals and heavy elements were analyzed following the standard methods of Association of Official. Analytical ...

  7. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de


    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of

  8. The global stoichiometry of litter nitrogen mineralization (United States)

    Stefano Manzoni; Robert B. Jackson; John A. Trofymow; Amilcare Porporato


    Plant residue decomposition and the nutrient release to the soil play a major role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Although decomposition rates vary strongly with climate, nitrogen immobilization into litter and its release in mineral forms are mainly controlled by the initial chemical composition of the residues. We used a data set of ~2800 observations to show...

  9. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer tax in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou


    Sweden’s tax on mineral fertilizers had been in place for 25 years when it was suddenly revoked in 2009 in response to the financial crisis. Initially it targeted both nitrogen and phosphorus, but cadmium present in phosphorus replaced the latter taxation base after the first ten years. The tax...

  10. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass


    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  11. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant (Cij ) and bulk modulus. (KT) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (δT) as temperature-independent and then by treating δT as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when δT is ...

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  13. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners (United States)


    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  14. provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Fifty five sandstone samples of Lokoja and Agbaja Formations were collected for textural, geochemical, petrographic and heavy minerals analysis with a view to determining the provenance of the sedimentary rocks.The texture of Lokoja Sandstones reveals poorly sorted sub-arkose immature sandstone with the quartz.

  15. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.


    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila

  16. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources]. (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C


    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  17. -Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Mineral Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Brill, Marcel


    We have synthesized and characterized new gold-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes derived from the deprotonation of mineral acids. The use of sulfuric acid was a particularly interesting case. These complexes were tested in known gold-catalyzed reactions, such as the hydration of alkynes and the Meyer–Schuster rearrangement. They proved to be highly efficient in both reactions.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: mercury (United States)



    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  19. Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and manganese. The phytochemical screening of the seed showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, anthraquinones as well as cardiac glycosides while tannins, ...

  20. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: and

  1. Organic matter mineralization in marine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Vlug, T.; Van der Nat, F.J.


    Many of the reactions and biogeochemical processes that occur in the marine environment are related directly or indirectly to the mineralization of organic matter. Decomposition of organic matter is responsible for the recycling of essential nutrients, for the oxygen balance of the ocean and its

  2. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.


    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  3. Silicate mineral dissolution during heap bioleaching. (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Halinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rahunen, Nelli; Boström, Dan; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A


    Silicate minerals are present in association with metal sulfides in ores and their dissolution occurs when the sulfide minerals are bioleached in heaps for metal recovery. It has previously been suggested that silicate mineral dissolution can affect mineral bioleaching by acid consumption, release of trace elements, and increasing the viscosity of the leach solution. In this study, the effect of silicates present in three separate samples in conjunction with chalcopyrite and a complex multi-metal sulfide ore on heap bioleaching was evaluated in column bioreactors. Fe(2+) oxidation was inhibited in columns containing chalcopyrite samples A and C that leached 1.79 and 1.11 mM fluoride, respectively but not in sample B that contained 0.14 mM fluoride. Microbial Fe(2+) oxidation inhibition experiments containing elevated fluoride concentrations and measurements of fluoride release from the chalcopyrite ores supported that inhibition of Fe(2+) oxidation during column leaching of two of the chalcopyrite ores was due to fluoride toxicity. Column bioleaching of the complex sulfide ore was carried out at various temperatures (7-50 degrees C) and pH values (1.5-3.0). Column leaching at pH 1.5 and 2.0 resulted in increased acid consumption rates and silicate dissolution such that it became difficult to filter the leach solutions and for the leach liquor to percolate through the column. However, column temperature (at pH 2.5) only had a minor effect on the acid consumption and silicate dissolution rates. This study demonstrates the potential negative impact of silicate mineral dissolution on heap bioleaching by microbial inhibition and liquid flow. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Henning Høgh


    Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although there is li......Provision of an adequate mineral supply in the diets of ruminants fed mainly on grassland herbage can present a challenge if mineral concentrations are suboptimal for animal nutrition. Forage herbs may be included in grassland seed mixtures to improve herbage mineral content, although...

  5. Global nonfuel mineral exploration trends 2001-2015 (United States)

    Karl, Nick; Wilburn, David R.


    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) is to collect, analyze and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the U.S. economy and national security. Understanding mineral exploration activities and trends assists government policy makers, minerals industry decision makers and research entities in identifying where future sources of mineral supply are likely to be discovered, the amount and type of these resources and factors that may affect exploration and development.

  6. Effects of Minerals on Human Health and Their Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Kavak


    Full Text Available Health effects of minerals depend on mineralogical structure and dimension ofinhaled dust. Diseases caused by minerals were known as only occupational diseases upto recently. However, many researchers pointed out that many diseases at various partsof body resulted from minerals. Minerals are naturally occurred solid particles whichhave a determined chemical and physical structure properties and interior crystalstructure. In mineral analyses basic disciplines such as chemistry, physics andmathematics are used. In this study, especially minerals that effect human health andtheir mineralogical analyses will be considered.

  7. Mineral waste in the UK : innovation, optimisation and recycling


    Mitchell, Clive


    Mineral waste is largely an unavoidable by-product of the extraction, processing and production of mineral-based products. The UK is well-endowed with mineral resources which have been worked for thousands of years resulting in millions of tonnes of mineral waste across the country. The most significant mineral resource worked was coal with more than 26,000 million tonnes of coal produced and 3600 million tonnes of waste rock. Other significant volumes of mineral waste were derived from m...

  8. Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance: Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosborg, Ingegerd


    .... However, drinking water may also provide a substantial portion of the daily mineral intake, especially for the elderly and children, or those at risk of deficiencies due to unhealthy eating habits or starvation...

  9. Studi Komposisi Mineral Tepung Batu Bukit Kamang Sebagai Bahan Baku Pakan Sumber Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine mineral content of limestone originated from natural deposit of Bukit Kamang for feedstuff. Six samples were prepared and chemically analyzed. The first was limestone in meal form as a product of local milling industry. Another five samples were deposit components with different color of blackish, dark blue, blue, light blue and white. There was 21 kinds of mineral determined which were divided into 3 groups: macros (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl and S, trace minerals (Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Co and Mo and toxic elements (As, F, Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr. The results showed that Bukit Kamang’s limestone contained considerable high essential minerals of Ca, Se, Fe and Mn. The limestone consisted of 38%-40% Ca, 388 ppm Se, 295 ppm Fe and 205 ppm Mn. There were two toxic elements detected: Pb and Cd, but their concentration was found relatively low: 28 and 7 ppm, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of accessible mineral surface areas for improved prediction of mineral reaction rates in porous media (United States)

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Steefel, Carl I.; Swift, Alexander M.; Voltolini, Marco; Yang, Li; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Sheets, Julia M.; Cole, David R.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Mitnick, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Shuo; Landrot, Gautier; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Mito, Saeko; Xue, Ziqiu


    The rates of mineral dissolution reactions in porous media are difficult to predict, in part because of a lack of understanding of mineral reactive surface area in natural porous media. Common estimates of mineral reactive surface area used in reactive transport models for porous media are typically ad hoc and often based on average grain size, increased to account for surface roughness or decreased by several orders of magnitude to account for reduced surface reactivity of field as opposed to laboratory samples. In this study, accessible mineral surface areas are determined for a sample from the reservoir formation at the Nagaoka pilot CO2 injection site (Japan) using a multi-scale image analysis based on synchrotron X-ray microCT, SEM QEMSCAN, XRD, SANS, and FIB-SEM. This analysis not only accounts for accessibility of mineral surfaces to macro-pores, but also accessibility through connected micro-pores in smectite, the most abundant clay mineral in this sample. While the imaging analysis reveals that most of the micro- and macro-pores are well connected, some pore regions are unconnected and thus inaccessible to fluid flow and diffusion. To evaluate whether mineral accessible surface area accurately reflects reactive surface area a flow-through core experiment is performed and modeled at the continuum scale. The core experiment is performed under conditions replicating the pilot site and the evolution of effluent solutes in the aqueous phase is tracked. Various reactive surface area models are evaluated for their ability to capture the observed effluent chemistry, beginning with parameter values determined as a best fit to a disaggregated sediment experiment (Beckingham et al., 2016) described previously. Simulations that assume that all mineral surfaces are accessible (as in the disaggregated sediment experiment) over-predict the observed mineral reaction rates, suggesting that a reduction of RSA by a factor of 10-20 is required to match the core flood

  11. Expression of mineralization markers during pulp response to biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate.


    Dalto é, Mariana O.; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley G.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; Gatón Hernández, Patrícia; Rossi, Andiara de; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da


    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the cell viability of dental pulp cells treated with Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur, France) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and the in vitro and in vivo expression of mineralization markers induced by the 2 materials. METHODS: Human dental pulp cells isolated from 6 permanent teeth were stimulated with Biodentine and MTA extracts. Cell viability was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromid...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Robert C.


    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  13. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas


    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  14. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake. (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva


    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Henriques


    Full Text Available Organic sources can replace all or part of the mineral phosphorus used in fertilizer, providing significant changes in soil chemical properties. This research evaluated the effects of mineral and organic-mineral phosphorus on the soil fertility in maize tillage. The experiment was installed in a seedling nursery at Universidade do Oeste Paulista in Presidente Prudente-SP, in a complete randomized blocks design, with 9 treatments (different Biofós doses associated with different superphosphate doses and 4 replicates. As phosphorus fertilizer source was used the organic-mineral Biofós (3.8% P2O5 and simple superphosphate (18% P2O5. At 50 days after emergence of corn plants it was held soil sampling vessels for evaluation of phosphorus, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, base saturation and soil pH. The fertilizer organic-mineral showed the same efficiency of simple superphosphate in soil fertility. The organo-mineral fertilizer showed the same efficiency of superphosphate on soil fertility, both of which promoted the same changes in pH. Higher Biofós doses should have high levels of soil organic matter, which was not observed. Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and base saturation level did not differ in all fertilizer sources and levels used.

  16. Mineral Surface Rearrangement at High Temperatures: Implications for Extraterrestrial Mineral Grain Reactivity. (United States)

    King, Helen E; Plümper, Oliver; Putnis, Christine V; O'Neill, Hugh St C; Klemme, Stephan; Putnis, Andrew


    Mineral surfaces play a critical role in the solar nebula as a catalytic surface for chemical reactions and potentially acted as a source of water during Earth's accretion by the adsorption of water molecules to the surface of interplanetary dust particles. However, nothing is known about how mineral surfaces respond to short-lived thermal fluctuations that are below the melting temperature of the mineral. Here we show that mineral surfaces react and rearrange within minutes to changes in their local environment despite being far below their melting temperature. Polished surfaces of the rock and planetary dust-forming silicate mineral olivine ((Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 ) show significant surface reorganization textures upon rapid heating resulting in surface features up to 40 nm in height observed after annealing at 1200 °C. Thus, high-temperature fluctuations should provide new and highly reactive sites for chemical reactions on nebula mineral particles. Our results also may help to explain discrepancies between short and long diffusion profiles in experiments where diffusion length scales are of the order of 100 nm or less.

  17. Decentralization, institutional ambiguity, and mineral resource conflict in Mindanao, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.


    Based on an analytical framework that builds on theories of incremental institutional change, this article interrogates the relationship between decentralization and mineral resource conflict in the Philippines. Here, efforts to decentralize control over mineral resource wealth have resulted in a

  18. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  19. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  20. Mineral Resource Points, US EPA Region 9, 2006, USGS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  1. Refractory, Abrasive, and Other Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  2. Origin and Development of Phosphate Minerals in Metamorphosed LL Chondrites (United States)

    Dreeland, L.; Jones, R. H.


    We describe the occurrence of chlorapatite and merrillite in metamorphosed LL chondrites, including grain size distributions, mineral associations, and compositions. Development of phosphate minerals appears to postdate the peak of metamorphism.

  3. Synthesis of Phosphate Minerals for Use in Dissolution Experiments (United States)

    Adcock, C. T.; Simon, A. C.; Hausrath, E. M.


    Mineral dissolution experiments require well-characterized mineral material that is relatively free of contaminates and is available in sufficient quantities. Here we report progress synthesizing chlorapatite and whitlockite for use in dissolution experiments.

  4. Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills (United States)

    Pound, K. S.


    A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and

  5. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Nordi, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud


    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for b1%. On an annual basis the POC export fromthe euphotic...... of the fjord. Thiswas supported by the fact that themeasured benthic mineralization rate – in contrast to most investigations – actually increased with increasing water depth. In August,whenmineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2mmolm−2...... for the water depth related changes in activity. The study in Kaldbaksfjørður underscore that fjords are important sites for long time OC burial, but emphasize the need for accounting for spatial variations when extrapolating results from a single or few stations to the scale of the entire fjord....

  6. [Micronutrients and diabetes, the case of minerals]. (United States)

    Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Montúfar-Robles, Isela; Menjívar-Iraheta, Marta


    Minerals are essential nutrients for the body, are of inorganic nature which gives them the characteristic of being resistant to heat, are involved in a lot of chemical reactions in metabolism, regulating electrolyte balance, in maintaining bone, in the process of blood clotting and the transmission of nerve impulses, particularly its role as enzyme cofactors confers a key role in various physiological processes. Glucose homeostasis involves a fine coordination of events where hormonal control by insulin plays a key role. However, the role of minerals like magnesium, zinc, chromium, iron and selenium in the diabetes is less obvious and in some cases may be controversial. This review shows the knowledge of these five elements and their correlation with diabetes.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in uranium and coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, G.; Arndt, D.; Kotschy-Lang, N.; Obe, G. [Robert Koch Inst., Berlin (Germany)


    Peripheral lymphocytes from 66 Wismut uranium miners (WUM) and 29 Ruhr coal miners (RGM) were cultured and analysed for structural chromosomal aberrations in Giemsa-stained M1 metaphases. Cytogenetic data from 23 male white-collar workers from public services were used as a historical control group. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in WUM and RCM were quite similar. Compared with public services workers, WUM and RCM had significantly higher frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. It is concluded that chromosomal aberrations in WUM are not induced by radioactive particles inhaled during underground mining but as in RCM rather result from factors such as age, lifestyle, illnesses, medications and diagnostic irradiations.

  8. Seasonal variability of Crvena river water mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Predrag


    Full Text Available The mineralization of water and its content in Crvena River so far have not been studied. Water sampling was conducted from April 2008 - May 2009. Total mineralization is relatively low, which is consistent with the dominant lithological structure (Permian red sandstone. Dry residue contains Ca2+ ion, with the increased participation of SiO2. During the observational period it is clearly expressed seasonal effect. It is reflected not in the direct but the indirect impact. Based on the ratio of individual ions a model is determined for estimation of water flow at the confluence of the Crvena River in Nisava River. It could be applied to other drainage basins that have not been studied so far.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković


    Full Text Available In the paper, on the basis of the author's knowledge, for the first time, chronostratigraphic and genetic classification of all known mineral resources located in the central part of Croatia (Sisak, Petrinja, Glina, Dvor na Uni, Hrvatska Kostajnica and Novska, is given in more detail. Metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, coal, oil, gas as well as drinking water, water for balneology and industry related spatially and/or genetically with the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, are presented. Taking into consideration the present days level of research, the past extent of the exploitation as well as genetic potential of each own estimate of their long term prospects with regard to the economy of the Croatia (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi


    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: indium (United States)

    Tolcin, Amy C.


    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  12. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy (United States)

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Eric, Livo K.; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.


    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  13. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.


    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  14. [Bone Mineral Density in Yusho Health Examination]. (United States)

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide


    We examined the bone mineral density in Yusho patients. 460 subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone scans as part of the nationwide Yusho health examination in 2011. Serum levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were measured using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The average age was 64.0 years in women and 63.4 in men. About one-third (35%) of women (n = 89) had low bone mineral density (BMD), defined as a T-score less than 70, while only 4.9% of men (n = 10) had low BMD. Serum levels of several congeners were positively associated with Z-scores in simple regression analysis. Further multivariate linear regression analysis should be required in the future.

  15. Covellite CuS as a matrix for "invisible" gold: X-ray spectroscopic study of the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic minerals (United States)

    Tagirov, Boris R.; Trigub, Alexander L.; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Shiryaev, Andrey A.; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Nickolsky, Maximilian S.; Abramova, Vera D.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.


    Geological processes leading to formation of sulfide ores often result in precipitation of gold-bearing sulfides which can contain high concentrations of this metal in ;invisible; (or ;refractory;) state. Covellite (CuS) is ubiquitous mineral in many types of the ore deposits, and numerous studies of the natural ores show that covellite can contain high concentrations of Au. At the same time, Au-bearing covellite withstands cooling in contrast to other minerals of the Cu-Fe-S system (chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite), where Au exsolves at low temperatures. This makes covellite a convenient model system for investigation of the chemical state (local environment and valence) of the ;invisible; Au in copper-sulfide ores (copper-porphyry, epithermal, volcanogenic massive sulfide, SEDEX deposits). Therefore, it is necessary to determine the location of Au in the covellite matrix as it will have important implications for the methods employed by mineral processing industry to extract Au from sulfide ores. Here we investigate the chemical state of Cu and Au in synthetic covellite containing up to 0.3 wt.% of Au in the ;invisible; state. The covellite crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal and salt flux methods. Formation of the chemically bound Au is indicated by strong dependence of the concentration of Au in covellite on the sulfur fugacity in the experimental system (d(log C(Au))/d(log f(S2)) ∼ 0.65). The Au concentration of covellite grows with increasing temperature from 400 to 450 °C, whereas further temperature increase to 500 °C has only minor effect. The synthesized minerals were studied using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode. Ab initio simulations of Cu K edge XANES spectra show that the Cu oxidation state in two structural positions in covellite (tetrahedral and triangular coordination with S atoms) is identical: the total loss of electronic charge for the 3d shell is ∼0

  16. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  17. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee


    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  19. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  20. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  1. Mineral resource of the month: perlite (United States)



    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium) (United States)

    Papp, John F.


    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  3. Modern control of mineral wool production process


    Stankov Stanko P.


    In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of techno...

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Minerals and Rocks (United States)

    McLaren, Alex C.


    Of the many techniques that have been applied to the study of crystal defects, none has contributed more to our understanding of their nature and influence on the physical and chemical properties of crystalline materials than transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM is now used extensively by an increasing number of earth scientists for direct observation of defect microstructures in minerals and rocks. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Rocks and Minerals is an introduction to the principles of the technique and is the only book to date on the subject written specifically for geologists and mineralogists. The first part of the book deals with the essential physics of the transmission electron microscope and presents the basic theoretical background required for the interpretation of images and electron diffraction patterns. The final chapters are concerned with specific applications of TEM in mineralogy and deal with such topics as planar defects, intergrowths, radiation-induced defects, dislocations and deformation-induced microstructures. The examples cover a wide range of rock-forming minerals from crustal rocks to those in the lower mantle, and also take into account the role of defects in important mineralogical and geological processes.

  5. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan


    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  6. Sustainable minerals operations in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.R. Marker; M.G. Petterson; F. McEvoy; M H. Stephenson


    The sustainable development of minerals, which are non-renewable resources, is a major challenge in today's world. This Special Publication gives examples from developing countries at all scales of mineral extraction. The volume reviews environmental, economic, health and social problems and highlights the need to solve these before sustainability can be achieved. The better solutions require mutual understanding, through full involvement of all stakeholders, education, training and investment so that small-scale and artisanal mines can grow into well-managed operations. At larger scales, most major international mining companies have now improved their practices and are monitoring their progress, although there is no room for complacency in this rapidly changing area. Chapters of particular interest are: Markets for industrial mineral products from mining waste by P.W. Scott, J.M. Eyre, D.J. Harrison and A.J. Bloodworth and Mining and environmental problems in the Ib valley coalfield of Orissa, India by P.P. Mishra.

  7. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals (United States)

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.


    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  8. Mineralization of the Sea Urchin Skeleton (United States)

    Wilt, F.


    The sea urchin possess a calcareous skeleton composed of over 99% magnesian calcite,an enveloping extracellular matrix, and an occluded protein matrix. The most intensively studied skeletal element is the spicule of the embryo. At the 32 cell stage of development a cohort of 4 cells becomes irrevocably dedicated to spicule formation. At the early gastrula stage the descendants of these founder cells form the primary mesenchyme (PMC). The PMCs fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium connected by cytoplasmic cables, and the calcitic skeleton is formed within these cables. Our primary concern is with the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support the formation of the mineralized spicules. The import of calcium into the PMCs results in appearance of intracellular vesicles containing precipitated calcium, which is neither very stable nor birefringent, and could be amorphous. The precipitated calcium is vectorially secreted into an extracellular space. This space is almost completely enclosed by cytoplasmic strands, and the mineral is encased in an extracellular matrix. Proteins destined for the extracellular matrix, and for inclusion in the spicule, are present in the Golgi membranes and in small intracellular vesicles. These vesicles apparently deliver the matrix proteins to the growing spicule. Our current view is that the matrix molecules are much more than a passive armature, but are actively involved in precipitation, secretion, and organization of the mineral phase.

  9. The miners' safety lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, Fathi


    As the Industrial Revolution began in the eighteenth century in the United Kingdom, a number of innovations were introduced including the miner's safety lamp. The miner's lamp was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) and independently by George Stephenson (1781-1848). The use of the newly invented safety lamp was introduced during the shift from a wood-burning to a coal-burning economy. Coal mining was dangerous, due to the presence of methane in many coal seams. In the past miners going underground with an oil lamp or a torch ran the risk of igniting the methane and causing an explosion. The new lamp consisted of a flame surrounded by a cylinder of metallic gauze, which allowed air to penetrate through and feed the flame. The heat of the flame was dissipated by the metal and as such, prevented explosive gases outside the lamp from igniting. The lamp was immortalized by memorial statues, stamps and some monuments. In 1910 a battery-operated electric lamp was introduced replacing the Stephenson's lamp.

  10. Cave Biosignature Suites: Microbes, Minerals, and Mars (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Northup, D. E.; Melim, L. A.; Soroka, D. S.; Kleina, L. G.; Lavoie, K. H.; Hose, L. D.; Mallory, L. M.; Dahm, C. N.; Crossey, L. J.; Schelble, R. T.


    Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries - demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

  11. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi


    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  12. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr


    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  13. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization. (United States)

    McKee, M D; Yadav, M C; Foster, B L; Somerman, M J; Farquharson, C; Millán, J L


    Phosphatases are involved in bone and tooth mineralization, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) regulates inhibitory extracellular pyrophosphate through its pyrophosphatase activity to control mineral propagation in the matrix; mice without TNAP lack acellular cementum, and have mineralization defects in dentin, enamel, and bone. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase found within membrane-bounded matrix vesicles in mineralized tissues, and double ablation of Alpl and Phospho1 in mice leads to a complete absence of skeletal mineralization. Here, we describe mineralization abnormalities in the teeth of Phospho1(-/-) mice, and in compound knockout mice lacking Phospho1 and one allele of Alpl (Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) ). In wild-type mice, PHOSPHO1 and TNAP co-localized to odontoblasts at early stages of dentinogenesis, coincident with the early mineralization of mantle dentin. In Phospho1 knockout mice, radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, and transmission electron microscopy all demonstrated mineralization abnormalities of incisor dentin, with the most remarkable findings being reduced overall mineralization coincident with decreased matrix vesicle mineralization in the Phospho1(-/-) mice, and the almost complete absence of matrix vesicles in the Phospho1(-/-);Alpl(+/-) mice, whose incisors showed a further reduction in mineralization. Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization.

  14. Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL Deficiencies Reduce Dentin Mineralization (United States)

    McKee, M.D.; Yadav, M.C.; Foster, B.L.; Somerman, M.J.; Farquharson, C.; Millán, J.L.


    Phosphatases are involved in bone and tooth mineralization, but their mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) regulates inhibitory extracellular pyrophosphate through its pyrophosphatase activity to control mineral propagation in the matrix; mice without TNAP lack acellular cementum, and have mineralization defects in dentin, enamel, and bone. PHOSPHO1 is a phosphatase found within membrane-bounded matrix vesicles in mineralized tissues, and double ablation of Alpl and Phospho1 in mice leads to a complete absence of skeletal mineralization. Here, we describe mineralization abnormalities in the teeth of Phospho1-/- mice, and in compound knockout mice lacking Phospho1 and one allele of Alpl (Phospho1-/-;Alpl+/-). In wild-type mice, PHOSPHO1 and TNAP co-localized to odontoblasts at early stages of dentinogenesis, coincident with the early mineralization of mantle dentin. In Phospho1 knockout mice, radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, and transmission electron microscopy all demonstrated mineralization abnormalities of incisor dentin, with the most remarkable findings being reduced overall mineralization coincident with decreased matrix vesicle mineralization in the Phospho1-/- mice, and the almost complete absence of matrix vesicles in the Phospho1-/-;Alpl+/- mice, whose incisors showed a further reduction in mineralization. Results from this study support prominent non-redundant roles for both PHOSPHO1 and TNAP in dentin mineralization. PMID:23694930

  15. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism in haemodialysis patients, there is limited data on the pattern of mineral bone disorder in African CKD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mineral ...

  16. [Health-related effects of natural mineral waters]. (United States)

    Marktl, Wolfgang


    The medical importance of mineral waters depends on the contained amount of minerals and trace elements. Calcium and magnesium in mineral waters are of greatest interest with respect to their potential relevance for the health status; iodine, fluorine and lithium are the most important trace elements. The bioavailability of minerals from mineral water is good and can be compared with the values derived from milk. A positive effect of the minerals in mineral water on health status is especially apparent in the case of insufficient intake by nutrition. The apprehension that there might be an undesired hypertensinogenic effect due to the sodium content in mineral waters is not justified. Sodium is present in mineral water in small amounts only, and mainly as sodium bicarbonate, which has no effect on blood pressure. A certain advantage of a delivery of minerals and trace elements by regular drinking of mineral waters is the simultaneous intake of water, without supply of energy. Studies giving direct evidence of the health value of a regular consumption of mineral waters are, however, up to now rather scarce.

  17. Evaluation of Mineral Assets: Interconnection of Financial and Managerial Aspects (United States)

    Sergeev, Igor B.; Lebedeva, Olesia Y.


    Mining business makes no sense without mineral assets comprising mineral rights, exploration and evaluation expenditures, development costs, ore reserves and resources. The paper is aimed at investigation of how mineral reserves and resources are evaluated and represented in financial statements of mining companies, and what kind of influence do…

  18. The Use of Chemistry of Garnets and Heavy Minerals Around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the conclusion of having a barren kimberlite source. It is suggested that combination of the chemistry of garnet and heavy minerals may be used as an exploration tool for deciphering diamond and non-diamond bearing kimberlites. Keywords: Electron microprobe, black minerals, mineral and fluid inclusions, kimberlites, ...

  19. 36 CFR 254.34 - Mineral survey fractions. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral survey fractions. 254... LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.34 Mineral survey fractions. (a) Mineral survey fractions subject to conveyance under this subpart are limited to those tracts which: (1) Cannot be...

  20. Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Determination of types and amounts for clay minerals in soil are important in environmental, agricultural, and geological investigations. Many reliable methods have been established to identify clay mineral types. However, no reliable method for quantitative analysis of clay minerals has been established so far. In this study ...

  1. Mössbauer study of Chinese ancient mineral drugs (United States)

    Qin, Guangyong; Li, Shi


    About 100 crude Chinese mineral drug samples were investigated with Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The classifications, species and components of Chinese mineral drugs will be elucidated. The pharmaceutic and curative mechanisms of these mineral drugs will be discussed.

  2. Identification of minerals by frequency analysis of voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baluch Dušan


    Full Text Available In the paper the collecting method, proceding and evaluating of voice signals developed during rotary drilling of minerals is described. Utilizing the frequency analysis of voice signals is suitable for recognizing types of minerals. In the laboratory identification of three other minerals was done.

  3. Mineral composition of commonly consumed local foods in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate levels of mineral nutrients are required to maintain optimal health as acute imbalances of these minerals can be potentially fatal. Therefore, dietary intake of micronutrients is of public health importance due to the consequences of the deficiency. This study analysed the selected minerals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, ...

  4. Mineralogy and heavy metal content of secondary mineral salts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary minerals associated with acid mine drainage play an important role in metal cycling and may pose a geochemical hazard. The occurrence of secondary minerals indicates prevailing and past geochemical conditions. Detecting and characterising secondary minerals is necessary to the planning of remediation ...

  5. Heavy mineral suite in the shelf sediments off Madras coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    The heavy mineral suite of the shelf sediments of this area (12~'00': 13~'05'N and 80~'00': 80~'36'E), are characterised by a dominant group of minerals such as hornblende, augite, hypersthene, garnet and opaque minerals; common by epidote, zircon...

  6. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards. (United States)

    Ingall, Ellery D; Brandes, Jay A; Diaz, Julia M; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W Crawford; Northrup, Paul


    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  7. Alteration of swelling clay minerals by acid activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steudel, A.; Batenburg, L.F.; Fischer, H.R.; Weidler, P.G.; Emmerich, K.


    The bulk material of six dioctahedral and two trioctahedral swellable clay minerals was leached in H2SO4 and HCl at concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 M at 80 °C for several hours. Alteration of the clay mineral structures was dependent on the individual character of each mineral (chemical

  8. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  9. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  10. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  11. Evaluation of Mineral and Amino Acid Composition of Leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the mineral and amino acid composition of the leave of Ocimum gratissimum. The mineral composition showed major minerals such as Na, K, Ca and Mg should essential and non-essential amino acids. The amino acids compared favorably with FAO reference protein. The leave were ...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles...

  13. Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Vitex doniana, micronutrients, proximate, vitamins and mineral composition, Fruit. ... Vitamin B2 and Spectrophotometric method for. Vitamin B6, while titremetric method was used for Vitamin C. Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after sample .... to calcium for bone, teeth and muscles growth.

  14. 76 FR 40678 - Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hawthorne, NV. The committee... meeting will be held July 22, 2011, 9 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mineral County...

  15. 76 FR 29723 - Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Yerington, NV. The committee... , by selecting the Lyon-Mineral RAC...

  16. 76 FR 43259 - Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lyon-Mineral Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Hawthorne, NV. The committee... meeting will be held August 10, 2011, 9 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mineral County...

  17. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive ...

  18. Altered tissue mineralization, increased hepatic lipid and inhibited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral homeostasis is often disrupted in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) infants. Most studies focus on calcium or phosphorus metabolism of IUGR infants via determining serum mineral concentrations instead of tissues. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of IUGR on the mineralization and ...

  19. Nitrogen Mineralization in Selected Solid Waste Dumpsites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a rate of 60MT/ha of organic fertilizer only. An enriched organic. Waste soil and organic waste treated soil had a boosting effect on the release of mineral nitrogen. The amount of mineral nitrogen released was higher for (NH4)2SO4 fertilizer treated soil than for organic waste treated soil. The mineralization rate was found to ...

  20. Mineral Retention Values for Blends of Cereal Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food intakes were affected by supplements and fermentation period. Mineral retention values were a function of food intakes, supplements, fermentation period, fecal and urinary mineral outputs. The group fed the unfermented modified standard (PR:DSB:MR72:CF0) blend had the highest foodintake and mineral retention ...