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Sample records for epithelial stem-like cells

  1. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Zhengkui; Liu, Xiaoran; Gao, Hongqiao; Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Pei; Kornmann, Marko; Tian, Xiaodong; Yang, Yinmo

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucially involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to assess the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness properties and chemoresistance of human pancreatic Panc-1 cancer stem cells (CSCs). Panc-1 cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors to silence SMO and serum-free floating-culture system was used to isolate Panc-1 tumorspheres. The expression of CSC and EMT markers was detected by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Malignant behaviors of Panc-1 CSC were evaluated by tumorigenicity assays and nude mouse lung metastasis model. We found that tumorspheres derived from pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 possessed self-renewal, differentiation and stemness properties. Hh pathway and EMT were active in Panc-1 tumorspheres. Inhibition of Hh signaling by SMO knockdown inhibited self-renewal, EMT, invasion, chemoresistance, pulmonary metastasis, tumorigenesis of pancreatic CSCs. In conclusion, Hh signaling contributes to the maintenance of stem-like properties and chemoresistance of pancreatic CSC and promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Hh pathway is a potential molecular target for the development of therapeutic strategies for pancreatic CSCs. PMID:26918054

  2. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquisition of Epithelial Stem-Like Cell Properties in Ameloblastoma Epithelial Cells.

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    Jiang, Chunmiao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Shanti, Rabie M; Shi, Shihong; Chang, Ting-Han; Carrasco, Lee; Alawi, Faizan; Le, Anh D

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process associated with cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cell formation, contributes to the invasiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of the malignant tumors; it remains to be determined whether similar processes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of ameloblastoma (AM), a benign but locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm. Here, we demonstrated that EMT- and stem cell-related genes were expressed in the epithelial islands of the most common histologic variant subtype, the follicular AM. Our results revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-6 signals that were differentially expressed in the stromal compartment of the follicular AM. To explore the stromal effect on tumor pathogenesis, we isolated and characterized both mesenchymal stromal cells (AM-MSCs) and epithelial cells (AM-EpiCs) from follicular AM and demonstrated that, in in vitro culture, AM-MSCs secreted a significantly higher level of IL-6 as compared to the counterpart AM-EpiCs. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exogenous and AM-MSC-derived IL-6 induced the expression of EMT- and stem cell-related genes in AM-EpiCs, whereas such effects were significantly abrogated either by a specific inhibitor of STAT3 or ERK1/2, or by knockdown of Slug gene expression. These findings suggest that AM-MSC-derived IL-6 promotes tumor-stem like cell formation by inducing EMT process in AM-EpiCs through STAT3 and ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathways, implying a role in the etiology and progression of the benign but locally invasive neoplasm. Stem Cells 2017;35:2083-2094. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Epimorphin regulates bile duct formation via effects on mitosis orientation in rat liver epithelial stem-like cells.

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    Junnian Zhou

    Full Text Available Understanding how hepatic precursor cells can generate differentiated bile ducts is crucial for studies on epithelial morphogenesis and for development of cell therapies for hepatobiliary diseases. Epimorphin (EPM is a key morphogen for duct morphogenesis in various epithelial organs. The role of EPM in bile duct formation (DF from hepatic precursor cells, however, is not known. To address this issue, we used WB-F344 rat epithelial stem-like cells as model for bile duct formation. A micropattern and a uniaxial static stretch device was used to investigate the effects of EPM and stress fiber bundles on the mitosis orientation (MO of WB cells. Immunohistochemistry of liver tissue sections demonstrated high EPM expression around bile ducts in vivo. In vitro, recombinant EPM selectively induced DF through upregulation of CK19 expression and suppression of HNF3alpha and HNF6, with no effects on other hepatocytic genes investigated. Our data provide evidence that EPM guides MO of WB-F344 cells via effects on stress fiber bundles and focal adhesion assembly, as supported by blockade EPM, beta1 integrin, and F-actin assembly. These blockers can also inhibit EPM-induced DF. These results demonstrate a new biophysical action of EPM in bile duct formation, during which determination of MO plays a crucial role.

  4. Semaphorin 3 C drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasiveness, and stem-like characteristics in prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kevin J; Hui, Daniel H F; Lee, Wilson W; Dong, Mingshu; Tombe, Tabitha; Jiao, Ivy Z F; Khosravi, Shahram; Takeuchi, Ario; Peacock, James W; Ivanova, Larissa; Moskalev, Igor; Gleave, Martin E; Buttyan, Ralph; Cox, Michael E; Ong, Christopher J

    2017-09-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the most commonly-occurring cancers worldwide and a leader in cancer-related deaths. Local non-invasive PCa is highly treatable but limited treatment options exist for those with locally-advanced and metastatic forms of the disease underscoring the need to identify mechanisms mediating PCa progression. The semaphorins are a large grouping of membrane-associated or secreted signalling proteins whose normal roles reside in embryogenesis and neuronal development. In this context, semaphorins help establish chemotactic gradients and direct cell movement. Various semaphorin family members have been found to be up- and down-regulated in a number of cancers. One family member, Semaphorin 3 C (SEMA3C), has been implicated in prostate, breast, ovarian, gastric, lung, and pancreatic cancer as well as glioblastoma. Given SEMA3C's roles in development and its augmented expression in PCa, we hypothesized that SEMA3C promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem-like phenotypes in prostate cells. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of SEMA3C in RWPE-1 promotes the upregulation of EMT and stem markers, heightened sphere-formation, and cell plasticity. In addition, we show that SEMA3C promotes migration and invasion in vitro and cell dissemination in vivo.

  5. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

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    Biddle Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Methods Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11, cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7, and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5, were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin. Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR. The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH and siRNA. Results In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU demonstrated that CD44high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block

  6. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Lisa J; Costea, Daniela Elena; Gammon, Luke; Fazil, Bilal; Biddle, Adrian; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11), cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7), and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5), were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin). Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR). The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and siRNA. In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44 high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU) demonstrated that CD44 high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44 high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block associated with apoptotic resistance. These data

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons modulate cell proliferation in rat hepatic epithelial stem-like WB-F344 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chramostova, Katerina; Vondracek, Jan; Sindlerova, Lenka; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Kozubik, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Although many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as potent mutagens and carcinogens, relatively little is known about their role in the tumor promotion. It is known that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can induce release of rat hepatic oval epithelial cells from contact inhibition by a mechanism possibly involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation. Many PAHs are AhR ligands and are known to act as transient inducers of AhR-mediated activity. In this study, effects of 19 selected PAHs on proliferation of confluent rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells were investigated. Non-mutagens that are weak activators or nonactivators of AhR-mediated activity had no effect on cell proliferation. Relatively strong or moderate AhR ligands with low mutagenic potencies, such as benzofluoranthenes, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene, were found to increase cell numbers, which corresponded to an increased percentage of cells entering S-phase. Strong mutagens, including benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, increased a percentage of cells in S-phase without inducing a concomitant increase in cell numbers. The treatment with mutagenic PAHs was associated with an increased DNA synthesis and induction of cell death, which corresponded with the activation of p53 tumor suppressor. Apoptosis was blocked by pifithrin-α, the chemical inhibitor of p53. Both weakly and strongly mutagenic PAHs known as AhR ligands were found to induce significant increase of cytochrome P4501A activity, suggesting a presence of functional AhR. The results of the present study seem to suggest that a release from contact inhibition could be a part of tumor promoting effects of AhR-activating PAHs; however, the genotoxic effects of some PAHs associated with p53 activation might interfere with this process

  8. Dysregulation of Iron Metabolism in Cholangiocarcinoma Stem-like Cells

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    Raggi, Chiara; Gammella, Elena; Correnti, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating liver tumour arising from malignant transformation of bile duct epithelial cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a subset of tumour cells endowed with stem-like properties, which play a role in tumour initiation, recurrence and metastasis. In appropriate con...... compartment as a novel metabolic factor involved in CCA growth, may have implications for a better therapeutic approach....

  9. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  10. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

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    Yu, Cheng-Chia [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Chao, E-mail: cyc@csmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial−mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ► Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ► Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ► Si

  11. Role of epimorphin in bile duct formation of rat liver epithelial stem-like cells: involvement of small G protein RhoA and C/EBPβ.

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    Jia, Yali; Yao, Hailei; Zhou, Junnian; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Quan; Yuan, Hongfeng; Shi, Lei; Nan, Xue; Wang, Yunfang; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xuetao

    2011-11-01

    Epimorphin/syntaxin 2 is a high conserved and very abundant protein involved in epithelial morphogenesis in various organs. We have shown recently that epimorphin (EPM), a protein exclusively expressed on the surface of hepatic stellate cells and myofibroblasts of the liver, induces bile duct formation of hepatic stem-like cells (WB-F344 cells) in a putative biophysical way. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present some of the molecular mechanisms by which EPM mediates bile duct formation. We established a biliary differentiation model by co-culture of EPM-overexpressed mesenchymal cells (PT67(EPM)) with WB-F344 cells. Here, we showed that EPM could promote WB-F344 cells differentiation into bile duct-like structures. Biliary differentiation markers were also elevated by EPM including Yp, Cx43, aquaporin-1, CK19, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Moreover, the signaling pathway of EPM was analyzed by focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and RhoA Western blot. Also, a dominant negative (DN) RhoA-WB-F344 cell line (WB(RhoA-DN)) was constructed. We found that the levels of phosphorylation (p) of FAK and ERK1/2 were up-regulated by EPM. Most importantly, we also showed that RhoA is necessary for EPM-induced activation of FAK and ERK1/2 and bile duct formation. In addition, a dual luciferase-reporter assay and CHIP assay was performed to reveal that EPM regulates GGT IV and GGT V expression differentially, possibly mediated by C/EBPβ. Taken together, these data demonstrated that EPM regulates bile duct formation of WB-F344 cells through effects on RhoA and C/EBPβ, implicating a dual aspect of this morphoregulator in bile duct epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Epigallocathechin gallate, polyphenol present in green tea, inhibits stem-like characteristics and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines

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    Lin Chien-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the consumption of green tea inhibits the growth of various cancers. Most cancers are believed to be initiated from and maintained by a small population of cancer stem-like cells (CSC or tumor-initiating cells (TIC that are responsible for tumor relapse and chemotherapeutic resistance. Although epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG, the most abundant catechin in green tea, has been reported to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in some cancer cells, its effect on CSC is undefined. In this study, we enriched CSC by the sphere formation, and provided an efficient model for further experiments. Using this method, we examined the effects of EGCG regulating the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC CSC and attempted to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Methods NPC TW01 and TW06 cell lines were enriched by sphere formation and characterized their phenotypical properties, such as invasion capacity, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and gene expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR. EGCG-induced growth inhibition in the parental and sphere-derived cells was determined by MTT and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU assay. EGCG-induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V and PI staining. The effects of EGCG on sphere-derived cell tumorigenicity, migration and invasion were determined by soft agar assay, wound healing, and cell invasion assay. The alternation of protein expression regulated by EGCG on these sphere-derived cells was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. Results NPC sphere-derived cells grown in serum-free non-adherent culture showed increased expression of stem cell markers and EMT markers compared to parental cells grown in conventional culture. Although EGCG induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in the parental cells in a dose-dependent manner, it was not as effective against spheres

  13. Role of Rac1 Pathway in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem-like Cell Phenotypes in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

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    Yoon, Changhwan; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Chang, Kevin K; Park, Do Joong; Ryeom, Sandra W; Yoon, Sam S

    2017-08-01

    Rac1, a Rho GTPase family member, is dysregulated in a variety of tumor types including gastric adenocarcinoma, but little is known about its role in cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Therefore, Rac1 activity and inhibition were examined in gastric adenocarcinoma cells and mouse xenograft models for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CSC phenotypes. Rac1 activity was significantly higher in spheroid-forming or CD44 + gastric adenocarcinoma CSCs compared with unselected cells. Rac1 inhibition using Rac1 shRNA or a Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) decreased expression of the self-renewal transcription factor, Sox-2, decreased spheroid formation by 78%-81%, and prevented tumor initiation in immunodeficient mice. Gastric adenocarcinoma CSCs had increased expression of the EMT transcription factor Slug, 4.4- to 8.3-fold greater migration, and 4.2- to 12.6-fold greater invasion than unselected cells, and these increases could be blocked completely with Rac1 inhibition. Gastric adenocarcinoma spheroid cells were resistant to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy, and this chemotherapy resistance could be reversed with Rac1 shRNA or NSC23766. The PI3K/Akt pathway may be upstream of Rac1, and JNK may be downstream of Rac1. In the MKN-45 xenograft model, cisplatin inhibited tumor growth by 50%, Rac1 inhibition by 35%, and the combination by 77%. Higher Rac1 activity, in clinical specimens from gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent potentially curative surgery, correlated with significantly worse survival ( P = 0.017). In conclusion, Rac1 promotes the EMT program in gastric adenocarcinoma and the acquisition of a CSC state. Rac1 inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma cells blocks EMT and CSC phenotypes, and thus may prevent metastasis and augment chemotherapy. Implications: In gastric adenocarcinoma, therapeutic targeting of the Rac1 pathway may prevent or reverse EMT and CSC phenotypes that drive tumor progression, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. Mol

  14. CD44 staining of cancer stem-like cells is influenced by down-regulation of CD44 variant isoforms and up-regulation of the standard CD44 isoform in the population of cells that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

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    Adrian Biddle

    Full Text Available CD44 is commonly used as a cell surface marker of cancer stem-like cells in epithelial tumours, and we have previously demonstrated the existence of two different CD44(high cancer stem-like cell populations in squamous cell carcinoma, one having undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the other maintaining an epithelial phenotype. Alternative splicing of CD44 variant exons generates a great many isoforms, and it is not known which isoforms are expressed on the surface of the two different cancer stem-like cell phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that cancer stem-like cells with an epithelial phenotype predominantly express isoforms containing the variant exons, whereas the cancer stem-like cells that have undergone an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition down-regulate these variant isoforms and up-regulate expression of the standard CD44 isoform that contains no variant exons. In addition, we find that enzymatic treatments used to dissociate cells from tissue culture or fresh tumour specimens cause destruction of variant CD44 isoforms at the cell surface whereas expression of the standard CD44 isoform is preserved. This results in enrichment within the CD44(high population of cancer stem-like cells that have undergone an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and depletion from the CD44(high population of cancer stem-like cells that maintain an epithelial phenotype, and therefore greatly effects the characteristics of any cancer stem-like cell population isolated based on expression of CD44. As well as effecting the CD44(high population, enzymatic treatment also reduces the percentage of the total epithelial cancer cell population staining CD44-positive, with potential implications for studies that aim to use CD44-positive staining as a prognostic indicator. Analyses of the properties of cancer stem-like cells are largely dependent on the ability to accurately identify and assay these populations. It is therefore critical that

  15. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer stem-like cells derived from carcinoma cell lines of the cervix uteri.

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    Lin, Jiaying; Liu, Xishi; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm is one possible way to understand the genesis of cancer, and cervical cancer in particular. We quantified and enriched ALDH1(+) cells within cervical cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized their phenotypical and functional properties like invasion capacity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ALDH1 expression in spheroid-derived cells (SDC) and the parental monolayer-derived cell (MDC) line was compared by flow-cytometry. Invasion capability was evaluated by Matrigel assay and expression of EMT-related genes Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2, Vimentin and E-cadherin by real-time PCR. ALDH1 expression was significantly higher in SDC. ALDH1(+) cells showed increased colony-formation. SDC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin and elevated levels of Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2 and Vimentin compared to MDC. Cervical cancer cell lines harbor potential CSC, characterized by ALDH1 expression as well as properties like invasiveness, colony-forming ability, and EMT. CSC can be enriched by anchorage-independent culture techniques, which may be important for the investigation of their contribution to therapy resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  16. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

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    Liu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Alisa [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Maeda, Takeshi [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fu, Qibin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Oikawa, Masakazu [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Teruaki, E-mail: tkonishi@nirs.go.jp [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchihori, Yukio [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy.

  17. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Kobayashi, Alisa; Maeda, Takeshi; Fu, Qibin; Oikawa, Masakazu; Yang, Gen; Konishi, Teruaki; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy

  18. Cancer Stem-Like Cells Accumulated in Nickel-Induced Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Jia; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wise, James T.F.; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are known as human carcinogens. Chronic environmental exposure to nickel is a worldwide health concern. Although the mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood, recent studies suggest that stem cells/cancer stem cells are likely important targets. This study examines the role of cancer stem cells in nickel-induced cell transformation. The nontransformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) was chronically exposed to nickel chloride for 12 months to induce cell transformation. Nickel induced Beas-2B cell transformation, and cancer stem-like cells were enriched in nickel-transformed cell (BNiT) population. The BNiT cancer stem-like cells demonstrated enhanced self-renewal and distinctive differentiation properties. In vivo tumorigenesis studies show that BNiT cancer stem-like cells possess a high tumor-initiating capability. It was also demonstrated that superoxide dismutase 1 was involved in the accumulation of cancer stem-like cells; the regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression was different in transformed stem-like cells and nontransformed. Overall, the accumulation of stem-like cells and their enhanced stemness functions contribute to nickel-induced tumorigenesis. Our study provides additional insight into the mechanisms by which metals or other chemicals can induce carcinogenesis. PMID:26962057

  19. Discovery of a stem-like multipotent cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffhausen, Emily S; Alowais, Yasir; Chao, Cara W; Callihan, Evan C; Creswell, Karen; Bracht, John R

    2018-01-01

    Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained from lipoaspirates and induced in vitro to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat. Using this powerful model system we show that after in vitro adipose differentiation a population of cells retain stem-like qualities including multipotency. They are lipid (-), retain the ability to propagate, express two known stem cell markers, and maintain the capacity for trilineage differentiation into chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. However, these cells are not traditional stem cells because gene expression analysis showed an overall expression profile similar to that of adipocytes. In addition to broadening our understanding of cellular multipotency, our work may be particularly relevant to obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The adipose expandability hypothesis proposes that inability to differentiate new adipocytes is a primary cause of metabolic syndrome in obesity, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here we have defined a differentiation-resistant stem-like multipotent cell population that may be involved in regulation of adipose expandability in vivo and may therefore play key roles in the comorbidities of obesity.

  20. Preferential Iron Trafficking Characterizes Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonberg, David L; Miller, Tyler E; Wu, Qiulian

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas display hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). RNA sequencing and enhancer mapping revealed regulatory programs unique to CSCs causing upregulation of the iron transporter transferrin, the top differentially expressed gene compared with tissue......, to propagate and form tumors in vivo. Depleting ferritin disrupted CSC mitotic progression, through the STAT3-FoxM1 regulatory axis, revealing an iron-regulated CSC pathway. Iron is a unique, primordial metal fundamental for earliest life forms, on which CSCs have an epigenetically programmed, targetable...

  1. CD271+ osteosarcoma cells display stem-like properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Tian

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cell (CSC theory has been proposed and verified in many cancers. The existence of osteosarcoma CSCs has been confirmed for many years and multiple surface markers have been employed to identify them. In this study, we identified CD271(+ subpopulation of osteosarcoma displaying stem-like properties. CD271, known as the neural crest nerve growth factor receptor, is the marker of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and human melanoma-initiating cells. We discovered that CD271 was expressed differentially in diverse types of human osteosarcoma and stabilized cell lines. CD271(+ osteosarcoma cells displayed most of the properties of CSC, such as self-renewal, differentiation, drug resistance and tumorigenicity in vivo. Nanog, Oct3/4, STAT3, DNA-PKcs, Bcl-2 and ABCG2 were more expressed in CD271(+ cells compared with CD271- cells. Our study supported the osteosarcoma CSC hypothesis and, to a certain extent, revealed one of the possible mechanisms involved in maintaining CSCs properties.

  2. Eckol suppresses maintenance of stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lim, Eun-Jung; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Hyun, Jin-Won; Suh, Yongjoon; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2011-01-01

    A subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell properties is responsible for tumor maintenance and progression, and may contribute to resistance to anticancer treatments. Thus, compounds that target cancer stem-like cells could be usefully applied to destroy cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of Eckol, a phlorotannin compound, on stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells. To determine whether Eckol targets glioma stem-like cells, we examined whether Eckol treatment could change the expression levels of glioma stem-like cell markers and self-renewal-related proteins as well as the sphere forming ability, and the sensitivity to anticancer treatments. Alterations in the malignant properties of sphere-derived cells by Eckol were also investigated by soft-agar colony forming assay, by xenograft assay in nude mice, and by cell invasion assay. Treatment of sphere-forming glioma cells with Eckol effectively decreased the sphere formation as well as the CD133 + cell population. Eckol treatment suppressed expression of the glioma stem-like cell markers and the self-renewal-related proteins without cell death. Moreover, treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol significantly attenuated anchorage-independent growth on soft agar and tumor formation in xenograft mice. Importantly, Eckol treatment effectively reduced the resistance of glioma stem-like cells to ionizing radiation and temozolomide. Treatment of glioma stem-like cells with Eckol markedly blocked both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and Ras-Raf-1-Erk signaling pathways. These results indicate that the natural phlorotannin Eckol suppresses stemness and malignancies in glioma stem-like cells, and thereby makes glioma stem-like cells more sensitive to anticancer treatments, providing novel therapeutic strategies targeting specifically cancer stem-like cells.

  3. Curcumin targets breast cancer stem-like cells with microtentacles that persist in mammospheres and promote reattachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Monica S; Whipple, Rebecca A; Vitolo, Michele I; Boggs, Amanda E; Slovic, Jana; Thompson, Keyata N; Bhandary, Lekhana; Martin, Stuart S

    2014-02-15

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and circulating tumor cells (CTC) have related properties associated with distant metastasis, but the mechanisms through which CSCs promote metastasis are unclear. In this study, we report that breast cancer cell lines with more stem-like properties display higher levels of microtentacles (McTN), a type of tubulin-based protrusion of the plasma cell membrane that forms on detached or suspended cells and aid in cell reattachment. We hypothesized that CSCs with large numbers of McTNs would more efficiently attach to distant tissues, promoting metastatic efficiency. The naturally occurring stem-like subpopulation of the human mammary epithelial (HMLE) cell line presents increased McTNs compared with its isogenic non-stem-like subpopulation. This increase was supported by elevated α-tubulin detyrosination and vimentin protein levels and organization. Increased McTNs in stem-like HMLEs promoted a faster initial reattachment of suspended cells that was inhibited by the tubulin-directed drug, colchicine, confirming a functional role for McTNs in stem cell reattachment. Moreover, live-cell confocal microscopy showed that McTNs persist in breast stem cell mammospheres as flexible, motile protrusions on the surface of the mammosphere. Although exposed to the environment, they also function as extensions between adjacent cells along cell-cell junctions. We found that treatment with the breast CSC-targeting compound curcumin rapidly extinguished McTN in breast CSC, preventing reattachment from suspension. Together, our results support a model in which breast CSCs with cytoskeletal alterations that promote McTNs can mediate attachment and metastasis but might be targeted by curcumin as an antimetastatic strategy. ©2013 AACR.

  4. The senescent microenvironment promotes the emergence of heterogeneous cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vega, Luis Jaime; Jouravleva, Karina; Ortiz-Montero, Paola; Liu, Win-Yan; Galeano, Jorge Luis; Romero, Martha; Popova, Tatiana; Bacchetti, Silvia; Vernot, Jean Paul; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo

    2015-10-01

    There is a well-established association between aging and the onset of metastasis. Although the mechanisms through which age impinges upon the malignant phenotype remain uncharacterized, the role of a senescent microenvironment has been emphasized. We reported previously that human epithelial cells that undergo telomere-driven chromosome instability (T-CIN) display global microRNA (miR) deregulation and develop migration and invasion capacities. Here, we show that post-crisis cells are not able to form tumors unless a senescent microenvironment is provided. The characterization of cell lines established from such tumors revealed that these cells have acquired cell autonomous tumorigenicity, giving rise to heterogeneous tumors. Further experiments demonstrate that explanted cells, while displaying differences in cell differentiation markers, are all endowed of enhanced stem cell properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. Treatments of T-CIN+ cells with senescence-conditioned media induce sphere formation exclusively in cells with senescence-associated tumorigenicity, a capacity that depends on miR-145 repression. These results indicate that the senescent microenvironment, while promoting further transdifferentiations in cells with genome instability, is able to propel the progression of premalignant cells towards a malignant, cell stem-like state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells leads to downregulation of EGFR and EGFRvIII and decreased tumorigenic and stem-like cell potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Kristoffersen, Karina; Stobbe, Louise

    2014-01-01

    cancer stem-like cells (bCSC), to play a pivotal role in GBM malignancy. bCSC are identified by their resemblance to normal neural stem cells (NSC), and it is speculated that the bCSC have to be targeted in order to improve treatment outcome for GBM patients. One hallmark of GBM is aberrant expression...

  6. Characterization of stem-like cells in a new astroblastoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Esra Aydemir; Kasikci, Ezgi [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatas, Omer Faruk [Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum (Turkey); Suakar, Oznur; Kuskucu, Aysegul [Department of Medical Genetics, Yeditepe University Medical School and Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Altunbek, Mine [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Türe, Uğur [Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Sahin, Fikrettin [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bayrak, Omer Faruk, E-mail: ofbayrak@yeditepe.edu.tr [Department of Medical Genetics, Yeditepe University Medical School and Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    Cell lines established from tumors are the most commonly used models in cancer research, and their use in recent years has enabled a greater understanding of the biology of cancer and the means to develop effective treatment strategies. Astroblastomas are uncommon neuroepithelial tumors of glial origin, predominantly affecting young people, mainly teenagers and children, predominantly females. To date, only a single study has reported that astroblastomas contain a large number of neural stem-like cells, which had only a partial proliferation capacity and differentiation. Our objective was to establish an astroblastoma cell line to investigate the presence of astroblastic cells and cancer stem-like cells. The migratory and invasion abilities of the cells were quantified with invasion and migration assays and compared to a glioblastoma cell line. The presence of stem cells was detected with surface-marker analysis by using flow cytometry, and measuring the differentiation ability with a differentiation assay and the self-renewal capacity with a sphere-forming assay. These characteristics may determine whether this novel cell line is a model for astroblastomas that may have stem-cell characteristics. With this novel cell line, scientists can investigate the molecular pathways underlying astroblastomas and develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with these tumors. - Highlights: • An establishment of a novel astroblastoma cell line was proposed. • The presence of astroblastic cells and cancer stem-like cells was investigated. • The molecular pathways underlying astroblastomas may be investigated. • New therapeutic strategies for patients with astroblastoma may be developed.

  7. The hypoxic microenvironment upgrades stem-like properties of ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Dongming; Ma Yuanyuan; Liu Jian; Trope Claes; Holm Ruth; Nesland Jahn M; Suo Zhenhe

    2012-01-01

    Background To study whether hypoxia influences the stem-like properties of ovarian cancer cells and their biological behavior under hypoxia. Method Ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2 and OVCAR-3 were cultivated in different oxygen tensions for proliferation, cell cycling and invasion analyses. The clonogenic potential of cells was examined by colony formation and sphere formation assays. Stem cell surface...

  8. Identification of quiescent, stem-like cells in the distal female reproductive tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Wang

    Full Text Available In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs. To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase. Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Jonsgar Sandberg

    Full Text Available There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60. Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate. We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6, foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1 and human brain tissues (n = 12. The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular

  10. Therapeutic potential of the metabolic modulator Metformin on osteosarcoma cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva-Oliveira, Daniela I; Martins-Neves, Sara R; Abrunhosa, Antero J; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos; Gomes, Célia M F

    2018-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour appearing in children and adolescents. Recent studies demonstrate that osteosarcoma possesses a stem-like cell subset, so-called cancer stem-like cells, refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics and pointed out as responsible for relapses frequently observed in osteosarcoma patients. Here, we explored the therapeutic potential of Metformin on osteosarcoma stem-like cells, alone and as a chemosensitizer of doxorubicin. Stem-like cells were isolated from human osteosarcoma cell lines, MNNG/HOS and MG-63, using the sphere-forming assay. Metformin cytotoxicity alone and combined with doxorubicin were evaluated using MTT/BrdU assays. Protein levels of AMPK and AKT were evaluated by Western Blot. Cellular metabolic status was assessed based on [ 18 F]-FDG uptake and lactate production measurements. Sphere-forming efficiency and expression of pluripotency transcription factors analysed by qRT-PCR were tested as readout of Metformin effects on stemness features. Metformin induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the metabolic activity and proliferation of sphere-forming cells and improved doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. This drug also down-regulated the expression of master regulators of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG), and decreased spheres' self-renewal ability. Metformin effects on mitochondria led to the activation and phosphorylation of the energetic sensor AMPK along with an upregulation of the pro-survival AKT pathway in both cell populations. Furthermore, Metformin-induced mitochondrial stress increased [ 18 F]-FDG uptake and lactate production in parental cells but not in the quiescent stem-like cells, suggesting the inability of the latter to cope with the energy crisis induced by metformin. This preclinical study suggests that Metformin may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent and chemosensitizer of osteosarcoma stem-like cells to doxorubicin.

  11. Molecular and ultra-structural insight into the enrichment of Glioblastoma and Neuroblastoma stem-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) and tumor micro-environments play a significant role in malignant cancer initiation and progression. Metastasis in vivo involves a stem-like, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Serum-free cultures of 3-D neurospheres represent the gold standard in CSC-like enrichment. The aim of the thesis was to explore the induction of stem-like phenotypes in Glioblastoma (GBM) and Neuroblastoma (NBL) cell lines, in order to assess common stem/oncogenic related marks. CSC chara...

  12. CD44+ cancer stem-like cells in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wei-Man Lun

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1, immune response (CCR7, IL8 and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11 in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients.

  13. CD44+ Cancer Stem-Like Cells in EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu Tim; Cheung, Phyllis Fung Yi; To, Ka-Fai; Woo, John Kong-Sang; Choy, Kwong-Wai; Chow, Chit; Cheung, Chartia Ching-Mei; Chung, Grace Tin-Yun; Cheng, Alice Suk-Hang; Ko, Chun-Wai; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Busson, Pierre; Ng, Margaret Heung-Ling; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1), immune response (CCR7, IL8) and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11) in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients. PMID:23285037

  14. Metabolic enzymes: key modulators of functionality in cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Wen; Qin, Guang-Ming; Luo, Yan; Mao, Jian-Shan

    2017-02-21

    Cancer Stem-like Cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal capacity and are important for the initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer diseases. The metabolic profile of CSCs is consistent with their stem-like properties. Studies have indicated that enzymes, the main regulators of cellular metabolism, dictate functionalities of CSCs in both catalysis-dependent and catalysis-independent manners. This paper reviews diverse studies of metabolic enzymes, and describes the effects of these enzymes on metabolic adaptation, gene transcription and signal transduction, in CSCs.

  15. δ-Tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E, inhibits pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and prevents pancreatic cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kazim; Centeno, Barbara A; Coppola, Domenico; Trevino, Jose; Sebti, Said M; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2017-05-09

    The growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by the activation and growth of tumor-initiating cells in distant organs that have stem-like properties. Thus, inhibiting growth of these cells may prevent PDAC growth and metastases. We have demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol, a natural form of vitamin E (VEDT), is bioactive against cancer, delays progression, and prevents metastases in transgenic mouse models of PDAC. In this report, we provide the first evidence that VEDT selectively inhibits PDAC stem-like cells. VEDT inhibited the viability, survival, self-renewal, and expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors in 3 models of PDAC stem-like cells. In addition, VEDT inhibited the migration, invasion, and several biomarkers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in PDAC cells and tumors. These processes are critical for tumor metastases. Furthermore, in the L3.6pl orthotopic model of PDAC metastases, VEDT significantly inhibited growth and metastases of these cells. Finally, in an orthotopic xenograft model of human PDAC stem-like cells, we showed that VEDT significantly retarded the growth and metastases of gemcitabine-resistant PDAC human stem-like cells. Because VEDT has been shown to be safe and to reach bioactive levels in humans, this work supports investigating VEDT for chemoprevention of PDAC metastases.

  16. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  17. Glioblastoma stem-like cells give rise to tumour endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rong; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Wilshire, Jennifer; Kowalik, Urszula; Hovinga, Koos E.; Geber, Adam; Fligelman, Boris; Leversha, Margaret; Brennan, Cameron; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is among the most aggressive of human cancers. A key feature of GBMs is the extensive network of abnormal vasculature characterized by glomeruloid structures and endothelial hyperplasia. Yet the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the origin of tumour endothelial cells remain poorly

  18. Delayed cell death associated with mitotic catastrophe in γ-irradiated stem-like glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firat, Elke; Gaedicke, Simone; Tsurumi, Chizuko; Esser, Norbert; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Stem-like tumor cells are regarded as highly resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). Previous studies have focused on apoptosis early after irradiation, and the apoptosis resistance observed has been attributed to reduced DNA damage or enhanced DNA repair compared to non-stem tumor cells. Here, early and late radioresponse of patient-derived stem-like glioma cells (SLGCs) and differentiated cells directly derived from them were examined for cell death mode and the influence of stem cell-specific growth factors. Primary SLGCs were propagated in serum-free medium with the stem-cell mitogens epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Differentiation was induced by serum-containing medium without EGF and FGF. Radiation sensitivity was evaluated by assessing proliferation, clonogenic survival, apoptosis, and mitotic catastrophe. DNA damage-associated γH2AX as well as p53 and p21 expression were determined by Western blots. SLGCs failed to apoptose in the first 4 days after irradiation even at high single doses up to 10 Gy, but we observed substantial cell death later than 4 days postirradiation in 3 of 6 SLGC lines treated with 5 or 10 Gy. This delayed cell death was observed in 3 of the 4 SLGC lines with nonfunctional p53, was associated with mitotic catastrophe and occurred via apoptosis. The early apoptosis resistance of the SLGCs was associated with lower γH2AX compared to differentiated cells, but we found that the stem-cell culture cytokines EGF plus FGF-2 strongly reduce γH2AX levels. Nonetheless, in two p53-deficient SLGC lines examined γIR-induced apoptosis even correlated with EGF/FGF-induced proliferation and mitotic catastrophe. In a line containing CD133-positive and -negative stem-like cells, the CD133-positive cells proliferated faster and underwent more γIR-induced mitotic catastrophe. Our results suggest the importance of delayed apoptosis, associated mitotic catastrophe, and cellular proliferation for γIR-induced death of

  19. Resveratrol suppresses growth of cancer stem-like cells by inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Puspa R; Okuda, Hiroshi; Watabe, Misako; Pai, Sudha K; Liu, Wen; Kobayashi, Aya; Xing, Fei; Fukuda, Koji; Hirota, Shigeru; Sugai, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Go; Koeda, Keisuke; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Toshimi; Endo, Masaki; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Tanji, Susumu; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Cao, Deliang; Wilber, Andrew C; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2011-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound and has been shown to exhibit cardio-protective as well as anti-neoplastic effects on various types of cancers. However, the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor effect is not clearly defined. Resveratrol has been shown to have strong hypolipidemic effect on normal adipocytes and as hyper-lipogenesis is a hallmark of cancer cell physiology, the effect of resveratrol on lipid synthesis in cancer stem-like cells (CD24(-)/CD44(+)/ESA(+)) that were isolated from both ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines was examined. The authors found that resveratrol significantly reduced the cell viability and mammosphere formation followed by inducing apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells. This inhibitory effect of resveratrol is accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid synthesis which is caused by the down-regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene followed by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes, DAPK2 and BNIP3. The activation of apoptotic pathway in the cancer stem-like cells was suppressed by TOFA and by Fumonisin B1, suggesting that resveratrol-induced apoptosis is indeed through the modulation of FAS-mediated cell survival signaling. Importantly, resveratrol was able to significantly suppress the growth of cancer stem-like cells in an animal model of xenograft without showing apparental toxicity. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that resveratrol is capable of inducing apoptosis in the cancer stem-like cells through suppression of lipogenesis by modulating FAS expression, which highlights a novel mechanism of anti-tumor effect of resveratrol.

  20. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akari Takaya

    Full Text Available Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiating cells (CICs can be isolated as side population (SP cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis.

  1. Establishment and Analysis of Cancer Stem-Like and Non-Cancer Stem-Like Clone Cells from the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line SW480.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Akari; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Aiko; Morita, Rena; Saijo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Eri; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Tamura, Yasuaki; Takemasa, Ichiro; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) can be isolated as side population (SP) cells, aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh) cells or cell surface marker-positive cells including CD44+ cells and CD133+ cells. CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs are unstable in in vitro culture, and CSCs/CICs can differentiate into non-CSCs/CICs and some non-CSCs/CICs can dedifferentiate into CSCs/CICs. Therefore, experiments using a large amount of CSCs/CICs are technically very difficult. In this study, we isolated single cell clones from SP cells and main population (MP) cells derived from the human colon cancer cell line SW480. SP analysis revealed that SP clone cells had relatively high percentages of SP cells, whereas MP clone cells showed very few SP cells, and the phenotypes were sustainable for more than 2 months of in vitro culture. Xenograft transplantation revealed that SP clone cells have higher tumor-initiating ability than that of MP clone cells and SP clone cell showed higher chemo-resistance compared with MP clone cells. These results indicate that SP clone cells derived from SW480 cells are enriched with CSCs/CICs, whereas MP clone cells are pure non-CSCs/CICs. SP clone cells and MP clone cells are a very stable in vitro CSC/CIC-enriched and non-CSC/CIC model for further analysis.

  2. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs.

  3. The Expression of Connexins and SOX2 Reflects the Plasticity of Glioma Stem-Like Cells

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    Joana Balça-Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most malignant primary brain tumor, with an average survival rate of 15 months. GBM is highly refractory to therapy, and such unresponsiveness is due, primarily, but not exclusively, to the glioma stem-like cells (GSCs. This subpopulation express stem-like cell markers and is responsible for the heterogeneity of GBM, generating multiple differentiated cell phenotypes. However, how GBMs maintain the balance between stem and non-stem populations is still poorly understood. We investigated the GBM ability to interconvert between stem and non-stem states through the evaluation of the expression of specific stem cell markers as well as cell communication proteins. We evaluated the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of GSCs derived from differentiated GBM cell lines by comparing their stem-like cell properties and expression of connexins. We showed that non-GSCs as well as GSCs can undergo successive cycles of gain and loss of stem properties, demonstrating a bidirectional cellular plasticity model that is accompanied by changes on connexins expression. Our findings indicate that the interconversion between non-GSCs and GSCs can be modulated by extracellular factors culminating on differential expression of stem-like cell markers and cell-cell communication proteins. Ultimately, we observed that stem markers are mostly expressed on GBMs rather than on low-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that the presence of GSCs is a feature of high-grade gliomas. Together, our data demonstrate the utmost importance of the understanding of stem cell plasticity properties in a way to a step closer to new strategic approaches to potentially eliminate GSCs and, hopefully, prevent tumor recurrence.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits stem-like inflammatory breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Mineva

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC is a highly aggressive form of cancer characterized by high rates of proliferation, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis, and an overall poor survival. As regular green tea consumption has been associated with improved prognosis of breast cancer patients, including decreased risk of recurrence, here the effects of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG were tested on two IBC lines: SUM-149 and SUM-190. EGCG decreased expression of genes that promote proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Consistently, growth, invasive properties, and survival of IBC cells were reduced by EGCG treatment. EGCG also reduced lymphangiogenesis-promoting genes, in particular VEGF-D. Conditioned media from EGCG-treated IBC cells displayed decreased VEGF-D secretion and reduced ability to promote lymphangiogenesis in vitro as measured by hTERT-HDLEC lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Tumorsphere formation by SUM-149 cells was robustly inhibited by EGCG, suggesting effects on self-renewal ability. Stem-like SUM-149 cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, previously implicated in poor patient prognosis, were isolated. EGCG treatment reduced growth and induced apoptosis of the stem-like SUM-149 cells in culture. In an orthotopic mouse model, EGCG decreased growth of pre-existing tumors derived from ALDH-positive stem-like SUM-149 cells and their expression of VEGF-D, which correlated with a significant decrease in peritumoral lymphatic vessel density. Thus, EGCG inhibits the overall aggressive IBC phenotype. Reduction of the stem-like cell compartment by EGCG may explain the decreased risk of breast cancer recurrence among green tea drinkers. Recent clinical trials demonstrate the efficacy of green tea polyphenol extracts in treatment of prostate cancer and lymphocytic leukemia with low toxicity. Given the poor prognosis of IBC patients, our findings suggest further exploration

  5. Novel anticancer activity of phloroglucinol against breast cancer stem-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Uddin, Nizam [Department of Life Science, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jin-Won [College of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changil [Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yongjoon, E-mail: hiswork@hanmail.net [Department of Life Science, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae, E-mail: sj0420@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Poor prognosis of breast cancer patients is closely associated with metastasis and relapse. There is substantial evidence supporting that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are primarily responsible for relapse in breast cancer after anticancer treatment. However, there is a lack of suitable drugs that target breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs). Here, we report that phloroglucinol (PG), a natural phlorotannin component of brown algae, suppresses sphere formation, anchorage-independent colony formation and in vivo tumorigenicity. In line with these observations, treatment with PG also decreased CD44{sup +} cancer cell population as well as expression of CSC regulators such as Sox2, CD44, Oct4, Notch2 and β-catenin. Also, treatment with PG sensitized breast cancer cells to anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide, and taxol as well as to ionizing radiation. Importantly, PG inhibited KRAS and its downstream PI3K/AKT and RAF-1/ERK signaling pathways that regulate the maintenance of CSCs. Taken together, our findings implicate PG as a good candidate to target BCSCs and to prevent the disease relapse. - Highlights: • Phloroglucinol suppresses in vivo tumor formation. • Phloroglucinol sensitizes breast cancer cells to anticancer agents. • Phloroglucinol inhibits breast cancer stem-like cells. • Phloroglucinol inhibits PI3K/AKT and KRAS/RAF/ERK signaling pathways.

  6. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D' Aosta, National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Piazza Borgo Pila, 16129, Genova (Italy); Thellung, Stefano [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Daga, Antonio [Laboratory of Translational Oncology, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino - IST- Istituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro, L.go R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova Italy (Italy); Cilli, Michele [Animal Facility, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino - IST- Istituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro, L.go R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova Italy (Italy); Ferrari, Angelo [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D' Aosta, National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Piazza Borgo Pila, 16129, Genova (Italy); Florio, Tullio, E-mail: tullio.florio@unige.it [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-{alpha} and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor Black

  7. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto; Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina; Thellung, Stefano; Daga, Antonio; Cilli, Michele; Ferrari, Angelo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell–like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-α and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: ► Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 ► These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew ► Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice ► Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor ► Upon differentiation, cells grow as monolayers, loosing the tumorigenic potential

  8. Natural compounds' activity against cancer stem-like or fast-cycling melanoma cells.

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    Malgorzata Sztiller-Sikorska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports the concept that melanoma is highly heterogeneous and sustained by a small subpopulation of melanoma stem-like cells. Those cells are considered as responsible for tumor resistance to therapies. Moreover, melanoma cells are characterized by their high phenotypic plasticity. Consequently, both melanoma stem-like cells and their more differentiated progeny must be eradicated to achieve durable cure. By reevaluating compounds in heterogeneous melanoma populations, it might be possible to select compounds with activity not only against fast-cycling cells but also against cancer stem-like cells. Natural compounds were the focus of the present study. METHODS: We analyzed 120 compounds from The Natural Products Set II to identify compounds active against melanoma populations grown in an anchorage-independent manner and enriched with cells exerting self-renewing capacity. Cell viability, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, gene expression, clonogenic survival and label-retention were analyzed. FINDINGS: Several compounds efficiently eradicated cells with clonogenic capacity and nanaomycin A, streptonigrin and toyocamycin were effective at 0.1 µM. Other anti-clonogenic but not highly cytotoxic compounds such as bryostatin 1, siomycin A, illudin M, michellamine B and pentoxifylline markedly reduced the frequency of ABCB5 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5-positive cells. On the contrary, treatment with maytansine and colchicine selected for cells expressing this transporter. Maytansine, streptonigrin, toyocamycin and colchicine, even if highly cytotoxic, left a small subpopulation of slow-dividing cells unaffected. Compounds selected in the present study differentially altered the expression of melanocyte/melanoma specific microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and proto-oncogene c-MYC. CONCLUSION: Selected anti-clonogenic compounds might be further investigated as potential adjuvants

  9. Curcumin targets breast cancer stem-like cells with microtentacles that persist in mammospheres and promote reattachment

    OpenAIRE

    Charpentier, Monica S.; Whipple, Rebecca A.; Vitolo, Michele I.; Boggs, Amanda E.; Slovic, Jana; Thompson, Keyata N.; Bhandary, Lekhana; Martin, Stuart S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have related properties associated with distant metastasis, but the mechanisms through which CSCs promote metastasis are unclear. In this study, we report that breast cancer cell lines with more stem-like properties display higher levels of microtentacles (McTNs), a type of tubulin-based protrusion of the plasma cell membrane which forms on detached or suspended cells and aid in cell reattachment. We hypothesized that CSCs with l...

  10. Evodiamine selectively targets cancer stem-like cells through the p53-p21-Rb pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seula; Woo, Jong Kyu; Jung, Yuchae; Jeong, Dawoon; Kang, Minsook; Yoo, Young-Ji; Lee, Hani; Oh, Seung Hyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Kim, Woo-Young

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the recent improvements, the resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy followed by relapse is the main hurdle for the successful treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of death in women. A small population of breast cancer cells that have stem-like characteristics (cancer stem-like cells; CSLC) may contribute to this resistance and relapse. Here, we report on a component of a traditional Chinese medicine, evodiamine, which selectively targets CSLC of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDAMB 231 at a concentration that does show a little or no cytotoxic effect on bulk cancer cells. While evodiamine caused the accumulation of bulk cancer cells at the G2/M phase, it did not hold CSLC in a specific cell cycle phase but instead, selectively killed CSLC. This was not due to the culture of CSLC in suspension or without FBS. A proteomic analysis and western blotting revealed that evodiamine changed the expression of cell cycle regulating molecules more efficiently in CSLC cells than in bulk cancer cells. Surprisingly, evodiamine selectively activated p53 and p21 and decreased inactive Rb, the master molecules in G1/S checkpoint. These data collectively suggest a novel mechanism involving CSLC-specific targeting by evodiamine and its possible use to the therapy of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Evodiamine selectively kills breast cancer stem like cells at G1 phase. • Evodiamine utilizes different mechanism of cell cycle modulation in CSLC and in bulk cancer cells. • Evodiamine activate the p53, p21 and Rb pathway.

  11. Evodiamine selectively targets cancer stem-like cells through the p53-p21-Rb pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seula [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Kyu [College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yuchae; Jeong, Dawoon; Kang, Minsook; Yoo, Young-Ji; Lee, Hani [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Hyun [College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Ha [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young, E-mail: wykim@sookmyung.ac.kr [The Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-22

    In spite of the recent improvements, the resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy followed by relapse is the main hurdle for the successful treatment of breast cancer, a leading cause of death in women. A small population of breast cancer cells that have stem-like characteristics (cancer stem-like cells; CSLC) may contribute to this resistance and relapse. Here, we report on a component of a traditional Chinese medicine, evodiamine, which selectively targets CSLC of breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDAMB 231 at a concentration that does show a little or no cytotoxic effect on bulk cancer cells. While evodiamine caused the accumulation of bulk cancer cells at the G2/M phase, it did not hold CSLC in a specific cell cycle phase but instead, selectively killed CSLC. This was not due to the culture of CSLC in suspension or without FBS. A proteomic analysis and western blotting revealed that evodiamine changed the expression of cell cycle regulating molecules more efficiently in CSLC cells than in bulk cancer cells. Surprisingly, evodiamine selectively activated p53 and p21 and decreased inactive Rb, the master molecules in G1/S checkpoint. These data collectively suggest a novel mechanism involving CSLC-specific targeting by evodiamine and its possible use to the therapy of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Evodiamine selectively kills breast cancer stem like cells at G1 phase. • Evodiamine utilizes different mechanism of cell cycle modulation in CSLC and in bulk cancer cells. • Evodiamine activate the p53, p21 and Rb pathway.

  12. A stem cell medium containing neural stimulating factor induces a pancreatic cancer stem-like cell-enriched population

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATANABE, YUSAKU; YOSHIMURA, KIYOSHI; YOSHIKAWA, KOICHI; TSUNEDOMI, RYOICHI; SHINDO, YOSHITARO; MATSUKUMA, SOU; MAEDA, NORIKO; KANEKIYO, SHINSUKE; SUZUKI, NOBUAKI; KURAMASU, ATSUO; SONODA, KOUHEI; TAMADA, KOJI; KOBAYASHI, SEI; SAYA, HIDEYUKI; HAZAMA, SHOICHI; OKA, MASAAKI

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been studied for their self-renewal capacity and pluripotency, as well as their resistance to anticancer therapy and their ability to metastasize to distant organs. CSCs are difficult to study because their population is quite low in tumor specimens. To overcome this problem, we established a culture method to induce a pancreatic cancer stem-like cell (P-CSLC)-enriched population from human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines established at our department were cultured in CSC-inducing media containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), neural cell survivor factor-1 (NSF-1), and N-acetylcysteine. Sphere cells were obtained and then transferred to a laminin-coated dish and cultured for approximately two months. The surface markers, gene expression, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, cell cycle, and tumorigenicity of these induced cells were examined for their stem cell-like characteristics. The population of these induced cells expanded within a few months. The ratio of CD24high, CD44high, epithelial specific antigen (ESA) high, and CD44variant (CD44v) high cells in the induced cells was greatly enriched. The induced cells stayed in the G0/G1 phase and demonstrated mesenchymal and stemness properties. The induced cells had high tumorigenic potential. Thus, we established a culture method to induce a P-CSLCenriched population from human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The CSLC population was enriched approximately 100-fold with this method. Our culture method may contribute to the precise analysis of CSCs and thus support the establishment of CSC-targeting therapy. PMID:25118635

  13. YAP1 Regulates OCT4 Activity and SOX2 Expression to Facilitate Self-Renewal and Vascular Mimicry of Stem-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora-Singhal, Namrata; Nguyen, Jonathan; Schaal, Courtney; Perumal, Deepak; Singh, Sandeep; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-06-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly correlated with smoking and has very low survival rates. Multiple studies have shown that stem-like cells contribute to the genesis and progression of NSCLC. Our results show that the transcriptional coactivator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), which is the oncogenic component of the Hippo signaling pathway, is elevated in the stem-like cells from NSCLC and contributes to their self-renewal and ability to form angiogenic tubules. Inhibition of YAP1 by a small molecule or depletion of YAP1 by siRNAs suppressed self-renewal and vascular mimicry of stem-like cells. These effects of YAP1 were mediated through the embryonic stem cell transcription factor, Sox2. YAP1 could transcriptionally induce Sox2 through a physical interaction with Oct4; Sox2 induction occurred independent of TEAD2 transcription factor, which is the predominant mediator of YAP1 functions. The binding of Oct4 to YAP1 could be detected in cell lines as well as tumor tissues; the interaction was elevated in NSCLC samples compared to normal tissue as seen by proximity ligation assays. YAP1 bound to Oct4 through the WW domain, and a peptide corresponding to this region could disrupt the interaction. Delivery of the WW domain peptide to stem-like cells disrupted the interaction and abrogated Sox2 expression, self-renewal, and vascular mimicry. Depleting YAP1 reduced the expression of multiple epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes and prevented the growth and metastasis of tumor xenografts in mice; overexpression of Sox2 in YAP1 null cells rescued these functions. These results demonstrate a novel regulation of stem-like functions by YAP1, through the modulation of Sox2 expression. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  14. The hypoxic microenvironment upgrades stem-like properties of ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Dongming

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study whether hypoxia influences the stem-like properties of ovarian cancer cells and their biological behavior under hypoxia. Method Ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2 and OVCAR-3 were cultivated in different oxygen tensions for proliferation, cell cycling and invasion analyses. The clonogenic potential of cells was examined by colony formation and sphere formation assays. Stem cell surface markers, SP and CD44bright and CD44dim cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Protein expression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, Ot3/4 and Sox2 were investigated by Western blotting. Results Both cell lines cultivated at hypoxic condition grew relatively slowly with extended G0/G1 phase. However, if the cells were pre-treated under 1% O2 for 48 hrs before brought back to normoxia, the cells showed significantly higher proliferation rate with higher infiltration capability, and significant more colonies and spheres, in comparison to the cells always cultivated under normoxia. CD44bright cells expressed significantly higher levels of Oct3/4 and Sox2 than the CD44dim cells and formed significantly more clones and spheres examined in vitro. Hypoxic treatment of the cells resulted in stronger CD44 expression in both cell lines, and stronger CD133 expression in the OVCAR-3 cell line. In parallel with these findings, significantly increased number of side population (SP cells and up-regulated expression of Oct3/4 and Sox2 in both ES-2 and OVCAR-3 cell lines were observed. Conclusion We conclude that ovarian cancer cells survive hypoxia by upgrading their stem-like properties through up-regulation of stemness-related factors and behave more aggressively when brought back to higher oxygen environment.

  15. Molecular and Microenvironmental Determinants of Glioma Stem-Like Cell Survival and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Roos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults with a 5-year survival rate of 5% despite intensive research efforts. The poor prognosis is due, in part, to aggressive invasion into the surrounding brain parenchyma. Invasion is a complex process mediated by cell-intrinsic pathways, extrinsic microenvironmental cues, and biophysical cues from the peritumoral stromal matrix. Recent data have attributed GBM invasion to the glioma stem-like cell (GSC subpopulation. GSCs are slowly dividing, highly invasive, therapy resistant, and are considered to give rise to tumor recurrence. GSCs are localized in a heterogeneous cellular niche, and cross talk between stromal cells and GSCs cultivates a fertile environment that promotes GSC invasion. Pro-migratory soluble factors from endothelial cells, astrocytes, macrophages, microglia, and non-stem-like tumor cells can stimulate peritumoral invasion of GSCs. Therefore, therapeutic efforts designed to target the invasive GSCs may enhance patient survival. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of extrinsic pathways and major stromal and immune players facilitating GSC maintenance and survival.

  16. Tryptophan derivatives regulate the transcription of Oct4 in stem-like cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Li, Wenxin; Kang, Bo; Zhou, Yanwen; Song, Jiasheng; Dan, Songsong; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Jingchao; Yin, Shengyong; Cao, Hongcui; Yao, Hangping; Zhu, Chenggang; Yi, Wen; Zhao, Qingwei; Xu, Xiaowei; Zheng, Min; Zheng, Shusen; Li, Lanjuan; Shen, Binghui; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2015-06-10

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to environmental toxicants, is increasingly recognized as a key player in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here we show that a variety of tryptophan derivatives that act as endogenous AhR ligands can affect the transcription level of the master pluripotency factor Oct4. Among them, ITE enhances the binding of the AhR to the promoter of Oct4 and suppresses its transcription. Reduction of endogenous ITE levels in cancer cells by tryptophan deprivation or hypoxia leads to Oct4 elevation, which can be reverted by administration with synthetic ITE. Consequently, synthetic ITE induces the differentiation of stem-like cancer cells and reduces their tumorigenic potential in both subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft tumour models. Thus, our results reveal a role of tryptophan derivatives and the AhR signalling pathway in regulating cancer cell stemness and open a new therapeutic avenue to target stem-like cancer cells.

  17. Prostate cancer cell lines under hypoxia exhibit greater stem-like properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Ma

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is an important environmental change in many cancers. Hypoxic niches can be occupied by cancer stem/progenitor-like cells that are associated with tumor progression and resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, it has not yet been fully elucidated how hypoxia influences the stem-like properties of prostate cancer cells. In this report, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. In comparison to normoxia (20% O(2, 7% O(2 induced higher expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, which were associated with upregulation of Oct3/4 and Nanog; 1% O(2 induced even greater levels of these factors. The upregulated NANOG mRNA expression in hypoxia was confirmed to be predominantly retrogene NANOGP8. Similar growth rates were observed for cells cultivated under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for 48 hours; however, the colony formation assay revealed that 48 hours of hypoxic pretreatment resulted in the formation of more colonies. Treatment with 1% O(2 also extended the G(0/G(1 stage, resulting in more side population cells, and induced CD44 and ABCG2 expressions. Hypoxia also increased the number of cells positive for ABCG2 expression, which were predominantly found to be CD44(bright cells. Correspondingly, the sorted CD44(bright cells expressed higher levels of ABCG2, Oct3/4, and Nanog than CD44(dim cells, and hypoxic pretreatment significantly increased the expressions of these factors. CD44(bright cells under normoxia formed significantly more colonies and spheres compared with the CD44(dim cells, and hypoxic pretreatment even increased this effect. Our data indicate that prostate cancer cells under hypoxia possess greater stem-like properties.

  18. Kinomic and phospho-proteomic analysis of breast cancer stem-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Christensen, Anne Geske Lindhard; Ehmsen, Sidse

    Kinomic and phospho-proteomic analysis of breast cancer stem-like cells Rikke Leth-Larsen1, Anne G Christensen1, Sidse Ehmsen1, Mark Møller1, Giuseppe Palmisano2, Martin R Larsen2, Henrik J Ditzel1,3 1Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark 2Institute...... of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark 3Dept. of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for tumorigenic potential and to possess resistance mechanisms against chemotherapy- and radiation-induced cancer...... cell death, while the bulk of a tumor lacks these capacities. The resistance mechanisms may cause these cells to survive and become the source of later tumor recurrence, highlighting the need for therapeutic strategies that specifically target pathways central to these cancer stem cells. The CD44hi...

  19. Biology and immunology of cancer stem(-like) cells in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xu; Ma, Chenming; Nie, Xiaobo; Lu, Jianxin; Lenarz, Minoo; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Albers, Andreas E

    2015-09-01

    Immunological approaches against tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have been investigated for about 50 years. Such immunotherapeutic treatments are still not sufficiently effective for therapy of HNSCC. Despite the existence of immunosurveillance tumor cells may escape from the host immune system by a variety of mechanisms. Recent findings have indicated that cancer stem(-like) cells (CSCs) in HNSCC have the ability to reconstitute the heterogeneity of the bulk tumor and contribute to immunosuppression and resistance to current therapies. With regard to the CSC model, future immunotherapy possibly in combination with other modes of treatment should target this subpopulation specifically to reduce local recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we will summarize recent research findings on immunological features of CSCs and the potential of immune targeting of CSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes within chitosan-hyaluronan membrane-derived 3D tumor spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Jang; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Cancer drug development has to go through rigorous testing and evaluation processes during pre-clinical in vitro studies. However, the conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture is often discounted by the insufficiency to present a more typical tumor microenvironment. The multicellular tumor spheroids have been a valuable model to provide more comprehensive assessment of tumor in response to therapeutic strategies. Here, we applied chitosan-hyaluronan (HA) membranes as a platform to promote three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid formation. The biological features of tumor spheroids of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells on chitosan-HA membranes were compared to those of 2D cultured cells in vitro. The cells in tumor spheroids cultured on chitosan-HA membranes showed higher levels of stem-like properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as NANOG, SOX2, CD44, CD133, N-cadherin, and vimentin, than 2D cultured cells. Moreover, they exhibited enhanced invasive activities and multidrug resistance by the upregulation of MMP2, MMP9, BCRC5, BCL2, MDR1, and ABCG2 as compared with 2D cultured cells. The grafting densities of HA affected the tumor sphere size and mRNA levels of genes on the substrates. These evidences suggest that chitosan-HA membranes may offer a simple and valuable biomaterial platform for rapid generation of tumor spheroids in vitro as well as for further applications in cancer stem cell research and cancer drug screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascular regulation of glioma stem-like cells: a balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy J; Parrinello, Simona

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours driven by glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSC behaviour is controlled by the microenvironment, or niche, in which the cells reside. It is well-established that the vasculature is a key component of the GSC niche, which drives maintenance in the tumour bulk and invasion at the margin. Emerging evidence now indicates that the specific properties of the vasculature within these two regions impose different functional states on resident GSCs, generating distinct subpopulations. Here, we review these recent findings, focusing on the mechanisms that underlie GSC/vascular communication. We further discuss how plasticity enables GSCs to respond to vascular changes by interconverting bidirectionally between states, and address the therapeutic implications of this dynamic response. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. EGFR/Src/Akt signaling modulates Sox2 expression and self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Trevino, Jose; Bora-Singhal, Namrata; Coppola, Domenico; Haura, Eric; Altiok, Soner; Chellappan, Srikumar P

    2012-09-25

    Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for the initiation and progression of cancers. In non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), Hoechst 33342 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells are shown to have stem cell like properties. The oncogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells is in part due to their ability to self-renew; however the mechanistic correlation between oncogenic pathways and self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells has remained elusive. Here we characterized the SP cells at the molecular level and evaluated its ability to generate tumors at the orthotopic site in the lung microenvironment. Further, we investigated if the self-renewal of SP cells is dependent on EGFR mediated signaling. SP cells were detected and isolated from multiple NSCLC cell lines (H1650, H1975, A549), as well as primary human tumor explants grown in nude mice. SP cells demonstrated stem-like properties including ability to self-renew and grow as spheres; they were able to generate primary and metastatic tumors upon orthotopic implantation into the lung of SCID mice. In vitro study revealed elevated expression of stem cell associated markers like Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog as well as demonstrated intrinsic epithelial to mesenchymal transition features in SP cells. Further, we show that abrogation of EGFR, Src and Akt signaling through pharmacological or genetic inhibitors suppresses the self-renewal growth and expansion of SP-cells and resulted in specific downregulation of Sox2 protein expression. siRNA mediated depletion of Sox2 significantly blocked the SP phenotype as well as its self-renewal capacity; whereas other transcription factors like Oct4 and Nanog played a relatively lesser role in regulating self-renewal. Interestingly, Sox2 was elevated in metastatic foci of human NSCLC samples. Our findings suggest that Sox2 is a novel target of EGFR-Src-Akt signaling in NSCLCs that modulates self-renewal and expansion of stem-like cells from NSCLC. Therefore, the outcome of the

  3. EGFR/Src/Akt signaling modulates Sox2 expression and self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sandeep

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for the initiation and progression of cancers. In non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs, Hoechst 33342 dye effluxing side population (SP cells are shown to have stem cell like properties. The oncogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells is in part due to their ability to self-renew; however the mechanistic correlation between oncogenic pathways and self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells has remained elusive. Here we characterized the SP cells at the molecular level and evaluated its ability to generate tumors at the orthotopic site in the lung microenvironment. Further, we investigated if the self-renewal of SP cells is dependent on EGFR mediated signaling. Results SP cells were detected and isolated from multiple NSCLC cell lines (H1650, H1975, A549, as well as primary human tumor explants grown in nude mice. SP cells demonstrated stem-like properties including ability to self-renew and grow as spheres; they were able to generate primary and metastatic tumors upon orthotopic implantation into the lung of SCID mice. In vitro study revealed elevated expression of stem cell associated markers like Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog as well as demonstrated intrinsic epithelial to mesenchymal transition features in SP cells. Further, we show that abrogation of EGFR, Src and Akt signaling through pharmacological or genetic inhibitors suppresses the self-renewal growth and expansion of SP-cells and resulted in specific downregulation of Sox2 protein expression. siRNA mediated depletion of Sox2 significantly blocked the SP phenotype as well as its self-renewal capacity; whereas other transcription factors like Oct4 and Nanog played a relatively lesser role in regulating self-renewal. Interestingly, Sox2 was elevated in metastatic foci of human NSCLC samples. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Sox2 is a novel target of EGFR-Src-Akt signaling in NSCLCs that modulates self-renewal and expansion of

  4. Possible association between stem-like hallmark and radioresistance in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shoko; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Umezu, Tomokazu; Mizuno, Mika; Suzuki, Shiro; Yamamoto, Eiko; Mitsui, Hiroko; Sekiya, Ryuichiro; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the possibility of an association between a stem-like hallmark and radiotherapeutic sensitivity in human cervical carcinoma cells. Side-population (SP) cells and non-SP (NSP) cells in HeLa cells were isolated using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 efflux. We performed Western blot analysis to evaluate the expression of stem cell markers (CXCR4, Oct3/4, CD133, and SOX2) and apoptosis markers after irradiation. In addition, SP and NSP cells were injected into nude mice and we assessed subcutaneous tumor formation. To examine tolerance of irradiation, colony formation and apoptosis change were confirmed in the SP and NSP cells. SP cells showed a higher expression of CXCR4, Oct3/4, CD133, and SOX2 than NSP cells. The colony size of SP cells cultured on non-coated dishes was larger than that of NSP cells, and NSP cells were easily induced to undergo apoptosis. SP cells tended to form spheroids and showed a higher level of tumorigenicity compared with NSP cells. In addition, nude mice inoculated with SP cells showed greater tumor growth compared with NSP cells. SP cells showed a higher tumorigenicity and lower apoptotic potential, leading to enhanced radiotolerance. Tumor SP cells showed higher-level stem-cell-like characters and radioresistance than NSP cells. SP cells may be useful for new therapeutic approaches for radiation-resistant cervical cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Genetically engineered oncolytic Newcastle disease virus mediates cytolysis of prostate cancer stem like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Shobana; Pudupakam, Raghavendra Sumanth; Allen, Adria; Biswas, Moanaro; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar

    2017-10-20

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising novel approach that overcomes the limitations posed by radiation and chemotherapy. In this study, the oncolytic efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) BC-KLQL-GFP, against prostate cancer stem-like/tumor initiating cells was evaluated. Xenograft derived prostaspheres (XPS) induced tumor more efficiently than monolayer cell derived prostaspheres (MCPS) in nude mice. Primary and secondary XPS show enhanced self-renewal and clonogenic potential compared to MCPS. XPS also expressed embryonic stem cell markers, such as Nanog, CD44 and Nestin. Further, prostate specific antigen (PSA) activated recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (rNDV) was selectively cytotoxic to tumor derived DU145 prostaspheres. An effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 0.11-0.14 multiplicity of infection was sufficient to cause prostasphere cell death in serum free culture. DU145 tumor xenograft derived prostaspheres were used as tumor surrogates as they were enriched for a putative tumor initiating cell population. PSA activated rNDV was efficient in inducing cell death of cells and prostaspheres derived from primary xenografts ex-vivo, thus signifying a potential in vivo efficacy. The EC 50 (∼0.1 MOI) for cytolysis of tumor initiating cells was slightly higher than that was required for the parental cell line, but within the therapeutic margin for safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. mir-300 promotes self-renewal and inhibits the differentiation of glioma stem-like cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Daming

    2014-01-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been critically implicated in several human cancers. miRNAs are thought to participate in various biological processes, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and even the regulation of the stemness properties of cancer stem cells. In this study, we explore the potential role of miR-300 in glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs). We isolated GSLCs from glioma biopsy specimens and identified the stemness properties of the cells through neurosphere formation assays, multilineage differentiation ability analysis, and immunofluorescence analysis of glioma stem cell markers. We found that miR-300 is commonly upregulated in glioma tissues, and the expression of miR-300 was higher in GSLCs. The results of functional experiments demonstrated that miR-300 can enhance the self-renewal of GSLCs and reduce differentiation toward both astrocyte and neural fates. In addition, LZTS2 is a direct target of miR-300. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the critical role of miR-300 in GSLCs and its functions in LZTS2 inhibition and describe a new approach for the molecular regulation of tumor stem cells. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  7. CD133(+)/CD44(+)/Oct4(+)/Nestin(+) stem-like cells isolated from Panc-1 cell line may contribute to multi-resistance and metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqing; Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Yanfang; Shen, Huiling; Yin, Ruigen; Zhang, Zhijian; Su, Zhaoliang

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant disease. Owing to the lack of early symptoms, accompanied by extensive metastasis and high resistance to chemotherapy, pancreatic adenocarcinoma becomes the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. In this study, we identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from the Panc-1 cell line and named pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. These Panc-1 stem-like cells expressed high levels of CD133/CD44/Oct4/Nestin. Compared to Panc-1 cells, Panc-1 stem-like cells were resistant to gemcitabine and expressed high levels of MDR1; furthermore, Panc-1 stem-like cells have high anti-apoptotic, but weak proliferative potential. These results indicated that Panc-1 stem-like cells, as a novel group, may be a potential major cause of pancreatic cancer multidrug resistance and extensive metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial and temporal characterization of endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells activity during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Xu; Chan, Rachel W.S.; Ng, Ernest H.Y.; Yeung, William S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium is a highly dynamic tissue with the ability to cyclically regenerate during the reproductive life. Endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSCs) located throughout the endometrium have shown to functionally contribute to endometrial regeneration. In this study we examine whether the menstrual cycle stage and the location in the endometrial bilayer (superficial and deep portions of the endometrium) has an effect on stem cell activities of eMSCs (CD140b"+CD146"+ cells). Here we show the percentage and clonogenic ability of eMSCs were constant in the various stages of the menstrual cycle (menstrual, proliferative and secretory). However, eMSCs from the menstrual endometrium underwent significantly more rounds of self-renewal and enabled a greater total cell output than those from the secretory phase. Significantly more eMSCs were detected in the deeper portion of the endometrium compared to the superficial layer but their clonogenic and self-renewal activities remained similar. Our findings suggest that eMSCs are activated in the menstrual phase for the cyclical regeneration of the endometrium. - Highlights: • The percentages of endometrial mesenchymal-like stem cells (eMSCs) were constant across the menstrual cycle. • Menstruation eMSCs display superior self-renewal and long-term proliferative activities. • More eMSCs reside in the deeper portion of the endometrium than the superficial layer.

  9. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  10. Spatial and temporal characterization of endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells activity during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Xu [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chan, Rachel W.S., E-mail: rwschan@hku.hk [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Centre of Reproduction, Development of Growth, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Ng, Ernest H.Y.; Yeung, William S.B. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Centre of Reproduction, Development of Growth, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium is a highly dynamic tissue with the ability to cyclically regenerate during the reproductive life. Endometrial mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSCs) located throughout the endometrium have shown to functionally contribute to endometrial regeneration. In this study we examine whether the menstrual cycle stage and the location in the endometrial bilayer (superficial and deep portions of the endometrium) has an effect on stem cell activities of eMSCs (CD140b{sup +}CD146{sup +} cells). Here we show the percentage and clonogenic ability of eMSCs were constant in the various stages of the menstrual cycle (menstrual, proliferative and secretory). However, eMSCs from the menstrual endometrium underwent significantly more rounds of self-renewal and enabled a greater total cell output than those from the secretory phase. Significantly more eMSCs were detected in the deeper portion of the endometrium compared to the superficial layer but their clonogenic and self-renewal activities remained similar. Our findings suggest that eMSCs are activated in the menstrual phase for the cyclical regeneration of the endometrium. - Highlights: • The percentages of endometrial mesenchymal-like stem cells (eMSCs) were constant across the menstrual cycle. • Menstruation eMSCs display superior self-renewal and long-term proliferative activities. • More eMSCs reside in the deeper portion of the endometrium than the superficial layer.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells by regulating oxidative stress and cancer stem-like cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, EuiJoo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exists as a therapeutic target for cancer treatments. Previous studies have shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses the proliferation of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UDCA upon the proliferation of colon cancer cells as a direct result of the regulation of ROS. Method Colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were treated with UDCA. The total number of cells and the number of dead cells were determined using cell counters. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-bromodeoxyuridine flow kit was used to analyze cell cycle variations. Upon exposure to UDCA, the protein levels of p27, p21, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 were determined using western blotting, and qRT-PCR was used to determine levels of mRNA. We preformed dichlorofluorescindiacetate (DCF-DA) staining to detect alteration of intracellular ROS using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Colon cancer stem-like cell lines were generated by tumorsphere culture and treated with UDCA for seven days. The total number of tumorspheres was determined using microscopy. Results We found that UDCA reduced the total number of colon cancer cells, but did not increase the number of dead cells. UDCA inhibited the G1/S and G2/M transition phases in colon cancer cells. UDCA induced expression of cell cycle inhibitors such as p27 and p21. However, it was determined that UDCA suppressed levels of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. UDCA regulated intracellular ROS generation in colon cancer cells, and induced activation of Erk1/2. Finally, UDCA inhibited formation of colon cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that UDCA suppresses proliferation through regulation of oxidative stress in colon cancer cells, as well as colon cancer stem-like cells. PMID:28708871

  12. Automatic cell cloning assay for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer and cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedr, Radek; Pernicová, Zuzana; Slabáková, Eva; Straková, Nicol; Bouchal, Jan; Grepl, Michal; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2013-05-01

    The clonogenic assay is a well-established in vitro method for testing the survival and proliferative capability of cells. It can be used to determine the cytotoxic effects of various treatments including chemotherapeutics and ionizing radiation. However, this approach can also characterize cells with different phenotypes and biological properties, such as stem cells or cancer stem cells. In this study, we implemented a faster and more precise method for assessing the cloning efficiency of cancer stem-like cells that were characterized and separated using a high-speed cell sorter. Cell plating onto a microplate using an automatic cell deposition unit was performed in a single-cell or dilution rank mode by the fluorescence-activated cell sorting method. We tested the new automatic cell-cloning assay (ACCA) on selected cancer cell lines and compared it with the manual approach. The obtained results were also compared with the results of the limiting dilution assay for different cell lines. We applied the ACCA to analyze the cloning capacity of different subpopulations of prostate and colon cancer cells based on the expression of the characteristic markers of stem (CD44 and CD133) and cancer stem cells (TROP-2, CD49f, and CD44). Our results revealed that the novel ACCA is a straightforward approach for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells identified in both cell lines and patient samples. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  13. Tumor Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cell as a Prognostic Marker in Primary Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Jin Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation from brain tumors of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs suggests that these cells play a role in creating a microenvironment for tumor initiation and progression. The clinical characteristics of patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM positive for tMSLCs have not been determined. This study analyzed samples from 82 patients with pGBM who had undergone tumor removal, pathological diagnosis, and isolation of tMSLC from April 2009 to October 2014. Survival, extent of resection, molecular markers, and tMSLC culture results were statistically evaluated. Median overall survival was 18.6 months, 15.0 months in tMSLC-positive patients and 29.5 months in tMSLC-negative patients (P=0.014. Multivariate cox regression model showed isolation of tMSLC (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1~5.6, P=0.021 showed poor outcome while larger extent of resection (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2~0.8, P=0.011 has association with better outcome. The presence of tMSLCs isolated from the specimen of pGBM is associated with the survival of patient.

  14. MicroRNA-Mediated Dynamic Bidirectional Shift between the Subclasses of Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Rooj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale transcriptomic profiling of glioblastoma (GBM into subtypes has provided remarkable insight into the pathobiology and heterogeneous nature of this disease. The mechanisms of speciation and inter-subtype transitions of these molecular subtypes require better characterization to facilitate the development of subtype-specific targeting strategies. The deregulation of microRNA expression among GBM subtypes and their subtype-specific targeting mechanisms are poorly understood. To reveal the underlying basis of microRNA-driven complex subpopulation dynamics within the heterogeneous intra-tumoral ecosystem, we characterized the expression of the subtype-enriched microRNA-128 (miR-128 in transcriptionally and phenotypically diverse subpopulations of patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells. Because microRNAs are capable of re-arranging the molecular landscape in a cell-type-specific manner, we argue that alterations in miR-128 levels are a potent mechanism of bidirectional transitions between GBM subpopulations, resulting in intermediate hybrid stages and emphasizing highly intricate intra-tumoral networking.

  15. Colorectal adenoma stem-like cell populations: associations with adenoma characteristics and metachronous colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Angela N; Parikh, Nila; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Roe, Denise J; Buckmeier, Julie A; Corley, Lynda; Phipps, Ron A; Gallick, Gary; Lance, Peter; Thompson, Patricia A; Hamilton, Stanley R

    2013-11-01

    Cancer stem cells have tumor-initiation and tumor-maintenance capabilities. Stem-like cells are present in colorectal adenomas, but their relationship to adenoma pathology and patient characteristics, including metachronous development of an additional adenoma ("recurrence"), has not been studied extensively. We evaluated the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a putative stem cell marker, in baseline adenomas from the placebo arm of chemoprevention trial participants with colonoscopic follow-up. An exploratory set of 20 baseline adenomas was analyzed by ALDH1A1 immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and a replication set of 89 adenomas from 76 high-risk participants was evaluated by computerized image analysis. ALDH1A1-labeling indices (ALI) were similar across patient characteristics and in advanced and nonadvanced adenomas. There was a trend toward higher ALIs in adenomas occurring in the right than left colon (P = 0.09). ALIs of synchronous adenomas were correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.67). Participants in both sample sets who developed a metachronous adenoma had significantly higher ALIs in their baseline adenoma than participants who remained adenoma free. In the replication set, the adjusted odds for metachronous adenoma increased 1.46 for each 10% increase in ALIs (P = 0.03). A best-fit algorithm-based cutoff point of 22.4% had specificity of 75.0% and positive predictive value of 70.0% for metachronous adenoma development. A larger population of ALDH1A1-expressing cells in an adenoma is associated with a higher risk for metachronous adenoma, independent of adenoma size or histopathology. If confirmed, ALDH1A1 has potential as a novel biomarker in risk assessment and as a potential stem cell target for chemoprevention. ©2013 AACR

  16. Prostate Cancer Stem-like Cells Contribute to the Development of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Ojo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been the standard care for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC since the 1940s. Although ADT shows clear benefits for many patients, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC inevitably occurs. In fact, with the two recent FDA-approved second-generation anti-androgens abiraterone and enzalutamide, resistance develops rapidly in patients with CRPC, despite their initial effectiveness. The lack of effective therapeutic solutions towards CRPC largely reflects our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for CRPC development. While persistent androgen receptor (AR signaling under castration levels of serum testosterone (<50 ng/mL contributes to resistance to ADT, it is also clear that CRPC evolves via complex mechanisms. Nevertheless, the physiological impact of individual mechanisms and whether these mechanisms function in a cohesive manner in promoting CRPC are elusive. In spite of these uncertainties, emerging evidence supports a critical role of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSLCs in stimulating CRPC evolution and resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. In this review, we will discuss the recent evidence supporting the involvement of PCSLC in CRPC acquisition as well as the pathways and factors contributing to PCSLC expansion in response to ADT.

  17. Stability and bifurcation in a model for the dynamics of stem-like cells in leukemia under treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rǎdulescu, I. R.; Cândea, D.; Halanay, A.

    2012-11-01

    A mathematical model for the dynamics of leukemic cells during treatment is introduced. Delay differential equations are used to model cells' evolution and are based on the Mackey-Glass approach, incorporating Goldie-Coldman law. Since resistance is propagated by cells that have the capacity of self-renewal, a population of stem-like cells is studied. Equilibrium points are calculated and their stability properties are investigated.

  18. Gambogic Acid Efficiently Kills Stem-Like Colorectal Cancer Cells by Upregulating ZFP36 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gambogic acid (GA, the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported to be a potential novel antitumor drug. Whether GA inhibits putative cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are considered to be the major cause of cancer treatment failure, remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether GA inhibits the CSCs of colorectal cancer (CRC and its possible mechanisms. Methods: We performed CCK8 and tumor sphere formation assays, percentage analysis of both side population and CD133+CD44+ cells, and the detection of stem cells markers, in order to assess the role of GA in inhibiting the stem celllike features of CRC. An mRNA microarray was performed to identify the downstream gene affected by GA and rescue assays were performed to further clarify whether the downstream gene is involved in the GA induced decrease of the stem cell-like CRC population. CRC cells were engineered with a CSC detector vector encoding GFP and luciferase (Luc under the control of the Nanog promoter, which were utilized to investigate the effect of GA on putative CSC in human tumor xenograft-bearing mice using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Results: Our results showed that GA significantly reduced tumor sphere formation and the percentages of side population and CD133+CD44+ cells, while also decreasing the expression of stemness and EMT-associated markers in CRC cells in vitro. GA killed stem-like CRC cells by upregulating the expression of ZFP36, which is dependent on the inactivation of the EGFR/ ERK signaling pathway. GFP+ cells harboring the PNanog-GFP-T2A-Luc transgene exhibited CSC characteristics. The in vivo results showed that GA significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice, accompanied by a remarkable reduction in the putative CSC number, based on whole-body bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: These findings suggest that GA significantly inhibits putative CSCs of CRC both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the activation of the

  19. Xenografts in zebrafish embryos as a rapid functional assay for breast cancer stem-like cell identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiara, Arrate; Holgado, Olaia; Beloqui, Izaskun; Abalde, Leire; Sanchez, Yolanda; Callol, Carles; Martin, Angel G

    2011-11-01

    The cancer stem cell is defined by its capacity to self-renew, the potential to differentiate into all cells of the tumor and the ability to proliferate and drive the expansion of the tumor. Thus, targeting these cells may provide novel anti-cancer treatment strategies. Breast cancer stem cells have been isolated according to surface marker expression, ability to efflux fluorescent dyes, increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase or the capacity to form spheres in non-adherent culture conditions. In order to test novel drugs directed towards modulating self-renewal of cancer stem cells, rapid, easy and inexpensive assays must be developed. Using 2 days-post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish embryos as transplant recipients, we show that cells grown in mammospheres from breast carcinoma cell lines migrate to the tail of the embryo and form masses with a significantly higher frequency than parental monolayer populations. When stem-like self-renewal was targeted in the parental population by the use of the dietary supplement curcumin, cell migration and mass formation were reduced, indicating that these effects were associated with stem-like cell content. This is a proof of principle report that proposes a rapid and inexpensive assay to target in vivo cancer stem-like cells, which may be used to unravel basic cancer stem cell biology and for drug screening.

  20. Metformin inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like process and stem-like properties in GBM via AKT/mTOR/ZEB1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Chen, Yong; Li, Yunqian; Lyu, Xiaoyan; Cui, Jiayue; Cheng, Ye; Zhao, Liyan; Zhao, Gang

    2018-01-23

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive brain tumor in adults. In spite of advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is still relatively poor. The invasive property of GBM is the major cause of death in patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like process (EMT-like process) is considered to play an important role in the invasive property. Metformin has been reported as a regulator of EMT-like process. In this study, we confirmed that metformin inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT-like process and EMT-associated migration and invasion in LN18 and U87 GBM cells. Our results also showed that metformin significantly suppressed self-renewal capacity of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), and expression of stem cell markers Bmi1, Sox2 and Musashi1, indicating that metformin can inhibit cancer stem-like properties of GBM cells. We further clarified that metformin specifically inhibited TGF-β1 activated AKT, the downstream molecular mTOR and the leading transcription factor ZEB1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that metformin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT-like process and cancer stem-like properties in GBM cells via AKT/mTOR/ZEB1 pathway and provide evidence of metformin for further clinical investigation targeted GBM.

  1. Autocrine Semaphorin3A signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem-like cells in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kensuke; Kawahara, Kohichi; Maeda, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) exist in tumor tissues composed of heterogeneous cell population and are characterized by their self-renewal capacity and tumorigenicity. Many studies demonstrate that eradication of CSCs prevents development and recurrences of tumor; yet, molecules critical for the maintenance of CSCs have not been completely understood. We previously reported that Semaphorin3A (Sema3a) knockdown suppressed the tumorigenicity and proliferative capacity of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. Therefore, we identified Sema3a as an essential factor for the establishment or maintenance of CSCs derived from LLC (LLC-stem cell). shRNA against Sema3a was introduced into LLC cells to establish a LLC-stem cell line and its effects on tumorigenesis, sphere formation, and mTORC1 activity were tested. Sema3a knockdown completely abolished tumorigenicity and the sphere-formation and self-renewal ability of LLC-stem cells. The Sema3a knockdown was also associated with decreased expression of mRNA for stem cell markers. The self-renewal ability abolished by Sema3a knockdown could not be recovered by exogenous addition of recombinant SEMA3A. In addition, the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the expression of its substrate p70S6K1 were also decreased. These results demonstrate that Sema3a is a potential therapeutic target in eradication of CSCs. - Highlights: • Sema3a enhances tumorigenic capacity of cancer stem-like cells. • Sema3a is essential for the maintenance of cancer stem-like cells. • Sema3a can be a therapeutic target to eradicate cancer stem-like cells.

  2. Identification of cancer stem-like side population cells in purified primary cultured human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Wu

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like side population (SP cells have been identified in many solid tumors; however, most of these investigations are performed using established cancer cell lines. Cancer cells in tumor tissue containing fibroblasts and many other types of cells are much more complex than any cancer cell line. Although SP cells were identified in the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC cell line Hep-2 in our pilot study, it is unknown whether the LSCC tissue contains SP cells. In this study, LSCC cells (LSCCs were primary cultured and purified from a surgically resected LSCC specimen derived from a well-differentiated epiglottic neoplasm of a Chinese male. This was followed by the verification of epithelium-specific characteristics, such as ultrastructure and biomarkers. A distinct SP subpopulation (4.45±1.07% was isolated by Hoechst 33342 efflux analysis from cultured LSCCs by using a flow cytometer. Cancer stem cell (CSC-associated assays, including expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, proliferation, differentiation, spheroid formation, chemotherapy resistance, and tumorigenicity were then conducted between SP and non-SP (NSP LSCCs. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that SP cells manifested preferential expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, higher capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and spheroid formation; enhanced resistance to chemotherapy; and greater xenograft tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice compared with NSP cells. These findings suggest that the primary cultured and purified LSCCs contain cancer stem-like SP cells, which may serve as a valuable model for CSC research in LSCC.

  3. Therapeutic implications of an enriched cancer stem-like cell population in a human osteosarcoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins-Neves, Sara R; Lopes, Áurio O; Carmo, Anália do; Paiva, Artur A; Simões, Paulo C; Abrunhosa, Antero J; Gomes, Célia MF

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone-forming tumor of mesenchymal origin that presents a clinical pattern that is consistent with the cancer stem cell model. Cells with stem-like properties (CSCs) have been identified in several tumors and hypothesized as the responsible for the relative resistance to therapy and tumor relapses. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize CSCs populations in a human osteosarcoma cell line and to explore their role in the responsiveness to conventional therapies. CSCs were isolated from the human MNNG/HOS cell line using the sphere formation assay and characterized in terms of self-renewal, mesenchymal stem cell properties, expression of pluripotency markers and ABC transporters, metabolic activity and tumorigenicity. Cell's sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and to irradiation was analyzed and related with cell cycle-induced alterations and apoptosis. The isolated CSCs were found to possess self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capabilities, express markers of pluripotent embryonic stem cells Oct4 and Nanog and the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and BCRP, exhibit low metabolic activity and induce tumors in athymic mice. Compared with parental MNNG/HOS cells, CSCs were relatively more resistant to both chemotherapy and irradiation. None of the treatments have induced significant cell-cycle alterations and apoptosis in CSCs. MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma cells contain a stem-like cell population relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation. This resistant phenotype appears to be related with some stem features, namely the high expression of the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and BCRP and their quiescent nature, which may provide a biological basis for resistance to therapy and recurrence commonly observed in osteosarcoma

  4. Therapeutic implications of an enriched cancer stem-like cell population in a human osteosarcoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins-Neves Sara R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma is a bone-forming tumor of mesenchymal origin that presents a clinical pattern that is consistent with the cancer stem cell model. Cells with stem-like properties (CSCs have been identified in several tumors and hypothesized as the responsible for the relative resistance to therapy and tumor relapses. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize CSCs populations in a human osteosarcoma cell line and to explore their role in the responsiveness to conventional therapies. Methods CSCs were isolated from the human MNNG/HOS cell line using the sphere formation assay and characterized in terms of self-renewal, mesenchymal stem cell properties, expression of pluripotency markers and ABC transporters, metabolic activity and tumorigenicity. Cell's sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and to irradiation was analyzed and related with cell cycle-induced alterations and apoptosis. Results The isolated CSCs were found to possess self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capabilities, express markers of pluripotent embryonic stem cells Oct4 and Nanog and the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and BCRP, exhibit low metabolic activity and induce tumors in athymic mice. Compared with parental MNNG/HOS cells, CSCs were relatively more resistant to both chemotherapy and irradiation. None of the treatments have induced significant cell-cycle alterations and apoptosis in CSCs. Conclusions MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma cells contain a stem-like cell population relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation. This resistant phenotype appears to be related with some stem features, namely the high expression of the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein and BCRP and their quiescent nature, which may provide a biological basis for resistance to therapy and recurrence commonly observed in osteosarcoma.

  5. The nutritional phenome of EMT-induced cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Menendez, Javier A

    2014-06-30

    The metabolic features of cancer stem (CS) cells and the effects of specific nutrients or metabolites on CS cells remain mostly unexplored. A preliminary study to delineate the nutritional phenome of CS cells exploited the landmark observation that upon experimental induction into an epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition, the proportion of CS-like cells drastically increases within a breast cancer cell population. EMT-induced CS-like cells (HMLERshEcad) and isogenic parental cells (HMLERshCntrol) were simultaneously screened for their ability to generate energy-rich NADH when cultured in a standardized high-throughput metabolic phenotyping platform comprising >350 wells that were pre-loaded with different carbohydrates/starches, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, carboxylic acids, amino acids, and bi-amino acids. The generation of "phenetic maps" of the carbon and nitrogen utilization patterns revealed that the acquisition of a CS-like cellular state provided an enhanced ability to utilize additional catabolic fuels, especially under starvation conditions. Crucially, the acquisition of cancer stemness activated a metabolic infrastructure that enabled the vectorial transfer of high-energy nutrients such as glycolysis end products (pyruvate, lactate) and bona fide ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate) from the extracellular microenvironment to support mitochondrial energy production in CS-like cells. Metabolic reprogramming may thus constitute an efficient adaptive strategy through which CS-like cells would rapidly obtain an advantage in hostile conditions such as nutrient starvation following the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. By understanding how specific nutrients could bioenergetically boost EMT-CS-like phenotypes, "smart foods" or systemic "metabolic nichotherapies" may be tailored to specific nutritional CSC phenomes, whereas high-resolution heavy isotope-labeled nutrient tracking may be developed to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution and functionality

  6. Decreased expression of cell adhesion genes in cancer stem-like cells isolated from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrendra; Sriram, Harshini; Chandarana, Pinal; Tanavde, Vivek; Kumar, Rekha V; Gopinath, Ashok; Govindarajan, Raman; Ramaswamy, S; Sadasivam, Subhashini

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to isolate cancer stem-like cells marked by high expression of CD44, a putative cancer stem cell marker, from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas and identify distinctive gene expression patterns in these cells. From 1 October 2013 to 4 September 2015, 76 stage III-IV primary oral squamous cell carcinoma of the gingivobuccal sulcus were resected. In all, 13 tumours were analysed by immunohistochemistry to visualise CD44-expressing cells. Expression of CD44 within The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma RNA-sequencing data was also assessed. Seventy resected tumours were dissociated into single cells and stained with antibodies to CD44 as well as CD45 and CD31 (together referred as Lineage/Lin). From 45 of these, CD44 + Lin - and CD44 - Lin - subpopulations were successfully isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and good-quality RNA was obtained from 14 such sorted pairs. Libraries from five pairs were sequenced and the results analysed using bioinformatics tools. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to experimentally validate the differential expression of selected candidate genes identified from the transcriptome sequencing in the same 5 and an additional 9 tumours. CD44 was expressed on the surface of poorly differentiated tumour cells, and within the The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma samples, its messenger RNA levels were higher in tumours compared to normal. Transcriptomics revealed that 102 genes were upregulated and 85 genes were downregulated in CD44 + Lin - compared to CD44 - Lin - cells in at least 3 of the 5 tumours sequenced. The upregulated genes included those involved in immune regulation, while the downregulated genes were enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Decreased expression of PCDH18, MGP, SPARCL1 and KRTDAP was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lower expression of

  7. Vitamin D compounds inhibit cancer stem-like cells and induce differentiation in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Naing Lin; Wahler, Joseph; Lee, Hong Jin; Bak, Min Ji; Gupta, Soumyasri Das; Maehr, Hubert; Suh, Nanjoo

    2017-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is one of the least responsive breast cancer subtypes to available targeted therapies due to the absence of hormonal receptors, aggressive phenotypes, and the high rate of relapse. Early breast cancer prevention may therefore play an important role in delaying the progression of triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer stem cells are a subset of cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for tumor progression, treatment resistance, and metastasis. We have previously shown that vitamin D compounds, including a Gemini vitamin D analog BXL0124, suppress progression of ductal carcinoma in situ in vivo and inhibit cancer stem-like cells in MCF10DCIS mammosphere cultures. In the present study, the effects of vitamin D compounds in regulating breast cancer stem-like cells and differentiation in triple-negative breast cancer were assessed. Mammosphere cultures, which enriches for breast cancer cells with stem-like properties, were used to assess the effects of 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and BXL0124 on cancer stem cell markers in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, SUM159. Vitamin D compounds significantly reduced the mammosphere forming efficiency in primary, secondary and tertiary passages of mammospheres compared to control groups. Key markers of cancer stem-like phenotype and pluripotency were analyzed in mammospheres treated with 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 and BXL0124. As a result, OCT4, CD44 and LAMA5 levels were decreased. The vitamin D compounds also down-regulated the Notch signaling molecules, Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, JAG1, JAG2, HES1 and NFκB, which are involved in breast cancer stem cell maintenance. In addition, the vitamin D compounds up-regulated myoepithelial differentiating markers, cytokeratin 14 and smooth muscle actin, and down-regulated the luminal marker, cytokeratin 18. Cytokeratin 5, a biomarker associated with basal-like breast cancer, was found to be significantly down-regulated by the vitamin D compounds. These results suggest

  8. Cancer stem-like cells of ovarian clear cell carcinoma are enriched in the ALDH-high population associated with an accelerated scavenging system in reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Suzuki, N; Makino, H; Furui, T; Morii, E; Aoki, H; Kunisada, T; Yano, M; Kuji, S; Hirashima, Y; Arakawa, A; Nishio, S; Ushijima, K; Ito, K; Itani, Y; Morishige, K

    2015-05-01

    In ovarian cancer cases, recurrence after chemotherapy is frequently observed, suggesting the involvement of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The chemoresistance of ovarian clear cell carcinomas is particularly strong in comparison to other epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes. We investigated the relationship between a CSC marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), and clinical prognosis using ovarian clear cell carcinoma tissue samples. Furthermore, we investigated the antioxidant mechanism by which CSCs maintain a lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which provides protection from chemotherapeutic agents. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine the CSC markers (CD133, CD44, ALDH1) using ovarian clear cell carcinoma tissue samples (n=81). Clear cell carcinoma cell lines (KOC-7C, OVTOKO) are separated into the ALDH-high and ALDH-low populations by ALDEFLUOR assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the intracellular ROS level, mRNA level of the antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 expression of the two populations. High ALDH1 expression levels are related to advanced stage in clear cell carcinoma cases. ALDH1 expression significantly reduced progression free survival. Other markers are not related to clinical stage and prognosis. ALDH-high cells contained a lower ROS level than ALDH-low cells. Antioxidant enzymes were upregulated in ALDH-high cells. ALDH-high cells showed increased expression of Nrf2, a key transcriptional factor of the antioxidant system. ALDH-positive CSCs might have increased Nrf2-induced antioxidant scavengers, which lower ROS level relevant to chemoresistance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular stress induces cancer stem-like cells through expression of DNAJB8 by activation of heat shock factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Hiroki; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Murai, Aiko; Takaya, Akari; Mori, Takashi; Kubo, Terufumi; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kondo, Toru; Sato, Noriyuki; Hara, Isao; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2018-03-01

    In a previous study, we found that DNAJB8, a heat shock protein (HSP) 40 family member is expressed in kidney cancer stem-like cells (CSC)/cancer-initiating cells (CIC) and that it has a role in the maintenance of kidney CSC/CIC. Heat shock factor (HSF) 1 is a key transcription factor for responses to stress including heat shock, and it induces HSP family expression through activation by phosphorylation. In the present study, we therefore examined whether heat shock (HS) induces CSC/CIC. We treated the human kidney cancer cell line ACHN with HS, and found that HS increased side population (SP) cells. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR showed that HS increased the expression of DNAJB8 and SOX2. Gene knockdown experiments using siRNAs showed that the increase in SOX2 expression and SP cell ratio depends on DNAJB8 and that the increase in DNAJB8 and SOX2 depend on HSF1. Furthermore, treatment with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, temsirolimus, decreased the expression of DNAJB8 and SOX2 and the ratio of SP cells. Taken together, the results indicate that heat shock induces DNAJB8 by activation of HSF1 and induces cancer stem-like cells. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD and non-RAD (NRAD cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β1-integrin, while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin. Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in RasG12V-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  11. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  12. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment.

  13. ATM kinase sustains breast cancer stem-like cells by promoting ATG4C expression and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Martina; Strappazzon, Flavie; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; D'Onofrio, Mara; Sambucci, Manolo; Manic, Gwenola; Vitale, Ilio; Barilà, Daniela; Stagni, Venturina

    2017-03-28

    The efficacy of Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase signalling inhibition in cancer therapy is tempered by the identification of new emerging functions of ATM, which suggests that the role of this protein in cancer progression is complex. We recently demonstrated that this tumor suppressor gene could act as tumor promoting factor in HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) positive breast cancer. Herein we put in evidence that ATM expression sustains the proportion of cells with a stem-like phenotype, measured as the capability to form mammospheres, independently of HER2 expression levels. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that, in mammospheres, ATM modulates the expression of cell cycle-, DNA repair- and autophagy-related genes. Among these, the silencing of the autophagic gene, autophagy related 4C cysteine peptidase (ATG4C), impairs mammosphere formation similarly to ATM depletion. Conversely, ATG4C ectopic expression in cells silenced for ATM expression, rescues mammospheres growth. Finally, tumor array analyses, performed using public data, identify a significant correlation between ATM and ATG4C expression levels in all human breast cancer subtypes, except for the basal-like one.Overall, we uncover a new connection between ATM kinase and autophagy regulation in breast cancer. We demonstrate that, in breast cancer cells, ATM and ATG4C are essential drivers of mammosphere formation, suggesting that their targeting may improve current approaches to eradicate breast cancer cells with a stem-like phenotype.

  14. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal and Mesenchymal) Stem-Like Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M.; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S.; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  15. Radiation Response of Cancer Stem-Like Cells From Established Human Cell Lines After Sorting for Surface Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Assar, Osama; Muschel, Ruth J.; Mantoni, Tine S.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Brunner, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLC) is hypothesized to exist in different cancer cell lines and to mediate radioresistance in solid tumors. Methods and Materials: Cells were stained for CSLC markers and sorted (fluorescence-activated cell sorter/magnetic beads) to compare foci and radiosensitivity of phosphorylated histone H2AX at Ser 139 (γ-H2AX) in sorted vs. unsorted populations in eight cell lines from different organs. CSLC properties were examined using anchorage-independent growth and levels of activated Notch1. Validation consisted of testing tumorigenicity and postirradiation enrichment of CSLC in xenograft tumors. Results: The quantity of CSLC was generally in good agreement with primary tumors. CSLC from MDA-MB-231 (breast) and Panc-1 and PSN-1 (both pancreatic) cells had fewer residual γ-H2AX foci than unsorted cells, pointing to radioresistance of CSLC. However, only MDA-MB-231 CSLC were more radioresistant than unsorted cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 CSLC showed enhanced anchorage-independent growth and overexpression of activated Notch1 protein. The expression of cancer stem cell surface markers in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model was increased after exposure to fractionated radiation. In contrast to PSN-1 cells, a growth advantage for MDA-MB-231 CSLC xenograft tumors was found compared to tumors arising from unsorted cells. Conclusions: CSLC subpopulations showed no general radioresistant phenotype, despite the quantities of CSLC subpopulations shown to correspond relatively well in other reports. Likewise, CSLC characteristics were found in some but not all of the tested cell lines. The reported problems in testing for CSLC in cell lines may be overcome by additional techniques, beyond sorting for markers.

  16. Ovarian cancer stem-like cells differentiate into endothelial cells and participate in tumor angiogenesis through autocrine CCL5 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu; Xiang, Tong; Huang, Shuo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zhongyu; Xie, Rongkai; Long, Haixia; Zhu, Bo

    2016-06-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are well known for their self-regeneration and tumorigenesis potential. In addition, the multi-differentiation potential of CSCs has become a popular issue and continues to attract increased research attention. Recent studies demonstrated that CSCs are able to differentiate into functional endothelial cells and participate in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we found that ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) activate the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways through autocrine CCL5 signaling and mediate their own differentiation into endothelial cells (ECs). Our data demonstrate that CSLCs differentiate into ECs morphologically and functionally. Anti-CCL5 antibodies and CCL5-shRNA lead to markedly inhibit EC differentiation and the tube formation of CSLCs, both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant human-CCL5 significantly promotes ovarian CSLCs that differentiate into ECs and form microtube network. The CCL5-mediated EC differentiation of CSLCs depends on binding to receptors, such as CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5. The results demonstrated that CCL5-CCR1/CCR3/CCR5 activates the NF-κB and STAT3 signal pathways, subsequently mediating the differentiation of CSLCs into ECs. Therefore, this study was conducted based on the theory that CSCs improve tumor angiogenesis and provides a novel strategy for anti-angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Zito

    Full Text Available Recent publications suggest that neoplastic initiation and growth are dependent on a small subset of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC is a very aggressive solid tumor with poor prognosis, characterized by high dedifferentiation. The existence of CSCs might account for the heterogeneity of ATC lesions. CD133 has been identified as a stem cell marker for normal and cancerous tissues, although its biological function remains unknown.ATC cell lines ARO, KAT-4, KAT-18 and FRO were analyzed for CD133 expression. Flow cytometry showed CD133(pos cells only in ARO and KAT-4 (64+/-9% and 57+/-12%, respectively. These data were confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. ARO and KAT-4 were also positive for fetal marker oncofetal fibronectin and negative for thyrocyte-specific differentiating markers thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase and sodium/iodide symporter. Sorted ARO/CD133(pos cells exhibited higher proliferation, self-renewal, colony-forming ability in comparison with ARO/CD133(neg. Furthermore, ARO/CD133(pos showed levels of thyroid transcription factor TTF-1 similar to the fetal thyroid cell line TAD-2, while the expression in ARO/CD133(neg was negligible. The expression of the stem cell marker OCT-4 detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometry was markedly higher in ARO/CD133(pos in comparison to ARO/CD133(neg cells. The stem cell markers c-KIT and THY-1 were negative. Sensitivity to chemotherapy agents was investigated, showing remarkable resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in ARO/CD133(pos when compared with ARO/CD133(neg cells.We describe CD133(pos cells in ATC cell lines. ARO/CD133(pos cells exhibit stem cell-like features--such as high proliferation, self-renewal ability, expression of OCT-4--and are characterized by higher resistance to chemotherapy. The simultaneous positivity for thyroid specific factor TTF-1 and onfFN suggest they might represent putative thyroid cancer stem-like cells. Our in

  18. Maintenance and Neuronal Differentiation of Chicken Induced Pluripotent Stem-Like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Rui; Rossello, Ricardo; Chen, Chun-chun; Kessler, Joeran; Davison, Ian; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become any cell in the adult body, including neurons and glia. Avian stem cells could be used to study questions, like vocal learning, that would be difficult to examine with traditional mouse models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are differentiated cells that have been reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem cell state, usually using inducing genes or other molecules. We recently succeeded in generating avian iPSC-like cells using mammalian ge...

  19. Stem-Like Cell Characteristics from Breast Milk of Mothers with Preterm Infants as Compared to Mothers with Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Carrie-Ellen; Jensen, Todd; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Young, Erin E; Finck, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Breast milk stem cells are hypothesized to be involved in infant health and development. Our research team is the first known team to enroll mothers of hospitalized preterm infants during the first few weeks of lactation and compare stem cell phenotypes and gene expression to mothers of healthy full-term infants. Participants were recruited from a Level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (preterm dyads) and the community (full-term dyads) in the northeastern United States. Mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (mothers of healthy full-term infants (>39 weeks gestational age at birth). Breast milk stem-like cell populations were identified in both preterm and full-term breast milk samples. The data suggest variability in the proportion of stem cell phenotypes present, as well as statistically significant differential expression (both over- and underexpression) of stem cell-specific genetic markers when comparing mothers' milk for preterm and full-term births. Our findings indicate that (1) stem cells are present in preterm breast milk; (2) differential expression of stem cell-specific markers can be detected in preterm and full-term breast milk samples; and (3) the percentage of cells expressing the various stem cell-specific markers differs when preterm and full-term breast milk samples are compared.

  20. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Khong Bee; Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–Akt-DNA–dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, γ-H 2 AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, γ-H 2 AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G 2 /M arrest and increased γ-H 2 AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased γ-H 2 AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are resistant to irradiation

  1. Gefitinib radiosensitizes stem-like glioma cells: inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor-Akt-DNA-PK signaling, accompanied by inhibition of DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Khong Bee; Zhu, Congju; Wong, Yin Ling; Gao, Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2012-05-01

    We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, γ-H(2)AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, γ-H(2)AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G(2)/M arrest and increased γ-H(2)AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased γ-H(2)AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Stem-like gliomaspheres are resistant to irradiation-induced cytotoxicity, G(2)/M arrest, and DNA DSBs, compared with nonstem

  2. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Khong Bee, E-mail: dmskkb@nccs.com.sg [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are

  3. Identifying Stem-like Cells Using Mitochondrial Membrane Potential | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapies that are based on living cells promise to improve treatments for metastatic cancer and for many degenerative diseases. Lasting treatment of these maladies may require the durable persistence of cells. Long-term engraftment of cells – for months or years – and the generation of large numbers of progeny are characteristics of stem cells. Most approaches to isolate

  4. CD44 and SSEA-4 positive cells in an oral cancer cell line HSC-4 possess cancer stem-like cell characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Zenko; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Koike, Chika; Fathy, Moustafa; Tsuno, Hiroaki; Tomihara, Kei; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Cancer may be derived from cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which are tumor-initiating cells that have properties similar to those of stem cells. Identification and isolation of CSCs needs to be improved further. CSCs markers were examined in human oral cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. The stem cell properties of subpopulations expressing different markers were assessed further by in vitro sphere formation assays, expression of stemness genes, drug resistance assays, and the ability to form tumors in nude mice. We demonstrated that CSCs could be isolated by the cell surface markers CD44 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibited cancer stem-like properties, including extensive self-renewal into the bulk of cancer cells. In vivo xenograft experiments indicated that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the highest tumorigenic capacity compared with the remaining subpopulations and parental cells. Double-positive cells for CD44 and SSEA-4 exhibited preferential expression of some stemness genes and were more resistant to the anticancer drugs, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, cells expressing CD44 and SSEA-4 were detected in all tumor specimens analyzed, while coexpression of CD44 and SSEA-4 was not detectable in normal oral mucosa. Our findings suggest that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the characteristics of CSCs in oral squamous cell carcinoma and provide a target for the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stem-Like Memory T Cells Are Discovered | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    T cells are the white blood cells that are the body’s first line of attack against foreign invaders.  When designing immunotherapies to treat cancer the goal is to prolong the immune response of T cells a bit beyond what the body normally does when a bacterium or a virus is encountered.   Nicholas P. Restifo, M.D., working with Luca Gattinoni, M.D., and other colleagues in

  6. Gemcitabine treatment causes resistance and malignancy of pancreatic cancer stem-like cells via induction of lncRNA HOTAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Dong, Ping; Wang, Weiguo; Huang, Mingquan; Tian, Bole

    2017-01-01

    Gemcitabine is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, despite the high risk of chemoresistance as a major disadvantage. In the past few years, significant advances have been made in the field of pancreatic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and their critical roles in drug resistance, invasion and metastasis, which are tightly regulated by long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The present study demonstrated that HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is not different between the pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and its enriched CSC sub-population. However, after gemcitabine treatment, the expression levels of HOTAIR in CSCs were induced, but not in PANC-1 cells. HOTAIR induced by gemcitabine failed to cause chemoresistance, but promoted the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of the cells. By introducing HOTAIR using lentivirus, chemoresistance was induced and the self-renewal capacity, proliferation and migration were significantly promoted. By contrast, HOTAIR knockdown in PANC-1 CSCs treated with or without gemcitabine decreased the cell proliferation, altered the cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis, demonstrating its critical roles in regulating the malignant character of PANC-1 CSCs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that HOTAIR may be induced by gemcitabine and acts as a tumor promoter by inhibiting the chemosensitivity, and promoting the self-renewal capacity, proliferation and migration of PANC-1 CSCs, which supports its potential application as a novel therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer. PMID:29201179

  7. ER-mitochondria contacts control surface glycan expression and sensitivity to killer lymphocytes in glioma stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Kasahara, Atsuko; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Boydell, Emma; Zamorano, Sebastian; Riccadonna, Cristina; Pellegatta, Serena; Hulo, Nicolas; Dutoit, Valérie; Derouazi, Madiha; Dietrich, Pierre Yves; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2017-06-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous aggressive primary brain tumor, with the glioma stem-like cells (GSC) being more sensitive to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing than glioma differentiated cells (GDC). However, the mechanism behind this higher sensitivity is unclear. Here, we found that the mitochondrial morphology of GSCs modulates the ER-mitochondria contacts that regulate the surface expression of sialylated glycans and their recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. GSCs displayed diminished ER-mitochondria contacts compared to GDCs. Forced ER-mitochondria contacts in GSCs increased their cell surface expression of sialylated glycans and reduced their susceptibility to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Therefore, mitochondrial morphology and dynamism dictate the ER-mitochondria contacts in order to regulate the surface expression of certain glycans and thus play a role in GSC recognition and elimination by immune effector cells. Targeting the mitochondrial morphology, dynamism, and contacts with the ER could be an innovative strategy to deplete the cancer stem cell compartment to successfully treat glioblastoma. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Chemoresistance and chemotherapy targeting stem-like cells in malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mia Dahl; Fosmark, Sigurd; Hellwege, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma remains a tumor with a dismal prognosis because of failure of current treatment. Glioblastoma cells with stem cell (GSC) properties survive chemotherapy and give rise to tumor recurrences that invariably result in the death of the patients. Here we summarize the current knowledge on ...

  9. mir-300 promotes self-renewal and inhibits the differentiation of glioma stem-like cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Daming; Yang, Guang; Chen, Xin; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yaohua; Han, Dayong; Liu, Huailei; Hou, Xu; Zhang, Weiguang; Li, Chenguang; Han, Zhanqiang; Gao, Xin; Zhao, Shiguang

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been critically implicated in several human cancers. miRNAs are thought to participate in various biological processes, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and even the regulation

  10. Involvement of miRNAs in the differentiation of human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aldaz

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM-initiating cells (GICs represent a tumor subpopulation with neural stem cell-like properties that is responsible for the development, progression and therapeutic resistance of human GBM. We have recently shown that blockade of NFκB pathway promotes terminal differentiation and senescence of GICs both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that induction of differentiation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM. MicroRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBM, but a high-throughput analysis of their role in GIC differentiation has not been reported. We have established human GIC cell lines that can be efficiently differentiated into cells expressing astrocytic and neuronal lineage markers. Using this in vitro system, a microarray-based high-throughput analysis to determine global expression changes of microRNAs during differentiation of GICs was performed. A number of changes in the levels of microRNAs were detected in differentiating GICs, including over-expression of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-222, and down-regulation of hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-106a. Functional studies showed that miR-21 over-expression in GICs induced comparable cell differentiation features and targeted SPRY1 mRNA, which encodes for a negative regulator of neural stem-cell differentiation. In addition, miR-221 and miR-222 inhibition in differentiated cells restored the expression of stem cell markers while reducing differentiation markers. Finally, miR-29a and miR-29b targeted MCL1 mRNA in GICs and increased apoptosis. Our study uncovers the microRNA dynamic expression changes occurring during differentiation of GICs, and identifies miR-21 and miR-221/222 as key regulators of this process.

  11. β-Elemene-Attenuated Tumor Angiogenesis by Targeting Notch-1 in Gastric Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are involved in tumor angiogenesis. The Notch signaling pathway is one of the most important regulators of these processes. β-Elemene, a naturally occurring compound extracted from Curcumae Radix, has been used as an antitumor drug for various cancers in China. However, its underlying mechanism in the treatment of gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that CD44+ gastric cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs showed enhanced proliferation capacity compared to their CD44− counterparts, and this proliferation was accompanied by the high expression of Notch-1 (in vitro. These cells were also more superior in spheroid colony formation (in vitro and tumorigenicity (in vivo and positively associated with microvessel density (in vivo. β-Elemene was demonstrated to effectively inhibit the viability of GCSCs in a dose-dependent manner, most likely by suppressing Notch-1 (in vitro. β-Elemene also contributed to growth suppression and attenuated the angiogenesis capacity of these cells (in vivo most likely by interfering with the expression of Notch-1 but not with Dll4. Our findings indicated that GCSCs play an important role in tumor angiogenesis, and Notch-1 is one of the most likely mediators involved in these processes. β-Elemene was effective at attenuating angiogenesis by targeting the GCSCs, which could be regarded as a potential mechanism for its efficacy in gastric cancer management in the future.

  12. Non-coding RNAs as epigenetic regulator of glioma stem-like cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke eKatsushima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas show heterogeneous histological features. These distinct phenotypic states are thought to be associated with the presence of glioma stem cells (GSCs, which are highly tumorigenic and self-renewing sub-population of tumor cells that have different functional characteristics. Differentiation of GSCs may be regulated by multi-tiered epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate the expression of thousands of genes. One such regulatory mechanism involves functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs; a large number of ncRNAs have been identified and shown to regulate the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation programs. Given the roles of miRNAs in cell differentiation, it is possible they are involved in the regulation of gene expression networks in GSCs that are important for the maintenance of the pluripotent state and for directing differentiation. Here, we review recent findings on ncRNAs associated with GSC differentiation and discuss how these ncRNAs contribute to the establishment of tissue heterogeneity during glioblastoma tumor formation.

  13. Cancer Stem-Like Cells Enriched in Panc-1 Spheres Possess Increased Migration Ability and Resistance to Gemcitabine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Wei, Hongji; Gou, Shanmiao; Shi, Pengfei; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Chunyou

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies with poor prognosis. Previously, we found that a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell line could propagate to form spheres. Here we characterized the malignant phenotypes of the pancreatic cancer stem CD44+/CD24+ cells, which were enriched under sphere forming conditions as analyzed by flow cytometry. These cells demonstrated increased resistance to gemcitabine and increased migration ability. Moreover, these cells exhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition characterized by a decreased level of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increased level of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Notably, abnormal expression of Bmi-1, ABCG2, Cyclin D1 and p16 were found in Panc-1 CSCs. Our results suggest that targeted inhibition of CSCs represents a novel therapeutic approach to overcome chemoresistance and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:21673909

  14. Tight regulation between cell survival and programmed cell death in GBM stem-like cells by EGFR/GSK3b/PP2A signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Demirkan B; Banu, Matei A; Berry, Nicholas; Marongiu, Roberta; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kobylarz, Keith; Kaplitt, Michael G; Rafii, Shahin; Boockvar, John A

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas represent one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, displaying high mortality rates and limited treatment options. Specific subpopulations of cells residing in the tumor niche with stem-like characteristics have been postulated to initiate and maintain neoplasticity while resisting conventional therapies. The study presented here aims to define the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3b) in patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cell (GSC) proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. To evaluate the potential role of GSK3b in GBM, protein profiles from 68 GBM patients and 20 normal brain samples were analyzed for EGFR-mediated PI3kinase/Akt and GSK3b signaling molecules including protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). To better understand the function of GSK3b in GBM, GSCs were isolated from GBM patient samples. Blocking GSK3b phosphorylation at Serine 9 attenuated cell proliferation while concomitantly stimulating apoptosis through activation of Caspase-3 in patient-derived GSCs. Increasing GSK3b protein content resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and stimulated programmed cell death. Depleting GSK3b in GSCs down regulated PP2A. Furthermore, knocking down PP2A or blocking its activity by okadaic acid inactivated GSK3b by increasing GSK3b phosphorylation at Serine 9. Our data suggests that GSK3b may function as a regulator of apoptosis and tumorigenesis in GSCs. Therapeutic approaches targeting GSK3b in glioblastoma stem-like cells may be a useful addition to our current therapeutic armamentarium.

  15. EGFR regulation of colon cancer stem-like cells during aging and in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Du, Jianhua; Yu, Yingjie; Kanwar, Shailender S; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2012-04-01

    One of the most consistent pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract with advancing age is malignancy, particularly gastrointestinal cancers, the incidence of which increases sharply with aging. Although the reasons for the age-related rise in colorectal cancer are not fully understood, we hypothesize that aging increases susceptibility of the colon to carcinogen(s)/toxicant(s), leading to an increase in cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) that express cancer stem cell markers, in the colonic mucosa. The current study demonstrates that aging is associated with increased expression of several colon CSLC markers [CD44, CD166, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH-1)] and a higher proportion of cells expressing these markers. Aging is also accompanied by increased expression of miR-21 in colon. These increases are further increased in response to the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Aging is also associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Inhibition of EGFR using the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab abrogated the age-related increase in CD166 and ALDH-1 as well as miRNA (miR)-21. Our results provide new evidence that aging and DMH are associated with increases in CSLC biomarkers and miR21, each of which have been linked to colorectal cancer. EGFR inhibition attenuates these changes, indicating a role for EGFR in age- and mutagen-associated changes in CSLCs.

  16. Physiologic oxygen concentration enhances the stem-like properties of CD133+ human glioblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Amy M; Jamal, Muhammad; Shankavaram, Uma T; Shankavarum, Uma T; Lang, Frederick F; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2009-04-01

    In vitro investigations of tumor stem-like cells (TSC) isolated from human glioblastoma (GB) surgical specimens have been done primarily at an atmospheric oxygen level of 20%. To determine whether an oxygen level more consistent with in situ conditions affects their stem cell-like characteristics, we compared GB TSCs grown under conditions of 20% and 7% oxygen. Growing CD133(+) cells sorted from three GB neurosphere cultures at 7% O(2) reduced their doubling time and increased the self-renewal potential as reflected by clonogenicity. Furthermore, at 7% oxygen, the cultures exhibited an enhanced capacity to differentiate along both the glial and neuronal pathways. As compared with 20%, growth at 7% oxygen resulted in an increase in the expression levels of the neural stem cell markers CD133 and nestin as well as the stem cell markers Oct4 and Sox2. In addition, whereas hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha was not affected in CD133(+) TSCs grown at 7% O(2), hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha was expressed at higher levels as compared with 20% oxygen. Gene expression profiles generated by microarray analysis revealed that reducing oxygen level to 7% resulted in the up-regulation and down-regulation of a significant number of genes, with more than 140 being commonly affected among the three CD133(+) cultures. Furthermore, Gene Ontology categories up-regulated at 7% oxygen included those associated with stem cells or GB TSCs. Thus, the data presented indicate that growth at the more physiologically relevant oxygen level of 7% enhances the stem cell-like phenotype of CD133(+) GB cells.

  17. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  18. β-Elemene Selectively Inhibits the Proliferation of Glioma Stem-Like Cells Through the Downregulation of Notch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hai-Bin; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hao-Ran; Mei, Xin; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Chen, Fu-Rong; Qu, Yue; Sai, Ke; Guo, Cheng-Cheng; Yang, Qun-Ying; Zhang, Zong-Ping; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Glioma is the most frequent primary central nervous system tumor. Although the current first-line medicine, temozolomide (TMZ), promotes patient survival, drug resistance develops easily. Thus, it is important to investigate novel therapeutic reagents to solidify the treatment effect. β-Elemene (bELE) is a compound from a Chinese herb whose anticancer effect has been shown in various types of cancer. However, its role in the inhibition of glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) has not yet been reported. We studied both the in vitro and the in vivo inhibitory effect of bELE and TMZ in GSLCs and parental cells and their combined effects. The molecular mechanisms were also investigated. We also optimized the delivery methods of bELE. We found that bELE selectively inhibits the proliferation and sphere formation of GSLCs, other than parental glioma cells, and TMZ exerts its effects on parental cells instead of GSLCs. The in vivo data confirmed that the combination of bELE and TMZ worked better in the xenografts of GSLCs, mimicking the situation of tumorigenesis of human cancer. Notch1 was downregulated with bELE treatment. Our data also demonstrated that the continuous administration of bELE produces an ideal effect to control tumor progression. Our findings have demonstrated, for the first time, that bELE could compensate for TMZ to kill both GSLCs and nonstem-like cancer cells, probably improving the prognosis of glioma patients tremendously. Notch1 might be a downstream target of bELE. Therefore, our data shed light on improving the outcomes of glioma patients by combining bELE and TMZ. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:830-839. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  19. An activated form of ADAM10 is tumor selective and regulates cancer stem-like cells and tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nayanendu; Eissman, Moritz F.; Xu, Kai; Llerena, Carmen; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Ding, Bi-Sen; Cao, Zhongwei; Rafii, Shahin; Ernst, Matthias; Scott, Andrew M.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Lackmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane metalloprotease ADAM10 sheds a range of cell surface proteins, including ligands and receptors of the Notch, Eph, and erbB families, thereby activating signaling pathways critical for tumor initiation and maintenance. ADAM10 is thus a promising therapeutic target. Although widely expressed, its activity is normally tightly regulated. We now report prevalence of an active form of ADAM10 in tumors compared with normal tissues, in mouse models and humans, identified by our conformation-specific antibody mAb 8C7. Structure/function experiments indicate mAb 8C7 binds an active conformation dependent on disulfide isomerization and oxidative conditions, common in tumors. Moreover, this active ADAM10 form marks cancer stem-like cells with active Notch signaling, known to mediate chemoresistance. Importantly, specific targeting of active ADAM10 with 8C7 inhibits Notch activity and tumor growth in mouse models, particularly regrowth after chemotherapy. Our results indicate targeted inhibition of active ADAM10 as a potential therapy for ADAM10-dependent tumor development and drug resistance. PMID:27503072

  20. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) promote growth and inhibit differentiation of glioma stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Patrick M; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Viapiano, Mariano S; Lawler, Sean E; Jaworski, Diane M

    2013-09-06

    Metabolic reprogramming is a pathological feature of cancer and a driver of tumor cell transformation. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is one of the most abundant amino acid derivatives in the brain and serves as a source of metabolic acetate for oligodendrocyte myelination and protein/histone acetylation or a precursor for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). NAA and NAAG as well as aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA degradation, are significantly reduced in glioma tumors, suggesting a possible role for decreased acetate metabolism in tumorigenesis. This study sought to examine the effects of NAA and NAAG on primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) from oligodendroglioma as well as proneural and mesenchymal glioblastoma, relative to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (Oli-Neu). Although the NAA dicarboxylate transporter NaDC3 is primarily thought to be expressed by astrocytes, all cell lines expressed NaDC3 and, thus, are capable of NAA up-take. Treatment with NAA or NAAG significantly increased GSC growth and suppressed differentiation of Oli-Neu cells and proneural GSCs. Interestingly, ASPA was expressed in both the cytosol and nuclei of GSCs and exhibited greatest nuclear immunoreactivity in differentiation-resistant GSCs. Both NAA and NAAG elicited the expression of a novel immunoreactive ASPA species in select GSC nuclei, suggesting differential ASPA regulation in response to these metabolites. Therefore, this study highlights a potential role for nuclear ASPA expression in GSC malignancy and suggests that the use of NAA or NAAG is not an appropriate therapeutic approach to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma. Thus, an alternative acetate source is required.

  1. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) Promote Growth and Inhibit Differentiation of Glioma Stem-like Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Patrick M.; Moffett, John R.; Namboodiri, Aryan M. A.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lawler, Sean E.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a pathological feature of cancer and a driver of tumor cell transformation. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) is one of the most abundant amino acid derivatives in the brain and serves as a source of metabolic acetate for oligodendrocyte myelination and protein/histone acetylation or a precursor for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). NAA and NAAG as well as aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA degradation, are significantly reduced in glioma tumors, suggesting a possible role for decreased acetate metabolism in tumorigenesis. This study sought to examine the effects of NAA and NAAG on primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) from oligodendroglioma as well as proneural and mesenchymal glioblastoma, relative to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (Oli-Neu). Although the NAA dicarboxylate transporter NaDC3 is primarily thought to be expressed by astrocytes, all cell lines expressed NaDC3 and, thus, are capable of NAA up-take. Treatment with NAA or NAAG significantly increased GSC growth and suppressed differentiation of Oli-Neu cells and proneural GSCs. Interestingly, ASPA was expressed in both the cytosol and nuclei of GSCs and exhibited greatest nuclear immunoreactivity in differentiation-resistant GSCs. Both NAA and NAAG elicited the expression of a novel immunoreactive ASPA species in select GSC nuclei, suggesting differential ASPA regulation in response to these metabolites. Therefore, this study highlights a potential role for nuclear ASPA expression in GSC malignancy and suggests that the use of NAA or NAAG is not an appropriate therapeutic approach to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma. Thus, an alternative acetate source is required. PMID:23884408

  2. Microenvironmental Modulation of Decorin and Lumican in Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma and Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

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    Cristiano Farace

    Full Text Available The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs or tumor-initiating cells can lead to cancer recurrence in a permissive cell-microenvironment interplay, promoting invasion in glioblastoma (GBM and neuroblastoma (NB. Extracellular matrix (ECM small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs play multiple roles in tissue homeostasis by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM components and modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Due to their pan-inhibitory properties against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, SLRPs are reported to exert anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. However, their roles seem to be tissue-specific and they are also involved in cancer cell migration and drug resistance, paving the way to complex different scenarios. The aim of this study was to determine whether the SLRPs decorin (DCN and lumican (LUM are recruited in cell plasticity and microenvironmental adaptation of differentiated cancer cells induced towards stem-like phenotype. Floating neurospheres were generated by applying CSC enrichment medium (neural stem cell serum-free medium, NSC SFM to the established SF-268 and SK-N-SH cancer cell lines, cellular models of GBM and NB, respectively. In both models, the time-dependent synergistic activation of DCN and LUM was observed. The highest DCN and LUM mRNA/protein expression was detected after cell exposure to NSC SFM for 8/12 days, considering these cells as SLRP-expressing (SLRP+ CSC-like. Ultrastructural imaging showed the cellular heterogeneity of both the GBM and NB neurospheres and identified the inner living cells. Parental cell lines of both GBM and NB grew only in soft agar + NSC SFM, whereas the secondary neurospheres (originated from SLRP+ t8 CSC-like showed lower proliferation rates than primary neurospheres. Interestingly, the SLRP+ CSC-like from the GBM and NB neurospheres were resistant to temozolomide (TMZ at concentrations >750 μM. Our results suggest that GBM and NB CSC-like promote the activation of huge

  3. Microenvironmental Modulation of Decorin and Lumican in Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma and Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Cristiano; Oliver, Jaime Antonio; Melguizo, Consolacion; Alvarez, Pablo; Bandiera, Pasquale; Rama, Ana Rosa; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Ortiz, Raul; Madeddu, Roberto; Prados, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells can lead to cancer recurrence in a permissive cell-microenvironment interplay, promoting invasion in glioblastoma (GBM) and neuroblastoma (NB). Extracellular matrix (ECM) small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) play multiple roles in tissue homeostasis by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components and modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Due to their pan-inhibitory properties against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), SLRPs are reported to exert anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. However, their roles seem to be tissue-specific and they are also involved in cancer cell migration and drug resistance, paving the way to complex different scenarios. The aim of this study was to determine whether the SLRPs decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) are recruited in cell plasticity and microenvironmental adaptation of differentiated cancer cells induced towards stem-like phenotype. Floating neurospheres were generated by applying CSC enrichment medium (neural stem cell serum-free medium, NSC SFM) to the established SF-268 and SK-N-SH cancer cell lines, cellular models of GBM and NB, respectively. In both models, the time-dependent synergistic activation of DCN and LUM was observed. The highest DCN and LUM mRNA/protein expression was detected after cell exposure to NSC SFM for 8/12 days, considering these cells as SLRP-expressing (SLRP+) CSC-like. Ultrastructural imaging showed the cellular heterogeneity of both the GBM and NB neurospheres and identified the inner living cells. Parental cell lines of both GBM and NB grew only in soft agar + NSC SFM, whereas the secondary neurospheres (originated from SLRP+ t8 CSC-like) showed lower proliferation rates than primary neurospheres. Interestingly, the SLRP+ CSC-like from the GBM and NB neurospheres were resistant to temozolomide (TMZ) at concentrations >750 μM. Our results suggest that GBM and NB CSC-like promote the activation of huge quantities

  4. CD133+ and Nestin+ Glioma Stem-Like Cells Reside Around CD31+ Arterioles in Niches that Express SDF-1α, CXCR4, Osteopontin and Cathepsin K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hira, Vashendriya V. V.; Ploegmakers, Kimberley J.; Grevers, Frederieke; Verbovšek, Urška; Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Aronica, Eleonora; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Turnšek, Tamara Lah; Molenaar, Remco J.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Poor survival of high-grade glioma is at least partly caused by glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) that are resistant to therapy. GSLCs reside in niches in close vicinity of endothelium. The aim of the present study was to characterize proteins that may be functional in the GSLC niche by performing

  5. Coculture with astrocytes reduces the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma stem-like cells and identifies additional targets for radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Barbara H; Wahba, Amy; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Toward developing a model system for investigating the role of the microenvironment in the radioresistance of glioblastoma (GBM), human glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were grown in coculture with human astrocytes. Using a trans-well assay, survival analyses showed that astrocytes significantly decreased the radiosensitivity of GSCs compared to standard culture conditions. In addition, when irradiated in coculture, the initial level of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in GSCs was reduced and foci dispersal was enhanced suggesting that the presence of astrocytes influenced the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. These data indicate that astrocytes can decrease the radiosensitivity of GSCs in vitro via a paracrine-based mechanism and further support a role for the microenvironment as a determinant of GBM radioresponse. Chemokine profiling of coculture media identified a number of bioactive molecules not present under standard culture conditions. The gene expression profiles of GSCs grown in coculture were significantly different as compared to GSCs grown alone. These analyses were consistent with an astrocyte-mediated modification in GSC phenotype and, moreover, suggested a number of potential targets for GSC radiosensitization that were unique to coculture conditions. Along these lines, STAT3 was activated in GSCs grown with astrocytes; the JAK/STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 enhanced the radiosensitivity of GSCs under coculture conditions and when grown as orthotopic xenografts. Further, this coculture system may also provide an approach for identifying additional targets for GBM radiosensitization

  6. Chemo-predictive assay for targeting cancer stem-like cells in patients affected by brain tumors.

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    Sarah E Mathis

    Full Text Available Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy sensitivity assay (ChemoID, which measures the sensitivity of CSLCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents. Two patients, a 21-year old male (patient 1 and a 5-month female (patient 2, affected by anaplastic WHO grade-III ependymoma were screened using the ChemoID assay. Patient 1 was found sensitive to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab, which resulted in a prolonged disease progression free period of 18 months. Following recurrence, the combination of various chemotherapy drugs was tested again with the ChemoID assay. We found that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC greatly increased the chemosensitivity of the ependymoma cells to the combination of irinotecan and bevacizumab. After patient 1 was treated for two months with irinotecan, bevacizumab and supplements of cruciferous vegetable extracts containing BITC, we observed over 50% tumoral regression in comparison with pre-ChemoID scan as evidenced by MRI. Patient 2 was found resistant to all treatments tested and following 6 cycles of vincristine, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin in various combinations, the tumor of this patient rapidly progressed and proton beam therapy was recommended. As expected animal studies conducted with patient derived xenografts treated with ChemoID screened drugs recapitulated the clinical observation. This assay demonstrates that patients with the same histological stage and grade of cancer may vary considerably in their clinical response, suggesting that ChemoID testing which measures the sensitivity

  7. Multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy identifies enriched foci of cancer stem-like cells in high-grade gliomas

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    He T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tao He,1–3,* Tianming Qiu,4,* Xiaodong Wang,5 Hongxing Gui,6 Xilong Wang,2 Qikuan Hu,3,7 Hechun Xia,2 Gaoyang Qi,1,2 Jinsong Wu,4 Hui Ma2 1Clinical Medicine College, Ningxia Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, 3Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, The National Key Laboratory Incubation Base, Yinchuan, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 5Department of Radiology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School of Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 7Department of Physiology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: This study investigated the correlation between choline/creatine (Cho/Cr ratios determined by multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and the distribution of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs in high-grade gliomas. Patients and methods: Sixteen patients with high-grade gliomas were recruited and underwent 1H-MRS examination before surgery to identify distinct tumor regions with variable Cho/Cr ratios. Using intraoperative neuronavigation, tumor tissues were accurately sampled from regions with high and low Cho/Cr ratios within each tumor. The distribution of CSLCs in samples from glioma tissue regions with different Cho/Cr ratios was quantified by neurosphere culture, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Results: The mean neurosphere formation rate in tissues with high Cho/Cr ratios was significantly increased compared with that in low Cho/Cr ratio tissues (13.94±5.94 per 100 cells vs 8.04±3.99 per 100 cells, P<0.001. Immunohistochemistry indicated that tissues with high Cho/Cr ratios had elevated expression of CD133, nestin, and CD15, relative to low Cho/Cr ratio tissue

  8. Combinatorial Effects of VEGFR Kinase Inhibitor Axitinib and Oncolytic Virotherapy in Mouse and Human Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipongkor; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Peters, Cole W; Antoszczyk, Slawomir J; Rabkin, Samuel D; Martuza, Robert L

    2018-03-29

    Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM), a fatal brain cancer, contains a subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that contribute to resistance to current therapy. Angiogenesis also plays a key role in GBM progression. Therefore, we developed a strategy to target the complex GBM microenvironment, including GSCs and tumor vasculature. Experimental Design: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of VEFGR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) axitinib in vitro and then tested antitumor efficacy of axitinib in combination with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) expressing antiangiogenic cytokine murine IL12 (G47Δ-mIL12) in two orthotopic GSC-derived GBM models: patient-derived recurrent MGG123 GSCs, forming vascular xenografts in immunodeficient mice; and mouse 005 GSCs, forming syngeneic tumors in immunocompetent mice. Results: GSCs form endothelial-like tubes and were sensitive to axitinib. G47Δ-mIL12 significantly improved survival, as did axitinib, while dual combinations further extended survival significantly compared with single therapies alone in both models. In MGG123 tumors, axitinib was effective only at high doses (50 mg/kg), alone and in combination with G47Δ-mIL12, and this was associated with greatly decreased vascularity, increased macrophage infiltration, extensive tumor necrosis, and PDGFR/ERK pathway inhibition. In the mouse 005 model, antiglioma activity, after single and combination therapy, was only observed in immunocompetent mice and not the T-cell-deficient athymic mice. Interestingly, immune checkpoint inhibition did not improve efficacy. Conclusions: Systemic TKI (axitinib) beneficially combines with G47Δ-mIL12 to enhance antitumor efficacy in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent orthotopic GBM models. Our results support further investigation of TKIs in combination with oHSV for GBM treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 1-14. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Garcinol downregulates Notch1 signaling via modulating miR-200c and suppresses oncogenic properties of PANC-1 cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Min; Huang, Yan-Jiun; Wei, Li; Ting, Lei-Li; Kuo, Chia-Chun; Hsu, Cheyu; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Wu, Alexander T H; Lee, Wei-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer represents one of the most aggressive types of malignancy due to its high resistance toward most clinically available treatments. The presence of pancreatic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) has been attributed to the intrinsically high resistance and highly metastatic potential of this disease. Here, we identified and isolated pancreatic CSCs using the side population (SP) method from human pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1. We then compared the SP and non-SP PANC-1 cells genetically. PANC-1 SP cells exhibited CSC properties including enhanced self-renewal ability, increased metastatic potential, and resistance toward gemcitabine treatment. These cancer stem-like phenotypes were supported by their enhanced expression of ABCG2, Oct4, and CD44. A traditional plant-derived antioxidant, garcinol, has been implicated for its anticancer properties. Here, we found that garcinol treatment to PANC-1 SP cells significantly suppressed the stem-like properties of PANC-1 SP cells and metastatic potential by downregulating the expression of Mcl-1, EZH2, ABCG2, Gli-1, and Notch1. More importantly, garcinol treatment led to the upregulation of several tumor suppressor microRNAs, and miR-200c increased by garcinol treatment was found to target and downregulate Notch1. Thus, PANC-1 SP cells may serve as a model for studying drug-resistant pancreatic CSCs, and garcinol has the potential as an antagonist against pancreatic CSCs. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Epithelial Cell Cultures

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    Imran S. Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of only a finite number of tobacco toxins have been studied. Here, we describe exposure of cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to low concentrations of tobacco carcinogens: nickel sulphate, benzo(bfluoranthene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. After a 24-hour exposure, EGFR was expressed in cell membrane and cytoplasm, BCL-2 was expressed only in the irregular nuclei of large atypical cells, MKI67 was expressed in nuclei with no staining in larger cells, cytoplasmic BIRC5 with stronger nuclear staining was seen in large atypical cells, and nuclear TP53 was strongly expressed in all cells. After only a 24-hour exposure, cells exhibited atypical nuclear and cytoplasmic features. After a 48-hour exposure, EGFR staining was localized to the nucleus, BCL-2 was slightly decreased in intensity, BIRC5 was localized to the cytoplasm, and TP53 staining was increased in small and large cells. BCL2L1 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells at 24- and 48-hour exposures. We illustrate that short-termexposure of a bronchial epithelial cell line to smoking-equivalent concentrations of tobacco carcinogens alters the expression of key proliferation regulatory genes, EGFR, BCL-2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, TP53, and MKI67, similar to that reported in biopsy specimens of pulmonary epithelium described to be preneoplastic lesions.

  11. The Low Chamber Pancreatic Cancer Cells Had Stem-Like Characteristics in Modified Transwell System: Is It a Novel Method to Identify and Enrich Cancer Stem-Like Cells?

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    Dongqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs or cancer-initiating cells (CICs play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. It is important to construct an effective method to identify and isolate CSCs for biotherapy of cancer. During the past years, many researchers had paid more attention to it; however, this method was still on seeking. Therefore, compared to the former methods that were used to isolate the cancer stem cell, in the present study, we tried to use modified transwell system to isolate and enrich CSCs from human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1. Our results clearly showed that the lower chamber cells in modified transwell system were easily forming spheres; furthermore, these spheres expressed high levels of stem cell markers (CD133/CD44/CD24/Oct-4/ESA and exhibited chemoresistance, underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and possessed the properties of self-renewal in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Therefore, we speculated that modified transwell assay system, as a rapid and effective method, can be used to isolate and enrich CSCs.

  12. Cancer cell-soluble factors reprogram mesenchymal stromal cells to slow cycling, chemoresistant cells with a more stem-like state

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    Ahmed El-Badawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play different roles in modulating tumor progression, growth, and metastasis. MSCs are recruited to the tumor site in large numbers and subsequently have an important microenvironmental role in modulating tumor progression and drug sensitivity. However, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on MSC plasticity remains poorly understood. Herein, we report a paracrine effect of cancer cells, in which they secrete soluble factors that promote a more stem-like state in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Methods The effect of soluble factors secreted from MCF7, Hela, and HepG2 cancer cell lines on BM-MSCs was assessed using a Transwell indirect coculture system. After 5 days of coculture, BM-MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry for surface marker expression, by qPCR for gene expression profile, and by confocal immunofluorescence for marker expression. We then measured the sensitivity of cocultured BM-MSCs to chemotherapeutic agents, their cell cycle profile, and their response to DNA damage. The sphere formation, invasive properties, and in-vivo performance of BM-MSCs after coculture with cancer cells were also measured. Results Indirect coculture of cancer cells and BM-MSCs, without direct cell contact, generated slow cycling, chemoresistant spheroid stem cells that highly expressed markers of pluripotency, cancer cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs. They also displayed properties of a side population and enhanced sphere formation in culture. Accordingly, these cells were termed cancer-induced stem cells (CiSCs. CiSCs showed a more mesenchymal phenotype that was further augmented upon TGF-β stimulation and demonstrated a high expression of the β-catenin pathway and ALDH1A1. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that MSCs, recruited to the tumor microenvironment in large numbers, may display cellular plasticity, acquire a more stem-like state, and acquire some properties of CSCs upon

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng; Wang, Liping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells

  14. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Liping [Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Huang, Lan [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Zhang, Bin [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Medicine-Division of Hematology/Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Sun, Yan [Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (China); and others

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells.

  15. CD133 Modulate HIF-1α Expression under Hypoxia in EMT Phenotype Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

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    Koki Maeda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although CD133 is a known representative cancer stem cell marker, its function in tumor aggressiveness under hypoxia is not fully known. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that CD133 regulates hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α expression with tumor migration. The CD133+ pancreatic cancer cell line, Capan1M9, was compared with the CD133− cell line, shCD133M9, under hypoxia. HIF-1α expression levels were compared by Western blot, HIF-1α nucleus translocation assay and real-time (RT-PCR. The hypoxia responsive element (HRE was observed by luciferase assay. The migration ability was analyzed by migration and wound healing assays. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. HIF-1α was highly expressed in Capan1M9 compared to shCD133M9 under hypoxia because of the high activation of HRE. Furthermore, the migration ability of Capan1M9 was higher than that of shCD133M9 under hypoxia, suggesting higher expression of EMT related genes in Capan1M9 compared to shCD133M9. Conclusion: HIF-1α expression under hypoxia in CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells correlated with tumor cell migration through EMT gene expression. Understanding the function of CD133 in cancer aggressiveness provides a novel therapeutic approach to eradicate pancreatic cancer stem cells.

  16. ALDH1-high ovarian cancer stem-like cells can be isolated from serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma cells, and ALDH1 high expression is associated with poor prognosis.

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    Takafumi Kuroda

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiating cells (CICs are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumorigenicity. Furthermore, CSCs/CICs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and CSCs/CICs are therefore thought to be responsible for cancer recurrence after treatment and distant metastasis. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC cases, disease recurrence after chemotherapy is frequently observed, suggesting ovarian CSCs/CICs are involved. There are four major histological subtypes in EOC, and serous adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma are high-grade malignancies. We therefore analyzed ovarian CSCs/CICs from ovarian carcinoma cell lines (serous adenocarcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma and primary ovarian cancer cells in this study. We isolated ovarian CSCs/CICs as an aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high (ALDH1(high population from 6 EOC cell lines (3 serous adenocarcinomas and 3 clear cell adenocarcinomas by the ALDEFLUOR assay. ALDH1(high cells showed greater sphere-forming ability, higher tumorigenicity and greater invasive capability, indicating that ovarian CSCs/CICs are enriched in ALDH1(high cells. ALDH1(high cells could also be isolated from 8 of 11 primary ovarian carcinoma samples. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that higher ALDH1 expression levels in ovary cancer cases are related to poorer prognosis in both serous adenocarcinoma cases and clear cell adenocarcinoma cases. Taken together, the results indicate that ALDH1 is a marker for ovarian CSCs/CICs and that the expression level of ALDH1 might be a novel biomarker for prediction of poor prognosis.

  17. Cellular Components, Including Stem-Like Cells, of Preterm Mother's Mature Milk as Compared with Those in Her Colostrum: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaingade, Pankaj; Somasundaram, Indumathi; Sharma, Akshita; Patel, Darshan; Marappagounder, Dhanasekaran

    2017-09-01

    Whether the preterm mothers' mature milk retains the same cellular components as those in colostrum including stem-like cell, cell adhesion molecules, and immune cells. A total of five preterm mothers were recruited for the study having an average age of 30.2 years and gestational age of 29.8 weeks from the Pristine Women's Hospital, Kolhapur. Colostrum milk was collected within 2-5 days and matured milk was collected 20-30 days after delivery from the same mothers. Integral cellular components of 22 markers including stem cells, immune cells, and cell adhesion molecules were measured using flowcytometry. Preterm mature milk was found to possess higher expressions of hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells, immune cells, few cell adhesion molecules, and side population cells than colostrum. The increased level of these different cell components in mature milk may be important in the long-term preterm baby's health growth. Further similar research in a larger population of various gestational ages and lactation stages of preterm mothers is warranted to support these pilot findings.

  18. Generation and Characterisation of Cisplatin-Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Displaying a Stem-Like Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Martin P.; Gray, Steven G.; Hoffmann, Andreas C.; Hilger, Ralf A.; Thomale, Juergen; O’Flaherty, John D.; Fennell, Dean A.; Richard, Derek; O’Leary, John J.; O’Byrne, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inherent and acquired cisplatin resistance reduces the effectiveness of this agent in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this process may result in the development of novel agents to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin. Methods An isogenic model of cisplatin resistance was generated in a panel of NSCLC cell lines (A549, SKMES-1, MOR, H460). Over a period of twelve months, cisplatin resistant (CisR) cell lines were derived from original, age-matched parent cells (PT) and subsequently characterized. Proliferation (MTT) and clonogenic survival assays (crystal violet) were carried out between PT and CisR cells. Cellular response to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by FACS analysis. A panel of cancer stem cell and pluripotent markers was examined in addition to the EMT proteins, c-Met and β-catenin. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage (γH2AX) and cellular platinum uptake (ICP-MS) was also assessed. Results Characterisation studies demonstrated a decreased proliferative capacity of lung tumour cells in response to cisplatin, increased resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death, accumulation of resistant cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced clonogenic survival ability. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of CD133+/CD44+cells and increased ALDH activity relative to their corresponding parental cells. The stem cell markers, Nanog, Oct-4 and SOX-2, were significantly upregulated as were the EMT markers, c-Met and β-catenin. While resistant sublines demonstrated decreased uptake of cisplatin in response to treatment, reduced cisplatin-GpG DNA adduct formation and significantly decreased γH2AX foci were observed compared to parental cell lines. Conclusion Our results identified cisplatin resistant subpopulations of NSCLC cells with a putative stem-like signature, providing

  19. Generation and characterisation of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cell lines displaying a stem-like signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Barr

    Full Text Available Inherent and acquired cisplatin resistance reduces the effectiveness of this agent in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this process may result in the development of novel agents to enhance the sensitivity of cisplatin.An isogenic model of cisplatin resistance was generated in a panel of NSCLC cell lines (A549, SKMES-1, MOR, H460. Over a period of twelve months, cisplatin resistant (CisR cell lines were derived from original, age-matched parent cells (PT and subsequently characterized. Proliferation (MTT and clonogenic survival assays (crystal violet were carried out between PT and CisR cells. Cellular response to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were examined by FACS analysis. A panel of cancer stem cell and pluripotent markers was examined in addition to the EMT proteins, c-Met and β-catenin. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation, DNA damage (γH2AX and cellular platinum uptake (ICP-MS was also assessed.Characterisation studies demonstrated a decreased proliferative capacity of lung tumour cells in response to cisplatin, increased resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death, accumulation of resistant cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced clonogenic survival ability. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of CD133+/CD44+cells and increased ALDH activity relative to their corresponding parental cells. The stem cell markers, Nanog, Oct-4 and SOX-2, were significantly upregulated as were the EMT markers, c-Met and β-catenin. While resistant sublines demonstrated decreased uptake of cisplatin in response to treatment, reduced cisplatin-GpG DNA adduct formation and significantly decreased γH2AX foci were observed compared to parental cell lines.Our results identified cisplatin resistant subpopulations of NSCLC cells with a putative stem-like signature, providing a further understanding of the

  20. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  1. Application of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier blocker UK5099 creates metabolic reprogram and greater stem-like properties in LnCap prostate cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Long, Yuan; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jian-Guo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is one of the important hallmarks of cancer cells and eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between blocking mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) with UK5099 and the metabolic alteration as well as stemness phenotype of prostatic cancer cells. It was found that blocking pyruvate transportation into mitochondrial attenuated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and increased glycolysis. The UK5099 treated cells showed significantly higher proportion of side population (SP) fraction and expressed higher levels of stemness markers Oct3/4 and Nanog. Chemosensitivity examinations revealed that the UK5099 treated cells became more resistant to chemotherapy compared to the non-treated cells. These results demonstrate probably an intimate connection between metabolic reprogram and stem-like phenotype of LnCap cells in vitro. We propose that MPC blocker (UK5099) application may be an ideal model for Warburg effect studies, since it attenuates mitochondrial OXPHOS and increases aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon typically reflected in the Warburg effect. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial OXPHOS and upregulated glycolysis are related with stem-like phenotype shift in prostatic cancer cells. PMID:26413751

  2. Automatic cell cloning assay for determining the clonogenic capacity of cancer and cancer stem-like cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedr, Radek; Pernicová, Zuzana; Slabáková, Eva; Straková, Nicol; Bouchal, J.; Grepl, M.; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    83A, č. 5 (2013), s. 472-482 ISSN 1552-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/12/P407; GA MZd(CZ) NT13573 Grant - others:GA AV(CZ) M200041203; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : PROSTATE-CANCER * BASAL-CELLS * ORIGIN Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.066, year: 2013

  3. Metabolic Heterogeneity Evidenced by MRS among Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem-Like Cells Accounts for Cell Clustering and Different Responses to Drugs

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    Sveva Grande

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs through unsupervised analysis of metabolites detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS evidenced three subgroups, namely clusters 1a and 1b, with high intergroup similarity and neural fingerprints, and cluster 2, with a metabolism typical of commercial tumor lines. In addition, subclones generated by the same GSC line showed different metabolic phenotypes. Aerobic glycolysis prevailed in cluster 2 cells as demonstrated by higher lactate production compared to cluster 1 cells. Oligomycin, a mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor, induced high lactate extrusion only in cluster 1 cells, where it produced neutral lipid accumulation detected as mobile lipid signals by MRS and lipid droplets by confocal microscopy. These results indicate a relevant role of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for energy production in GSCs. On the other hand, further metabolic differences, likely accounting for different therapy responsiveness observed after etomoxir treatment, suggest that caution must be used in considering patient treatment with mitochondria FAO blockers. Metabolomics and metabolic profiling may contribute to discover new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers to be used for personalized therapies.

  4. Pre-procambial cells are niches for pluripotent and totipotent stem-like cells for organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marcilio; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; Mendes Graner, Erika; Ebling Brondani, Gilvano; Fiori de Abreu-Tarazi, Monita

    2012-08-01

    The direct induction of adventitious buds and somatic embryos from explants is a morphogenetic process that is under the influence of exogenous plant growth regulators and its interactions with endogenous phytohormones. We performed an in vitro histological analysis in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) shoot apexes and determined that the positioning of competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells, under the influence of combinations of exogenously applied growth regulators (NAA/BAP and NAA/TDZ), allows the pre-procambial cells (PPCs) to act in different morphogenic pathways to establish niche competent cells. It is likely that there has been a habituation phenomenon during the regeneration and development of the microplants. This includes promoting the tillering of primary or secondary buds due to culturing in the absence of NAA/BAP or NAA/TDZ after a period in the presence of these growth regulators. Histological analyses determined that the adventitious roots were derived from the dedifferentiation of the parenchymal cells located in the basal region of the adventitious buds, with the establishment of rooting pole, due to an auxin gradient. Furthermore, histological and histochemical analyses allowed us to characterize how the PPCs provide niches for multipotent, pluripotent and totipotent stem-like cells for vascular differentiation, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm. The histological and histochemical analyses also allowed us to detect the unicellular or multicellular origin of somatic embryogenesis. Therefore, our results indicate that the use of growth regulators in microplants can lead to habituation and to different morphogenic pathways leading to potential niche establishment, depending on the positioning of the competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells. Our results indicate that the use of growth regulators in microplants can lead to habituation and to different morphogenic pathways leading to

  5. A functional study of EGFR and Notch signaling in brain cancer stem-like cells from glioblastoma multiforme (Ph.d.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor in adults with a median survival for newly diagnosed GBM patients at less than 1.5 year. Despite intense treatment efforts the vast majority of patients will experience relapse and much research today is therefore searching...... for new molecular and cellular targets that can improve the prognosis for GBM patients. One such target is the brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) that are believed to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, treatment resistance and ultimately relapse. bCSC are identified based...... on their resemblance to normal neural stem cells (NSC) and their tumorigenic potential. Like for NSC, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Notch receptor signaling pathways are believed to be important for the maintenance of bCSC. These pathways as such present promising targets in a future anti-bCSC GBM...

  6. Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screens Reveal Loss of Redundancy between PKMYT1 and WEE1 in Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

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    Chad M. Toledo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify therapeutic targets for glioblastoma (GBM, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (KO screens in patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs and human neural stem/progenitors (NSCs, non-neoplastic stem cell controls, for genes required for their in vitro growth. Surprisingly, the vast majority GSC-lethal hits were found outside of molecular networks commonly altered in GBM and GSCs (e.g., oncogenic drivers. In vitro and in vivo validation of GSC-specific targets revealed several strong hits, including the wee1-like kinase, PKMYT1/Myt1. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PKMYT1 acts redundantly with WEE1 to inhibit cyclin B-CDK1 activity via CDK1-Y15 phosphorylation and to promote timely completion of mitosis in NSCs. However, in GSCs, this redundancy is lost, most likely as a result of oncogenic signaling, causing GBM-specific lethality.

  7. Stem-like tumor-initiating cells isolated from IL13Rα2 expressing gliomas are targeted and killed by IL13-zetakine-redirected T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine E; Starr, Renate; Aguilar, Brenda; Shami, Andrew F; Martinez, Catalina; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Barish, Michael E; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate IL13Rα2 as an immunotherapeutic target for eliminating glioma stem-like cancer initiating cells (GSC) of high-grade gliomas, with particular focus on the potential of genetically engineered IL13Rα2-specific primary human CD8(+) CTLs (IL13-zetakine(+) CTL) to target this therapeutically resistant glioma subpopulation. A panel of low-passage GSC tumor sphere (TS) and serum-differentiated glioma lines were expanded from patient glioblastoma specimens. These glioblastoma lines were evaluated for expression of IL13Rα2 and for susceptibility to IL13-zetakine(+) CTL-mediated killing in vitro and in vivo. We observed that although glioma IL13Rα2 expression varies between patients, for IL13Rα2(pos) cases this antigen was detected on both GSCs and more differentiated tumor cell populations. IL13-zetakine(+) CTL were capable of efficient recognition and killing of both IL13Rα2(pos) GSCs and IL13Rα2(pos) differentiated cells in vitro, as well as eliminating glioma-initiating activity in an orthotopic mouse tumor model. Furthermore, intracranial administration of IL13-zetakine(+) CTL displayed robust antitumor activity against established IL13Rα2(pos) GSC TS-initiated orthotopic tumors in mice. Within IL13Rα2 expressing high-grade gliomas, this receptor is expressed by GSCs and differentiated tumor populations, rendering both targetable by IL13-zetakine(+) CTLs. Thus, our results support the potential usefullness of IL13Rα2-directed immunotherapeutic approaches for eradicating therapeutically resistant GSC populations. ©2012 AACR.

  8. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  9. Establishment of rat embryonic stem-like cells from the morula using a combination of feeder layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Asako; Sato, Eimei; Fukui, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Midori; Matsumoto, Hiromichi

    2009-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are characterized by pluripotency, in particular the ability to form a germline on injection into blastocysts. Despite numerous attempts, ES cell lines derived from rat embryos have not yet been established. The reason for this is unclear, although certain intrinsic biological differences among species and/or strains have been reported. Herein, using Wistar-Imamichi rats, specific characteristics of preimplantation embryos are described. At the blastocyst stage, Oct4 (also called Pou5f1) was expressed in both the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE), whereas expression of Cdx2 was localized to the TE. In contrast, at an earlier stage, expression of Oct4 was detected in all the nuclei in the morula. These stages were examined using a combination of feeder layers (rat embryonic fibroblast [REF] for primary outgrowth and SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant [STO] cells for passaging) to establish rat ES-like cell lines. The rat ES-like cell lines obtained from the morula maintained expression of Oct4 over long-term culture, whereas cell lines derived from blastocysts lost pluripotency during early passage. The morula-derived ES-like cell lines showed Oct4 expression in a long-term culture, even after cryogenic preservation, thawing and EGFP transfection. These results indicate that rat ES-like cell lines with long-term Oct4 expression can be established from the morula of Wistar-Imamichi rats using a combination of feeder layers.

  10. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Dejuan; Li, Yiwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors

  11. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT-Phenotypic Cells: Are They Cousins or Twins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul H. Sarkar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are cells within a tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and maintain tumor-initiating capacity through differentiation into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the whole tumor. These tumor-initiating cells could provide a resource for cells that cause tumor recurrence after therapy. Although the cell origin of CSCs remains to be fully elucidated, mounting evidence has demonstrated that Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, induced by different factors, is associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis and these cells share molecular characteristics with CSCs, and thus are often called cancer stem-like cells or tumor-initiating cells. The acquisition of an EMT phenotype is a critical process for switching early stage carcinomas into invasive malignancies, which is often associated with the loss of epithelial differentiation and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that EMT plays a critical role not only in tumor metastasis but also in tumor recurrence and that it is tightly linked with the biology of cancer stem-like cells or cancer-initiating cells. Here we will succinctly summarize the state-of-our-knowledge regarding the molecular similarities between cancer stem-like cells or CSCs and EMT-phenotypic cells that are associated with tumor aggressiveness focusing on solid tumors.

  12. High linear-energy-transfer radiation can overcome radioresistance of glioma stem-like cells to low linear-energy-transfer radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Yuki; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Kondo, Natsuko; Kawabata, Shinji; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hirohiko; Fujimori, Akira; Ono, Koji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is applied as the standard treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, radiotherapy remains merely palliative, not curative, because of the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are regarded as highly radioresistant to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) photons. Here we analyzed whether or not high-LET particles can overcome the radioresistance of GSCs. Glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) were induced from the GBM cell line A172 in stem cell culture medium. The phenotypes of GSLCs and wild-type cells were confirmed using stem cell markers. These cells were irradiated with (60)Co gamma rays or reactor neutron beams. Under neutron-beam irradiation, high-LET proton particles can be produced through elastic scattering or nitrogen capture reaction. Radiosensitivity was assessed by a colony-forming assay, and the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were assessed by a histone gamma-H2AX focus detection assay. In stem cell culture medium, GSLCs could form neurosphere-like cells and express neural stem cell markers (Sox2 and Musashi) abundantly in comparison with their parental cells. GSLCs were significantly more radioresistant to gamma rays than their parental cells, but neutron beams overcame this resistance. There were significantly fewer gamma-H2AX foci in the A172 GSLCs 24 h after irradiation with gamma rays than in their parental cultured cells, while there was no apparent difference following neutron-beam irradiation. High-LET radiation can overcome the radioresistance of GSLCs by producing unrepairable DNA DSBs. High-LET radiation therapy might have the potential to overcome GBM's resistance to X-rays in a clinical setting.

  13. High linear-energy-transfer radiation can overcome radioresistance of glioma stem-like cells to low linear-energy-transfer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yuki; Kawabata, Shinji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hirohiko; Fujimori, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is applied as the standard treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, radiotherapy remains merely palliative, not curative, because of the existence of glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are regarded as highly radioresistant to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) photons. Here we analyzed whether or not high-LET particles can overcome the radioresistance of GSCs. Glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) were induced from the GBM cell line A172 in stem cell culture medium. The phenotypes of GSLCs and wild-type cells were confirmed using stem cell markers. These cells were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays or reactor neutron beams. Under neutron-beam irradiation, high-LET proton particles can be produced through elastic scattering or nitrogen capture reaction. Radiosensitivity was assessed by a colony-forming assay, and the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were assessed by a histone gamma-H2AX focus detection assay. In stem cell culture medium, GSLCs could form neurosphere-like cells and express neural stem cell markers (Sox2 and Musashi) abundantly in comparison with their parental cells. GSLCs were significantly more radioresistant to gamma rays than their parental cells, but neutron beams overcame this resistance. There were significantly fewer gamma-H2AX foci in the A172 GSLCs 24 h after irradiation with gamma rays than in their parental cultured cells, while there was no apparent difference following neutron-beam irradiation. High-LET radiation can overcome the radioresistance of GSLCs by producing unrepairable DNA DSBs. High-LET radiation therapy might have the potential to overcome GBM's resistance to X-rays in a clinical setting. (author)

  14. Breast cancer stem-like cells are inhibited by a non-toxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald J Prud'homme

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs have increased resistance to cancer chemotherapy. They can be enriched as drug-surviving CSCs (D-CSCs by growth with chemotherapeutic drugs, and/or by sorting of cells expressing CSC markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH. CSCs form colonies in agar, mammospheres in low-adherence cultures, and tumors following xenotransplantation in Scid mice. We hypothesized that tranilast, a non-toxic orally active drug with anti-cancer activities, would inhibit breast CSCs.We examined breast cancer cell lines or D-CSCs generated by growth of these cells with mitoxantrone. Tranilast inhibited colony formation, mammosphere formation and stem cell marker expression. Mitoxantrone-selected cells were enriched for CSCs expressing stem cell markers ALDH, c-kit, Oct-4, and ABCG2, and efficient at forming mammospheres. Tranilast markedly inhibited mammosphere formation by D-CSCs and dissociated formed mammospheres, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. It was effective against D-CSCs of both HER-2+ and triple-negative cell lines. Tranilast was also effective in vivo, since it prevented lung metastasis in mice injected i.v. with triple-negative (MDA-MB-231 mitoxantrone-selected cells. The molecular targets of tranilast in cancer have been unknown, but here we demonstrate it is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist and this plays a key role. AHR is a transcription factor activated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other ligands. Tranilast induced translocation of the AHR to the nucleus and stimulated CYP1A1 expression (a marker of AHR activation. It inhibited binding of the AHR to CDK4, which has been linked to cell-cycle arrest. D-CSCs expressed higher levels of the AHR than other cells. Knockdown of the AHR with siRNA, or blockade with an AHR antagonist, entirely abrogated the anti-proliferative and anti-mammosphere activity of tranilast. Thus, the anti-cancer effects of

  15. Autocrine VEGF-VEGFR2-Neuropilin-1 signaling promotes glioma stem-like cell viability and tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Petra; Lathia, Justin D; Rasmussen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is traditionally regarded as an endothelial cell protein, evidence suggests that VEGFRs may be expressed by cancer cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal cancer characterized by florid vascularization and aberrantly...... elevated VEGF. Antiangiogenic therapy with the humanized VEGF antibody bevacizumab reduces GBM tumor growth; however, the clinical benefits are transient and invariably followed by tumor recurrence. In this study, we show that VEGFR2 is preferentially expressed on the cell surface of the CD133(+) human......, which is associated with VEGFR2-NRP1 recycling and a pool of active VEGFR2 within a cytosolic compartment of a subset of human GBM cells. Whereas bevacizumab failed to inhibit prosurvival effects of VEGFR2-mediated signaling, GSC viability under unperturbed or radiation-evoked stress conditions...

  16. Concurrent Expression of Oct4 and Nanog Maintains Mesenchymal Stem-Like Property of Human Dental Pulp Cells

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    Chuan-En Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1−CD146− dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.

  17. Concurrent expression of Oct4 and Nanog maintains mesenchymal stem-like property of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan-En; Hu, Fang-Wei; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Tsai, Lo-Lin; Lee, Tzu-Hsin; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2014-10-15

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1-CD146- dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.

  18. Inhibition of telomerase activity preferentially targets aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cancer stem-like cells in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniesta Pilar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for advanced lung cancer have not declined for decades, even with the implementation of novel chemotherapeutic regimens or the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs are thought to be responsible for resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting CSCs with novel compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung tumor growth and metastasis. We have isolated and characterized CSCs from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines and measured their telomerase activity, telomere length, and sensitivity to the novel telomerase inhibitor MST312. Results The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive lung cancer cell fraction is enriched in markers of stemness and endowed with stem cell properties. ALDH+ CSCs display longer telomeres than the non-CSC population. Interestingly, MST312 has a strong antiproliferative effect on lung CSCs and induces p21, p27 and apoptosis in the whole tumor population. MST312 acts through activation of the ATM/pH2AX DNA damage pathway (short-term effect and through decrease in telomere length (long-term effect. Administration of this telomerase inhibitor (40 mg/kg in the H460 xenograft model results in significant tumor shrinkage (70% reduction, compared to controls. Combination therapy consisting of irradiation (10Gy plus administration of MST312 did not improve the therapeutic efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor alone. Treatment with MST312 reduces significantly the number of ALDH+ CSCs and their telomeric length in vivo. Conclusions We conclude that antitelomeric therapy using MST312 mainly targets lung CSCs and may represent a novel approach for effective treatment of lung cancer.

  19. Salinomycin possesses anti-tumor activity and inhibits breast cancer stem-like cells via an apoptosis-independent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hyunsook; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Oh, Eunhye [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jae Hong, E-mail: cancer@korea.ac.kr [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in the formation, growth and recurrence of tumors, particularly following therapeutic intervention. Salinomycin has received recent attention for its ability to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), but the mechanisms of action involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's selective targeting of BCSCs and its anti-tumor activity. Salinomycin suppressed cell viability, concomitant with the downregulation of cyclin D1 and increased p27{sup kip1} nuclear accumulation. Mammosphere formation assays revealed that salinomycin suppresses self-renewal of ALDH1-positive BCSCs and downregulates the transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. TUNEL analysis of MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts revealed that salinomycin administration elicited a significant reduction in tumor growth with a marked downregulation of ALDH1 and CD44 levels, but seemingly without the induction of apoptosis. Our findings shed further light on the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's effects on BCSCs. - Highlights: • Salinomycin suppresses mammosphere formation. • Salinomycin reduces ALDH1 activity and downregulates Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. • Salinomycin targets BCSCs via an apoptosis-independent pathway.

  20. Neural differentiation of choroid plexus epithelial cells: role of human traumatic cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the choroid plexus (CP provides a unique protective system in the central nervous system. CSF components are not invariable and they can change based on the pathological conditions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of non-traumatic and traumatic CSF on the differentiation of multipotent stem-like cells of CP into the neural and/or glial cells. CP epithelial cells were isolated from adult male rats and treated with human non-traumatic and traumatic CSF. Alterations in mRNA expression of Nestin and microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, as the specific markers of neurogenesis, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in cultured CP epithelial cells were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that treatment with CSF (non-traumatic and traumatic led to increase in mRNA expression levels of MAP2 and GFAP. Moreover, the expression of Nestin decreased in CP epithelial cells treated with non-traumatic CSF, while treatment with traumatic CSF significantly increased its mRNA level compared to the cells cultured only in DMEM/F12 as control. It seems that CP epithelial cells contain multipotent stem-like cells which are inducible under pathological conditions including exposure to traumatic CSF because of its compositions.

  1. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

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    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  2. Combination Treatment with PPARγ Ligand and Its Specific Inhibitor GW9662 Downregulates BIS and 14-3-3 Gamma, Inhibiting Stem-Like Properties in Glioblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chang-Nim

    2017-01-01

    PPAR γ is a nuclear receptor that regulates differentiation and proliferation and is highly expressed in many cancer cells. Its synthetic ligands, such as rosiglitazone and ciglitazone, and its inhibitor GW9662, were shown to induce cellular differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and lead to apoptosis. Glioblastoma is a common brain tumor with poor survival prospects. Recently, glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) have been examined as a potential target for anticancer therapy; however, little is known about the combined effect of various agents on GSCs. In this study, we found that cotreatment with PPAR γ ligands and GW9662 inhibited stem-like properties in GSC-like spheres, which significantly express SOX2. In addition, this treatment decreased the activation of STAT3 and AKT and decreased the amounts of 14-3-3 gamma and BIS proteins. Moreover, combined administration of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection with PPAR γ ligands induced downregulation of SOX2 and MMP2 activity together with inhibition of sphere-forming activity regardless of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination therapy using PPAR γ ligands and its inhibitor could be a potential therapeutic strategy targeting GSCs.

  3. Combination Treatment with PPARγ Ligand and Its Specific Inhibitor GW9662 Downregulates BIS and 14-3-3 Gamma, Inhibiting Stem-Like Properties in Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Nim Im

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARγ is a nuclear receptor that regulates differentiation and proliferation and is highly expressed in many cancer cells. Its synthetic ligands, such as rosiglitazone and ciglitazone, and its inhibitor GW9662, were shown to induce cellular differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and lead to apoptosis. Glioblastoma is a common brain tumor with poor survival prospects. Recently, glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs have been examined as a potential target for anticancer therapy; however, little is known about the combined effect of various agents on GSCs. In this study, we found that cotreatment with PPARγ ligands and GW9662 inhibited stem-like properties in GSC-like spheres, which significantly express SOX2. In addition, this treatment decreased the activation of STAT3 and AKT and decreased the amounts of 14-3-3 gamma and BIS proteins. Moreover, combined administration of small-interfering RNA (siRNA transfection with PPARγ ligands induced downregulation of SOX2 and MMP2 activity together with inhibition of sphere-forming activity regardless of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination therapy using PPARγ ligands and its inhibitor could be a potential therapeutic strategy targeting GSCs.

  4. HDAC4 and HDAC6 sustain DNA double strand break repair and stem-like phenotype by promoting radioresistance in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marampon, Francesco; Megiorni, Francesca; Camero, Simona; Crescioli, Clara; McDowell, Heather P; Sferra, Roberta; Vetuschi, Antonella; Pompili, Simona; Ventura, Luca; De Felice, Francesca; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Dominici, Carlo; Maggio, Roberto; Festuccia, Claudio; Gravina, Giovanni Luca

    2017-07-01

    The role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 and 6 in glioblastoma (GBM) radioresistance was investigated. We found that tumor samples from 31 GBM patients, who underwent temozolomide and radiotherapy combined treatment, showed HDAC4 and HDAC6 expression in 93.5% and 96.7% of cases, respectively. Retrospective clinical data analysis demonstrated that high-intensity HDAC4 and/or HDAC6 immunostaining was predictive of poor clinical outcome. In vitro experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of HDAC4 or HDAC6 radiosensitized U87MG and U251MG GBM cell lines by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSBs) accumulation and by affecting DSBs repair molecular machinery. We found that HDAC6 knock-down predisposes to radiation therapy-induced U251MG apoptosis- and U87MG autophagy-mediated cell death. HDAC4 silencing promoted radiation therapy-induced senescence, independently by the cellular context. Finally, we showed that p53 WT expression contributed to the radiotherapy lethal effects and that HDAC4 or HDAC6 sustained GBM stem-like radioresistant phenotype. Altogether, these observations suggest that HDAC4 and HDAC6 are guardians of irradiation-induced DNA damages and stemness, thus promoting radioresistance, and may represent potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in GBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Long Non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS2 Facilitates the Maintenance of Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells in Hypoxic Niches

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    Marco Mineo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have an undefined role in the pathobiology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. These tumors are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous with transcriptome subtype-specific GBM stem-like cells (GSCs that adapt to the brain tumor microenvironment, including hypoxic niches. We identified hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-antisense RNA 2 (HIF1A-AS2 as a subtype-specific hypoxia-inducible lncRNA, upregulated in mesenchymal GSCs. Its deregulation affects GSC growth, self-renewal, and hypoxia-dependent molecular reprogramming. Among the HIF1A-AS2 interactome, IGF2BP2 and DHX9 were identified as direct partners. This association was needed for maintenance of expression of their target gene, HMGA1. Downregulation of HIF1A-AS2 led to delayed growth of mesenchymal GSC tumors, survival benefits, and impaired expression of HMGA1 in vivo. Our data demonstrate that HIF1A-AS2 contributes to GSCs’ speciation and adaptation to hypoxia within the tumor microenvironment, acting directly through its interactome and targets and indirectly by modulating responses to hypoxic stress depending on the subtype-specific genetic context.

  6. Gli1-Mediated Regulation of Sox2 Facilitates Self-Renewal of Stem-Like Cells and Confers Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora-Singhal, Namrata; Perumal, Deepak; Nguyen, Jonathan; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have very low survival rates because the current therapeutic strategies are not fully effective. Although EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective for NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations, patients invariably develop resistance to these agents. Alterations in multiple signaling cascades have been associated with the development of resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Sonic Hedgehog and associated Gli transcription factors play a major role in embryonic development and have recently been found to be reactivated in NSCLC, and elevated Gli1 levels correlate with poor prognosis. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in the functions of cancer stem cells, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this context, we demonstrate that Gli1 is a strong regulator of embryonic stem cell transcription factor Sox2. Depletion of Gli1 or inhibition of the Hedgehog signaling significantly abrogated the self-renewal of stem-like side-population cells from NSCLCs as well as vascular mimicry of such cells. Gli1 was found to transcriptionally regulate Sox2 through its promoter region, and Gli1 could be detected on the Sox2 promoter. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling appeared to work cooperatively with EGFR inhibitors in markedly reducing the viability of NSCLC cells as well as the self-renewal of stem-like cells. Thus, our study demonstrates a cooperative functioning of the EGFR signaling and Hedgehog pathways in governing the stem-like functions of NSCLC cancer stem cells and presents a novel therapeutic strategy to combat NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Connective tissue growth factor activates pluripotency genes and mesenchymal-epithelial transition in head and neck cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Wang, Chen-Chien; Chou, Chun-Hung; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Lin, Been-Ren; Chen, Szu-Ta; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Kuo, Min-Liang; Yang, Muh-Hwa

    2013-07-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key mechanism in both embryonic development and cancer metastasis. The EMT introduces stem-like properties to cancer cells. However, during somatic cell reprogramming, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), the reverse process of EMT, is a crucial step toward pluripotency. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a multifunctional secreted protein that acts as either an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor among different cancers. Here, we show that in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), CTGF promotes the MET and reduces invasiveness. Moreover, we found that CTGF enhances the stem-like properties of HNSCC cells and increases the expression of multiple pluripotency genes. Mechanistic studies showed that CTGF induces c-Jun expression through αvβ3 integrin and that c-Jun directly activates the transcription of the pluripotency genes NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1. Knockdown of CTGF in TW2.6 cells was shown to reduce tumor formation and attenuate E-cadherin expression in xenotransplanted tumors. In HNSCC patient samples, CTGF expression was positively correlated with the levels of CDH1, NANOG, SOX2, and POU5F1. Coexpression of CTGF and the pluripotency genes was found to be associated with a worse prognosis. These findings are valuable in elucidating the interplay between epithelial plasticity and stem-like properties during cancer progression and provide useful information for developing a novel classification system and therapeutic strategies for HNSCC. ©2013 AACR.

  8. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  9. High expression of CD109 antigen regulates the phenotype of cancer stem-like cells/cancer-initiating cells in the novel epithelioid sarcoma cell line ESX and is related to poor prognosis of soft tissue sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Emori

    Full Text Available Epithelioid sarcoma (ES is a relatively rare, highly malignant soft tissue sarcoma. The mainstay of treatment is resection or amputation. Currently other therapeutic options available for this disease are limited. Therefore, a novel therapeutic option needs to be developed. In the present study, we established a new human ES cell line (ESX and analyzed the characteristics of its cancer stem-like cells/cancer-initiating cells (CSCs/CICs based on ALDH1 activity. We demonstrated that a subpopulation of ESX cells with high ALDH1 activity (ALDH(high cells correlated with enhanced clonogenic ability, sphere-formation ability, and invasiveness in vitro and showed higher tumorigenicity in vivo. Next, using gene expression profiling, we identified CD109, a GPI-anchored protein upregulated in the ALDH(high cells. CD109 mRNA was highly expressed in various sarcoma cell lines, but weakly expressed in normal adult tissues. CD109-positive cells in ESX predominantly formed spheres in culture, whereas siCD109 reduced ALDH1 expression and inhibited the cell proliferation in vitro. Subsequently, we evaluated the expression of CD109 protein in 80 clinical specimens of soft tissue sarcoma. We found a strong correlation between CD109 protein expression and the prognosis (P = 0.009. In conclusion, CD109 might be a CSC/CIC marker in epithelioid sarcoma. Moreover, CD109 is a promising prognostic biomarker and a molecular target of cancer therapy for sarcomas including ES.

  10. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Arshak R.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into β-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs

  11. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  12. Tracking and Functional Characterization of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Mesenchymal Tumor Cells During Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscetti, Marcus; Quach, Bill; Dadashian, Eman L.; Mulholland, David J.; Wu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been postulated as a mechanism by which cancer cells acquire the invasive and stem-like traits necessary for distant metastasis. However, direct in vivo evidence for the role of EMT in the formation of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and the metastatic cascade remains lacking. Here we report the first isolation and characterization of mesenchymal and EMT tumor cells, which harbor both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, in an autochthonous murine model of prostate cancer. By crossing the established Pb-Cre+/−;PtenL/L;KrasG12D/+ prostate cancer model with a vimentin-GFP reporter strain, generating CPKV mice, we were able to isolate epithelial, EMT and mesenchymal cancer cells based on expression of vimentin and EpCAM. CPKV mice (but not mice with Pten deletion alone) exhibited expansion of cells with EMT (EpCAM+/Vim-GFP+) and mesenchymal (EpCAM−/Vim-GFP+) characteristics at the primary tumor site and in circulation. These EMT and mesenchymal tumor cells displayed enhanced stemness and invasive character compared to epithelial tumor cells. Moreover, they displayed an enriched tumor-initiating capacity and could regenerate epithelial glandular structures in vivo, indicative of epithelia-mesenchyme plasticity. Interestingly, while mesenchymal tumor cells could persist in circulation and survive in the lung following intravenous injection, only epithelial and EMT tumor cells could form macrometastases. Our work extends the evidence that mesenchymal and epithelial states in cancer cells contribute differentially to their capacities for tumor initiation and metastatic seeding, respectively, and that EMT tumor cells exist with plasticity that can contribute to multiple stages of the metastatic cascade. PMID:25948589

  13. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu......We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level...

  14. HA117 endows HL60 cells with a stem-like signature by inhibiting the degradation of DNMT1 via its ability to down-regulate expression of the GGL domain of RGS6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Li

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA induces complete remission in almost all patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL via its ability to induce the in vivo differentiation of APL blasts. However, prolonged ATRA treatment can result in drug resistance. In previous studies, we generated a multi-drug-resistant HL60/ATRA cell line and found it to contain a new drug resistance-related gene segment, HA117. In this study, we demonstrate that ATRA induces multi-drug-resistant subpopulations of HL60 cells with a putative stem-like signature by up-regulating the expression of the new gene segment HA117. Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that HA117 causes alternative splicing of regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6 and down-regulation of the expression of the GGL domain of RGS6, which plays an important role in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 degradation. Moreover, DNMT1 expression was increased in multi-drug resistance HL60/ATRA cells. Knockdown of HA117 restored expression of the GGL domain and blocked DNMT1 expression. Moreover, resistant cells displayed a putative stem-like signature with increased expression of cancer steam cell markers CD133 and CD123. The stem cell marker, Nanog, was significantly up-regulated. In conclusion, our study shows that HA117 potentially promotes the stem-like signature of the HL60/ATRA cell line by inhibiting by the ubiquitination and degradation of DNMT1 and by down-regulating the expression of the GGL domain of RGS6. These results throw light on the cellular events associated with the ATRA-induced multi-drug resistance phenotype in acute leukemia.

  15. Patterning bacterial communities on epithelial cells.

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    Mohammed Dwidar

    Full Text Available Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions.

  16. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M.

    1990-01-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate

  17. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

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    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  18. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  19. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to generate an apical membrane domain that serves as a protective barrier for the epithelial sheet....

  20. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Hu, Dan-Ping; Xie, Lishi; Li, Ye; Majumdar, Shyama; Nonn, Larisa; Hu, Hong; Shioda, Toshi; Prins, Gail S

    2017-08-01

    Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland.

  2. The T-box transcription factor Brachyury regulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition in association with cancer stem-like cells in adenoid cystic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Miyuki; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Imajyo, Ikumi; Ishii, Kotaro; Chigita, Satomi; Seki, Katsuhiro; Kobayashi, Yousuke; Shirasuna, Kanemitsu

    2012-01-01

    The high frequencies of recurrence and distant metastasis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) emphasize the need to better understand the biological factors associated with these outcomes. To analyze the mechanisms of AdCC metastasis, we established the green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transfected subline ACCS-GFP from the AdCC parental cell line and the metastatic ACCS-M GFP line from an in vivo metastasis model. Using these cell lines, we investigated the involvement of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSCs) in AdCC metastasis by real-time RT-PCR for EMT related genes and stem cell markers. Characteristics of CSCs were also analyzed by sphere-forming ability and tumorigenicity. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing of target gene was also performed. ACCS-M GFP demonstrated characteristics of EMT and additionally displayed sphere-forming ability and high expression of EMT-related genes (Snail, Twist1, Twist2, Slug, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and 2 [Zeb1 and Zeb2], glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [Gsk3β and transforming growth factor beta 2 [Tgf-β2]), stem cell markers (Nodal, Lefty, Oct-4, Pax6, Rex1, and Nanog), and differentiation markers (sex determining region Y [Sox2], Brachyury, and alpha fetoprotein [Afp]). These observations suggest that ACCS-M GFP shows the characteristics of CSCs and CSCs may be involved in the EMT of AdCC. Surprisingly, shRNA silencing of the T-box transcription factor Brachyury (also a differentiation marker) resulted in downregulation of the EMT and stem cell markers. In addition, sphere-forming ability, EMT characteristics, and tumorigenicity were simultaneously lost. Brachyury expression in clinical samples of AdCC was extremely high and closely related to EMT. This finding suggests that regulation of EMT by Brachyury in clinical AdCC may parallel that observed in vitro in this study. The use of a single cell line is a limitation of this study. However, parallel data from in vitro and

  3. Coronavirus infection of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first host cells to be infected by incoming c oronaviruses. Recent observations in vitro show that coronaviruses are released from a specific side of these polarized cells, and this polarized release might be important for the spread of the infection in vivo. Mechanisms for

  4. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  5. A novel berbamine derivative inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells of human glioblastoma, via up-regulation of miRNA-4284 and JNK/AP-1 signaling.

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    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor, accounting for approximately 40% of all central nervous system malignancies. Despite standard treatment consisting of surgical resection, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM is poor; with a median survival of 14.6 months. The cancer stem cell or cancer-initiating cell model has provided a new paradigm for understanding development and recurrence of GBM following treatment. Berbamine (BBM is a natural compound derived from the Berberis amurensis plant, and along with its derivatives, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in several cancers. Here, we reported that a novel synthetic Berbamine derivative, BBMD3, inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the CSCs from four GBM patients (PBT003, PBT008, PBT022, and PBT030 were cultured. These CSCs grew in neurospheres and expressed CD133 and nestin as markers. Treatment with BBMD3 destroyed the neurosphere morphology, and led to the induction of apoptosis in the CSCs. Induction of apoptosis in these CSCs is dependent upon activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. MicroRNA-4284 (miR-4284 was shown to be over-expressed about 4-fold in the CSCs following BBMD3 treatment. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic anti-sense oligonucleotide against human miR-4284 partially blocked the anticancer effects of BBMD3 on the GBM derived CSCs. BBMD3 also increased phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK, resulting in an increase expression of phosphorylated c-Jun and total c-Fos; the major components of transcriptional factor AP-1. The JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 signaling pathway plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis in response to UV irradiation and some drug treatments. Targeting glioblastoma stem-like cells with BBMD3 is therefore novel, and may have promise as an

  6. New approaches of PARP-1 inhibitors in human lung cancer cells and cancer stem-like cells by some selected anthraquinone-derived small molecules.

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    Yu-Ru Lee

    Full Text Available Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 and telomerase, as well as DNA damage response pathways are targets for anticancer drug development, and specific inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate anticancer activities of anthraquinone-derived tricyclic and tetracyclic small molecules and their structure-activity relationships with PARP-1 inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and NSCLC-overexpressing Oct4 and Nanog clone, which show high-expression of PARP-1 and more resistance to anticancer drug. We applied our library selected compounds to NCI's 60 human cancer cell-lines (NCI-60 in order to generate systematic profiling data. Based on our analysis, it is hypothesized that these drugs might be, directly and indirectly, target components to induce mitochondrial permeability transition and the release of pro-apoptotic factors as potential anti-NSCLC or PARP inhibitor candidates. Altogether, the most active NSC747854 showed its cytotoxicity and dose-dependent PARP inhibitory manner, thus it emerges as a promising structure for anti-cancer therapy with no significant negative influence on normal cells. Our studies present evidence that telomere maintenance should be taken into consideration in efforts not only to overcome drug resistance, but also to optimize the use of telomere-based therapeutics. These findings will be of great value to facilitate structure-based design of selective PARP inhibitors, in general, and telomerase inhibitors, in particular. Together, the data presented here expand our insight into the PARP inhibitors and support the resource-demanding lead optimization of structurally related small molecules for human cancer therapy.

  7. New Approaches of PARP-1 Inhibitors in Human Lung Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem-Like Cells by Some Selected Anthraquinone-Derived Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dah-Shyong; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Chou, Shih-Jie; Chen, Tsung-Chih; Lee, Chia-Chung; Chen, Chun-Liang; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Huang, Hsu-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and telomerase, as well as DNA damage response pathways are targets for anticancer drug development, and specific inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate anticancer activities of anthraquinone-derived tricyclic and tetracyclic small molecules and their structure-activity relationships with PARP-1 inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and NSCLC-overexpressing Oct4 and Nanog clone, which show high-expression of PARP-1 and more resistance to anticancer drug. We applied our library selected compounds to NCI's 60 human cancer cell-lines (NCI-60) in order to generate systematic profiling data. Based on our analysis, it is hypothesized that these drugs might be, directly and indirectly, target components to induce mitochondrial permeability transition and the release of pro-apoptotic factors as potential anti-NSCLC or PARP inhibitor candidates. Altogether, the most active NSC747854 showed its cytotoxicity and dose-dependent PARP inhibitory manner, thus it emerges as a promising structure for anti-cancer therapy with no significant negative influence on normal cells. Our studies present evidence that telomere maintenance should be taken into consideration in efforts not only to overcome drug resistance, but also to optimize the use of telomere-based therapeutics. These findings will be of great value to facilitate structure-based design of selective PARP inhibitors, in general, and telomerase inhibitors, in particular. Together, the data presented here expand our insight into the PARP inhibitors and support the resource-demanding lead optimization of structurally related small molecules for human cancer therapy. PMID:23451039

  8. Replication of cultured lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, D.; Bienkowski, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the conditions necessary to support replication of lung type 2 epithelial cells in culture. Cells were isolated from mature fetal rabbit lungs (29d gestation) and cultured on feeder layers of mitotically inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts. The epithelial nature of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining for keratin and by polyacid dichrome stain. Ultrastructural examination during the first week showed that the cells contained myofilaments, microvilli and lamellar bodies (markers for type 2 cells). The following changes were observed after the first week: increase in cell size; loss of lamellar bodies and appearance of multivesicular bodies; increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi; increase in tonafilaments and well-defined junctions. General cell morphology was good for up to 10 wk. Cells cultured on plastic surface degenerated after 1 wk. Cell replication was assayed by autoradiography of cultures exposed to ( 3 H)-thymidine and by direct cell counts. The cells did not replicate during the first week; however, between 2-10 wk the cells incorporated the label and went through approximately 6 population doublings. They have demonstrated that lung alveolar epithelial cells can replicate in culture if they are maintained on an appropriate substrate. The coincidence of ability to replicate and loss of markers for differentiation may reflect the dichotomy between growth and differentiation commonly observed in developing systems

  9. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  10. Epithelial cell-cell junctions and plasma membrane domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    Epithelial cells form a barrier against the environment, but are also required for the regulated exchange of molecules between an organism and its surroundings. Epithelial cells are characterised by a remarkable polarization of their plasma membrane, evidenced by the appearance of structurally,

  11. Application of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier blocker UK5099 creates metabolic reprogram and greater stem-like properties in LnCap prostate cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Long, Yuan; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jian-Guo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is one of the important hallmarks of cancer cells and eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between blocking mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) with UK5099 and the metabolic alteration as well as stemness phenotype of prostatic cancer cells. It was found that blocking pyruvate transportation into mitochondrial attenuated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and increased glycolysis. The UK5099 treated cells showed significantly...

  12. Embryonic stem-like cells from rabbit blastocysts cultured with melatonin could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruxue; Zhao, Xueming; Hao, Haisheng; Du, Weihua; Zhu, Huabin

    2016-11-01

    The rabbit is considered an important model animal from which to obtain embryonic stem cells because of the utility of this animal in physiology and reproductive research. Here, we derived rabbit ES-like (rES-like) cells from blastocysts of superovulated Japanese white rabbits using culture medium containing 10 -7  M melatonin, 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 1,000 IU/mL human leukemia inhibitory factor. This concentration of melatonin had the most significant positive effects on the proliferation inner cell mass-derived cells (improving rates from 19.97% to 34.57%) and the longevity of passaging rES-like cells. Melatonin also enhanced the expression of pluripotent genes-including alkaline phosphatase, Pou5f1, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, Line28a, and surface marker proteins-in fifth-passage rES-like cells. In vitro, these rES-like cells could spontaneously differentiate into some somatic cells, such as beating cardiomyocytes; formed embryoid bodies; expressed markers of the three germ layers after differentiation; and formed teratomas after injection into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Thus, melatonin helped coax ES-like cells from rabbit blastocysts, which raises intriguing questions about the relationship between pluripotency and proliferation in rabbit embryonic stem cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1003-1014, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Efficient enrichment of hepatic cancer stem-like cells from a primary rat HCC model via a density gradient centrifugation-centered method.

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    Wei-hui Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because few definitive markers are available for hepatic cancer stem cells (HCSCs, based on physical rather than immunochemical properties, we applied a novel method to enrich HCSCs. METHODOLOGY: After hepatic tumor cells (HTCs were first isolated from diethylinitrosamine-induced F344 rat HCC model using percoll discontinuous gradient centrifugation (PDGC and purified via differential trypsinization and differential attachment (DTDA, they were separated into four fractions using percoll continuous gradient centrifugation (PCGC and sequentially designated as fractions I-IV (FI-IV. Morphological characteristics, mRNA and protein levels of stem cell markers, proliferative abilities, induced differentiation, in vitro migratory capacities, in vitro chemo-resistant capacities, and in vivo malignant capacities were determined for the cells of each fraction. FINDINGS: As the density of cells increased, 22.18%, 11.62%, 4.73% and 61.47% of primary cultured HTCs were segregated in FI-FIV, respectively. The cells from FIII (density between 1.041 and 1.062 g/ml displayed a higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio and fewer organelles and expressed higher levels of stem cell markers (AFP, EpCAM and CD133 than cells from other fractions (P<0.01. Additionally, in vitro, the cells from FIII showed a greater capacity to self-renew, differentiate into mature HTCs, transit across membranes, close scratches, and carry resistance to chemotherapy than did cells from any other fraction; in vivo, injection of only 1×10(4 cells from FIII could generate tumors not only in subcutaneous tissue but also in the livers of nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: Through our novel method, HCSC-like cells were successfully enriched in FIII. This study will greatly contribute to two important areas of biological interest: CSC isolation and HCC therapy.

  14. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

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    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  15. CXCL12 MODULATION OF CXCR4 AND CXCR7 ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA STEM-LIKE CELLS AND REGULATION OF THE TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eWurth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are crucial autocrine and paracrine players in tumor development. In particular, CXCL12, through its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, affects tumor progression by controlling cancer cell survival, proliferation and migration, and, indirectly, via angiogenesis or recruiting immune cells.Glioblastoma (GBM is the most prevalent primary malignant brain tumor in adults and despite current multimodal therapies it remains almost incurable. The aggressive and recurrent phenotype of GBM is ascribed to high growth rate, invasiveness to normal brain, marked angiogenesis, ability to escape the immune system and resistance to standard of care therapies. Tumor molecular and cellular heterogeneity severely hinders GBM therapeutic improvement. In particular, a subpopulation of chemo- and radio-therapy resistant tumorigenic cancer stem–like cells (CSCs is believed to be the main responsible for tumor cell dissemination to the brain.GBM cells display heterogeneous expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 that are overexpressed in CSCs, representing a molecular correlate for the invasive potential of GBM. The microenvironment contribution in GBM development is increasingly emphasized. An interplay exists between CSCs, differentiated GBM cells, and the microenvironment, mainly through secreted chemokines (e.g. CXCL12 causing recruitment of fibroblasts, endothelial, mesenchymal and inflammatory cells to the tumor, via specific receptors such as CXCR4.This review covers recent developments on the role of CXCL12/CXCR4-CXCR7 networks in GBM progression and the potential translational impact of their targeting. The biological and molecular understanding of the heterogeneous GBM cell behavior, phenotype and signaling is still limited. Progress in the identification of chemokine-dependent mechanisms that affect GBM cell survival, trafficking and chemo-attractive functions, opens new perspectives for development of more specific therapeutic approaches that include

  16. Mechanisms of growth inhibition of primary prostate epithelial cells following gamma irradiation or photodynamic therapy include senescence, necrosis, and autophagy, but not apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Fiona M.; Savoie, Huguette; Bryden, Francesca; Giuntini, Francesca; Mann, Vincent M.; Simms, Matthew S.; Boyle, Ross W.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to more differentiated cells, prostate cancer stem-like cells are radioresistant, which could explain radio-recurrent prostate cancer. Improvement of radiotherapeutic efficacy may therefore require combination therapy. We have investigated the consequences of treating primary prostate epithelial cells with gamma irradiation and photodynamic therapy (PDT), both of which act through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Primary prostate epithelial cells were cultured from patient samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer prior to treatment with PDT or gamma irradiation. Cell viability was measured using MTT and alamar blue assay, and cell recovery by colony-forming assays. Immunofluorescence of gamma-H2AX foci was used to quantify DNA damage, and autophagy and apoptosis were assessed using Western blots. Necrosis and senescence were measured by propidium iodide staining and beta-galactosidase staining, respectively. Both PDT and gamma irradiation reduced the colony-forming ability of primary prostate epithelial cells. PDT reduced the viability of all types of cells in the cultures, including stem-like cells and more differentiated cells. PDT induced necrosis and autophagy, whereas gamma irradiation induced senescence, but neither treatment induced apoptosis. PDT and gamma irradiation therefore inhibit cell growth by different mechanisms. We suggest these treatments would be suitable for use in combination as sequential treatments against prostate cancer

  17. Suppression of cancer stem-like phenotypes in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells by vanillin through an Akt-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinual, Songpol; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Pongrakhananon, Varisa

    2017-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported as a major cause of cancer metastasis and the failure of cancer treatment. Cumulative studies have indicated that protein kinase B (Akt) and its downstream signaling pathway, including CSC markers, play a critical role in the aggressive behavior of this cancer. In this study, we investigated whether vanillin, a major component in Vanilla planifolia seed, could suppress cancer stemness phenotypes and related proteins in the human non-small cell lung cancer NCI‑H460 cell line. A non-toxic concentration of vanillin suppressed spheroid and colony formation, two hallmarks of the cancer stemness phenotype, in vitro in NCI‑H460 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1A1 and the associated transcription factors, Oct4 and Nanog, were extensively downregulated by vanillin. Vanillin also attenuated the expression and activity of Akt, a transcription regulator upstream of CSCs, an action that was confirmed by treatment with the Akt inhibitor perifosine. Furthermore, the ubiquitination of Akt was elevated in response to vanillin treatment prior to proteasomal degradation. This finding indicates that vanillin can inhibit cancer stem cell-like behavior in NCI‑H460 cells through the induction of Akt-proteasomal degradation and reduction of downstream CSC transcription factors. This inhibitory effect of vanillin may be an alternative approach in the treatment against lung cancer metastasis and its resistance to chemotherapy.

  18. Inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 autocrine/paracrine loop reduces viability of human glioblastoma stem-like cells affecting self-renewal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Monica; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Bajetto, Adriana; Würth, Roberto; Daga, Antonio; Fiaschi, Pietro; Zona, Gianluigi; Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells (TICs) drive glioblastoma (GBM) development, invasiveness and drug resistance. Distinct molecular pathways might regulate CSC biology as compared to cells in the bulk tumor mass, representing potential therapeutic targets. Chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 control proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in GBM cell lines and primary cultures, but little is known about their activity in GBM CSCs. We demonstrate that CSCs, isolated from five human GBMs, express CXCR4 and release CXCL12 in vitro, although different levels of expression and secretion were observed in individual cultures, as expected for the heterogeneity of GBMs. CXCL12 treatment induced Akt-mediated significant pro-survival and self-renewal activities, while proliferation was induced at low extent. The role of CXCR4 signaling in CSC survival and self-renewal was further demonstrated using the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 that reduced self-renewal and survival with greater efficacy in the cultures that released higher CXCL12 amounts. The specificity of CXCL12 in sustaining CSC survival was demonstrated by the lack of AMD3100-dependent inhibition of viability in differentiated cells derived from the same GBMs. These findings, although performed on a limited number of tumor samples, suggest that the CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction mediates survival and self-renewal in GBM CSCs with high selectivity, thus emerging as a candidate system responsible for maintenance of cancer progenitors, and providing survival benefits to the tumor

  19. Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells—Biology and Therapeutic Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürsel, Demirkan B.; Shin, Benjamin J.; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Schlaff, Cody D.; Boockvar, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem-cell hypothesis proposes that malignant tumors are likely to encompass a cellular hierarchy that parallels normal tissue and may be responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in patients. The purpose of this manuscript is to review methods for optimizing the derivation and culturing of stem-like cells also known as tumor stem cells (TSCs) from patient-derived GBM tissue samples. The hallmarks of TSCs are that they must be able to self-renew and retain tumorigenicity. The isolation, optimization and derivation of TSCs as outlined in this review, will be important in understanding biology and therapeutic applications related to these cells

  20. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  1. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  2. Development of Thymic Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; Vaidya, Harsh J.; O'Neill, Kathy E.

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which the T cell repertoire is generated. The complex cellularity of this organ is uniquely designed to facilitate T cell development: defects in thymus development or function can cause immunodeficiencies ranging from the absence of T cell-mediated imm......The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which the T cell repertoire is generated. The complex cellularity of this organ is uniquely designed to facilitate T cell development: defects in thymus development or function can cause immunodeficiencies ranging from the absence of T cell......-mediated immunity to broad-spectrum autoimmune disease. Peak thymus size and output occurs early in life, after which the thymus undergoes a natural process of involution. This results in the progressive loss of functional thymus tissue and correspondingly in decreased production of new naïve T cells with age...... - contributing to the diminished capacity of the aged immune system to adequately respond to new antigenic challenge. Age-related thymic involutions, together with the thymic involutions associated with cytotoxic therapies (e.g., radio- or chemotherapy), have raised interest in development of clinically useful...

  3. The Culture Repopulation Ability (CRA) Assay and Incubation in Low Oxygen to Test Antileukemic Drugs on Imatinib-Resistant CML Stem-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, Giulia; Tanturli, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a stem cell-driven disorder caused by the BCR/Abl oncoprotein, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase (TK). Chronic-phase CML patients are treated with impressive efficacy with TK inhibitors (TKi) such as imatinib mesylate (IM). However, rather than definitively curing CML, TKi induces a state of minimal residual disease, due to the persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSC) which are insensitive to this class of drugs. LSC persistence may be due to different reasons, including the suppression of BCR/Abl oncoprotein. It has been shown that this suppression follows incubation in low oxygen under appropriate culture conditions and incubation times.Here we describe the culture repopulation ability (CRA) assay, a non-clonogenic assay capable - together with incubation in low oxygen - to reveal in vitro stem cells endowed with marrow repopulation ability (MRA) in vivo. The CRA assay can be used, before moving to animal tests, as a simple and reliable method for the prescreening of drugs potentially active on CML and other leukemias with respect to their activity on the more immature leukemia cell subsets.

  4. Small-Molecule ONC201/TIC10 Targets Chemotherapy-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Stem-like Cells in an Akt/Foxo3a/TRAIL-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Varun V; Allen, Joshua E; Dicker, David T; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-04-01

    Self-renewing colorectal cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) contribute to tumor maintenance and resistance to therapy. Therapeutic targeting of CSCs could improve treatment response and prolong patient survival. ONC201/TIC10 is a first-in-class antitumor agent that induces TRAIL pathway-mediated cell death in cancer cells without observed toxicity. We have previously described that ONC201/TIC10 exposure leads to transcriptional induction of the TRAIL gene via transcription factor Foxo3a, which is activated by dual inactivation of Akt and ERK. The Akt and ERK pathways serve as important targets in CSCs. Foxo3a is a key mediator of Akt and ERK-mediated CSC regulation. We hypothesized that the potent antitumor effect of ONC201/TIC10 in colorectal cancer involves targeting CSCs and bulk tumor cells. ONC201/TIC10 depletes CD133(+), CD44(+), and Aldefluor(+) cells in vitro and in vivo. TIC10 significantly inhibits colonosphere formation of unsorted and sorted 5-fluorouracil-resistant CSCs. ONC201/TIC10 significantly reduces CSC-initiated xenograft tumor growth in mice and prevents the passage of these tumors. ONC201/TIC10 treatment also decreased xenograft tumor initiation and was superior to 5-fluorouracil treatment. Thus, ONC201/TIC10 inhibits CSC self-renewal in vitro and in vivo. ONC201/TIC10 inhibits Akt and ERK, consequently activating Foxo3a and significantly induces cell surface TRAIL and DR5 expression in both CSCs and non-CSCs. ONC201/TIC10-mediated anti-CSC effect is significantly blocked by the TRAIL sequestering antibody RIK-2. Overexpression of Akt, DR5 knockdown, and Foxo3a knockdown rescues ONC201/TIC10-mediated depletion of CD44(+) cells and colonosphere inhibition. In conclusion, ONC201/TIC10 is a promising agent for colorectal cancer therapy that targets both non-CSCs and CSCs in an Akt-Foxo3a-TRAIL-dependent manner. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Small molecule ONC201/TIC10 targets chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer stem-like cells in an Akt/Foxo3a/TRAIL-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Varun V.; Allen, Joshua E.; Dicker, David T.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    Self-renewing colorectal cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) contribute to tumor maintenance and resistance to therapy. Therapeutic targeting of CSCs could improve treatment response and prolong patient survival. ONC201/TIC10 is a first-in-class anti-tumor agent that induces TRAIL pathway mediated cell death in cancer cells without observed toxicity. We have previously described that ONC201/TIC10 exposure leads to transcriptional induction of the TRAIL gene via transcription factor Foxo3a, which is activated by dual inactivation of Akt and ERK. The Akt and ERK pathways serve as important targets in CSCs. Foxo3a is a key mediator of Akt and ERK-mediated CSC regulation. We hypothesized that the potent anti-tumor effect of ONC201/TIC10 in colorectal cancer involves targeting CSCs and bulk tumor cells. ONC201/TIC10 depletes CD133(+), CD44(+) and Aldefluor(+) cells in vitro and in vivo. TIC10 significantly inhibits colonosphere formation of unsorted and sorted 5-Fluorouracil-resistant CSCs. ONC201/TIC10 significantly reduces CSC-initiated xenograft tumor growth in mice and prevents the passage of these tumors. ONC201/TIC10 treatment also decreased xenograft tumor initiation and was superior to 5-Fluorouracil treatment. Thus, ONC201/TIC10 inhibits CSC self-renewal in vitro and in vivo. ONC201/TIC10 inhibits Akt and ERK, consequently activating Foxo3a and significantly induces cell surface TRAIL and DR5 expression in both CSCs and non-CSCs. ONC201/TIC10-mediated anti-CSC effect is significantly blocked by the TRAIL sequestering antibody RIK-2. Overexpression of Akt, DR5 knockdown and Foxo3a knockdown rescues ONC201/TIC10-mediated depletion of CD44(+) cells and colonosphere inhibition. In conclusion, ONC201/TIC10 is a promising agent for colorectal cancer therapy that targets both non-CSCs and CSCs in an Akt-Foxo3a-TRAIL-dependent manner. PMID:25712124

  6. A novel oncolytic adenovirus targeting Wnt signaling effectively inhibits cancer-stem like cell growth via metastasis, apoptosis and autophagy in HCC models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lai, Weijie; Li, Qiang; Yu, Yang; Jin, Jin; Guo, Wan; Zhou, Xiumei; Liu, Xinyuan; Wang, Yigang

    2017-09-16

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are highly differentiated and self-renewing, play an important role in the occurrence, therapeutic resistant and metastasis of hepatacellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic adenoviruses have targeted killing effect on tumor cells, and are invoked as candidate drugs for cancer treatment. We designed a dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus Ad.wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 that targets Wnt and Rb signaling pathways respectively, and carries the tumor suppressor gene, TSLC1. Previous studies have demonstrated that oncolytic adenovirus mediated TSLC1can target liver cancer and exhibit significant cytotoxicity. However, whether Ad.wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 can effectively eliminate liver CSCs remains to be explored. We first used the spheroid culture to enrich the liver CSCs-like cells, and detected the self-renewal capacity, differentiation, drug resistance and tumorigenicity. The results showed that Ad-wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 could effectively lead to autophagic death. In addition, recombinant adenovirus effectively induced the apoptosis, inhibit metastasis of hepatic CSCs-like cells in vivo. Further animal experiments indicated that Ad-wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1could effectively inhibit the growth of transplanted tumor of hepatic CSCs and prolong the survival time of mice. Therefore, the novel oncolytic adenovirus Ad.wnt-E1A(△24bp)-TSLC1 has potential application as a therapeutic target for HCC stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  8. SOX2 plays a critical role in EGFR-mediated self-renewal of human prostate cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Adrian P; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    SOX2 is an essential transcription factor for stem cells and plays a role in tumorigenesis, however its role in prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) remains unclear. We report here a significant upregulation of SOX2 at both mRNA and protein levels in DU145 PCSCs propagated as suspension spheres in vitro. The expression of SOX2 in DU145 PCSCs is positively regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Activation of EGFR signaling, following the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or ectopic expression of a constitutively-active EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII), increased SOX2 expression and the self-renewal of DU145 PCSCs. Conversely, a small molecule EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) blocked EGFR activation, reduced SOX2 expression and inhibited PCSC self-renewal activity, implicating SOX2 in mediating EGFR-dependent self-renewal of PCSCs. In line with this notion, ectopic SOX2 expression enhanced EGF-induced self-renewal of DU145 PCSCs, while SOX2 knockdown reduced PCSC self-renewal with EGF treatment no longer capable of enhancing their propagation. Furthermore, SOX2 knockdown reduced the capacity of DU145 PCSCs to grow under anchorage-independent conditions. Finally, DU145 PCSCs generated xenograft tumors more aggressively with elevated levels of SOX2 expression compared to xenograft tumors derived from non-PCSCs. Collectively, we provide evidence that SOX2 plays a critical role in EGFR-mediated self-renewal of DU145 PCSCs. © 2013.

  9. Orthotopic glioblastoma stem-like cell xenograft model in mice to evaluate intra-arterial delivery of bevacizumab: from bedside to bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Hofstetter, Christoph P; Santillan, Alejandro; Shin, Benjamin J; Foley, Conor P; Ballon, Douglas J; Pierre Gobin, Y; Boockvar, John A

    2012-11-01

    Bevacizumab (BV), a humanized monocolonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a standard intravenous (IV) treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), that has been introduced recently as an intra-arterial (IA) treatment modality in humans. Since preclinical models have not been reported, we sought to develop a tumor stem cell (TSC) xenograft model to investigate IA BV delivery in vivo. Firefly luciferase transduced patient TSC were injected into the cortex of 35 nude mice. Tumor growth was monitored weekly using bioluminescence imaging. Mice were treated with either intraperitoneal (IP) or IA BV, with or without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), or with IP saline injection (controls). Tumor tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques. Tumor formation occurred in 31 of 35 (89%) mice with a significant signal increase over time (p=0.018). Post mortem histology revealed an infiltrative growth of TSC xenografts in a similar pattern compared to the primary human GBM. Tumor tissue analyzed at 24 hours after treatment revealed that IA BV treatment with BBBD led to a significantly higher intratumoral BV concentration compared to IA BV alone, IP BV or controls (pmouse model that allows us to study IA chemotherapy. However, further studies are needed to analyze the treatment effects after IA BV to assess tumor progression and overall animal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  11. Lactobacillus Decelerates Cervical Epithelial Cell Cycle Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielfort, Katarina; Weyler, Linda; Söderholm, Niklas; Engelbrecht, Mattias; Löfmark, Sonja; Aro, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:23675492

  12. Lactobacillus decelerates cervical epithelial cell cycle progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Vielfort

    Full Text Available We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells.

  13. Ovarian cancer plasticity and epigenomics in the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Nicholas B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aggressive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is genetically and epigenetically distinct from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE and early neoplasia. Co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in EOC suggests an involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer initiation and progression. This phenomenon is often associated with acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype and chemoresistance that correlate with the specific gene expression patterns accompanying transformation, revealing a plasticity of the ovarian cancer cell genome during disease progression. Differential gene expressions between normal and transformed cells reflect the varying mechanisms of regulation including genetic changes like rearrangements within the genome, as well as epigenetic changes such as global genomic hypomethylation with localized promoter CpG island hypermethylation. The similarity of gene expression between ovarian cancer cells and the stem-like ovarian cancer initiating cells (OCIC are surprisingly also correlated with epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in normal stem cells. Both normal and cancer stem cells maintain genetic flexibility by co-placement of activating and/or repressive epigenetic modifications on histone H3. The co-occupancy of such opposing histone marks is believed to maintain gene flexibility and such bivalent histones have been described as being poised for transcriptional activation or epigenetic silencing. The involvement of both-microRNA (miRNA mediated epigenetic regulation, as well as epigenetic-induced changes in miRNA expression further highlight an additional complexity in cancer stem cell epigenomics. Recent advances in array-based whole-genome/epigenome analyses will continue to further unravel the genomes and epigenomes of cancer and cancer stem cells. In order to illuminate phenotypic signatures that delineate ovarian cancer from their associated cancer stem cells, a priority must lie

  14. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  15. Combined Gemcitabine and Metronidazole Is a Promising Therapeutic Strategy for Cancer Stem-like Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Makoto; Umebayashi, Masayo; Tanaka, Hiroto; Koya, Norihiro; Nakagawa, Sinichiro; Kawabe, Ken; Onishi, Hideya; Nakamura, Masafumi; Morisaki, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Metronidazole (MNZ) is a common antibiotic that exerts disulfiram-like effects when taken together with alcohol. However, the relationship between MNZ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity remains unclear. This study investigated whether MNZ reduces cancer stemness by suppressing ALDH activity and accordingly reducing the malignancy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). We developed gemcitabine (GEM)-resistant TFK-1 cells and originally established CCA cell line from a patient with GEM-resistant CCA. Using these cell lines, we analyzed the impacts of MNZ for cancer stem cell markers, invasiveness, and chemosensitivity. MNZ reduced ALDH activity in GEM-resistant CCA cells, leading to decreased invasiveness and enhanced chemosensitivity. MNZ diminished the invasiveness by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition and enhancing chemosensitivity by increasing ENT1 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1) and reducing RRM1 (ribonucleotide reductase M1). MNZ reduced cancer stemness in GEM-resistant CCA cells. Combined GEM and MNZ would be a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer stem-like CAA. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Snail1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor initiating stem cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hien; Ding, Wei; Emerson, Dow; Rountree, C Bart

    2011-01-01

    Tumor initiating stem-like cells (TISCs) are a subset of neoplastic cells that possess distinct survival mechanisms and self-renewal characteristics crucial for tumor maintenance and propagation. The induction of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) by TGFβ has been recently linked to the acquisition of TISC characteristics in breast cancer. In HCC, a TISC and EMT phenotype correlates with a worse prognosis. In this work, our aim is to elucidate the underlying mechanism by which cells acquire tumor initiating characteristics after EMT. Gene and protein expression assays and Nanog-promoter luciferase reporter were utilized in epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype liver cancer cell lines. EMT was analyzed with migration/invasion assays. TISC characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and chemotherapy resistance assays. In vivo tumor assay was performed to investigate the role of Snail1 in tumor initiation. TGFβ induced EMT in epithelial cells through the up-regulation of Snail1 in Smad-dependent signaling. Mesenchymal liver cancer post-EMT demonstrates TISC characteristics such as tumor-sphere formation but are not resistant to cytotoxic therapy. The inhibition of Snail1 in mesenchymal cells results in decreased Nanog promoter luciferase activity and loss of self-renewal characteristics in vitro. These changes confirm the direct role of Snail1 in some TISC traits. In vivo, the down-regulation of Snail1 reduced tumor growth but was not sufficient to eliminate tumor initiation. In summary, TGFβ induces EMT and TISC characteristics through Snail1 and Nanog up-regulation. In mesenchymal cells post-EMT, Snail1 directly regulates Nanog expression, and loss of Snail1 regulates tumor growth without affecting tumor initiation

  17. IWR-1, a tankyrase inhibitor, attenuates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer stem-like cells and inhibits in vivo the growth of a subcutaneous human osteosarcoma xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Neves, Sara R; Paiva-Oliveira, Daniela I; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos; Bovée, Judith V M G; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Gomes, Célia M F

    2018-02-01

    Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates the self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and is involved in tumor progression and chemotherapy resistance. Previously, we reported that this pathway is activated in a subset of osteosarcoma CSCs and that doxorubicin induced stemness properties in differentiated cells through Wnt/β-catenin activation. Here, we investigated whether pharmacological Wnt/β-catenin inhibition, using a tankyrase inhibitor (IWR-1), might constitute a strategy to target CSCs and improve chemotherapy efficacy in osteosarcoma. IWR-1 was specifically cytotoxic for osteosarcoma CSCs. IWR-1 impaired spheres' self-renewal capacity by compromising landmark steps of the canonical Wnt signaling, namely translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus and subsequent TCF/LEF activation and expression of Wnt/β-catenin downstream targets. IWR-1 also hampered the activity and expression of key stemness-related markers. In vitro, IWR-1 induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma spheres and combined with doxorubicin elicited synergistic cytotoxicity, reversing spheres' resistance to this drug. In vivo, IWR-1 co-administration with doxorubicin substantially decreased tumor progression, associated with specific down-regulation of TCF/LEF transcriptional activity, nuclear β-catenin and expression of the putative CSC marker Sox2. We suggest that targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway can eliminate CSCs populations in osteosarcoma. Combining conventional chemotherapy with Wnt/β-catenin inhibition may ameliorate therapeutic outcomes, by eradicating the aggressive osteosarcoma CSCs and reducing drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  19. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  20. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  1. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  2. Cellular Plasticity of Epithelial Cells-Cause of Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sukumar, Saraswati

    2005-01-01

    .... We present a novel concept that cancer epithelial cells, possibly of stem cell origin, have inherent cellular plasticity and can differentiate into endothelial cells and form microvessels that serve...

  3. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  4. Turbulent Dynamics of Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch-Mercader, C.; Yashunsky, V.; Garcia, S.; Duclos, G.; Giomi, L.; Silberzan, P.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the large length and long time scales collective flows and structural rearrangements within in vitro human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) cultures. Activity-driven collective flows result in ensembles of vortices randomly positioned in space. By analyzing a large population of vortices, we show that their area follows an exponential law with a constant mean value and their rotational frequency is size independent, both being characteristic features of the chaotic dynamics of active nematic suspensions. Indeed, we find that HBECs self-organize in nematic domains of several cell lengths. Nematic defects are found at the interface between domains with a total number that remains constant due to the dynamical balance of nucleation and annihilation events. The mean velocity fields in the vicinity of defects are well described by a hydrodynamic theory of extensile active nematics.

  5. Gemcitabine treatment induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and subsequently upregulates urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to block mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in Panc-1 cancer stem-like cells (CSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Weiguo; Zhu, Yunjie; Chen, Yang; Tian, Bole

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer with poor survival rates. The presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is believed to be among the underlying reasons for the aggressiveness of PDAC, which contributes to chemoresistance and recurrence. However, the mechanisms that induce chemoresistance and inhibit apoptosis remain largely unknown. We used serum-free medium to enrich CSCs from panc-1 human pancreatic cancer cells and performed sphere formation testing, flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and semi-quantitative western blotting to confirm the stemness of panc-1 CSCs. Hallmarks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including IRE1, PERK, ATF4, ATF6α, GRP78 and uPA expression, were detected after gemcitabine treatment. Effects of gemcitabine-induced uPA expression on cell invasion, sphere formation, colony formation and gemcitabine sensitivity were detected. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to detect interaction between the uPA mRNA 3'-UTR and mutant p53-R273H expressed by panc-1 CSCs. The effects of upregulated uPA by gemcitabine on apoptosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and the impact of uPA on small molecule CP-31398-restored mutant p53 transcriptional activity was measured by a luciferase reporter assay. Enriched panc-1 CSCs expressing high levels of CD44 and CD133 also produced significantly higher amounts of Oct4 and Nanog. Compared with panc-1 cells, panc-1 CSCs presented chemoresistance to gemcitabine. ER stress gene detections demonstrated effects of gemcitabine-induced ER stress on both the pro-apoptotic and pro-survival branches. ER stress-induced ATF6α upregulated level of uPA by transcriptionally activating GRP78. Gemcitabine-induced uPA promoted invasion, sphere formation and colony formation and attenuated apoptosis induced by gemcitabine in panc-1 CSCs, depending on interaction with mutant p53

  6. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Epithelial Cells Using Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyze individual epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa would provide important insight into gastric disease, including chronic gastritis and progression to gastric cancer. However, the successful isolation of viable gastric epithelial cells (parietal cells, neck cells, chief cells, and foveolar cells from gastric glands has been limited due to difficulties in tissue processing. Furthermore, analysis and interpretation of gastric epithelial cell flow cytometry data has been difficult due to the varying sizes and light scatter properties of the different epithelial cells, high levels of autofluorescence, and poor cell viability. These studies were designed to develop a reliable method for isolating viable single cells from the corpus of stomachs and to optimize analyses examining epithelial cells from healthy and diseased stomach tissue by flow cytometry. We performed a two stage enzymatic digestion in which collagenase released individual gastric glands from the stromal tissue of the corpus, followed by a Dispase II digestion that dispersed these glands into greater than 1 × 106 viable single cells per gastric corpus. Single cell suspensions were comprised of all major cell lineages found in the normal gastric glands. A method describing light scatter, size exclusion, doublet discrimination, viability staining, and fluorescently-conjugated antibodies and lectins was used to analyze individual epithelial cells and immune cells. This technique was capable of identifying parietal cells and revealed that gastric epithelial cells in the chronically inflamed mucosa significantly upregulated major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I and II but not CD80 or CD86, which are costimulatory molecules involved in T cell activation. These studies describe a method for isolating viable single cells and a detailed description of flow cytometric analysis of cells from healthy and diseased stomachs. These studies begin to identify effects of

  7. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  8. Globoside accelerates the differentiation of dental epithelial cells into ameloblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Nakamura; Yuta Chiba; Masahiro Naruse; Kan Saito; Hidemitsu Harada; Satoshi Fukumoto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth crown morphogenesis is tightly regulated by the proliferation and differentiation of dental epithelial cells. Globoside (Gb4), a globo-series glycosphingolipid, is highly expressed during embryogenesis as well as organogenesis, including tooth development. We previously reported that Gb4 is dominantly expressed in the neutral lipid fraction of dental epithelial cells. However, because its functional role in tooth development remains unknown, we investigated the involvement of Gb4 in dental epithelial cell differentiation. The expression of Gb4 was detected in ameloblasts of postnatal mouse molars and incisors. A cell culture analysis using HAT-7 cells, a rat-derived dental epithelial cell line, revealed that Gb4 did not promote dental epithelial cell proliferation. Interestingly, exogenous administration of Gb4 enhanced the gene expression of enamel extracellular matrix proteins such as ameloblastin, amelogenin, and enamelin in dental epithelial cells as well as in developing tooth germs. Gb4 also induced the expression of TrkB, one of the key receptors required for ameloblast induction in dental epithelial cells. In contrast, Gb4 downregulated the expression of p75, a receptor for neurotrophins (including neurotrophin-4) and a marker of undifferentiated dental epithelial cells. In addition, we found that exogenous administration of Gb4 to dental epithelial cells stimulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, Gb4 induced the expression of epiprofin and Runx2, the positive regulators for ameloblastin gene transcription. Thus, our results suggest that Gb4 contributes to promoting the differentiation of dental epithelial cells into ameloblasts.

  9. The gefitinib long-term responder (LTR)--a cancer stem-like cell story? Insights from molecular analyses of German long-term responders treated in the IRESSA expanded access program (EAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschling, Sandra; Herpel, Esther; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Heigener, David F; Fischer, Jürgen R; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Kortsik, Cornelius; Kuhnt, Thomas; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Bischoff, Helge G; Klein, Peter; Moldenhauer, Ines; Schnabel, Philipp A; Thomas, Michael; Penzel, Roland

    2012-07-01

    In selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib (IRESSA) shows response rates of ≥ 70% and a significant prolongation of progression free survival (PFS). However, cogent biomarkers predicting long-term response to EGFR-TKIs are yet lacking. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor regeneration and appear to be influenced by the EGFR-pathway. This makes them a promising candidate for predicting long-term response to EGFR-TKIs. We analyzed pre-therapeutic tissue specimens of a rare and specific subset of previously treated German patients with advanced NSCLC who experienced ≥ 3 year response to gefitinib within the International IRESSA EAP. 11/20 identified long-term responders (LTRs) had appropriate tissue specimens available. Those were analyzed for EGFR and k-ras (Kirsten rat sarcoma) mutations, EGFR and c-met (met proto-oncogene) amplifications and protein expression of EGFR, E-cadherin/vimentin and the CSC antigens CD133 and BCRP1 (breast cancer resistance protein 1). The results were compared to primary resistant patients (RPs) and intermediate responders (IRs) showing a median response of 8.6 months. Each group consisted of 6 women and 5 men, with 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 10 adenocarcinoma (AC). Along the LTRs, all but the SCC had EGFR mutations, whereas the RPs had no EGFR, but k-ras mutations in 5/11 cases. 8/11 IRs had EGFR and 3/11 k-ras mutations, of which 2 occurred concomitantly. One patient of each group had an EGFR and/or c-met amplification. EGFR and E-cadherin/vimentin expression was not different between the groups, whereas CD133 was expressed only in 4/10 LTRs and BCRP1 predominantly in responders. The LTRs showed a substantially longer mean PFS to previous therapies, a substantially lower number of metastatic sites and almost exclusively pulmonary or pleural metastasis. LTRs display established

  10. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with [14C]leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with [3H]leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form

  11. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  12. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  13. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  14. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast epithelial cells treated with cadmium and the role of Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengxi; Shan, Zhongguo; Shaikh, Zahir A

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated cadmium (Cd) with breast cancer. In breast epithelial MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells, Cd has been shown to promote cell growth. The present study examined whether Cd also promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of cancer progression. Human breast epithelial cells consisting of non-cancerous MCF10A, non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38, and metastatic MDA-MB-231 were treated with 1 or 3 μM Cd for 4 weeks. The MCF10A epithelial cells switched to a more mesenchymal-like morphology, which was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. In both non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38 cells, treatment with Cd decreased the epithelial marker claudin-1. In addition, E-cadherin also decreased in the HCC 1937 cells. Even the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin. These changes indicated that prolonged treatment with Cd resulted in EMT in both normal and cancer-derived breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, both the MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells labeled with Zcad, a dual sensor for tracking EMT, demonstrated a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker ZEB-1. Treatment of cells with Cd significantly increased the level of Snail, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of EMT. However, the Cd-induced Snail expression was completely abolished by actinomycin D. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that the expression of Snail was regulated by Cd at the promotor level. Snail was essential for Cd-induced promotion of EMT in the MDA-MB-231 cells, as knockdown of Snail expression blocked Cd-induced cell migration. Together, these results indicate that Cd promotes EMT in breast epithelial cells and does so by modulating the transcription of Snail. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4 that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells. Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β. Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial

  17. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera Hernández (Mónica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  18. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues-Diez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2 with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription. The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β.

  19. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases.

  20. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  1. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Forum; Johar, Kaid; Gajjar, Devarshi; Arora, Anshul; Madhu, Hardik; Ganatra, Darshini; Vasavada, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-beta 2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers alpha-SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO.

  2. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Bruce Adler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3x10^6 D per monomer whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ~1 um in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among MARCKS, cysteine string protein (CSP, HSP70 and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG. Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the

  3. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion...... such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered...... transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed....

  4. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGFβ1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGFβ1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM 1 81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  5. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland); Egan, Jim J. [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Doran, Peter P., E-mail: peter.doran@ucd.ie [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  6. Endothelial Induced EMT in Breast Epithelial Cells with Stem Cell Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J. R.; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K.; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell proper...

  7. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  8. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with 3 H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-β did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 x 10 6 sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined

  9. Rat glomerular epithelial cells in culture. Parietal or visceral epithelial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Isolated glomeruli from rats were explanted under standard culture conditions and outgrowths were studied by light and electron microscopy in order to identify the cells. Rat glomerular samples contained 20 to 30% structurally well-preserved encapsulated glomeruli which had a large rate of attachment to the substrate and very constantly gave rise to cellular outgrowth. In order to label cells from which outgrowth originated the glomerular incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine was studied in the preattachment phase. By light and electron microscope autoradiograph it was demonstrated that label was located only over visceral and parietal epithelial cells during the first 3 days of culture. Incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine was seen in mesangial cells after 5 days, i.e., after the glomeruli had attached to the culture vessels and the initial outgrowth had appeared. Consequently the first cells to grow out were of epithelial origin. Glomeruli were then incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for the first 2 1/2 days of culture in order to label the epithelial cells, then were allowed to attach to the substrate and induce cell outgrowth. By light microscope autoradiography performed with the outgrowths in situ two types of cells with labeled nuclei were seen: (a) a small, polyhedral ciliated cell which grew in colonies where the cells were joined by junctional complexes (type I), and (b) a second very large, often multinucleated cell (type II). Based on the structural resemblance with their counterparts in situ and on comparisons with positively identified visceral epithelial cells in outgrowths from other species it is suggested that type I cells are derived from the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and type II cells from the visceral epithelium

  10. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  11. From cells to tissue: A continuum model of epithelial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shuji; Marcq, Philippe; Sugimura, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    A two-dimensional continuum model of epithelial tissue mechanics was formulated using cellular-level mechanical ingredients and cell morphogenetic processes, including cellular shape changes and cellular rearrangements. This model incorporates stress and deformation tensors, which can be compared with experimental data. Focusing on the interplay between cell shape changes and cell rearrangements, we elucidated dynamical behavior underlying passive relaxation, active contraction-elongation, and tissue shear flow, including a mechanism for contraction-elongation, whereby tissue flows perpendicularly to the axis of cell elongation. This study provides an integrated scheme for the understanding of the orchestration of morphogenetic processes in individual cells to achieve epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

  12. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalvia, Maria [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Castellani, Stefano [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); D’Antonio, Palma [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Perna, Giuseppe [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Carbone, Annalucia [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Capozzi, Vito [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Conese, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.conese@unifg.it [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in

  13. Human airway epithelial cells investigated by atomic force microscopy: A hint to cystic fibrosis epithelial pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasalvia, Maria; Castellani, Stefano; D’Antonio, Palma; Perna, Giuseppe; Carbone, Annalucia; Colia, Anna Laura; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Capozzi, Vito; Conese, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module. Moreover, we also sought to determine whether disorganization of actin cytoskeleton is linked to hypersoption of apical fluid. Not only CFBE41o- (CFBE) cells, immortalized airway epithelial cells homozygous for the F508del CFTR allele, showed a different morphology in comparison with 16HBE14o- (16HBE) epithelial cells, wild-type for CFTR, but also they displayed a lack of stress fibers, suggestive of a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. AFM measurements showed that CFBE cells presented a higher membrane roughness and decreased rigidity as compared with 16HBE cells. CFBE overexpressing wtCFTR became more elongated than the parental CFBE cell line and presented actin stress fibers. CFBE cells absorbed more fluid from the apical compartment. Study of fluid absorption with the F-actin-depolymerizing agent Latrunculin B demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal disorganization increased fluid absorption, an effect observed at higher magnitude in 16HBE than in CFBE cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that actin cytoskeleton disorganization is reflected by AFM parameters in CF airway epithelial cells. Our data also strongly suggest that the lack of stress fibers is involved in at least one of the early step in CF pathophysiology at the levels of the airways, i.e. fluid hypersorption. - Highlights: • CF bronchial epithelial (CFBE) cells show a disorganized actin cytoskeleton. • CFBE cells present high roughness and low rigidity in the

  14. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. ► The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. ► Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. ► Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  15. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chun-Hua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Liu, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Huang, Shelly [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, Peng-Yuan, E-mail: medp7123@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yang, Ping-Chang, E-mail: yangp@mcmaster.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  16. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP, were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  17. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, K.; Schulte, K.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically

  18. Retinoic Acid Signaling in Thymic Epithelial Cells Regulates Thymopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Niss, Kristoffer; Kotarsky, Knut

    2018-01-01

    Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. In this study, we show a key in vivo role for the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), in TEC homeostasis. In the abse......Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. In this study, we show a key in vivo role for the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), in TEC homeostasis...

  19. Activation of c-MET induces a stem-like phenotype in human prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert J L H van Leenders

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer consists of secretory cells and a population of immature cells. The function of immature cells and their mutual relation with secretory cells are still poorly understood. Immature cells either have a hierarchical relation to secretory cells (stem cell model or represent an inducible population emerging upon appropriate stimulation of differentiated cells. Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF receptor c-MET is specifically expressed in immature prostate cells. Our objective is to determine the role of immature cells in prostate cancer by analysis of the HGF/c-MET pathway.Gene-expression profiling of DU145 prostate cancer cells stimulated with HGF revealed induction of a molecular signature associated with stem cells, characterized by up-regulation of CD49b, CD49f, CD44 and SOX9, and down-regulation of CD24 ('stem-like signature'. We confirmed the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype by quantitative PCR, FACS analysis and Western blotting. Further, HGF led to activation of the stem cell related Notch pathway by up-regulation of its ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-like 4. Small molecules SU11274 and PHA665752 targeting c-MET activity were both able to block the molecular and biologic effects of HGF. Knock-down of c-MET by shRNA infection resulted in significant reduction and delay of orthotopic tumour-formation in male NMRI mice. Immunohistochemical analysis in prostatectomies revealed significant enrichment of c-MET positive cells at the invasive front, and demonstrated co-expression of c-MET with stem-like markers CD49b and CD49f.In conclusion, activation of c-MET in prostate cancer cells induced a stem-like phenotype, indicating a dynamic relation between differentiated and stem-like cells in this malignancy. Its mediation of efficient tumour-formation in vivo and predominant receptor expression at the invasive front implicate that c-MET regulates tumour infiltration in surrounding tissues putatively by acquisition of a stem-like phenotype.

  20. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2008-06-26

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

  1. Lunatic Fringe and p53 Cooperatively Suppress Mesenchymal Stem-Like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Chung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Claudin-low breast cancer (CLBC is a poor prognosis molecular subtype showing stemness and mesenchymal features. We previously discovered that deletion of a Notch signaling modulator, Lunatic Fringe (Lfng, in the mouse mammary gland induced a subset of tumors resembling CLBC. Here we report that deletion of one copy of p53 on this background not only accelerated mammary tumor development but also led to a complete penetrance of the mesenchymal stem-like phenotype. All mammary tumors examined in the Lfng/p53 compound mutant mice displayed a mesenchymal/spindloid pathology. These tumors showed high level expressions of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers including Vimentin, Twist, and PDGFRα, a gene known to be enriched in CLBC. Prior to tumor onset, Lfng/p53 mutant mammary glands exhibited increased levels of Vimentin and E-cadherin, but decreased expressions of cytokeratin 14 and cytokeratin 8, accompanied by elevated basal cell proliferation and an expanded mammary stem cell-enriched population. Lfng/p53 mutant glands displayed increased accumulation of Notch3 intracellular fragment, up-regulation of Hes5 and down-regulation of Hes1. Analysis in human breast cancer datasets found the lowest HES1 and second lowest LFNG expressions in CLBC among molecular subtypes, and low level of LFNG is associated with poor survival. Immunostaining of human breast cancer tissue array found correlation between survival and LFNG immunoreactivity. Finally, patients carrying TP53 mutations express lower LFNG than patients with wild type TP53. Taken together, these data revealed genetic interaction between Lfng and p53 in mammary tumorigenesis, established a new mouse model resembling CLBC, and may suggest targeting strategy for this disease.

  2. Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Röpke, C; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes, we examined whether human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) expressed HLA-DP molecules. We present evidence that TEC obtained from short time culture express low but significant levels of HLA-DP molecules. The expression of HLA-DP molecules was comparable to or higher than the expression...... of HLA-DP allospecific primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) CD4 T cell lines. IFN-gamma treatment strongly upregulated the HLA-DP allospecific PLT responses whereas other PLT responses remained largely unchanged. In conclusion, these data indicate that human thymus epithelial cells express significant levels...

  3. Disruption of contact inhibition in rat liver epithelial cells by various types of AhR ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondracek, J.; Chramostova, K.; Kozubik, A. [Institute of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Krcmar, P.; Machala, M. [Veterinary Research Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The maintenance of a balance between cell gain and cell loss is essential for proper liver function. The exact role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis of liver cells remains unclear, since ligand-dependent activation of AhR has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis, depending on the cellular model used. AhR can directly interact with retinoblastoma protein in hepatic cells, forming protein complexes that can efficiently block cell cycle progression by inducing G1 arrest, or to induce the expression of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, such as p271. On the other hand, it has been suggested that AhR could play a stimulatory role in cell proliferation, either directly or by mediating a release from contact inhibition. It is now generally accepted that progenitor cells exist in the liver, are activated in various liver diseases and can form a potential target cell population for both tumor initiating and tumor promoting chemicals4. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) has been found to release rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition by upregulating cyclin A expression and cyclin A/cdk2 activity. Our previous studies have shown that a number of AhR ligands5,6 can stimulate proliferation of confluent of rat liver epithelial ''stem-like'' WB-F344 cells. Such mechanism could play a role in liver tumor promotion. In the present study, we used flavonoid compounds that have been reported to act either as pure agonists, such as beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), or as partial/complete antagonists of AhR - alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) and 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (3'M4'NF), in order to investigate effects of AhR agonists/antagonists on confluent rat liver epithelial cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of model flavonoids on the release of rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition, and on inducibility of

  4. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a clear dose-response relationship concerning the ...

  5. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  6. Regulated proteolysis of Trop2 drives epithelial hyperplasia and stem cell self-renewal via β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Tanya; Goldstein, Andrew S; Cai, Houjian; Drake, Justin M; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2012-10-15

    The cell surface protein Trop2 is expressed on immature stem/progenitor-like cells and is overexpressed in many epithelial cancers. However the biological function of Trop2 in tissue maintenance and tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Trop2 is a regulator of self-renewal, proliferation, and transformation. Trop2 controls these processes through a mechanism of regulated intramembrane proteolysis that leads to cleavage of Trop2, creating two products: the extracellular domain and the intracellular domain. The intracellular domain of Trop2 is released from the membrane and accumulates in the nucleus. Heightened expression of the Trop2 intracellular domain promotes stem/progenitor self-renewal through signaling via β-catenin and is sufficient to initiate precursor lesions to prostate cancer in vivo. Importantly, we demonstrate that loss of β-catenin or Trop2 loss-of-function cleavage mutants abrogates Trop2-driven self-renewal and hyperplasia in the prostate. These findings suggest that heightened expression of Trop2 is selected for in epithelial cancers to enhance the stem-like properties of self-renewal and proliferation. Defining the mechanism of Trop2 function in self-renewal and transformation is essential to identify new therapeutic strategies to block Trop2 activation in cancer.

  7. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Weening, J.J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Assmann, K.K.; Steenbergen, E.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  8. Proliferating cells in HIV and pamidronate-associated collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are parietal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, H. B. P. M.; Weening, J. J.; Smeets, B.; Verrijp, K. C. N.; van Kuppevelt, T. H.; Assmann, K. K. J. M.; Steenbergen, E. J.; Wetzels, J. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. In a mouse model of FSGS and in a patient with recurrent idiopathic FSGS, we identified the proliferating cells as parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In the present study, we have

  9. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [ 3 H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral epithelial cell reaction after exposure to Invisalign plastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaraj, Thyagaseely; Simet, Samantha; Beatty, Mark; Premaraj, Sundaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Invisalign plastic aligners (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) are used to correct malocclusions. The aligners wrap around the teeth and are in contact with gingival epithelium during treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cellular responses of oral epithelium exposed to Invisalign plastic in vitro. Oral epithelial cells were exposed to eluate obtained by soaking Invisalign plastic in either saline solution or artificial saliva for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Cells grown in media containing saline solution or saliva served as controls. Morphologic changes were assessed by light microscopy. The 3-[4, 5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell viability and membrane integrity, respectively. Cellular adhesion and micromotion of epithelial cells were measured in real time by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Cells exposed to saline-solution eluate appeared rounded, were lifted from the culture plates, and demonstrated significantly increased metabolic inactivity or cell death (P <0.05). Saliva eluates did not induce significant changes in cell viability compared with untreated cells. Flow cytometry and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing showed that cells treated with saline-solution eluate exhibited compromised membrane integrity, and reduced cell-to-cell contact and mobility when compared with saliva-eluate treatment. Exposure to Invisalign plastic caused changes in viability, membrane permeability, and adhesion of epithelial cells in a saline-solution environment. Microleakage and hapten formation secondary to compromised epithelial integrity might lead to isocyanate allergy, which could be systemic or localized to gingiva. However, these results suggest that saliva might offer protection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glo...

  12. Cytotoxic effects of air freshener biocides in lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Taek; Lee, Mimi; Seo, Gun-Baek; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Shim, Ilseob; Lee, Doo-Hee; Kim, Taksoo; Seo, Jung Kwan; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of mixtures of citral (CTR) and either benzisothiazolinone (BIT, Mix-CTR-BIT) or triclosan (TCS, Mix-CTR-TCS) in human A549 lung epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of various mix ratios of these common air freshener ingredients on cell viability, cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. Mix-CTR-BIT and Mix-CTR-TCS significantly decreased the viability of lung epithelial cells and inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, both mixtures increased ROS generation, compared to that observed in control cells. In particular, cell viability, growth, and morphology were affected upon increase in the proportion of BIT or TCS in the mixture. However, comet analysis showed that treatment of cells with Mix-CTR-BIT or Mix-CTR-TCS did not increase DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggested that increasing the content of biocides in air fresheners might induce cytotoxicity, and that screening these compounds using lung epithelial cells may contribute to hazard assessment.

  13. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  14. Nerve Invasion by Epithelial Cells in Benign Breast Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jan Chan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nerve invasion by glandular epithelial cells in a lesion is usually regarded as invasive carcinoma. However, some benign conditions in the pancreas, prostate, breast and other organs may show involvement of nerve bundles by benign epithelial cells. We report an 18-year-old female with nerve invasion in benign breast disease. The lesion in her right breast revealed fibrocystic changes with ductal hyperplasia and stromal sclerosis. Perineural and intraneural involvement by bland-looking small ducts lined by 2 layers of cells including an outer layer of myoepithelial cells were found, suggestive of benign nerve invasion. There was no evidence of malignant cells in any of the sections. The patient remains well after 31 months of follow-up. About 44 cases of nerve invasion in benign breast diseases have been reported in the literature. It is necessary to carefully evaluate nerve involvement in breast lesions to avoid over-diagnosis and inappropriate operation.

  15. Membrane dynamics and the regulation of epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, JM; Maier, O; van IJzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    2003-01-01

    Plasma membranes of epithelial cells consist of two domains, an apical and a basolateral domain, the surfaces of which differ in composition. The separation of these domains by a tight junction and the fact that specific transport pathways exist for intracellular communication between these domains

  16. Epithelial cell detachment by Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm and planktonic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; van Loveren, C.; Ling, J.; Wei, X.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is present as a biofilm at the sites of periodontal infections. The detachment of gingival epithelial cells induced by P. gingivalis biofilms was examined using planktonic cultures as a comparison. Exponentially grown planktonic cultures or 40-h biofilms were co-incubated

  17. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  18. Parietal epithelial cells and podocytes in glomerular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) play an important role within the renal glomerulus, in particular in diseased conditions. In this review, we examine current knowledge about the role of PECs and their interactions with podocytes in development and under

  19. Metabolic cooperativity between epithelial cells and adipocytes of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, J.C.; Emerman, J.T.; Bissell, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    We have demonstrated that glycogen and lipid synthesis in adipocytes is modulated by the lactational state and that this modulation in mammary adipocytes requires the presence of the adjacent epithelial cells. Glycogen and lipid synthesis from [ 14 C]glucose was measured in mammary fat pads cleared of epithelium, in abdominal fat pads, and in adipocytes from both sources and from intact mammary gland of mature virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. Accumulation of glycogen, the activity of glycogen synthase, and the lipogenic rate in abdominal and mammary adipocytes remained high during pregnancy but decreased to insignificant levels by early lactation. The depressant effects of lactation were observed solely in those mammary adipocytes isolated from intact glands. The presence of mammary epithelial cells was also required to effect the stimulated lipogenesis in mammary adipocytes during pregnancy. We conclude that the metabolic activity of adipocytes is modulated both during pregnancy and lactation to channel nutrients to the mammary epithelial cell. The fact that the changes occur in mammary adipocytes only when epithelial cells are present indicates that local as well as systemic factors are operating in these modulations

  20. Parietal epithelial cells: their role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested that parietal epithelial cells represent a reservoir of renal progenitors in adult human kidney which generate novel podocytes during childhood and adolescence, and can regenerate injured podocytes. The discovery that parietal epithelial cells represent a potential source for podocyte regeneration suggests that podocyte injury can be repaired. However, recent results also suggest that an abnormal proliferative response of renal progenitors to podocyte injury can generate hyperplastic glomerular lesions that are observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and other types of glomerular disorders. Taken together, these results establish an entirely novel view that changes the way of thinking about renal physiology and pathophysiology, and suggest that understanding how self-renewal and fate decision of parietal epithelial cells in response to podocyte injury may be perturbed or modulated will be crucial for obtaining novel tools for prevention and treatment of glomerulosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Integrative analyses of gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in breast cancer cell line models of tamoxifen-resistance indicate a potential role of cells with stem-like properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Jian; Yin, Guangliang

    2013-01-01

    Development of resistance to tamoxifen is an important clinical issue in the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen resistance may be the result of acquisition of epigenetic regulation within breast cancer cells, such as DNA methylation, resulting in changed mRNA expression of genes pivotal for es...

  2. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  3. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients

  4. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  5. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Kumar, Felix; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sharma, Chidananda S.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system's response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. (orig.)

  6. The fate of epithelial cells in the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Gibson, P R

    1999-08-01

    One hundred and forty biopsies of the colon and rectum, collected during routine colonoscopies of 51 patients aged 19 to 74 years, were examined using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that surface epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, passing through fenestrations in the basement membrane to where they enter the lamina propria and are taken up by macrophages; and it is hypothesized that apoptotic cells are carried through the fenestrations on a current of fluid. The study also found that epithelial cells positioned over the crypts are better attached and more robust than those more distant from the crypt opening; and it is further hypothesized that, after reaching the top of the crypts, some goblet cells cease secreting mucus and pass onto the surface compartment of absorptive cells. An unexpected finding was that the lower regions of the crypts commonly contain isolated necrotic colonocytes. Apoptotic cells were rarely observed in the crypt epithelium. The findings of this study support the "recycling" model of epithelial cell death in the surface compartment of the human colon.

  7. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells in kidney physiology, pathology, and repair

    OpenAIRE

    Shankland, Stuart J.; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Romagnani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review We have summarized recently published glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) research, focusing on their roles in glomerular development and physiology, and in certain glomerular diseases. The rationale is that PECs have been largely ignored until the recent availability of cell lineage tracing studies, human and murine PEC culture systems, and potential therapeutic interventions of PECs. Recent findings Several new paradigms involving PECs have emerged demonstrating thei...

  8. Intestinal epithelial cell-specific RARα depletion results in aberrant epithelial cell homeostasis and underdeveloped immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijon, H B; Suarez-Lopez, L; Diaz, O E; Das, S; De Calisto, J; Yaffe, M B; Pittet, M J; Mora, J R; Belkaid, Y; Xavier, R J; Villablanca, E J

    2018-05-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a dietary vitamin A metabolite, is crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. RA acts on intestinal leukocytes to modulate their lineage commitment and function. Although the role of RA has been characterized in immune cells, whether intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) rely on RA signaling to exert their immune-regulatory function has not been examined. Here we demonstrate that lack of RA receptor α (RARα) signaling in IECs results in deregulated epithelial lineage specification, leading to increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells. Mechanistically, lack of RARα resulted in increased KLF4 + goblet cell precursors in the distal bowel, whereas RA treatment inhibited klf4 expression and goblet cell differentiation in zebrafish. These changes in secretory cells are associated with increased Reg3g, reduced luminal bacterial detection, and an underdeveloped intestinal immune system, as evidenced by an almost complete absence of lymphoid follicles and gut resident mononuclear phagocytes. This underdeveloped intestinal immune system shows a decreased ability to clear infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Collectively, our findings indicate that epithelial cell-intrinsic RARα signaling is critical to the global development of the intestinal immune system.

  9. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. [3H]arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein

  10. Distinct effects of EGFR inhibitors on epithelial- and mesenchymal-like esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Shinya; Ida, Tomomi; Nakai, Yukie; Kikuchi, Osamu; Amanuma, Yusuke; Matsubara, Junichi; Yamada, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shin'ichi; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsutomu; Seno, Hiroshi; Muto, Manabu

    2017-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the clinical effects of EGFR inhibitors on ESCC are controversial. This study sought to identify the factors determining the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in ESCC cells. Immortalized-human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT), transformed-human esophageal epithelial cells (T-Epi and T-Mes), and ESCC cells (TE-1, TE-5, TE-8, TE-11, TE-11R, and HCE4) were treated with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or cetuximab. Inhibitory effects on cell growth were assessed by cell counting or cell-cycle analysis. The expression levels of genes and proteins such as involucrin and cytokeratin13 (a squamous differentiation marker), E-cadherin, and vimentin were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blotting. To examine whether mesenchymal phenotype influenced the effects of EGFR inhibitors, we treated T-Epi cells with TGF-β1 to establish a mesenchymal phenotype (mesenchymal T-Epi cells). We then compared the effects of EGFR inhibitors on parental T-Epi cells and mesenchymal T-Epi cells. TE-8 (mesenchymal-like ESCC cells)- or TE-11R (epithelial-like ESCC cells)-derived xenograft tumors in mice were treated with cetuximab, and the antitumor effects of EGFR inhibitors were evaluated. Cells were classified as epithelial-like or mesenchymal-like phenotypes, determined by the expression levels of E-cadherin and vimentin. Both erlotinib and cetuximab reduced cell growth and the ratio of cells in cell-cycle S phase in epithelial-like but not mesenchymal-like cells. Additionally, EGFR inhibitors induced squamous cell differentiation (defined as increased expression of involucrin and cytokeratin13) in epithelial-like but not mesenchymal-like cells. We found that EGFR inhibitors did not suppress the phosphorylation of EGFR in mesenchymal-like cells, while EGFR dephosphorylation was observed after treatment with EGFR

  11. Invasion of Human Oral Epithelial Cells by Prevotella intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Brian R.; Leung, K.-P.; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Invasion of oral epithelial cells by pathogenic oral bacteria may represent an important virulence factor in the progression of periodontal disease. Here we report that a clinical isolate of Prevotella intermedia, strain 17, was found to invade a human oral epithelial cell line (KB), whereas P. intermedia 27, another clinical isolate, and P. intermedia 25611, the type strain, were not found to invade the cell line. Invasion was quantified by the recovery of viable bacteria following a standard antibiotic protection assay and observed by electron microscopy. Cytochalasin D, cycloheximide, monodansylcadaverine, and low temperature (4°C) inhibited the internalization of P. intermedia 17. Antibodies raised against P. intermedia type C fimbriae and against whole cells inhibited invasion, but the anti-type-C-fimbria antibody inhibited invasion to a greater extent than the anti-whole-cell antibody. This work provides evidence that at least one strain of P. intermedia can invade an oral epithelial cell line and that the type C fimbriae and a cytoskeletal rearrangement are required for this invasion. PMID:9826397

  12. Impact of Microenvironment and Stem-Like Plasticity in Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raggi, Chiara; Invernizzi, Pietro; Andersen, Jesper Bøje

    2014-01-01

    or tumor microenvironment (TME) likely promotes initiation and progression of this malignancy contributing to its heterogeneity. This review will emphasize the dynamic interplay between stem-like intrinsic and TME-extrinsic pathways, which may represent novel options for multi-targeted therapies in CCA....

  13. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...... induced apoptosis in several activated T-cell populations and T-cell lines, including T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3-negative T-cell lines. In contrast, RPE cells induced little or no apoptosis in resting peripheral T cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II monoclonal antibodies, which...

  14. Generation of stratified squamous epithelial progenitor cells from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a protist parasite of the urogenital tract in humans, is the causative agent of trichomonosis,which in recent years have been associated with the cervical cancer development. In the present study we analyzed the modifications at the junctional complex level of Caco-2 cells after interaction with two isolates of T. vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite's culture medium on the interaction effects. Our results show that T. vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex, such as: (a) a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance; (b) alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as obseryed for E-cadherin, occludin and ZO-1; and (c) enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells. These effects were dependent on (a) the degree of the parasite virulence isolate, (b) the iron concentration in the culture medium, and (c) the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface.

  16. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  17. Cigarette smoke alters the secretome of lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossina, Alessandra; Lukas, Christina; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uhl, Franziska E; Mutze, Kathrin; Schamberger, Andrea; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia; Jia, Jie; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Königshoff, Melanie; Hauck, Stefanie M; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive, thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative MS to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix organization. In particular, secretion of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, a matricellular protein that functions in tissue response to injury, was consistently diminished by cigarette smoke extract in various pulmonary epithelial cell lines and primary cells of human and mouse origin as well as in mouse ex vivo lung tissue cultures. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized acute response of lung epithelial cells to cigarette smoke that includes altered secretion of proteins involved in extracellular matrix organization and wound healing. This may contribute to sustained alterations in tissue remodeling as observed in lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Wnt Signalling in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling regulates several cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration, and is critical for embryonic development. Stem cells are defined by their ability for self-renewal and the ability to be able to give rise to differentiated progeny. Consequently, they are essential for the homeostasis of many organs including the gastrointestinal tract. This review will describe the huge advances in our understanding of how stem cell functions in the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by Wnt signalling, including how deregulated Wnt signalling can hijack these functions to transform cells and lead to cancer.

  19. Adhesion to the host cell surface is sufficient to mediate Listeria monocytogenes entry into epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Fabian E.; Rengarajan, Michelle; Chavez, Natalie; Radhakrishnan, Prathima; Gloerich, Martijn; Bianchini, Julie; Siemers, Kathleen; Luckett, William S.; Lauer, Peter; Nelson, W. James; Theriot, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. Listeria monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells in tissue culture. Instead, invasion increased due to increased bacterial adhesion to epithelial monolayers with compromised cell–cell junctions. Furthermore, expression of a mutant E-cadherin lacking the intracellular domain was sufficient for efficient L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells. Importantly, direct biotin-mediated binding of bacteria to surface lipids in the plasma membrane of host epithelial cells was sufficient for uptake. Our results indicate that the only requirement for L. monocytogenes invasion of epithelial cells is adhesion to the host cell surface, and that E-cadherin–mediated coupling of the bacterium to F-actin is not required. PMID:28877987

  20. Epithelial rotation is preceded by planar symmetry breaking of actomyosin and protects epithelial tissue from cell deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorinová, Ivana; Henry, Ian; Tomancak, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.

  1. Osmoregulation of chloride channels in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. Lim (Christina)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The plasma membrane of mammalian cells is formed by two layers of lipids (lipid bilayer), primarily phospholipids, glycolipids and cholesterol, in which many different proteins are embedded. Phospholipid consists of a glycerol backbone esterified to fatty acids

  2. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Kidney Tubular Epithelial Cells Induced by Globotriaosylsphingosine and Globotriaosylceramide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Jin Jeon

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A, which results in the deposition of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 in the vascular endothelium. Globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3, a deacylated Gb3, is also increased in the plasma of patients with Fabry disease. Renal fibrosis is a key feature of advanced Fabry disease patients. Therefore, we evaluated the association of Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 accumulation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT on tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. In HK2 cells, exogenous treatments of Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 increased the expression of TGF-β, EMT markers (N-cadherin and α-SMA, and phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. Lyso-Gb3, rather than Gb3, strongly induced EMT in HK2 cells. In the mouse renal mesangial cell line, SV40 MES 13 cells, Gb3 strongly induced phenotype changes. The EMT induced by Gb3 was inhibited by enzyme α-gal A treatment, but EMT induced by lyso-Gb3 was not abrogated by enzyme treatment. However, TGF-β receptor inhibitor (TRI, SB525334 inhibited the activation of TGF-β and EMT markers in HK2 cells with Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 treatments. This study suggested that increased plasma lyso-Gb3 has a crucial role in the development of renal fibrosis through the cell-specific induction of the EMT in Fabry disease, and that TRI treatment, alongside enzyme replacement therapy, could be a potential therapeutic option for patients with Fabry disease.

  3. Mesenchymal precursor cells maintain the differentiation and proliferation potentials of breast epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stromal-epithelial interactions play a fundamental role in tissue homeostasis, controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Not surprisingly, aberrant stromal-epithelial interactions contribute to malignancies. Studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions require ex vivo experimental model systems that recapitulate the complexity of human tissue without compromising the differentiation and proliferation potentials of human primary cells. Methods We isolated and characterized human breast epithelial and mesenchymal precursors from reduction mammoplasty tissue and tagged them with lentiviral vectors. We assembled heterotypic co-cultures and compared mesenchymal and epithelial cells to cells in corresponding monocultures by analyzing growth, differentiation potentials, and gene expression profiles. Results We show that heterotypic culture of non-immortalized human primary breast epithelial and mesenchymal precursors maintains their proliferation and differentiation potentials and constrains their growth. We further describe the gene expression profiles of stromal and epithelial cells in co-cultures and monocultures and show increased expression of the tumor growth factor beta (TGFβ) family member inhibin beta A (INHBA) in mesenchymal cells grown as co-cultures compared with monocultures. Notably, overexpression of INHBA in mesenchymal cells increases colony formation potential of epithelial cells, suggesting that it contributes to the dynamic reciprocity between breast mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Conclusions The described heterotypic co-culture system will prove useful for further characterization of the molecular mechanisms mediating interactions between human normal or neoplastic breast epithelial cells and the stroma, and will provide a framework to test the relevance of the ever-increasing number of oncogenomic alterations identified in human breast cancer. PMID:24916766

  4. Cytotoxicity of ophthalmic solutions with and without preservatives to human corneal endothelial cells, epithelial cells and conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Koide, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    The cytotoxicity of a range of commercial ophthalmic solutions in the presence and absence of preservatives was assessed in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), corneal epithelia and conjunctival epithelia using in vitro techniques. Cell survival was measured using the WST-1 assay for endothelial cells and the MTT assay for epithelial cells. Commercially available timolol, carteolol, cromoglicate, diclofenac, bromfenac and hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solutions were assessed for cytotoxicity in the presence and absence of preservatives. The preservatives benzalkonium, chlorobutanol and polysorbate were also tested. The survival of cells exposed to test ophthalmic solutions was expressed as a percentage of cell survival in the control solution (distilled water added to media) after 48 h exposure. HCEC survival was 20-30% in ophthalmic solutions diluted 10-fold. The survival of HCEC was significantly greater in all solutions in the absence of preservative than in the presence of preservative. The survival of corneal and conjunctival epithelia was consistent with that of HCECs for all test ophthalmic solutions. The preservatives polysorbate and benzalkonium were highly cytotoxic with cell survival decreasing to 20% at the concentration estimated in commercial ophthalmic solutions. By comparison, the survival of cells exposed to chlorobutanol was 80% or greater. The cytotoxicity of ophthalmic solutions to HCEC, corneal epithelia and conjunctival epithelia decreased in the absence of preservative.

  5. Ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) perturbs epididymal epithelial cell function in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinefelter, G.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of sperm granulomas in the epididymis following exposure to EDS, a Leydig cell toxicant, was reported by Cooper and Jackson in 1970. Recent work suggests that EDS may effect the epididymis directly. An in vitro system was developed to determine the nature of any direct effect. The caput epididymis from adult rats was dissected free of connective tissue and small pieces of the tissue were enzymatically digested until plaques of epididymal epithelial cells were obtained. Plaques were cultured on an extracellular matrix gelled on top of a semipermeable filter creating dual-compartment environments. The epithelial cells maintained typical morphology and protein secretion in this culture system for several days. Beginning on day 3, EDS (1 mM) was added to the basal compartment, with or without 35 S-methionine. After 24 hours, 35 S-labelled culture medium was taken from the apical compartment and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. EDS caused decreased secretion of several proteins, including a 39 Kd molecule. Interestingly, a 39 Kd protein was also shown to disappear from sperm taken from the caput epididymidis following in vivo exposure to EDS. Unlabelled cultures were fixed and processed for light microscopy. No alterations in morphological integrity were observed. Thus, epididymal epithelial cell function is directly altered by EDS exposure

  6. Serratia marcescens is injurious to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, John B; Boisen, Nadia; Lindsay, Brianna; Santiago, Araceli; Ouma, Collins; Ombok, Maurice; Fields, Barry; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children in low-income countries. Although numerous pathogens cause diarrhea, the etiology of many episodes remains unknown. Serratia marcescens is incriminated in hospital-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea. We have recently found that Serratia spp. may be found more commonly in the stools of patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatic control children. We therefore investigated the possible enteric pathogenicity of S. marcescens in vitro employing a polarized human colonic epithelial cell (T84) monolayer. Infected monolayers were assayed for bacterial invasion, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. We observed significantly greater epithelial cell invasion by S. marcescens compared to Escherichia coli strain HS (p = 0.0038 respectively). Cell invasion was accompanied by reduction in TEER and secretion of IL-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) extracellular concentration rapidly increased within a few hours of exposure of the monolayer to S. marcescens. Scanning electron microscopy of S. marcescens-infected monolayers demonstrated destruction of microvilli and vacuolization. Our results suggest that S. marcescens interacts with intestinal epithelial cells in culture and induces dramatic alterations similar to those produced by known enteric pathogens.

  7. CCL20, (gamma)(delta) T cells, and IL-22 in corneal epithelial healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6 (+) IL-17(+) gamma delta T cells migrate into the epithelium. Gamma delta T-cell-deficient (TCRd(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mR...

  8. Protective effects of trehalose on the corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Pasquale; Colosi, Pietro; Rania, Laura; Colosi, Francesca; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE) and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE), the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.

  9. Protective Effects of Trehalose on the Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Aragona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE, the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls.

  10. Mechanisms of Cell Polarity-Controlled Epithelial Homeostasis and Immunity in the Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, Leon J.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we

  11. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  12. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  13. Isolation, separation, and characterization of epithelial and connective cells from rat palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, Victor Paul [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial and connective tissue cells were isolated from rat palate by sequential collagenase, hyaluronidase and trypsin digestion of the extracellular matrix. Differences between the two populations were noted with respect to total cell protein, total cell water, proline uptake and incorporation, percent collagen synthesized, effects of parathyroid hormone, metabolism of D-valine and cell density. Basal epithelial cells were subsequently separated from the heterogeneous epithelial cell population on shallow linear density gradients by velocity centrifugation. The type of collagen synthesized by the basal epithelial cells was compared to the type of collagen synthesized by the connective tissue cells by means of labeled amino acid incorporation ratios. Cells isolated from the epithelial and connective tissue were compared. From these studies it can be concluded that epithelial and connective tissue cells can be isolated from rat palate as viable and distinct populations with respect to the biochemical parameters examined. Furthermore, subpopulations can be separated and biochemically characterized.

  14. Oral epithelial cells are susceptible to cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Jennifer S.; Rahemtulla, Firoz; Kent, Leigh W.; Hall, Stacy D.; Ikizler, Mine R.; Wright, Peter F.; Nguyen, Huan H.; Jackson, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial cells lining the oral cavity are exposed to HIV-1 through breast-feeding and oral-genital contact. Genital secretions and breast milk of HIV-1-infected subjects contain both cell-free and cell-associated virus. To determine if oral epithelial cells can be infected with HIV-1 we exposed gingival keratinocytes and adenoid epithelial cells to cell-free virus and HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes. Using primary isolates we determined that gingival keratinocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via cell-free CD4-independent infection only. R5 but not X4 viral strains were capable of infecting the keratinocytes. Further, infected cells were able to release infectious virus. In addition, primary epithelial cells isolated from adenoids were also susceptible to infection; both cell-free and cell-associated virus infected these cells. These data have potential implications in the transmission of HIV-1 in the oral cavity

  15. Quantitative imaging of epithelial cell scattering identifies specific inhibitors of cell motility and cell-cell dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerke, D.; le Duc, Q.; Blonk, I.; Kerstens, A.; Spanjaard, E.; Machacek, M.; Danuser, G.; de Rooij, J.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of cultured epithelial cells in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a model system that recapitulates key features of metastatic cell behavior in vitro, including disruption of cell-cell adhesions and induction of cell migration. We have developed image analysis tools that

  16. Transcriptional profiling of putative human epithelial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koçer Salih S

    2008-07-01

    may be enriched for stem cells. This study is the first comprehensive gene expression profile of putative human epithelial stem cells and their progeny that were isolated directly from neonatal foreskin tissue. Our study is important for understanding self renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cells, and for elucidating signaling pathways involved in those processes. The generated data base may serve those working with other human epithelial tissue progenitors.

  17. Cooperation between epithelial cells demonstrated by potassium transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, M.L.; Young, G.J.; Wright, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Junction-mediated communication can be measured in fibroblast cultures by determining the ability of mixed cultures of cells sensitive and resistant to ouabain to concentrate K+ in the presence of ouabain. We now report the extension of this assay procedure to cultured epithelial cells. Hamster kidney (HaK) cells maintain their ability to concentrate K+ in ouabain at levels inhibitory to dog kidney (MDCK) cells. When HaK and MDCK cells were cultured together in ouabain-containing medium, the K+ (measured as 86Rb+) in the mixed population was greater than expected if the cells were not interacting. The degree of enhancement, expressed as index of cooperation, depended on the numbers of cells in the cultures, their opportunity for cell-to-cell contact, and (above a certain permissive level) the concentration of ouabain. As with other cell types, protein synthesis in MDCK cells depends on maintenance of cell K+. Autoradiography of cells incubated with [3H]leucine demonstrated that MDCK cells in ouabain-treated mixed cultures were able to synthesize proteins only when physically adjacent to HaK cells. The transmission of labeled nucleosides among the cells provides independent evidence of the phenomenon of cooperation, probably mediated by gap junctions. This system offers promise for investigation of stimuli modulating junctional communication

  18. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Page C.; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J.; Matthews, Dwight E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase π. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  19. Low Temperature Plasma for the Treatment of Epithelial Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Soheila

    Biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas (LTP) may lead to a paradigm shift in treating various diseases by conducting fundamental research on the effects of LTP on cells, tissues, organisms (plants, insects, and microorganisms). This is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field that involves engineering, physics, life sciences, and chemistry to find novel solutions for urgent medical needs. Effects of different LTP sources have shown the anti-tumor properties of plasma exposure; however, there are still many unknowns about the interaction of plasma with eukaryotic cells which must be elucidated in order to evaluate the practical potential of plasma in cancer treatment. Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is composed of electrons, ions, reactive molecules (radicals and non-radicals), excited species, radiation, and heat. A sufficient dose (time) of plasma exposure can induce death in cancer cells. The plasma pencil is employed to study the anti-tumor properties of this treatment on epithelial cells. The plasma pencil has been previously used for the inactivation of bacteria, destroying amyloid fibrils, and the killing of various cancer cells. Bladder cancer is the 9th leading cause of cancer. In this dissertation, human urinary bladder tissue with the squamous cell carcinoma disease (SCaBER cells) is treated with LTP utilizing two different approaches: direct plasma exposure and Plasma Activated Media (PAM) as an advancement to the treatment. PAM is produced by exposing a liquid cell culture medium to the plasma pencil. Direct LTP treatment of cancer cells indicates a dose-dependent killing effect at post-treatment times. Similarly, PAM treatment shows an anti-cancer effect by inducing substantial cell death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have an important role in the biomedical effects of LTP treatment. This study demonstrates the capability of the plasma pencil to transport ROS/RNS into cell culture media

  20. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B -/- mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag + /Cu + transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  1. Studies in human skin epithelial cell carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) by human epidermal keratinocytes pretreated with inhibitors or inducer of cytochrame P450 was studied. To study DNA adduct analysis, cultures were pretreated as described above, and then treated with non-radiolabeled BP. DNA was prepared from these cultures, digested to the nucleotide level, and 32 P-postlabeled for adduct analysis. Cultures pretreated with BHA, 7,8-BF or disulfiralm formed significantly fewer BPDE I-dB adducts than non-pretreated cultures, while cultures pretreated with MeBHA formed more BPDE-I-dG adducts. MeBHA increased BP activation and adduct formation inhuman keratinocyte in cultures by inducing a specific isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 which preferentially increases the oxidative metabolism of BP to 7,8 diol BP and 7,8 diol BP to BPDE I. To approximate an in vivo human system, metabolism of BPDE I by human skin xenografts treated with cell cycles modulators was studied. When treated with BPDE I, specific carcinogen-DNA adducts were formed. Separation and identification of these adducts by the 32 P-postlabeling technique indicated that the 7R- and 7S-BPDE I-dG adducts were the major adducts

  2. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  3. Paclitaxel-Fe3O4 nanoparticles inhibit growth of CD138–  CD34– tumor stem-like cells in multiple myeloma-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuiping Yang,1,3,* Jing Wang,2,* Dengyu Chen,1,* Junsong Chen,1 Fei Xiong,4 Hongyi Zhang,1 Yunxia Zhang,2 Ning Gu,4 Jun Dou11Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, Medical School, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, 3Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 4School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: There is growing evidence that CD138– CD34– cells may actually be tumor stem cells responsible for initiation and relapse of multiple myeloma. However, effective drugs targeted at CD138– CD34– tumor stem cells are yet to be developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PTX-NPs on CD138– CD34– tumor stem cells in multiple myeloma-bearing mice.Methods: CD138– CD34– cells were isolated from a human U266 multiple myeloma cell line using an immune magnetic bead sorting method and then subcutaneously injected into mice with nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency to develop a multiple myeloma-bearing mouse model. The mice were treated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles 2 mg/kg, paclitaxel 4.8 mg/kg, and PTX-NPs 0.64 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Tumor growth, pathological changes, serum and urinary interleukin-6 levels, and molecular expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were evaluated.Results: CD138– CD34– cells were found to have tumor stem cell characteristics. All the mice developed tumors in 40 days after injection of 1 × 106 CD138– CD34– tumor stem cells. Tumor growth in mice treated with PTX-NPs was significantly inhibited compared with the controls (P <  0.005, and the groups that received nanoparticles alone (P < 0.005 or paclitaxel alone (P < 0.05. In addition

  4. Human retinal pigment epithelial cell-induced apoptosis in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Wiencke, A K; la Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The immune privilege of the eye has been thought to be dependent on physical barriers and absence of lymphatic vessels. However, the immune privilege may also involve active immunologic processes, as recent studies have indicated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether...... human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can induce apoptosis in activated T cells. METHODS: Fas ligand (FasL) expression was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cultured RPE cells were cocultured with T-cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes for 6 hours to 2 days. Induction...... of apoptosis was detected by 7-amino-actinomycin D and annexin V staining. RESULTS: Retinal pigment epithelial cells expressed FasL and induced apoptosis in activated Fas+ T cells. Blocking of Fas-FasL interaction with antibody strongly inhibited RPE-mediated T-cell apoptosis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells...

  5. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Grdina, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woloschak, G.E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  6. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  7. Inhibition of EV71 by curcumin in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsing-I; Chio, Chi-Chong; Lin, Jhao-Yin

    2018-01-01

    EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Various compounds have been examined for their ability to restrict EV71 replication. However, most experiments have been performed in rhabdomyosarcoma or Vero cells. Since the gastrointestinal tract is the entry site for this pathogen, we anticipated that orally ingested agents may exert beneficial effects by decreasing virus replication in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, curcumin (diferuloylmethane, C21H20O6), an active ingredient of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) with anti-cancer properties, was investigated for its anti-enterovirus activity. We demonstrate that curcumin treatment inhibits viral translation and increases host cell viability. Curcumin does not exert its anti-EV71 effects by modulating virus attachment or virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity. Furthermore, curcumin-mediated regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways is not involved. We found that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) plays a role in virus translation in EV71-infected intestinal epithelial cells and that curcumin treatment decreases the phosphorylation of this enzyme. In addition, we show evidence that curcumin also limits viral translation in differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells. In summary, our data demonstrate the anti-EV71 properties of curcumin, suggesting that ingestion of this phytochemical may protect against enteroviral infections.

  8. Inhibition of EV71 by curcumin in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    Full Text Available EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Various compounds have been examined for their ability to restrict EV71 replication. However, most experiments have been performed in rhabdomyosarcoma or Vero cells. Since the gastrointestinal tract is the entry site for this pathogen, we anticipated that orally ingested agents may exert beneficial effects by decreasing virus replication in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, curcumin (diferuloylmethane, C21H20O6, an active ingredient of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn with anti-cancer properties, was investigated for its anti-enterovirus activity. We demonstrate that curcumin treatment inhibits viral translation and increases host cell viability. Curcumin does not exert its anti-EV71 effects by modulating virus attachment or virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES activity. Furthermore, curcumin-mediated regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways is not involved. We found that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ plays a role in virus translation in EV71-infected intestinal epithelial cells and that curcumin treatment decreases the phosphorylation of this enzyme. In addition, we show evidence that curcumin also limits viral translation in differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells. In summary, our data demonstrate the anti-EV71 properties of curcumin, suggesting that ingestion of this phytochemical may protect against enteroviral infections.

  9. Inhibition of EV71 by curcumin in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chi-Chong; Lin, Jhao-Yin

    2018-01-01

    EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Various compounds have been examined for their ability to restrict EV71 replication. However, most experiments have been performed in rhabdomyosarcoma or Vero cells. Since the gastrointestinal tract is the entry site for this pathogen, we anticipated that orally ingested agents may exert beneficial effects by decreasing virus replication in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, curcumin (diferuloylmethane, C21H20O6), an active ingredient of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) with anti-cancer properties, was investigated for its anti-enterovirus activity. We demonstrate that curcumin treatment inhibits viral translation and increases host cell viability. Curcumin does not exert its anti-EV71 effects by modulating virus attachment or virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity. Furthermore, curcumin-mediated regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways is not involved. We found that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) plays a role in virus translation in EV71-infected intestinal epithelial cells and that curcumin treatment decreases the phosphorylation of this enzyme. In addition, we show evidence that curcumin also limits viral translation in differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells. In summary, our data demonstrate the anti-EV71 properties of curcumin, suggesting that ingestion of this phytochemical may protect against enteroviral infections. PMID:29370243

  10. Epithelial Cell Inflammasomes in Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

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    Andrea C. Lei-Leston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRR, such as NOD-like receptors (NLRs, sense conserved microbial signatures, and host danger signals leading to the coordination of appropriate immune responses. Upon activation, a subset of NLR initiate the assembly of a multimeric protein complex known as the inflammasome, which processes pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediates a specialized form of cell death known as pyroptosis. The identification of inflammasome-associated genes as inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility genes implicates a role for the inflammasome in intestinal inflammation. Despite the fact that the functional importance of inflammasomes within immune cells has been well established, the contribution of inflammasome expression in non-hematopoietic cells remains comparatively understudied. Given that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC act as a barrier between the host and the intestinal microbiota, inflammasome expression by these cells is likely important for intestinal immune homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammasome plays a key role in shaping epithelial responses at the host–lumen interface with many inflammasome components highly expressed by IEC. Recent studies have exposed functional roles of IEC inflammasomes in mucosal immune defense, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. In this review, we present the main features of the predominant inflammasomes and their effector mechanisms contributing to intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. We also discuss existing controversies in the field and open questions related to their implications in disease. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of intestinal inflammasome signaling could hold therapeutic potential for clinical translation.

  11. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

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    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  12. Colonic epithelial cell activation and the paradoxical effects of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Rosella, O; Wilson, A J; Mariadason, J M; Rickard, K; Byron, K; Barkla, D H

    1999-04-01

    Butyrate may have paradoxical effects on epithelial cells of similar origin. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that one mechanism that dictates a cell's response to butyrate is its state of activation. First, the responses to 24 h exposure to butyrate (1-2 mM) of normal and neoplastic human colonic epithelial cells activated by their isolation and primary culture, and of colon cancer cell lines, LIM1215 and Caco-2, were examined. In primary cultures of normal and cancer cells, butyrate had no effect on alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly suppressed urokinase receptor expression by a mean +/- SEM of 30 +/- 12% and 36 +/- 9%, respectively. Interleukin-8 secretion was suppressed by 44 +/- 7% in normal cells (P 50%, urokinase receptor expression >2-fold and interleukin-8 secretion >3-fold in response to butyrate. Secondly, the effect of butyrate on Caco-2 cells was examined with or without prior exposure to a specific activating stimulus [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)]. Interleukin-8 secretion increased by 145 +/- 23% and 132 +/- 17% on 24 h exposure to 2 mM butyrate or 0.1 microM TNF alpha alone, respectively. However, in cells pre-treated with TNF alpha, butyrate significantly inhibited secretion by 34 +/- 7% below unstimulated levels. The response to butyrate of urokinase receptor, whose expression was not stimulated by TNF alpha, was unchanged. These effects were mimicked by trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suggesting that butyrate's paradoxical effects may have been operating by the same mechanism. In conclusion, some of the paradoxical effects of butyrate do not appear to represent inherent differences between normal and transformed cells. Rather, the response may be determined by the state of activation of the cells.

  13. Immunoregulation by airway epithelial cells (AECs against respiratory virus infection

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    Yan YAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is primary contact site of the body and environment, and it is ventilated by 10-20 thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbes, which contain the disease-causing pathogens. Airway epithelial cells (AECs are known to have innate sensor functions, which are similar to the "professional" immune cells, such as alveolar macrophage and sub- or intra-epithelial dendritic cells (DCs. Thus AECs are able to detect invading microbial danger including different types of respiratory viruses, and mount a potent host response, for example, activating type Ⅰ interferon signaling pathway genes. To avoid chronic inflammation and maintain the immunological homeostasis, the pulmonary system has developed intrinsic mechanisms to control local immune responses. Most recently, the role of AECs in control of local immunity has gained much attention, as 1 AECs express the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ (RIG-I-like receptor, and so on, thus AECs are equipped to participate in innate detection of microbial encounter; 2 To keep immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract, AECs behave not only as innate immune sensors but also as immune modulators in parallel, through modulating the sensitivity of innate immune sensing of both AECs per se and sub- or intra-epithelial immune cells; 3 Loss of modularity capacity of AECs might be involved in the development of chronic airway diseases. In present review, how the AECs act will be intensively discussed in response to respiratory viruses and modulate the local immunity through cis- and trans-factors (direct and indirect factors, as well as the consequence of impairment of this control of local immunity, in the development and exacerbation of airway diseases, such as acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.02

  14. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu; Wang, Yuan; Song, Kang; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Junchao

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. • Emodin regulates the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors. • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 nucleus translocation and activation.

  15. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Wang, Yuan [Department of Pulmonary Function, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Song, Kang [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Zhang, Ya [Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, No. 548, Binwen Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Yang, Junchao, E-mail: yangjunchaozj@zcmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. • Emodin regulates the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors. • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 nucleus translocation and activation.

  16. Aquaporin 2 promotes cell migration and epithelial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Rice, William; Gu, Zhizhan; Li, Jian; Huang, Jianmin; Brenner, Michael B; Van Hoek, Alfred; Xiong, Jianping; Gundersen, Gregg G; Norman, Jim C; Hsu, Victor W; Fenton, Robert A; Brown, Dennis; Lu, Hua A Jenny

    2012-09-01

    The aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel, expressed in kidney collecting ducts, contributes critically to water homeostasis in mammals. Animals lacking or having significantly reduced levels of AQP2, however, have not only urinary concentrating abnormalities but also renal tubular defects that lead to neonatal mortality from renal failure. Here, we show that AQP2 is not only a water channel but also an integrin-binding membrane protein that promotes cell migration and epithelial morphogenesis. AQP2 expression modulates the trafficking and internalization of integrin β1, facilitating its turnover at focal adhesions. In vitro, disturbing the interaction between AQP2 and integrin β1 by mutating the RGD motif led to reduced endocytosis, retention of integrin β1 at the cell surface, and defective cell migration and tubulogenesis. Similarly, in vivo, AQP2-null mice exhibited significant retention of integrin β1 at the basolateral membrane and had tubular abnormalities. In summary, these data suggest that the water channel AQP2 interacts with integrins to promote renal epithelial cell migration, contributing to the structural and functional integrity of the mammalian kidney.

  17. COMP-angiopoietin 1 increases proliferation, differentiation, and migration of stem-like cells through Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Cho, Eui-Sic; Lee, Young-Hoon; Han, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Kwon, Jungkee; Hwang, Jae-Won; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon; Seo, Young-Kwon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • COMP-Ang1 induces Tie-2 activation in BMMSCs, but not in primary osteoblasts. • Tie-2 knockdown inhibits COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation and osteoblastogenesis. • Tie-2 knockdown prevents COMP-Ang1-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK. • COMP-Ang1 induces migration of cells via activation of PI3K/Akt and CXCR4 pathways. • COMP-Ang1 stimulates in vivo migration of PDLSCs into a calvarial defect site of rats. - Abstract: Recombinant COMP-Ang1, a chimera of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and a short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), is under consideration as a therapeutic agent capable of inducing the homing of cells with increased angiogenesis. However, the potentials of COMP-Ang1 to stimulate migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the associated mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the potential of COMP-Ang1 on bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and calvarial osteoblasts. COMP-Ang1 augmented Tie-2 induction at protein and mRNA levels and increased proliferation and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix, and CXCR4 in BMMSCs, but not in osteoblasts. The COMP-Ang1-mediated increases were inhibited by Tie-2 knockdown and by treating inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), SB203580. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt was prevented by siRNA-mediated silencing of Tie-2. COMP-Ang1 also induced in vitro migration of BMMSCs and PDLSCs. The induced migration was suppressed by Tie-2 knockdown and by CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist or LY294002, but not by SB203580. Furthermore, COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of PDLSCs into calvarial defect site of rats. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration of progenitor cells may involve the Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways

  18. COMP-angiopoietin 1 increases proliferation, differentiation, and migration of stem-like cells through Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Sung-Ho [Cluster for Craniofacial Development and Regeneration Research, Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Shin-Saeng [School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eui-Sic; Lee, Young-Hoon; Han, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Yeol [Cluster for Craniofacial Development and Regeneration Research, Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jungkee [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Won; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon [Cluster for Craniofacial Development and Regeneration Research, Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Young-Kwon [Research Institute of Biotechnology, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Chae, E-mail: leejc88@jbnu.ac.kr [Cluster for Craniofacial Development and Regeneration Research, Institute of Oral Biosciences and School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COMP-Ang1 induces Tie-2 activation in BMMSCs, but not in primary osteoblasts. • Tie-2 knockdown inhibits COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation and osteoblastogenesis. • Tie-2 knockdown prevents COMP-Ang1-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK. • COMP-Ang1 induces migration of cells via activation of PI3K/Akt and CXCR4 pathways. • COMP-Ang1 stimulates in vivo migration of PDLSCs into a calvarial defect site of rats. - Abstract: Recombinant COMP-Ang1, a chimera of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and a short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), is under consideration as a therapeutic agent capable of inducing the homing of cells with increased angiogenesis. However, the potentials of COMP-Ang1 to stimulate migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the associated mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the potential of COMP-Ang1 on bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and calvarial osteoblasts. COMP-Ang1 augmented Tie-2 induction at protein and mRNA levels and increased proliferation and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix, and CXCR4 in BMMSCs, but not in osteoblasts. The COMP-Ang1-mediated increases were inhibited by Tie-2 knockdown and by treating inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), SB203580. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt was prevented by siRNA-mediated silencing of Tie-2. COMP-Ang1 also induced in vitro migration of BMMSCs and PDLSCs. The induced migration was suppressed by Tie-2 knockdown and by CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist or LY294002, but not by SB203580. Furthermore, COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of PDLSCs into calvarial defect site of rats. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration of progenitor cells may involve the Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  19. Fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets maintaining colony-forming cells without feeder cells by oxygen-controlled method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Takeda, Shizu

    2014-01-01

    The use of murine 3T3 feeder cells needs to be avoided when fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for use in treating ocular surface diseases. However, the expression level of the epithelial stem/progenitor cell marker, p63, is down-regulated in feeder-free culture systems. In this study, in order to fabricate corneal epithelial cell sheets that maintain colony-forming cells without using any feeder cells, we investigated the use of an oxygen-controlled method that was developed previously to fabricate cell sheets efficiently. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured under hypoxia (1-10% O2) and under normoxia during stratification after reaching confluence. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated using an oxygen-controlled method, and immunofluorescence analysis showed that cytokeratin 3 and p63 was expressed in appropriate localization in the cell sheets. The colony-forming efficiency of the cell sheets fabricated by the oxygen-controlled method without feeder cells was significantly higher than that of cell sheets fabricated under 20% O2 without feeder cells. These results indicate that the oxygen-controlled method has the potential to achieve a feeder-free culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for corneal regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Joan E.; Wielgus, Albert R.; Boyes, William K.; Andley, Usha; Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-01-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 ] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 μM. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 μM fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 μM lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein α-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo

  1. In vitro culture and characterization of a mammary epithelial cell line from Chinese Holstein dairy cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n=60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing beta-casein (CSN2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA and butyrophilin (BTN1A1. An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs.

  2. Implantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Tracheal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Omori, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    Compared with using autologous tissue, the use of artificial materials in the regeneration of tracheal defects is minimally invasive. However, this technique requires early epithelialization on the inner side of the artificial trachea. After differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), tracheal epithelial tissues may be used to produce artificial tracheas. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that after differentiation from fluorescent protein-labeled iPSCs, tracheal epithelial tissues survived in nude rats with tracheal defects. Red fluorescent tdTomato protein was electroporated into mouse iPSCs to produce tdTomato-labeled iPSCs. Embryoid bodies derived from these iPSCs were then cultured in differentiation medium supplemented with growth factors, followed by culture on air-liquid interfaces for further differentiation into tracheal epithelium. The cells were implanted with artificial tracheas into nude rats with tracheal defects on day 26 of cultivation. On day 7 after implantation, the tracheas were exposed and examined histologically. Tracheal epithelial tissue derived from tdTomato-labeled iPSCs survived in the tracheal defects. Moreover, immunochemical analyses showed that differentiated tissues had epithelial structures similar to those of proximal tracheal tissues. After differentiation from iPSCs, tracheal epithelial tissues survived in rat bodies, warranting the use of iPSCs for epithelial regeneration in tracheal defects.

  3. Cellular and Nuclear Alignment Analysis for Determining Epithelial Cell Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Michael J.; Ray, Poulomi; Kaur, Gurleen; Singh, Ajay V.; Wan, Leo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Left-right (LR) asymmetry is a biologically conserved property in living organisms that can be observed in the asymmetrical arrangement of organs and tissues and in tissue morphogenesis, such as the directional looping of the gastrointestinal tract and heart. The expression of LR asymmetry in embryonic tissues can be appreciated in biased cell alignment. Previously an in vitro chirality assay was reported by patterning multiple cells on microscale defined geometries and quantified the cell phenotype–dependent LR asymmetry, or cell chirality. However, morphology and chirality of individual cells on micropatterned surfaces has not been well characterized. Here, a Python-based algorithm was developed to identify and quantify immunofluorescence stained individual epithelial cells on multicellular patterns. This approach not only produces results similar to the image intensity gradient-based method reported previously, but also can capture properties of single cells such as area and aspect ratio. We also found that cell nuclei exhibited biased alignment. Around 35% cells were misaligned and were typically smaller and less elongated. This new imaging analysis approach is an effective tool for measuring single cell chirality inside multicellular structures and can potentially help unveil biophysical mechanisms underlying cellular chiral bias both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26294010

  4. Ouabain Increases Gap Junctional Communication in Epithelial Cells

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    Arturo Ponce

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The finding that endogenous ouabain acts as a hormone prompted efforts to elucidate its physiological function. In previous studies, we have shown that 10 nM ouabain (i.e., a concentration within the physiological range modulates cell-cell contacts such as tight junctions and apical/basolateral polarity. In this study, we examined whether 10 nM ouabain affects another important cell-cell feature: gap junction communication (GJC. Methods: We employed two different approaches: 1 analysis of the cell-to-cell diffusion of neurobiotin injected into a particular MDCK cell (epithelial cells from dog kidneys in a confluent monolayer by counting the number of neighboring cells reached by the probe and 2 measurement of the electrical capacitance. Results: We found that 10 nM ouabain increase GJC by 475% within 1 hour. The Na+-K+-ATPase acts as a receptor of ouabain. In previous works we have shown that ouabain activates c-Src and ERK1/2 in 1 hour; in the present study we show that the inhibition of these proteins block the effect of ouabain on GJC. This increase in GJC does not require synthesis of new protein components, because the inhibitors cycloheximide and actinomycin D did not affect this phenomenon. Using silencing assays we also demonstrate that this ouabain-induced enhancement of GJC involves connexins 32 and 43. Conclusion: Ouabain 10 nM increases GJC in MDCK cells.

  5. Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells

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    Llobet-Brossa Enrique

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. Results The interaction between Klebsiella pneumoniae and cultured airway epithelial cells was analysed. K. pneumoniae infection triggered cytotoxicity, evident by cell rounding and detachment from the substrate. This effect required the presence of live bacteria and of capsule polysaccharide, since it was observed with isolates expressing different amounts of capsule and/or different serotypes but not with non-capsulated bacteria. Cytotoxicity was analysed by lactate dehydrogenase and formazan measurements, ethidium bromide uptake and analysis of DNA integrity, obtaining consistent and complementary results. Moreover, cytotoxicity of non-capsulated strains was restored by addition of purified capsule during infection. While a non-capsulated strain was avirulent in a mouse infection model, capsulated K. pneumoniae isolates displayed different degrees of virulence. Conclusion Our observations allocate a novel role to K. pneumoniae capsule in promotion of cytotoxicity. Although this effect is likely to be associated with virulence, strains expressing different capsule levels were not equally virulent. This fact suggests the existence of other bacterial requirements for virulence, together with capsule polysaccharide.

  6. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  7. Epithelial Cell-Derived Secreted and Transmembrane 1a Signals to Activated Neutrophils during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Wasserman, Gregory A; Zabinski, Mary C; Yuen, Constance K; Lung, Wing Yi; Gower, Adam C; Belkina, Anna C; Ramirez, Maria I; Deng, Jane C; Quinton, Lee J; Jones, Matthew R; Mizgerd, Joseph P

    2016-09-01

    Airway epithelial cell responses are critical to the outcome of lung infection. In this study, we aimed to identify unique contributions of epithelial cells during lung infection. To differentiate genes induced selectively in epithelial cells during pneumonia, we compared genome-wide expression profiles from three sorted cell populations: epithelial cells from uninfected mouse lungs, epithelial cells from mouse lungs with pneumococcal pneumonia, and nonepithelial cells from those same infected lungs. Of 1,166 transcripts that were more abundant in epithelial cells from infected lungs compared with nonepithelial cells from the same lungs or from epithelial cells of uninfected lungs, 32 genes were identified as highly expressed secreted products. Especially strong signals included two related secreted and transmembrane (Sectm) 1 genes, Sectm1a and Sectm1b. Refinement of sorting strategies suggested that both Sectm1 products were induced predominantly in conducting airway epithelial cells. Sectm1 was induced during the early stages of pneumococcal pneumonia, and mutation of NF-κB RelA in epithelial cells did not diminish its expression. Instead, type I IFN signaling was necessary and sufficient for Sectm1 induction in lung epithelial cells, mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. For target cells, Sectm1a bound to myeloid cells preferentially, in particular Ly6G(bright)CD11b(bright) neutrophils in the infected lung. In contrast, Sectm1a did not bind to neutrophils from uninfected lungs. Sectm1a increased expression of the neutrophil-attracting chemokine CXCL2 by neutrophils from the infected lung. We propose that Sectm1a is an epithelial product that sustains a positive feedback loop amplifying neutrophilic inflammation during pneumococcal pneumonia.

  8. Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Promoted Limbal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Corneal Wound Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chin Sun

    Full Text Available Transplantation of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial cells is proven effective in restoring limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the promoting effect of Y-27632 on limbal epithelial cell proliferation. Limbal explants isolated from human donor eyes were expanded three weeks on culture dishes and outgrowth of epithelial cells was subsequently subcultured for in vitro experiments. In the presence of Y-27632, the ex vivo limbal outgrowth was accelerated, particularly the cells with epithelial cell-like morphology. Y-27632 dose-dependently promoted the proliferation of in vitro cultured human limbal epithelial cells as examined by phase contrast microscopy and luminescent cell-viability assay 30 hours after the treatment. The colony forming efficacy determined 7 days after the treatment was enhanced by Y-27632 also in a dose-dependent manner. The number of p63- or Ki67-positive cells was dose-dependently increased in Y-27632-treated cultures as detected by immunofluorescent staining and western blotanalysis. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometric method revealed an increase in S-phase proliferating cells. The epithelial woundclosure rate was shown to be faster in experimental group received topical treatment withY-27632 than the sham control using a rat corneal wounding model. These resultsdemonstrate that Y-27632 can promote both the ex vivo and in vitro proliferation oflimbal epithelial cell proliferation. The in vivo enhanced epithelial wound healingfurther implies that the Y-27632 may act as a new strategy for treating limbal stem cell deficiency.

  9. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Sommé, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial marker thyroid transcription factor-1 and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. γδ T cells in homeostasis and host defence of epithelial barrier tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten M.; Witherden, Deborah A.; Havran, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial surfaces line the body and provide a crucial interface between the body and the external environment. Tissue-resident epithelial γδ T cells represent a major T cell population in the epithelial tissues and are ideally positioned to carry out barrier surveillance and aid in tissue...... homeostasis and repair. In this Review, we focus on the intraepithelial γδ T cell compartment of the two largest epithelial tissues in the body — namely, the epidermis and the intestine — and provide a comprehensive overview of the crucial contributions of intraepithelial γδ T cells to tissue integrity...

  11. Production of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosthuizen, M.J.; Engels, F.; Van Esch, B.; Henricks, P.A.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cells may be responsible for regulating airway smooth muscle function, in part by release of fatty acid-derived mediators. Incubation of isolated guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) leads to the production of 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- and 15-HETE) and smaller amounts of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). Epithelial cells also are able to release linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Incubation with radiolabeled linoleic acid leads to the formation of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The biological significance of these mediators produced by epithelial cells is discussed

  12. Cigarette smoke suppresses Bik to cause epithelial cell hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebratu, Yohannes A; Schwalm, Kurt; Smith, Kevin R; Schuyler, Mark; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant regulation of airway epithelial cell numbers in airways leads to increased mucous secretions in chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Because the Bcl-2 family of proteins is crucial for airway epithelial homeostasis, identifying the players that reduce cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mucous cell metaplasia can help to develop effective therapies. To identify the Bcl-2 family of proteins that play a role in reducing CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia. We screened for dysregulated expression of the Bcl-2 family members. We identified Bik to be significantly reduced in bronchial brushings of patients with chronic epithelial cell hyperplasia compared with nondiseased control subjects. Reduced Bik but increased MUC5AC mRNA levels were also detected when normal human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to CS or when autopsy tissues from former smokers with and without chronic bronchitis were compared. Similarly, exposure of C57Bl/6 mice to CS resulted in increased numbers of epithelial and mucous cells per millimeter of basal lamina, along with reduced Bik but increased Muc5ac expression, and this change was sustained even when mice were allowed to recover in filtered air for 8 weeks. Restoring Bik expression significantly suppressed CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia in differentiated primary HAEC cultures and in airways of mice in vivo. Bik blocked nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK1/2 to induce apoptosis of HAECs. The conserved Leu61 within Bik and ERK1/2 activation were essential to induce cell death in hyperplastic mucous cells. These studies show that CS suppresses Bik expression to block airway epithelia cell death and thereby increases epithelial cell hyperplasia in chronic bronchitis.

  13. Targeting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition for Identification of Inhibitors for Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion and Tumor Spheres Formation.

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    Kishore Polireddy

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has an enrichment of stem-like cancer cells (CSCs that contribute to chemoresistant tumors prone to metastasis and recurrence. Drug screening assays based on cytotoxicity cannot identify specific CSC inhibitors, because CSCs comprise only a small portion of cancer cell population, and it is difficult to propagate stable CSC populations in vitro for high-throughput screening (HTS assays. Based on the important role of cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in promoting CSCs, we hypothesized that inhibition of EMT can be a useful strategy for inhibiting CSCs, and therefore a feasible approach for HTS can be built for identification of CSC inhibitors, based on assays detecting EMT inhibition.An immunofluorescent assay was established and optimized for HTS to identify compounds that enhance E-cadherin expression, as a hallmark of inhibition of EMT. Four chemical libraries containing 41,472 compounds were screened in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line. Positive hits were validated for EMT and CSC inhibition in vitro using sphere formation assay, western blotting, immune fluorescence, and scratch assay.Initial hits were refined to 73 compounds with a secondary screening, among which 17 exhibited concentration dependent induction of E-cadherin expression. Six compounds were selected for further study which belonged to 2 different chemical structural clusters. A novel compound 1-(benzylsulfonyl indoline (BSI, Compound #38 significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion. BSI inhibited histone deacetylase, increased histone 4 acetylation preferably, resulting in E-cadherin up-regulation. BSI effectively inhibited tumor spheres formation. Six more analogues of BSI were tested for anti-migration and anti-CSC activities.This study demonstrated a feasible approach for discovery of agents targeting EMT and CSCs using HTS, and identified a class of novel chemicals that could be developed as anti-EMT and

  14. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa

    2013-09-15

    We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differentiation and molecular profiling of human embryonic stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeszczynska, J; Samuel, K; Greenhough, S; Ramaesh, K; Dhillon, B; Hay, D C; Ross, J A

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that the isolation of scalable populations of limbal stem cells may lead to radical changes in ocular therapy. In particular, the derivation and transplantation of corneal stem cells from these populations may result in therapies providing clinical normality of the diseased or damaged cornea. Although feasible in theory, the lack of donor material in sufficient quantity and quality currently limits such a strategy. A potential scalable source of corneal cells could be derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). We developed an in vitro and serum-free corneal differentiation model which displays significant promise. Our stepwise differentiation model was designed with reference to development and gave rise to cells which displayed similarities to epithelial progenitor cells which can be specified to cells displaying a corneal epithelial phenotype. We believe our approach is novel, provides a robust model of human development and in the future, may facilitate the generation of corneal epithelial cells that are suitable for clinical use. Additionally, we demonstrate that following continued cell culture, stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells undergo transdifferentiation and exhibit squamous metaplasia and therefore, also offer an in vitro model of disease.

  16. Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Magnus K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D co-culture assay. Methods Breast luminal and myoepithelial cells and endothelial cells were isolated from reduction mammoplasties. Primary cells and established normal and malignant breast cell lines were embedded in reconstituted basement membrane in direct co-culture with endothelial cells and by separation of Transwell filters. Morphogenic and phenotypic profiles of co-cultures was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Results In co-culture, endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of both luminal- and myoepithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells induce a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells to form large acini/ducts with a large and clear lumen. Endothelial cells also stimulate growth and cloning efficiency of normal and malignant breast epithelial cell lines. Transwell and gradient co-culture studies show that endothelial derived effects are mediated - at least partially - by soluble factors. Conclusion Breast endothelial cells - beside their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen to tissues - are vital component of the epithelial microenvironment in the breast and provide proliferative signals to the normal and malignant breast epithelium. These growth promoting effects of endothelial cells should be taken into consideration in breast cancer biology.

  17. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips (≤12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 μm thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 μCi/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36±4% (mean ± SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0±1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 μM calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE 2 , PGF 2 α, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE 2 and PGF 2 α standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium

  18. NoxO1 Controls Proliferation of Colon Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Moll

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AimReactive oxygen species (ROS produced by enzymes of the NADPH oxidase family serve as second messengers for cellular signaling. Processes such as differentiation and proliferation are regulated by NADPH oxidases. In the intestine, due to the exceedingly fast and constant renewal of the epithelium both processes have to be highly controlled and balanced. Nox1 is the major NADPH oxidase expressed in the gut, and its function is regulated by cytosolic subunits such as NoxO1. We hypothesize that the NoxO1-controlled activity of Nox1 contributes to a proper epithelial homeostasis and renewal in the gut.ResultsNoxO1 is highly expressed in the colon. Knockout of NoxO1 reduces the production of superoxide in colon crypts and is not subsidized by an elevated expression of its homolog p47phox. Knockout of NoxO1 increases the proliferative capacity and prevents apoptosis of colon epithelial cells. In mouse models of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis and azoxymethane/DSS induced colon cancer, NoxO1 has a protective role and may influence the population of natural killer cells.ConclusionNoxO1 affects colon epithelium homeostasis and prevents inflammation.

  19. Adrenomedullin stimulates cyclic AMP production in the airway epithelial cells of guinea-pigs and in the human epithelial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawaguchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of adrenomedullin (AM on airway epithelial cells. Primary cultures of guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells and the human bronchiolar epithelial cell line NCI-H441 were used. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and stable end-products of nitric oxide were assayed. Adrenomedullin (10−6 mol/L stimulated cAMP production in guinea-pig epithelial cells. Indomethacin (10−5 mol/L significantly decreased the basal level of intracellular cAMP in guinea-pig epithelial cells, but not in NCI-H441 cells. However, AM did not stimulate production of PGE2, a major product that can increase cAMP formation. In the case of NCI-H441 cells, AM (10−8 – 10−6 mol/L did not significantly affect intracellular cGMP levels or nitrite content in conditioned medium. Adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP each stimulated cAMP production in NCI-H441 cells, but AM-stimulated cAMP production was antagonized by the CGRP fragment CGRP8–37. These findings suggest that AM stimulates cAMP production and functionally competes with CGRP for binding sites in airway epithelial cells, at least in human epithelial cells, but that it does not stimulate the release of PGE2 and nitric oxide. Though cyclooxygenase products contribute to some extent to cAMP formation in guinea-pigs, AM independently stimulates intracellular cAMP formation in airway epithelial cells.

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  1. CD8+ T cells induce thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Fang, Yujiang; Sharav, Tumenjargal; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2011-02-15

    CD8(+) T cells can be important effector cells in autoimmune inflammation, generally because they can damage target cells by cytotoxicity. This study shows that activated CD8(+) T cells induce thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation and fibrosis in IFN-γ(-/-) NOD.H-2h4 SCID mice in the absence of CD4(+) T cells. Because CD8(+) T cells induce proliferation rather than cytotoxicity of target cells, these results describe a novel function for CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune disease. In contrast to the ability of purified CD8(+) T cells to induce thyrocyte proliferation, CD4(+) T cells or CD8 T cell-depleted splenocytes induced only mild thyroid lesions in SCID recipients. T cells in both spleens and thyroids highly produce TNF-α. TNF-α promotes proliferation of thyrocytes in vitro, and anti-TNF-α inhibits development of thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and proliferation in SCID recipients of IFN-γ(-/-) splenocytes. This suggests that targeting CD8(+) T cells and/or TNF-α may be effective for treating epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis.

  2. Comparison of para-aminophenol cytotoxicity in rat renal epithelial cells and hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Bentzley, Catherine M; Tarloff, Joan B

    2005-04-01

    Several chemicals, including para-aminophenol (PAP), produce kidney damage in the absence of hepatic damage. Selective nephrotoxicity may be related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb filtered water, thereby raising the intraluminal concentration of toxicants and exposing tubular epithelial cells to higher concentrations than would be present in other tissues. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells exposed to equivalent concentrations of PAP would be equally susceptible to toxicity. Hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells were prepared by collagenase digestion of tissues obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicity was monitored using trypan blue exclusion, oxygen consumption and ATP content. We measured the rate of PAP clearance and formation of PAP-glutathione conjugate by HPLC. We found that renal epithelial cells accumulated trypan blue and showed declines in oxygen consumption and ATP content at significantly lower concentrations of PAP and at earlier time points than hepatocytes. The half-life of PAP in hepatocyte incubations was significantly shorter (0.71+/-0.07 h) than in renal epithelial cell incubations (1.33+/-0.23 h), suggesting that renal epithelial cells were exposed to PAP for longer time periods than hepatocytes. Renal epithelial cells formed significantly less glutathione conjugates of PAP (PAP-SG) than did hepatocytes, consistent with less efficient detoxification of reactive PAP intermediates by renal epithelial cells. Finally, hepatocytes contained significant more reduced glutathione (NPSH) than did renal epithelial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced formation of PAP-SG by this cell population. In conclusion, our data indicates that renal epithelial cells are intrinsically more susceptible to PAP cytotoxicity than are hepatocytes. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be due to longer exposure to PAP and/or reduced detoxification of reactive intermediates due to lower concentrations

  3. A method for isolating identifying and culturing of rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Su Shibiao; Nie Jihua; Li Bingyan; Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method for isolating identifying and culturing the rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells. Methods: The rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells were isolated by digestion with pronase and brushing with cell brush, identified using confocul and cultured in entire F12 media with no serum. Results: With this method, cells in high purity and high viability could be obtained, and about 10 6 cells per rat. The cells grow well in entire F12 media with no serum. Conclusion: The method is useful for isolating rate trachea-bronchia epithelial cells and the entire F12 media with no serum is effective for culturing. (authors)

  4. Centriole movements in mammalian epithelial cells during cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanke Hans J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cytokinesis, when the cleavage furrow has been formed, the two centrioles in each daughter cell separate. It has been suggested that the centrioles facilitate and regulate cytokinesis to some extent. It has been postulated that termination of cytokinesis (abscission depends on the migration of a centriole to the intercellular bridge and then back to the cell center. To investigate the involvement of centrioles in cytokinesis, we monitored the movements of centrioles in three mammalian epithelial cell lines, HeLa, MCF 10A, and the p53-deficient mouse mammary tumor cell line KP-7.7, by time-lapse imaging. Centrin1-EGFP and α-Tubulin-mCherry were co-expressed in the cells to visualize respectively the centrioles and microtubules. Results Here we report that separated centrioles that migrate from the cell pole are very mobile during cytokinesis and their movements can be characterized as 1 along the nuclear envelope, 2 irregular, and 3 along microtubules forming the spindle axis. Centriole movement towards the intercellular bridge was only seen occasionally and was highly cell-line dependent. Conclusions These findings show that centrioles are highly mobile during cytokinesis and suggest that the repositioning of a centriole to the intercellular bridge is not essential for controlling abscission. We suggest that centriole movements are microtubule dependent and that abscission is more dependent on other mechanisms than positioning of centrioles.

  5. Effect of Formaldehyde on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8 in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and mucin (MUC5AC was analyzed using RT-PCR. Activation of the apoptosis pathway was determined by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cytochrome oxidase, caspase-9/Mch6/Apaf 3, and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 activities. The CCK-8 assay and trypan blue assay results showed a reduction in cell viability in FA-treated HMEECs. FA also increased the cellular expression of TNF-α and MUC5AC and reduced the activities of MMP and cytochrome oxidase. Caspase-9 activity increased in cells stimulated for 4 h, as well as caspase-3/7 activity in cells stimulated for 24 h. The decreased cell viability, the induction of inflammation and mucin gene expression, and the activation of the apoptosis pathway together indicate a link between environmental FA exposure and the development of otitis media.

  6. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman's capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman's capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman's capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman's capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman's capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans.

  7. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype.

  8. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  9. Regulation of potassium transport in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Warwar, Ronald; Brown, Thomas L; Adragna, Norma C

    2006-01-01

    The major K influx pathways and their response to thiol modification by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors were characterized in human lens epithelial B3 (HLE-B3) cells with Rb as K congener. Ouabain (0.1 mM) and bumetanide (5 microM) discriminated between the Na/K pump ( approximately 35% of total Rb influx) and Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) ( approximately 50%). Cl-replacement with nitrate or sulfamate revealed 100 microM, activated the Na/K pump and abolished NKCC but did not affect KCC. The data suggest at least partial inverse regulation of KCC and NKCC in HLE-B3 cells by signaling cascades involving serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation equilibria.

  10. Mechanisms of Cell Polarity-Controlled Epithelial Homeostasis and Immunity in the Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder, Leon J; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard; van IJzendoorn, Sven C D

    2017-07-05

    Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we highlight recent advances with regard to the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity-controlled epithelial homeostasis and immunity in the human intestine. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequ...

  12. Effect of Lead on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous metal in the environment, but no studies have examined lead toxicity on the middle ear. Here, we investigated lead toxicity and its mechanism in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Moreover, we investigated the protective effects of amniotic membrane extract (AME and chorionic membrane extract (CME against lead toxicity in HMEECs. Cell viability was analyzed using the cell counting kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS activity was measured using a cellular ROS detection kit. After lead(II acetate trihydrate treatment, mRNA levels of various genes were assessed by semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Following treatment with AME or CME after lead exposure, the changes in cell viability, ROS activity, and gene expression were analyzed. Exposure to >100 μg/mL of lead(II acetate trihydrate caused a significant decrease in cell viability and increased ROS production in HMEECs. Lead exposure significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and mucins. Administration of AME or CME restored cell viability, reduced ROS activity, and ameliorated mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that environmental lead exposure is related to the development of otitis media, and AME and CME may have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against lead toxicity.

  13. Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Martijn J G; de Graaf-Hess, Adriana; Blom, Henk J; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2005-11-18

    Cystinosis, the most frequent cause of inborn Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by the lysosomal cystine accumulation, caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of cystinosis, we cultured proximal tubular cells from urine of cystinotic patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9), followed by immortalization with human papilloma virus (HPV E6/E7). Obtained cell lines displayed basolateral polarization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and presence of aminopeptidase N (CD-13) and megalin, confirming their proximal tubular origin. Cystinotic cell lines exhibited elevated cystine levels (0.86 +/- 0.95 nmol/mg versus 0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg protein in controls, p = 0.03). Oxidized glutathione was elevated in cystinotic cells (1.16 +/- 0.83 nmol/mg versus 0.29 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg protein, p = 0.04), while total glutathione, free cysteine, and ATP contents were normal in these cells. In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis.

  14. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  15. Lens epithelial cell apoptosis is an early event in the development of UVB-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Spector, A

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed that exposure to UV can induce cataractogenesis. To investigate the mechanism of this induction, viability of the lens epithelial cells from UVB-treated rat lenses were examined. Irradiation of the cultured rat lenses with 8 J/s/m2 UVB for 60 min triggers lens epithelial cell apoptosis as determined by terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase (TdT) labeling and DNA fragmentation assays. The apoptotic lens epithelial cells were initially found in the equatorial region and then quickly appeared in both equatorial and central regions. The percentage of apoptotic cells continuously increased during the postirradiation incubation. After a 5-h post-UVB incubation, more than 50% of the lens epithelial cells were apoptotic. By 24 h, all of the lens epithelial cells in the irradiated lenses were dead through apoptosis. Associated with this apoptotic process is a large upregulation of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Opacification appears to follow the death of lens epithelial cells occurring first in the equatorial region and then in the central area. This is also true of classical cataract parameters such as non-protein thiol and wet weight, which are significantly modified only after appreciable epithelial cell apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the rapid apoptotic death of the lens epithelial cells induced by UVB initiates cataract development.

  16. Fusion of intestinal epithelial cells with bone marrow derived cells is dispensable for tissue homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Joan H.; Rodermond, Hans M.; Zimberlin, Cheryl D.; Lascano, Valeria; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Richel, Dick J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine is characterized by an immense cellular turn-over ascertaining an extensive regenerative capacity. Multiple reports suggest that besides the local intestinal stem cell pool, circulating cells of bone marrow origin (BMDCs) contribute to this process by fusing

  17. Physiology and pathophysiology of apoptosis in epithelial cells of the liver, pancreas, and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B A; Gores, G J

    1997-12-01

    Cell death of gastrointestinal epithelial cells occurs by a process referred to as apoptosis. In this review, we succinctly define apoptosis and summarize the role of apoptosis in the physiology and pathophysiology of epithelial cells in the liver, pancreas, and small and large intestine. The physiological mediators regulating apoptosis in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, when known, are discussed. Selected pathophysiological consequences of excessive apoptosis and inhibition of apoptosis are used to illustrate the significance of apoptosis in disease processes. These examples demonstrate that excessive apoptosis may result in epithelial cell atrophy, injury, and dysfunction, whereas inhibition of apoptosis results in hyperplasia and promotes malignant transformation. The specific cellular mechanisms responsible for dysregulation of epithelial cell apoptosis during pathophysiological disturbances are emphasized. Potential future areas of physiological research regarding apoptosis in gastrointestinal epithelia are highlighted when appropriate.

  18. Characterization of a continuous feline mammary epithelial cell line susceptible to feline epitheliotropic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Patricia; Liu, Hongwei; Ossiboff, Robert J; Stucker, Karla M; Heymer, Anna; Millon, Lee; Wood, Jason; van der List, Deborah; Parker, John S L

    2009-04-01

    Mucosal epithelial cells are the primary targets for many common viral pathogens of cats. Viral infection of epithelia can damage or disrupt the epithelial barrier that protects underlying tissues. In vitro cell culture systems are an effective means to study how viruses infect and disrupt epithelial barriers, however no true continuous or immortalized feline epithelial cell culture lines are available. A continuous cell culture of feline mammary epithelial cells (FMEC UCD-04-2) that forms tight junctions with high transepithelial electrical resistance (>2000Omegacm(-1)) 3-4 days after reaching confluence was characterized. In addition, it was shown that FMECs are susceptible to infection with feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), feline coronavirus (FeCoV), and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). These cells will be useful for studies of feline viral disease and for in vitro studies of feline epithelia.

  19. Polystyrene nanoparticles activate ion transport in human airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available J McCarthy1, X Gong2, D Nahirney2, M Duszyk2, MW Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Over the last decade, nanotechnology has provided researchers with new nanometer materials, such as nanoparticles, which have the potential to provide new therapies for many lung diseases. In this study, we investigated the acute effects of polystyrene nanoparticles on epithelial ion channel function.Methods: Human submucosal Calu-3 cells that express cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and baby hamster kidney cells engineered to express the wild-type CFTR gene were used to investigate the actions of negatively charged 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles on short-circuit current in Calu-3 cells by Ussing chamber and single CFTR Cl- channels alone and in the presence of known CFTR channel activators by using baby hamster kidney cell patches.Results: Polystyrene nanoparticles caused sustained, repeatable, and concentration-dependent increases in short-circuit current. In turn, these short-circuit current responses were found to be biphasic in nature, ie, an initial peak followed by a plateau. EC50 values for peak and plateau short-circuit current responses were 1457 and 315.5 ng/mL, respectively. Short-circuit current was inhibited by diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a CFTR Cl- channel blocker. Polystyrene nanoparticles activated basolateral K+ channels and affected Cl- and HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of short-circuit current activation by polystyrene nanoparticles was found to be largely dependent on calcium-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of CFTR Cl- channels. Recordings from isolated inside-out patches using baby hamster kidney cells confirmed the direct activation of CFTR Cl- channels by the nanoparticles.Conclusion: This is the first study to identify

  20. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

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    Valgardur Sigurdsson

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad to N-Cadherin (N-Cad and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high/CD24(low ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  1. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.

  2. Quantification of epithelial cells in coculture with fibroblasts by fluorescence image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtolica, Ana; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Lockett, Stephen; Campisi, Judith

    2002-10-01

    To demonstrate that senescent fibroblasts stimulate the proliferation and neoplastic transformation of premalignant epithelial cells (Krtolica et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:12072-12077, 2001), we developed methods to quantify the proliferation of epithelial cells cocultured with fibroblasts. We stained epithelial-fibroblast cocultures with the fluorescent DNA-intercalating dye 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), or expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the epithelial cells, and then cultured them with fibroblasts. The cocultures were photographed under an inverted microscope with appropriate filters, and the fluorescent images were captured with a digital camera. We modified an image analysis program to selectively recognize the smaller, more intensely fluorescent epithelial cell nuclei in DAPI-stained cultures and used the program to quantify areas with DAPI fluorescence generated by epithelial nuclei or GFP fluorescence generated by epithelial cells in each field. Analysis of the image areas with DAPI and GFP fluorescences produced nearly identical quantification of epithelial cells in coculture with fibroblasts. We confirmed these results by manual counting. In addition, GFP labeling permitted kinetic studies of the same coculture over multiple time points. The image analysis-based quantification method we describe here is an easy and reliable way to monitor cells in coculture and should be useful for a variety of cell biological studies. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  4. The genetic and molecular basis of bacterial invasion of epithelial cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasion of epithelial cells was demonstrated to be triggered by invasion plasmid antigens B, C, and D ( IpaB, IpaC and IpaD ) which is accomplished by intracellular spread gene icsA. The invasion of epithelial cells by some individual species of bacteria were also reviewed.Yersinia enterocolitica invasiveness was shown ...

  5. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  6. Roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/β-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/β-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3α can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of β-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated β-catenin expression and subsequently decreased β-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  7. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  8. Ibuprofen regulation of microtubule dynamics in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymut, Sharon M; Kampman, Claire M; Corey, Deborah A; Endres, Tori; Cotton, Calvin U; Kelley, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    High-dose ibuprofen, an effective anti-inflammatory therapy for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF), has been shown to preserve lung function in a pediatric population. Despite its efficacy, few patients receive ibuprofen treatment due to potential renal and gastrointestinal toxicity. The mechanism of ibuprofen efficacy is also unclear. We have previously demonstrated that CF microtubules are slower to reform after depolymerization compared with respective wild-type controls. Slower microtubule dynamics in CF cells are responsible for impaired intracellular transport and are related to inflammatory signaling. Here, it is identified that high-dose ibuprofen treatment in both CF cell models and primary CF nasal epithelial cells restores microtubule reformation rates to wild-type levels, as well as induce extension of microtubules to the cell periphery. Ibuprofen treatment also restores microtubule-dependent intracellular transport monitored by measuring intracellular cholesterol transport. These effects are specific to ibuprofen as other cyclooxygenase inhibitors have no effect on these measures. Effects of ibuprofen are mimicked by stimulation of AMPK and blocked by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. We conclude that high-dose ibuprofen treatment enhances microtubule formation in CF cells likely through an AMPK-related pathway. These findings define a potential mechanism to explain the efficacy of ibuprofen therapy in CF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Role of Corneal Stromal Cells on Epithelial Cell Function during Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Following injury, corneal stromal keratocytes transform into repair-phenotype of activated stromal fibroblasts (SFs and participate in wound repair. Simultaneously, ongoing bi-directional communications between corneal stromal-epithelial cells also play a vital role in mediating the process of wound healing. Factors produced by stromal cells are known to induce proliferation, differentiation, and motility of corneal epithelial cells, which are also subsequently the main processes that occur during wound healing. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the effect of SFs conditioned medium (SFCM on corneal epithelial cell function along with substance P (SP. Antibody microarrays were employed to profile differentially expressed cell surface markers and cytokines in the presence of SFCM and SP. Antibody microarray data revealed enhanced expression of the ITGB1 in corneal epithelial cells following stimulation with SP whereas SFCM induced abundant expression of IL-8, ITGB1, PD1L1, PECA1, IL-15, BDNF, ICAM1, CD8A, CD44 and NTF4. All these proteins have either direct or indirect roles in epithelial cell growth, movement and adhesion related signaling cascades during tissue regeneration. We also observed activation of MAPK signaling pathway along with increased expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, paxillin, vimentin, β-catenin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation. Additionally, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT regulating transcription factors Slug and ZEB1 expression were enhanced in the presence of SFCM. SP enriched the expression of integrin subunits α4, α5, αV, β1 and β3 whereas SFCM increased α4, α5, αV, β1 and β5 integrin subunits. We also observed increased expression of Serpin E1 following SP and SFCM treatment. Wound healing scratch assay revealed enhanced migration of epithelial cells following the addition of SFCM. Taken together, we conclude that SFCM-mediated sustained

  10. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  11. Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, Előd; Szabó, András

    2013-01-01

    We report spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell–cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns. (paper)

  12. The role of hERG1 ion channels in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the capacity of riluzole to reduce cisplatin resistance in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    The transition of cells from the epithelial to the mesenchymal state (EMT) plays an important role in tumor progression. EMT allows cells to acquire mobility, stem-like behavior and resistance to apoptosis and drug treatment. These features turn EMT into a central process in tumor biology. Ion channels are attractive targets for the treatment of cancer since they play critical roles in controlling a wide range of physiological processes that are frequently deregulated in cancer. Here, we investigated the role of ether-a-go-go-related 1 (hERG1) ion channels in the EMT of colorectal cancer cells. We studied the epithelial-mesenchymal profile of different colorectal cancer-derived cell lines and the expression of hERG1 potassium channels in these cell lines using real-time PCR. Next, we knocked down hERG1 expression in HCT116 cells using lentivirus mediated RNA interference and characterized the hERG1 silenced cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we investigated the capacity of riluzole, an ion channel-modulating drug used in humans to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, to reduce the resistance of the respective colorectal cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. We found that of the colorectal cancer-derived cell lines tested, HCT116 showed the highest mesenchymal profile and a high hERG1 expression. Subsequent hERG1 expression knockdown induced a change in cell morphology, which was accompanied by a reduction in the proliferative and tumorigenic capacities of the cells. Notably, we found that hERG1expression knockdown elicited a reversion of the EMT profile in HCT116 cells with a reacquisition of the epithelial-like profile. We also found that riluzole increased the sensitivity of HCT116 cisplatin-resistant cells to cisplatin. Our data indicate that hERG1 plays a role in the EMT of colorectal cancer cells and that its knockdown reduces the proliferative and tumorigenic capacities of these cells. In addition, we conclude that riluzole may be used in

  13. Gene expression in epithelial cells in response to pneumovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Helene F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM are viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily pneumovirus, which cause clinically important respiratory infections in humans and rodents, respectively. The respiratory epithelial target cells respond to viral infection with specific alterations in gene expression, including production of chemoattractant cytokines, adhesion molecules, elements that are related to the apoptosis response, and others that remain incompletely understood. Here we review our current understanding of these mucosal responses and discuss several genomic approaches, including differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gene array strategies, that will permit us to unravel the nature of these responses in a more complete and systematic manner.

  14. Expression of ICAM-1 in colon epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Sørensen, Susanne; Seidelin, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Studies have suggested that in ulcerative colitis (UC), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration of leukocytes toward the colonic epithelium. A suitable in vitro model of chronic colonic inflammation does not exist, and the role of the epithelium is based on monolayers ...... of cancer cells. Conflicting results exist on epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and the aim of this study was to compare the expression in various models of colonic epithelium.......Studies have suggested that in ulcerative colitis (UC), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is involved in migration of leukocytes toward the colonic epithelium. A suitable in vitro model of chronic colonic inflammation does not exist, and the role of the epithelium is based on monolayers...

  15. Characterization of kidney epithelial cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat JMDunigan, D D; Wright, S D

    2001-06-01

    The West-Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a herbivorous marine mammal found in the coastal waters of Florida. Because of their endangered status, animal experimentation is not allowed. Therefore, a cell line was developed and characterized from tissue collected during necropsies of the manatees. A primary cell culture was established by isolating single cells from kidney tissue using both enzymatic and mechanical techniques. Primary manatee kidney (MK) cells were subcultured for characterization. These cells were morphologically similar to the cell lines of epithelial origin. An immunocytochemistry assay was used to localize the cytokeratin filaments common to cells of epithelial origin. At second passage, epithelial-like cells had an average population-doubling time of 48 h, had an optimum seeding density of 5 x 10(3) cells/cm2, and readily attached to plastic culture plates with a high level of seeding efficiency. Although the epithelial-like cells had a rapid growth rate during the first three passages, the cloning potential was low. These cells did not form colonies in agar medium, were serum dependent, had a limited life span of approximately nine passages, and possessed cell-contact inhibition. These data suggest that the cells were finite (noncontinuous growth), did not possess transformed properties, and were of epithelial origin. These cells are now referred to as MK epithelial cells.

  16. Small-Molecule Induction Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mikhailova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs offer unique opportunities for developing novel cell-based therapies and disease modeling. In this study, we developed a directed differentiation method for hiPSCs toward corneal epithelial progenitor cells capable of terminal differentiation toward mature corneal epithelial-like cells. In order to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of our method, we replicated signaling cues active during ocular surface ectoderm development with the help of two small-molecule inhibitors in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in serum-free and feeder-free conditions. First, small-molecule induction downregulated the expression of pluripotency markers while upregulating several transcription factors essential for normal eye development. Second, protein expression of the corneal epithelial progenitor marker p63 was greatly enhanced, with up to 95% of cells being p63 positive after 5 weeks of differentiation. Third, corneal epithelial-like cells were obtained upon further maturation.

  17. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergen recognition by innate immune cells: critical role of dendritic and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSalazar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. Dendritic cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in orchestrating allergic diseases. Using different C-type lectin receptors dendritic cells are able to recognize and internalize a number of allergens from diverse sources leading to sensitization. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence highlighting the role of epithelial cells in triggering and modulating immune responses to allergens. As well as providing a physical barrier, epithelial cells can interact with allergens and influence dendritic cells behaviour through the release of a number of Th2 promoting cytokines. In this review we will summarise current understanding of how allergens are recognised by dendritic cells and epithelial cells and what are the consequences of such interaction in the context of allergic sensitisation and downstream events leading to allergic inflammation. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allergen recognition and associated signalling pathways could enable developing more effective therapeutic strategies that target the initial steps of allergic sensitisation hence hindering development or progression of allergic diseases.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Interferon lambda inhibits dengue virus replication in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Ocampo, Helen K; Flores-Alonso, Juan C; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2015-09-28

    In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IFN-III or IFN-λ), is a complementary pathway to the antiviral response by IFN-I. This work analyzed the IFN-λ (IFN-III) mediated antiviral response against DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection. Dengue fever patients were sampled to determine their IFN-λ levels by ELISA. To study the IFN-λ response during DENV infection we selected the epithelial cell line C33-A, and we demonstrated that it is permissive to DENV-2 infection. The effect of IFN-λ on virus replication was determined in these cells, in parallel to the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS), genes measured by RT-qPCR. We found increased (~1.8 times) serological IFN-λ in dengue fever patients compared to healthy blood donors. IFN-λ inhibited DENV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The reduction of viral titer corresponded with increased ISG mRNA levels (MX1 and OAS1), with the highest inhibition occurring at ISG's peak expression. Presence of IFN-negative regulators, SOCS1 and SOCS3, during DENV-2 infection was associated with reduced IFN-λ1 expression. Evidence described here suggests that IFN-λ is a good candidate inhibitor of viral replication in dengue infection. Mechanisms for the cellular and organismal interplay between DENV and IFN- λ need to be further studied as they could provide insights into strategies to treat this disease. Furthermore, we report a novel epithelial model to study dengue infection in vitro.

  3. Androgen Receptor Expression in Epithelial and Stromal Cells of Prostatic Carcinoma and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovski, Vanja; Kubelka-Sabit, Katerina; Jasar, Dzengis; Janevska, Vesna

    2017-08-15

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) derives from prostatic epithelial cells. However stromal microenvironment, associated with malignant epithelium, also plays a role in prostatic carcinogenesis. Alterations in prostatic stromal cells contribute to the loss of growth control in epithelial cells that lead to progression of PCa. To analyse the differences between Androgen Receptor (AR) expression in both epithelial and stromal cells in PCa and the surrounding benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to compare the results with tumour grade. Samples from 70 cases of radical prostatectomy specimens were used. The expression and intensity of the signal for AR was analysed in the epithelial and stromal cells of PCa and BPH, and the data was quantified using histological score (H-score). AR showed significantly lower expression in both epithelial and stromal cells of PCa compared to BPH. In PCa a significant positive correlation of AR expression was found between stromal and epithelial cells of PCa. AR expression showed a correlation between the stromal cells of PCa and tumour grade. AR expression is reduced in epithelial and stromal cells of PCa. Expression of AR in stromal cells of PCa significantly correlates with tumour grade.

  4. Epithelial cells as active player in fibrosis: findings from an in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Moll

    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis, a scarring of the tubulo-interstitial space, is due to activation of interstitial myofibroblasts recruited locally or systemically with consecutive extracellular matrix deposition. Newly published clinical studies correlating acute kidney injury (AKI to chronic kidney disease (CKD challenge this pathological concept putting tubular epithelial cells into the spotlight. In this work we investigated the role of epithelial cells in fibrosis using a simple controlled in vitro system. An epithelial/mesenchymal 3D cell culture model composed of human proximal renal tubular cells and fibroblasts was challenged with toxic doses of Cisplatin, thus injuring epithelial cells. RT-PCR for classical fibrotic markers was performed on fibroblasts to assess their modulation toward an activated myofibroblast phenotype in presence or absence of that stimulus. Epithelial cell lesion triggered a phenotypical modulation of fibroblasts toward activated myofibroblasts as assessed by main fibrotic marker analysis. Uninjured 3D cell culture as well as fibroblasts alone treated with toxic stimulus in the absence of epithelial cells were used as control. Our results, with the caveats due to the limited, but highly controllable and reproducible in vitro approach, suggest that epithelial cells can control and regulate fibroblast phenotype. Therefore they emerge as relevant target cells for the development of new preventive anti-fibrotic therapeutic approaches.

  5. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Chiribao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response, a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members, and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids. These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination.

  6. Crystalline structure of pulverized dental calculus induces cell death in oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin, S M; Yoshimura, A; Montenegro Raudales, J L; Ozaki, Y; Higuchi, K; Ukai, T; Kaneko, T; Miyazaki, T; Latz, E; Hara, Y

    2018-06-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit attached to the tooth surface. We have shown that cellular uptake of dental calculus triggers nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, leading to the processing of the interleukin-1β precursor into its mature form in mouse and human phagocytes. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome also induced a lytic form of programmed cell death, pyroptosis, in these cells. However, the effects of dental calculus on other cell types in periodontal tissue have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether dental calculus can induce cell death in oral epithelial cells. HSC-2 human oral squamous carcinoma cells, HOMK107 human primary oral epithelial cells and immortalized mouse macrophages were exposed to dental calculus or 1 of its components, hydroxyapatite crystals. For inhibition assays, the cells were exposed to dental calculus in the presence or absence of cytochalasin D (endocytosis inhibitor), z-YVAD-fmk (caspase-1 inhibitor) or glyburide (NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor). Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and staining with propidium iodide. Tumor necrosis factor-α production was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oral epithelial barrier function was examined by permeability assay. Dental calculus induced cell death in HSC-2 cells, as judged by LDH release and propidium iodide staining. Dental calculus also induced LDH release from HOMK107 cells. Following heat treatment, dental calculus lost its capacity to induce tumor necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages, but could induce LDH release in HSC-2 cells, indicating a major role of inorganic components in cell death. Hydroxyapatite crystals also induced cell death in both HSC-2 and HOMK107 cells, as judged by LDH release, indicating the capacity of crystal particles to induce cell death. Cell death induced by dental

  7. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuhei Hayashi

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF-derived iPS cells (253G1 and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC-derived iPS cells (L1B41. We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA differentiation method, as Pax6(+/K12(+ corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells.

  8. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman’s capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman’s capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman’s capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans. PMID:24408873

  9. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load and cytoki...

  10. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal

  11. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithelial cells, while endothelin-3 was added to stimulate their growth. By adding endothelin-3, the achievement ratio (viable cell cultures/total cultures was enhanced to 60% of a total of 10 cultures (initiated from 8 distinct fetal small intestines, allowing the generation of viable epithelial cell cultures. Western blot, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining showed that cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 had high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated markers such as sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV also showed high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells, with the expression of surface markers (cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 and secretion of cytokines (sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, may be cultured by the thermolysin and endothelin-3 method and maintained for at least 20 passages. This is relatively simple, requiring no sophisticated techniques or instruments, and may have a number of varied applications.

  12. MARCKS-related protein regulates cytoskeletal organization at cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Itallie, Christina M; Tietgens, Amber Jean; Aponte, Angel; Gucek, Marjan; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Chadwick, Richard S; Anderson, James M

    2018-02-02

    Treatment of epithelial cells with interferon-γ and TNF-α (IFN/TNF) results in increased paracellular permeability. To identify relevant proteins mediating barrier disruption, we performed proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) of occludin and found that tagging of MARCKS-related protein (MRP; also known as MARCKSL1) increased ∼20-fold following IFN/TNF administration. GFP-MRP was focused at the lateral cell membrane and its overexpression potentiated the physiological response of the tight junction barrier to cytokines. However, deletion of MRP did not abrogate the cytokine responses, suggesting that MRP is not required in the occludin-dependent IFN/TNF response. Instead, our results reveal a key role for MRP in epithelial cells in control of multiple actin-based structures, likely by regulation of integrin signaling. Changes in focal adhesion organization and basal actin stress fibers in MRP-knockout (KO) cells were reminiscent of those seen in FAK-KO cells. In addition, we found alterations in cell-cell interactions in MRP-KO cells associated with increased junctional tension, suggesting that MRP may play a role in focal adhesion-adherens junction cross talk. Together, our results are consistent with a key role for MRP in cytoskeletal organization of cell contacts in epithelial cells. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Rapid, Directed Differentiation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic or Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, LP; Clegg, DO

    2017-01-01

    We describe a robust method to direct the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). The purpose of providing a detailed and thorough protocol is to clearly demonstrate each step and to make this readily available to researchers in the field. This protocol results in a homogenous layer of RPE with minimal or no manual dissection needed. The method presented here has been shown to be effective for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embry...

  14. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Modulate Antigen-Presenting Cell Responses to Bacterial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeau, J. L.; Salim, S. Y.; Albert, E. J.; Hotte, N.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells orchestrate mucosal innate immunity. This study investigated the role of bacterial DNA in modulating epithelial and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (BM-APCs) and subsequent T-lymphocyte responses. Murine MODE-K epithelial cells and BM-APCs were treated with DNA from either Bifidobacterium breve or Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin directly and under coculture conditions with CD4+ T cells. Apical stimulation of MODE-K cells with S. Dublin DNA enhanced secretion of cytokines from underlying BM-APCs and induced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion from CD4+ T cells. Bacterial DNA isolated from either strain induced maturation and increased cytokine secretion from BM-APCs. Conditioned medium from S. Dublin-treated MODE-K cells elicited an increase in cytokine secretion similar to that seen for S. Dublin DNA. Treatment of conditioned medium from MODE-K cells with RNase and protease prevented the S. Dublin-induced increased cytokine secretion. Oral feeding of mice with B. breve DNA resulted in enhanced levels of colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) compared with what was seen for mice treated with S. Dublin DNA. In contrast, feeding mice with S. Dublin DNA increased levels of colonic IL-17 and IL-12p70. T cells from S. Dublin DNA-treated mice secreted high levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to controls and B. breve DNA-treated mice. These results demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells are able to modulate subsequent antigen-presenting and T-cell responses to bacterial DNA with pathogenic but not commensal bacterial DNA inducing effector CD4+ T lymphocytes. PMID:22615241

  15. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millaku, Agron, E-mail: agron.mi@hotmail.com [Limnos-Company for Applied Ecology Ltd, Podlimbarskega 31, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Nanocentre), Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Torkar, Matjaz [Institute of Metals and Technology IMT, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Novak, Sara [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Jožef Stefan Institute, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pipan-Tkalec, Živa [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells.

  16. Use of scanning electron microscopy to monitor nanofibre/cell interaction in digestive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millaku, Agron; Drobne, Damjana; Torkar, Matjaz; Novak, Sara; Remškar, Maja; Pipan-Tkalec, Živa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy is particularly well suited to the observation of nanofibre/cell interaction in the endothelial cells lining the hepatopancreas. (a) Tungsten oxide nanofibres, (b) test organism Porcellio scaber and schematic appearance of digestive tubes, (c) digestive tube (hepatopancreas) prepared for SEM investigation, (d) digestive gland cells (C) with nanofibres (NF) embedded in the cell membrane and (e) nanofibres inserted deeply in the cells and damaged nanofibres due to peristalsis. -- Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanofibres react physically with digestive gland epithelial cells in Porcellio scaber. • Physical peristaltic forces of lead to insertion of nanofibres into the cells. • No toxic responses as measured by conventional toxicity biomarkers were detected. • Physical interactions were observed in a majority of the investigated animals. -- Abstract: We provide data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on the interaction of ingested tungsten nanofibers with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes of a test organism Porcellio scaber. Conventional toxicity endpoints including feeding behaviour, weight loss and mortality were also measured in each investigated animal. No toxicity was detected in any of exposed animals after 14 days of feeding on tungsten nanofiber dosed food, but when nanofibers enter the digestive system they can react with epithelial cells of the digestive tubes, becoming physically inserted into the cells. In this way, nanofibers can injure the epithelial cells of digestive gland tubes when they are ingested with food. Our SEM data suggest that peristaltic forces may have an important role, not predicted by in vitro experiments, in the interactions of nanomaterials with digestive intestinal cells

  17. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506 and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity.

  18. Proliferation of cultured mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Z Barkho

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (ChP epithelium is a multifunctional tissue found in the ventricles of the brain. The major function of the ChP epithelium is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that bathes and nourishes the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to the CSF, ChP epithelial cells (CPECs produce and secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that support brain homeostasis, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Accordingly, damage and dysfunction to CPECs are thought to accelerate and intensify multiple disease phenotypes, and CPEC regeneration would represent a potential therapeutic approach for these diseases. However, previous reports suggest that CPECs rarely divide, although this has not been extensively studied in response to extrinsic factors. Utilizing a cell-cycle reporter mouse line and live cell imaging, we identified scratch injury and the growth factors insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF as extrinsic cues that promote increased CPEC expansion in vitro. Furthermore, we found that IGF-1 and EGF treatment enhances scratch injury-induced proliferation. Finally, we established whole tissue explant cultures and observed that IGF-1 and EGF promote CPEC division within the intact ChP epithelium. We conclude that although CPECs normally have a slow turnover rate, they expand in response to external stimuli such as injury and/or growth factors, which provides a potential avenue for enhancing ChP function after brain injury or neurodegeneration.

  19. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation